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1.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 48: e48, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1560359

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. Basic and translational research in pediatric cancer are essential to improve patient care. To critically assess the developments achieved in these areas in Latin America, we systematically reviewed information published between 2013 and 2023. Methods. Studies of basic and translational research performed by investigators in Latin America evaluating pediatric malignant solid and central nervous system tumors were retrieved from PubMed. Original articles published in English between 2013 and 2023 were included. Collaborations among Latin American authors or among Latin American authors working with researchers from other continents were also included. Studies were excluded if they focused only on adults or on basic research in tumor biology not specifically related to the tumor types analyzed in this review. Results. A total of 550 articles were retrieved, but after removal of duplicates, 514 articles were included in the analysis, the majority of which were authored by researchers affiliated with institutions in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico. These countries also had the highest number of collaborations on original articles published with authors from Europe and North America. Argentina had the highest number of collaborations on original publications, with coauthors from Brazil and Uruguay. The median impact factor of the 244 journals in which articles were published was 3.5. The most commonly studied tumors were osteosarcomas, neuroblastomas and medulloblastomas; the most commonly studied areas were molecular analysis, tumor cell biology and biomarkers. Conclusions. In Latin America, research in pediatric oncology is on the agenda, despite a notable disparity in publication rates and frequency of collaboration between countries. There is a need to strengthen scientific collaboration within Latin America and with countries from other continents to promote research and to develop novel treatment strategies that reflect the local needs of children in Latin America who have solid tumors and brain cancer.


RESUMEN Objetivo. La investigación básica y aplicada en el campo de la oncología pediátrica es fundamental para mejorar la atención al paciente. Con el objetivo de realizar una evaluación crítica de los avances logrados en este campo en América Latina, hemos realizado una revisión sistemática de la información publicada entre el 2013 y el 2023. Metodología. Se recopilaron de PubMed los artículos de investigación básica y traslacional publicados por investigadores de América Latina en los que se evaluaron tumores malignos sólidos y del sistema nervioso central en la población infantil. Se incluyeron artículos originales publicados en inglés entre el 2013 y el 2023. También se incluyeron artículos fruto de la colaboración científica entre autores e investigadores de América Latina y otros continentes. Se excluyeron aquellos estudios que se centraron solo en personas adultas o en la investigación básica en biología tumoral no relacionada específicamente con los tipos de tumores analizados en esta revisión. Resultados. Se encontraron 550 artículos en total. Después de eliminar los artículos duplicados, se incluyeron 514 artículos en la revisión, la mayoría de los cuales fueron escritos por investigadores vinculados a centros de investigación de Argentina, Brasil y México. También procedieron de estos tres países la mayor parte de los artículos originales escritos en colaboración con autores de Europa y América del Norte. Argentina tuvo el mayor número de colaboraciones en publicaciones originales, con coautores de Brasil y Uruguay. La mediana del índice de impacto de las 244 revistas en las que se publicaron los artículos fue de 3,5. Los tumores más estudiados fueron osteosarcomas, neuroblastomas y meduloblastomas. Los temas más estudiados fueron el análisis molecular, la biología de las células tumorales y los biomarcadores. Conclusiones. La investigación en oncología pediátrica forma parte de la agenda de investigación de América Latina, si bien hay una disparidad notoria en las tasas de publicación y la frecuencia de la colaboración entre países. Es necesario fortalecer la colaboración científica dentro de América Latina y con los países de otros continentes para promover la investigación y desarrollar estrategias de tratamiento novedosas que respondan a las necesidades locales de los niños y niñas de América Latina que tienen tumores sólidos o cáncer del sistema nervioso central.


RESUMO Objetivo. A pesquisa básica e translacional em câncer pediátrico é essencial para melhorar o atendimento dos pacientes. No intuito de realizar uma avaliação crítica dos avanços alcançados nessa área na América Latina, fez-se uma revisão sistemática de informações publicadas entre 2013 e 2023. Métodos. Pesquisas básicas e translacionais realizadas por pesquisadores da América Latina que avaliaram tumores sólidos malignos e tumores do sistema nervoso central em crianças foram obtidas da base de dados PubMed. Foram incluídos artigos originais publicados em inglês entre 2013 e 2023. Também foram incluídas colaborações entre autores latino-americanos ou entre autores latino-americanos que trabalham com pesquisadores de outros continentes. Estudos que tratavam apenas de adultos ou pesquisas básicas sobre biologia tumoral não especificamente relacionadas aos tipos de tumor analisados nesta revisão foram excluídos. Resultados. No total, a busca recuperou 550 artigos da base de dados. Após a remoção dos artigos duplicados, foram incluídos 514 artigos na análise, a maioria de autoria de pesquisadores de instituições da Argentina, do Brasil e do México. Esses países também tiveram o maior número de colaborações em artigos originais publicados com autores da Europa e da América do Norte. A Argentina teve o maior número de colaborações em publicações originais, com coautores do Brasil e do Uruguai. O fator de impacto mediano dos 244 periódicos nos quais os artigos foram publicados era de 3,5. Os tumores mais estudados foram osteossarcomas, neuroblastomas e meduloblastomas; as áreas mais estudadas foram análise molecular, biologia de células tumorais e biomarcadores. Conclusões. Na América Latina, a pesquisa em oncologia pediátrica está na ordem do dia, apesar de uma evidente disparidade nos índices de publicação e na frequência de colaboração entre os países. É necessário fortalecer a colaboração científica dentro da América Latina e com países de outros continentes a fim de promover a pesquisa e desenvolver novas estratégias de tratamento que reflitam as necessidades locais das crianças latino-americanas com tumores sólidos e câncer cerebral.

