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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906489

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the possible mechanism of Chloriti Lapis in the treatment of epilepsy by the metabonomics of brain tissue in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-kindled epileptic rats treated with Chloriti Lapis. Method:The epileptic animal model in rats was established by PTZ kindling, and the rats were divided into the control group, model group, carbamazepine group and Chloriti Lapis group. The brain tissue samples were detected by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC/Q-TOF-MS), and the experimental results were statistically analyzed by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and SPSS 18.0. Result:The metabolic fingerprints and metabolic profiles of the rat brain tissue were established, which showed that the metabolic profiles of each group had changed significantly and could be separated well among the groups. Moreover, the Chloriti Lapis group had a tendency to be closer to the control group than the carbamazepine group. Seven differential metabolites were screened, including phosphatidylserine (PS) (18∶0/18∶0), <italic>L</italic>-glutamic acid, docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide, arachidonic acid, glucosylsphingosine, cholestane-3,7,12,24,25-pentol and lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) (P-18∶0). Except for docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide and LysoPC (P-18∶0), Chloriti Lapis had significant intervening and regulating effects on the other five differential metabolites. There were 12 possible metabolic pathways that affected the metabolic disorder of PTZ-kindled rats, and 3 important metabolic pathways (pathway impact>0.1), namely, <italic>D-</italic>glutamine and <italic>D-</italic>glutamate metabolism, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, and arachidonic acid metabolism, among which <italic>D-</italic>glutamine and <italic>D-</italic>glutamate metabolism was the most important metabolic pathways. Conclusion:From this point of view, Chloriti Lapis has a clear intervention effect on PTZ-kindled epileptic rats, which may be related to the intervention of the above differential metabolite contents and related metabolic pathways. It can reduce the toxic effect of excitatory neurotransmitters on neurons in brain tissue and inhibit the development of inflammation in brain tissue, so as to maintain the biological function of brain cells and slow down the occurrence of epilepsy.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906433

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of Chloriti Lapis on metal elements in brain tissue and plasma of epileptic rats