2.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 81(12): 1146-1151, Dec. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527911

ABSTRACT

Abstract Long-term epilepsy-associated tumors (LEATs) include a series of neoplasms that commonly occur in children, adolescents, or young adults, have an astrocytic or glioneuronal lineage, are histologically benign (WHO grade1) with a neocortical localization predominantly situated in the temporal lobes. Clinically, chronic refractory epilepsy is usually the unique symptom. Gangliogliomas (GG) and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNT) are the most common representative entities besides pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) and angiocentric gliomas (AG). Recent molecular studies have defined new clinicopathological entities, which are recognized by the WHO 2021 classification of brain tumors. Some of them such as diffuse astrocytoma MIB or MYBL1 altered, polymorphous low-grade neuroepithelial tumor of the young (PLNTY), and multilocular and vacuolating neuronal tumor (MVNT) are currently considered LEATs. The relationship between LEATs and epilepsy is still a matter of debate, and there is a general agreement about the beneficial effects of an early neurosurgical intervention on the clinical outcome.


Resumo Tumores associados a epilepsia de longa duração constituem uma série de neoplasias asatrocitárias ou glioneuronais que comumente incidem em crianças, adolescentes e jovens adultos e que são histologicamente benignos (OMS grau 1), de localização neocortical e predominantemente situados nos lobos temporais. Clinicamente, a epilepsia crônica refratária é, de modo geral, o único sintoma. Gangliogliomas (GG) e tumores neuroepiteliais disembrioplásticos (DNT) são as entidades mais representativas associadas a astrocitomas pilocíticos (AP) e gliomas angiocêntricos (GA). Estudos moleculares recentes permitiram a definição de novas entidades clínico-patológicas reconhecidas pela classificação de tumores cerebrais da OMS 2021. Algumas delas, como o astrocitoma difuso MIB ou MIBL1 alterados, o tumor neuroepitelial polimorfo do jovem (PLNTY) e o tumor neuronal multilocular e vacuolizado (MVNT) são atualmente considerados tumores associados a epilepsia de longa duração. A relação entre este grupo de tumores e epilepsia é ainda debatida e há um consenso geral sobre o benefício prognóstico de intervenção cirúrgica precoce.

3.
Rev. Fac. Med. Hum ; 23(4): 173-178, oct.-dic. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559088

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Los tumores fibrosos solitarios (TFS) son neoplasias raras de origen mesenquimal que, aunque generalmente se desarrollan en la pleura visceral, ocasionalmente se presentan en la cavidad intracraneal. Además, se caracterizan por altas tasas de metástasis y recurrencia. Caso clínico: Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 59 años con cuadro de 3 meses de cefalea y bradipsiquia. La tomografía reveló una tumoración neoformativa que infiltra cavidad nasal, celdillas etmoidales, y fosa craneal anterior, comprometiendo lóbulo frontal izquierdo. El paciente fue sometido a dos craniectomías exploratorias donde se realizaron los diagnósticos sugestivos de neoplasia glial de alto grado y TFS. Para la precisión diagnóstica se realizó inmunohistoquímica que fue compatible con tumor fibroso solitario. Se analiza el caso centrándose particularmente en los aspectos histopatológicos, localización inusual de este tumor y sus manifestaciones clínicas variables.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms that, although typically develop in the visceral pleura, occasionally occur in the intracranial cavity. Furthermore, they are characterized by high rates of metastasis and recurrence. Case Report: We present the case of a 59-year-old male patient with a 3-month history of headache and bradyphrenia. Computed tomography revealed a neoformative tumor infiltrating the nasal cavity, ethmoid sinuses, and anterior cranial fossa, involving the left frontal lobe. The patient underwent two exploratory craniectomies, during which diagnoses suggestive of high-grade glial neoplasia and SFT were made. For precise diagnosis, immunohistochemistry was performed, which was consistent with solitary fibrous tumor. The case is analyzed, focusing particularly on histopathological aspects, the unusual location of this tumor, and its variable clinical manifestations.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-220219

ABSTRACT

Background: Managing a brain tumor during pregnancy is a highly confusing and challenging situation, complicated by several technical, medical, ethical, and sociocultural concerns. The interests of the mother and child are often pitted against each other, for which legal opinion may occasionally be needed. Case Report?We present the report of a young lady with intracranial well-differentiated chondrosarcoma who was determined to be pregnant in the immediate postoperative period. We discuss the management of challenges and dilemmas in devising optimum therapy, and the modifications and care required at each step to help safeguard maternal and fetal health. Risks with therapeutic radiation and measures to assess and pre-empt fetal doses that may assist decision-making are also discussed. Conclusion?Radiation therapy during pregnancy is challenging and requires multidisciplinary involvement and psychosocial support for the patient and family.

5.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535132

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los craneofaringiomas son tumores benignos, de los cuales hasta el 50% ocurren en niños. Sin embargo, no hay estudios en niños peruanos. Objetivo: describir las características clínicas e histopatológicas de niños con craneofaringioma hospitalizados en el Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins entre agosto de 2019 y mayo de 2021. El estudio: El diseño es transversal y la fuente de los datos fueron las historias clínicas. Se recolectó información sobre el sexo, edad, cirugías y características relacionadas a la primera cirugía de resección tumoral. Hallazgos: Incluimos 12 pacientes. El 83.3% fueron varones, al momento del diagnóstico la mediana de edad fue de 6 años y predominaron los síntomas visuales, todos tuvieron deficiencias hormonales luego de la primera cirugía de resección. Conclusión: tres recibieron radioterapia, uno desarrolló transformación maligna y otro falleció. Es necesario realizar a futuro estudios prospectivos.


Introduction: Craniopharyngiomas are benign tumors, of which up to 50% occur in children. However, there are no studies in Peruvian children. Objective : to describe the clinical and histopathological characteristics of children with craniopharyngioma hospitalized at the Edgardo Rebagliati Martins National Hospital between August 2019 and May 2021. The study: The design is cross-sectional and the data source were medical records. Information on sex, age, surgeries and characteristics related to the first tumor resection surgery were collected. Findings: We included 12 patients. 83.3% were male, at the time of diagnosis the median age was 6 years and visual symptoms predominated, all had hormonal deficiencies after the first resection surgery. Conclusions: three received radiotherapy, one developed malignant transformation and one died. Future prospective studies are necessary.

6.
Cancer Research and Clinic ; (6): 35-38, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-996183

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the feasibility and clinical value of holographic image technology in intracranial tumor surgery.Methods:A total of 40 patients with intracranial tumors in Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University from November 2020 to March 2021 were randomly divided into the experimental group (20 cases) and the control group (20 cases) based on the random number table. Patients in the experimental group underwent craniotomy assisted by holographic technology, while patients in the control group underwent conventional craniotomy. The Karnofsky performance status scores of patients before the operation and 7 days after the operation were recorded, and the self-rating anxiety scale was applied to evaluate the anxiety of the patients' families.Results:The head CT 12 h after surgery showed no tumor cavity hyperdensity in all patients. The head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 72 h after surgery revealed 17 cases of total resection and 3 cases of subtotal resection in the experimental group; in the control group, there were 16 cases of total resection and 4 cases of subtotal resection. In the experimental group, 1 patient's left lower limb muscle strength was grade Ⅱ after the operation and recovered to grade Ⅴ-at discharge. In the control group, the left limb muscle strength of 2 patients was grade Ⅲ after the operation and recovered to grade Ⅴ at discharge. The patients with Karnofsky scores of 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 scores were found in 1 case, 5 cases, 8 cases, 6 cases, 0, respectively of the experimental group and 0, 4 cases, 9 cases, 6 cases, 1 case, respectively of the control group before the operation, and the difference was statistically significant ( P > 0.05); the patients with Karnofsky scores of 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 scores were found in 1 case, 0, 0, 7 cases, 9 cases,3 cases, respectively of the experimental group and 0, 3 cases, 6 cases, 4 cases, 5 cases, 2 cases, respectively of the control group after the operation, and the difference was statistically significant ( P = 0.018). The difference of Karnofsky score before and after the operation in the experimental group was statistically significant ( P = 0.029), while there was no statistically significant difference in the Karnofsky score before and after the operation in the control group ( P = 0.241). There were 8 cases, 9 cases, 2 cases and 1 case of non-anxiety, mild anxiety, moderate anxiety, severe anxiety, respectively in the experimental group and 3 cases, 4 cases, 8 cases and 4 cases of non-anxiety, mild anxiety, moderate anxiety, severe anxiety, respectively in the control group before the operation; there were 9 cases, 9 cases, 2 cases and 0 case of non-anxiety, mild anxiety, moderate anxiety, severe anxiety, respectively in the experimental group and 2 cases, 5 cases, 9 cases and 4 cases of non-anxiety, mild anxiety, moderate anxiety, severe anxiety, respectively in the control group after the operation. The preoperative and postoperative anxiety scores of the experimental group were all lower than those of the control group, and the differences were statistically significant (preoperative P = 0.016,postoperative P = 0.002). Conclusions:Holographic technology can assist in formulating an accurate surgical plan before intracranial tumor surgery, intuitively display the anatomical relationship between the tumor and its surrounding important tissues during operation, reduce the surgical side injuries and decrease the anxiety of the patients' family.

7.
Chinese Journal of Radiation Oncology ; (6): 657-662, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993246

ABSTRACT

Brain metastases are the most common intracranial malignancies, and radiotherapy is an effective treatment of controlling the localized lesions. However, conventional radiotherapy techniques have their own shortcomings that limit the effectiveness of radiotherapy. Metastatic brain tumors are highly likely to recur or progress after treatment. Clinical studies have shown that arginine can penetrate the blood-brain barrier and subsequently improve the radiosensitization of metastatic brain tumors. In this article, the mechanisms underlying the effect of arginine on the radiosensitization of metastatic brain tumors by inhibition of tumor glycolytic metabolism, reduction of DNA damage repair and alteration of tumor hemodynamic parameters were reviewed, aiming to provide new ideas for clinical research and treatment of brain metastases.

8.
Chinese Journal of Practical Nursing ; (36): 332-340, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990182

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the clinical status, and analyz obstacles and facilitators for perioperative deep vein thrombosis prevention of brain neoplasms based on the Ottawa model of research use (OMRU).Methods:A total of 93 patients with brain tumors who were admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from April to May 2021 and 33 nurses in the neurosurgery ward and operating room neurosurgery special group were selected as the baseline review subjects by convenience sampling. Based on the framework of evidence-based continued quality improvement of Fudan University, we searched BMJ Best Practice, UpToDate, The Joanna Briggs Institute Library, International Guideline Library, American Guideline Network, Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network, National Institutes for Health and Clinical Technology Optimization, Medline, Medlive, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP, Wanfang and SinoMed according to the '6S' evidence pyramid from inception to January 1, 2021 for all clinical decisions, recommended practices, best practice information, evidence summary, guidelines and expert consensus on venous thrombosis assessment, prevention, screening, nursing and health education. The best evidence was summarized, and the final review indicators were formulated through two rounds of expert correspondence. According to the results of baseline review, barriers and facilitators were analyzed, and countermeasures were developed guided by OMRU.Results:A total of 19 best evidences were included, and 34 review indicators were developed in this study. Among them, only 4 indicators had a compliance rate of 100%, 18 ones had a compliance rate of 0, and the other 12 ones had a compliance rate of 6.5%-97.8%. A multi-factor analysis of the review results showed that the main obstacles of evidence implementation were the feasibility and comprehensibility at evidence level, the lack of knowledge and heavy workloads at the potential practitioner level, insufficient education materials, trainings and preventive equipment at system level. Furthermore, the reliable sources of evidence at evidence level, supports from practitioners at the potential practitioner level and system resources (such as training, national and hospital policies, etc.) at system level may contribute to the clinical application of evidence.Conclusions:There was still a huge gap between the best evidence and clinical practice. The obstacles and facilitating factors in evidence transformation should be evaluated scientifically and comprehensively, and corresponding countermeasures should be given to promote the application of evidence in clinical practice.

9.
Rev. baiana enferm ; 37: e51209, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1529647

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: identificar as percepções sobre o bem-estar, apoio social, intensidade dos sintomas e o seu impacto nas atividades diárias de pacientes com cânceres cerebrais e correlacionar os achados com os níveis de adesão aos quimioterápicos antineoplásicos orais. Método: estudo correlacional e transversal, realizado num ambulatório hospitalar universitário de São Paulo, Brasil, entre 2019 e 2020. Utilizou-se instrumento para caracterização da amostra e escalas específicas. Resultados: 26 participantes, mediana de 36,5 anos, 61,5% sexo masculino, 53,9% diagnosticados com glioblastoma; 73,1% apresentaram adesão, rede de apoio social e índice alto de bem-estar. O escore médio de intensidade dos sintomas foi de baixo para médio, com pior pontuação para preocupação no pior estado. A maior adesão relacionou-se ao apoio afetivo, apoio informação, interação social e apoio emocional. Conclusão: a maioria declarou níveis positivos de bem-estar, suporte social e poucos sintomas. A percepção de apoio social e bem-estar influenciaram positivamente na adesão medicamentosa.


Objetivos: identificar las percepciones sobre el bienestar, apoyo social, intensidad de los síntomas y su impacto en las actividades diarias de pacientes con cánceres cerebrales y correlacionar los resultados con los niveles de adhesión a los quimioterápicos antineoplásicos orales. Método: estudio correlacional y transversal, realizado en un ambulatorio hospitalario universitario de São Paulo, Brasil, entre 2019 y 2020. Se utilizó un instrumento para la caracterización de la muestra y escalas específicas. Resultados: 26 participantes, mediana de 36,5 años, 61,5% sexo masculino, 53,9% diagnosticados con glioblastoma; 73,1% presentaron adhesión, red de apoyo social y índice alto de bienestar. El puntaje promedio de intensidad de los síntomas fue de bajo a medio, con peor puntuación para preocupación en el peor estado. La mayor adhesión se relacionó al apoyo afectivo, apoyo información, interacción social y apoyo emocional. Conclusión: la mayoría declaró niveles positivos de bienestar, apoyo social y pocos síntomas. La percepción de apoyo social y bienestar influyó positivamente en la adhesión medicamentosa.


Objectives: to identify perceptions about well-being, social support, intensity of symptoms and their impact on the daily activities of patients with brain cancers and correlate the findings with levels of adherence to oral antineoplastic chemotherapy. Method: correlational and cross-sectional study, conducted in a university hospital outpatient clinic in São Paulo, Brazil, between 2019 and 2020. An instrument was used to characterize the sample, in addition to specific scales. Results: 26 participants, median 36.5 years, 61.5% male, 53.9% diagnosed with glioblastoma; 73.1% showed adherence, social support network and high well-being index. The mean symptom intensity score was low to medium, with a worse score for worry in the worst state. Greater adherence was related to affective support, information support, social interaction and emotional support. Conclusion: most reported positive levels of well-being, social support and few symptoms. The perception of social support and well-being positively influenced drug adherence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Quality of Life , Social Support , Correlation of Data , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glioblastoma/psychology
10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(11): 1149-1158, Nov. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429863

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Neuro-oncological patients require specialized medical care. However, the data on the costs incurred for such specialized care in developing countries are currently lacking. These data are relevant for international cooperation. Objective The present study aimed to estimate the direct cost of specialized care for an adult neuro-oncological patient with meningioma or glioma during hospitalization in the largest philanthropic hospital in Latin America. Methods The present observational economic analysis describes the direct cost of care of neuro-oncological patients in Santa Casa de São Paulo, Brazil. Only adult patients with a common primary brain tumor were included. Results Due to differences in the system records, the period analyzed for cost estimation was between December 2016 and December 2019. A group of patients with meningiomas and gliomas was analyzed. The estimated mean cost of neurosurgical hospitalization was US$4,166. The cost of the operating room and intensive care unit represented the largest proportion of the total cost. A total of 17.5% of patients had some type of infection, and 66.67% of these occurred in nonelective procedures. The mortality rate was 12.7% and 92.3% of all deaths occurred in emergency procedures. Conclusions Emergency surgeries were associated with an increased rate of infections and mortality. The findings of the present study could be used by policymakers for resource allocation and to perform economic analyses to establish the value of neurosurgery in achieving global health goals.


Resumo Antecedentes Pacientes neuro-oncológicos demandam tratamento médico especializado. Em países em desenvolvimento, há falta de dados sobre custos em neurocirurgia. Estes dados são relevantes para ajudar na cooperação internacional. Objetivo O presente estudo objetiva estimar o custo direto de um paciente neuro-oncológico adulto com meningioma ou glioma durante sua internação no maior hospital filantrópico da América Latina. Métodos A presente análise econômica observacional descreve os custos diretos de um paciente neuro-oncológico da Santa Casa de São Paulo. Apenas pacientes adultos e com os dois tumores cerebrais primários mais comuns foram considerados. Resultados Devido a uma mudança no sistema de prontuários, para análise de custos o período analisado foi de dezembro de 2016 a dezembro de 2019. Uma amostra significativa de pacientes com gliomas e meningiomas foi analisada. O custo médio da hospitalização foi de U$ 4.166. O tempo de sala cirúrgica e os cuidados em terapia intensiva representaram a maior proporção dentro do custo total. Um total de 17.5% dos pacientes teve algum tipo de infecção e 66.67% delas ocorreram em procedimentos não eletivos. A taxa de mortalidade foi de 12.5% e 92.3% dos óbitos ocorreram em procedimentos de urgência. Conclusões Cirurgias de urgência foram mais associadas a taxas de infecção e mortalidade. Os achados do presente estudo podem ser usados por planejadores em política pública de saúde para alocação de recursos e para análise econômica para estabelecer o valor dos procedimentos neurocirúrgicos para atingir metas mundiais.

11.
Rev. cuba. med ; 61(3)sept. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441684

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los tumores de la región pineal constituyen un grupo heterogéneo de lesiones agrupadas más por su localización común que por su relación histológica. Pueden clasificarse en tumores de células germinales, del parénquima pineal, embrional y de estructuras adyacentes. Objetivo: Caracterizar la fisiopatología de los tumores de la región pineal y algunos aspectos de su tratamiento. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, se seleccionaron estudios relacionados con la fisiopatología de los tumores de la región pineal y su manejo. Las fuentes de información consultada fueron Google Scholar, PubMed, SciElo y Dialnet; se utilizaron los descriptores: neoplasias pineales, pinealoma, neoplasias encefálicas. Se seleccionaron 23 artículos, más del 75 por ciento son de los últimos 5 años. Desarrollo: La tasa y la velocidad de crecimiento de estas neoplasias determinan la rapidez con la que se instauran los diversos síntomas, de ahí que la presentación más común es la hidrocefalia triventricular, acompañada de dolor de cabeza, náuseas, vómitos, disminución de la actividad, somnolencia o letargo y alteraciones visuales. También se pueden observar paresias y síndromes endocrinos. El diagnóstico se basa en la exploración de marcadores tumorales en suero, líquido cefalorraquídeo, tomografía y resonancia magnética. Finalmente, la quimioterapia y la intervención quirúrgica constituyen las principales alternativas terapéuticas tras el diagnóstico de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: Este tipo de neoplasia es poco frecuente, sus manifestaciones clínicas dependen de la localización, tamaño y tipo de tumor; además, el tratamiento suele ser quirúrgico y posterior a la quimioterapia, si las características de la neoplasia lo permiten(AU)


Introduction: Tumors of the pineal region constitute a heterogeneous group of lesions better grouped by their common location than by their histological relationship. They can be classified into tumors of germ cells, pineal parenchyma, embryonal and adjacent structures. Objective: To characterize the pathophysiology of pineal region tumors and some aspects of their treatment. Methods: A literature review was carried out, we selected studies related to the pathophysiology of pineal region tumors and their management. The information sources consulted were Google Scholar, PubMed, SciELO and Dialnet; the descriptors were used pineal neoplasms, pinealoma, brain neoplasms. Twenty three articles were selected, more than 75percent are from the last 5 years. Results: The rate and speed of growth of these neoplasms determine the speed with which the various symptoms are established, hence the most common presentation is triventricular hydrocephalus, accompanied by headache, nausea, vomiting, decreased activity, drowsiness or lethargy and visual disturbances. Paresis and endocrine syndromes may also be seen. The diagnosis is based on the examination of tumor markers in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Finally, chemotherapy and surgery are the main therapeutic alternatives after diagnosis of the disease. Conclusions: This type of neoplasm is rare, the clinical manifestations depend on the location, size and type of tumor; in addition, the treatment is usually surgical and then chemotherapy, if the characteristics of the neoplasm allow so(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pineal Gland , Brain Neoplasms/diagnosis
12.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(9): 922-928, Sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420250

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (NLR), monocyte-to-lymphocyte (MLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) have been previously studied as predictors of survival in different malignancies. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of these hematologic inflammatory biomarkers for patients with brain metastases (BM). Methods We reviewed a consecutive cohort of patients at Instituto do Cancer do Estado de São Paulo (ICESP-FMUSP) from 2011 to 2016 with ≥ 1 BM treated primarily by surgical resection. The primary outcome was 1-year survival. We optimized the NLR, MLR, PLR, and RDW cutoff values, preserving robustness and avoiding overestimation of effect size. Results A total of 200 patients (mean age 56.1 years; 55.0% female) met inclusion criteria. Gross-total resection was achieved in 89.0%. The median (quartiles) preoperative and postoperative KPS scores were 60 (50-80) and 80 (60-90), respectively. Preoperative NLR was significantly associated with survival (HR 2.66, 95% CI: 1.17-6.01, p = 0.019). A NLR cutoff value of 3.83 displayed the most significant survival curve split. Conclusions Preoperative NLR is an independent predictor of survival in newly diagnosed BM. We propose a cutoff value of 3.83 for preoperative NLR testing may be clinically useful as predictor of poor survival in this population. The wide accessibility of the NLR favors its inclusion in clinical decision-making processes for BM management.


Resumo Antecedentes Os neutrófilos para linfócitos (NLR), monócitos para linfócitos (MLR), proporção de plaquetas para linfócitos (PLR) e largura de distribuição de glóbulos vermelhos (RDW) foram previamente estudados como preditores de sobrevivência em diferentes malignidades. Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o valor preditivo desses biomarcadores inflamatórios hematológicos para pacientes com metástases cerebrais (MB). Métodos Nós revisamos uma coorte consecutiva de pacientes no Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo (ICESP-FMUSP) de 2011 a 2016 com ≥ 1 MB tratados principalmente por ressecção cirúrgica. O desfecho primário foi a sobrevida em 1 ano. Otimizamos os valores de corte de NLR, MLR, PLR e RDW, preservando a robustez e evitando superestimação do tamanho do efeito. Resultados Um total de 200 pacientes (idade média de 56,1 anos; 55,0% mulheres) preencheram os critérios de inclusão. A ressecção grosseira total foi obtida em 89,0%. A mediana (quartis) dos escores KPS pré-operatório e pós-operatório foram 60 (50-80) e 80 (60-90), respectivamente. O NLR pré-operatório foi significativamente associado à sobrevida (HR 2,66, IC 95%: 1,17-6,01, p = 0,019). Um valor de corte de NLR de 3,83 exibiu a divisão da curva de sobrevivência mais significativa. Conclusões O NLR pré-operatório é um preditor independente de sobrevida em MBs recém-diagnosticados. Propomos que um valor de corte de 3,83 para o teste de NLR pré-operatório pode ser clinicamente útil como preditor de baixa sobrevida nesta população. A ampla acessibilidade do NLR favorece sua inclusão nos processos de tomada de decisão clínica para o gerenciamento de BM.

13.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 16(3): 270-275, July-Sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1404462

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. Brain metastases are the most common central nervous system tumors. The mainstay treatment for this tumor in low to middle income countries is whole brain radiation therapy. Irreversible cognitive decline is associated with the use of whole brain radiotherapy. Several pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic options have been employed in studies focusing on the prevention of cognitive decline following whole-brain radiation therapy. Memantine use has been shown to provide some benefit in reducing the rate of decline in cognitive function and time to cognitive failure. The objective of this review article is to provide a summary on available primary literature on the therapeutic role of memantine for the prevention of cognitive decline in cancer patients with brain metastasis receiving whole brain radiotherapy.


RESUMO. As metástases cerebrais são os tumores mais comuns do sistema nervoso central. O tratamento principal para este tumor em países de baixa e média renda é a radioterapia de cérebro inteiro. O declínio cognitivo irreversível está associado ao uso de radioterapia cerebral total. Várias opções farmacológicas e não farmacológicas têm sido empregadas em estudos com foco na prevenção do declínio cognitivo após radioterapia de cérebro inteiro. O uso de memantina demonstrou fornecer algum benefício na redução da taxa de declínio na função cognitiva e no tempo até a falha cognitiva. O objetivo deste artigo de revisão foi fornecer um resumo da literatura primária disponível sobre o papel terapêutico da memantina para a prevenção do declínio cognitivo em pacientes com câncer com metástase cerebral recebendo radioterapia cerebral total.


Subject(s)
Humans
14.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 38(2): 66-70, abr.-jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383398

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: Las crisis epilépticas son la manifestación clínica inicial en un 30-50 % de los pacientes con tumores cerebrales. Algunos de los tumores más frecuentes, como los gliomas y los meningiomas se asocian con manifestaciones epilépticas. En el país no hay estudios que especifiquen cuáles son los tumores del encéfalo más frecuentemente relacionados con epilepsia. OBJETIVO: Determinar los tumores del encéfalo más frecuentes relacionados con epilepsia en pacientes del hospital Universitario Erasmo Meoz, en Cúcuta, Colombia entre los años 2015 y 2018. METODOLOGÍA: Estudio retrospectivo. Se recolectaron historias clínicas de pacientes mayores de 18 años que ingresaron al servicio de Neurocirugía del Hospital Universitario Erasmo Meoz, en Cúcuta, Colombia con diagnóstico de tumor del encéfalo entre el año 2015 y el 2018. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 220 historias, el 56 % correspondió al sexo femenino y la media de edad fue de 48 años; 98 (45 %) de los casos presentó crisis epilépticas. El tumor del encéfalo más frecuente relacionado con epilepsia fue el glioma (46 casos). El tipo de glioma que más se relacionó con crisis epilépticas fue el glioblastoma (27 casos); 82 % de los gliomas de bajo grado se manifestaron con epilepsia, y 71 % de los de alto grado (70,6 %). En los hombres el tumor más frecuente relacionado con epilepsia fue el glioblastoma y en las mujeres el meningioma. La localización tumoral más frecuente fue la región frontal (27 %). CONCLUSIONES: Los gliomas son el tipo de tumor cerebral más común relacionado con epilepsia, siendo el glioblastoma el tumor más frecuente de este grupo.


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Seizures are the initial clinical symptom in 30 to 50 % of patients with brain tumors. With a high percentage, gliomas and meningiomas have been reported as tumors associated with epilepsy, these also being frequent tumors in Colombia. Currently in the country there are no studies that specify which are the most frequent brain tumors related to epilepsy, an investigation being necessary to clarify these data. OBJECTIVE: To determine the most frequent brain tumors associated with epilepsy in patients at the Erasmo Meoz University Hospital in Cúcuta. METHODS: Medical records were collected from all patients over 18 years of age who were admitted to the Neurosurgery service of the Erasmo Meoz University Hospital in Cúcuta with a diagnosis of brain tumor between 2015 and 2018. RESULTS: 220 patients were included, 56% were female. The mean age was 48 years; 98 cases (45%) presented with epilepsy. The most frequent brain tumor related to epilepsy were gliomas (46 cases). The glioma with the highest frequency of seizures was glioblastoma (27 cases). Low-grade gliomas had a higher percentage of epilepsy (82%) than high-grade gliomas (71%). In men, the most frequent tumor related to epilepsy was glioblastoma and in women, meningioma. The most frequent location was the frontal region (27%). CONCLUSIONS: Gliomas are the most common type of brain tumor associated with epilepsy, with the most common tumor in this group being glioblastoma.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms , Glioma , Neoplasms , Seizures , Epilepsy
15.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 158(1): 57-65, ene.-feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375527

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Han sido reportados 11 biomarcadores de imágenes con tensor de difusión (DTI) en las regiones tumorales del glioblastoma. Objetivo: Comparar la eficacia de biomarcadores de glioblastoma mediante gráficos de zombie, que permiten la comparación simultánea en función de razones de verosimilitud. Métodos: Cohorte retrospectiva de 29 sujetos con glioblastoma a quienes se efectuó resonancia magnética cerebral de 3 T. Los eigenvalores mayor, intermedio y menor de ITD se utilizaron para calcular 11 biomarcadores en cinco regiones tumorales: sustancia blanca de apariencia normal (NAWM), edema proximal y distal, tumoral viable y necrosis. Las tablas de contingencia con resultados verdaderos y falsos positivos y negativos permitieron calcular gráficos de zombie basados en el factor de Bayes y pruebas diagnósticas previamente no reportadas. Resultados: Los biomarcadores DM, AF, q, L, Cl, Cp, AR actúan en la zona óptima para el diagnóstico de NAWM. Las regiones de edema proximal y distal, tejido tumoral que se realza con contraste y necrosis no poseen biomarcadores que las identifiquen en un nivel de rendimiento óptimo. Conclusiones: Los biomarcadores DM, AF, q, L, Cl, Cp, AR discriminan el tejido cerebral normal en la zona óptima, pero el rendimiento de otras regiones tumorales se ubica en las zonas de inclusión diagnóstica, exclusión diagnóstica y mediocre.


Abstract Introduction: Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), 11 biomarkers have been reported in different glioblastoma regions. Objective: To compare the efficacy of glioblastoma biomarkers using "zombie plots". Methods: Retrospective cohort of 29 subjects with glioblastoma who underwent 3-Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. DTI major, intermediate and minor eigenvalues were used to calculate biomarkers at five tumor regions: normal-appearing white matter (NAWM), proximal and distal edema, tumor tissue and necrosis. Contingency tables with true and false positive and negative results allowed the calculation of zombie plots based on the Bayes factor and previously unreported diagnostic tests. Results: The MD, FA, q, L, Cl, Cp and RA biomarkers had a good performance at the optimal zone for NAWM diagnosis. The proximal and distal edema, enhancing rim and necrosis regions do not have biomarkers that identify them with an optimal performance level. Conclusions: Zombie plots allow simultaneous comparison of biomarkers based on likelihood ratios. MD, FA, q, L, Cl, Cp, RA discriminated NAWM normal brain tissue at the optimal zone, but performance for other regions was at the mediocre, diagnostic inclusion and diagnostic exclusion zones.

16.
Mastology (Online) ; 32: 1-6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363057

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The presence of brain metastases secondary to primary breast cancer implies a worse prognosis for those affected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the median survival after the diagnosis of brain metastasis in patients with breast carcinoma in a center in northeastern Brazil. Methods: The medical records of 345 patients diagnosed with breast cancer, treated between 1998 and July 2018, were analyzed. Those with brain metastasis along with their treatment performed and survival were identified. Results: Nine (2.6%) patients had brain metastasis; the mean age was 56.8 years. The mean survival time determined by the Kaplan-Meier method was 23.8 months (95%CI 6.9­40.8). Seven patients (78%) died from the disease and two were lost to follow-up (22%); invasive carcinoma of no special type was the most frequent (78%). Molecular classification by immunohistochemistry was possible in seven patients: five luminal B subtype cases, one luminal A case and one triple-negative case; luminal B subtype was associated with longer survival: 23.3 months (95%CI 3.0­43.6). As for the initial clinical staging, according to the TNM Classification of Malignant Tumors, there was one IA case, one IIA case, three IIB cases and two IIIB cases. Three patients underwent modified radical mastectomy, and six underwent conservative treatment (quadrantectomy); there was no statistical difference in survival between the different forms of treatment (p=0.771). Conclusion: The median survival after diagnosis of brain metastasis from breast cancer was 23.80 months.

18.
Autops. Case Rep ; 12: e2021373, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374492

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes (ETMR), NOS/C19MC- altered, is a rare and recently classified highly aggressive malignant brain tumor in the 2021 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system 5th edition. They are mostly diagnosed in children before the age of three years. Most of them are located in the supratentorial region. Prior to the reclassification of ETMR as a single entity, three distinct tumors, namely, embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes (ETANTR), ependymoblastoma (EBL) and medulloepithelioma (MEPL) were recognized. Recent studies showed that all the three entities have multilayered rosettes on morphology, sharing a common amplification of the C19MC locus at the chromosome 19q13.42 by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and highly specific immunohistochemical staining for LIN28A rendered their reclassification as a single entity. Report: A 13-year-old girl was rushed to the emergency room unconscious, with no return of spontaneous circulation after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Autopsy revealed a left cerebellar hemisphere hemorrhagic tumor which histopathological examination revealed a multilayered ependymoblastic rosettes with abundant neuropil. The multilayered rosettes showed reactivity for vimentin but non-reactivity for pan-cytokeratin, the zones with abundant neuropil were reactive for synaptophysin consistent with a diagnosis of embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes now ETMR, NOS (WHO Grade 4) due to the lack of genetic testing for amplification of C19MC. Conclusion: ETMR is a highly aggressive CNS embryonal tumor with extremely poor prognosis. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pediatric brain tumors. Multilayered rosettes are a useful clue to histologic diagnosis.

19.
Cancer Research and Clinic ; (6): 390-393, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934690

ABSTRACT

Brain metastasis is a common complication of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. About 25%-55% of patients with NSCLC will develop brain metastases, and the occurrence of brain metastasis predicts a poor prognosis. Traditionally, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy and surgery are the main treatment options for NSCLC patients with brain metastases. In recent years, with the emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), the survival of NSCLC patients with brain metastases has been significantly improved. This article reviews the research progress of ICI treatment for NSCLC patients with brain metastases in order to provide new treatment strategies.

20.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 358-362, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933802

ABSTRACT

Diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor (DLGNT) is a rare, low-grade neoplasm, which is newly categorized into the neuronal and mixed neuro-glial tumor in 2016. The most characteristic imaging findings are diffuse leptomeningeal thickening and enhancement with multiple minor cysts. This article described a case with DLGNT mimicking meningitis, whose cystic lesions were not obvious, with swollen multiple lobes cortex, gyri form cortical calcification and enhanced meninges. Meningeal irritation sign repeated attacks and the clinical symptoms gradually improved after steroid pulse therapy. The biopsy and immunohistochemistry staining were diagnosed as DLGNT. The imaging features and clinical data of this case were analyzed to improve the understanding of the disease in clinical practice.

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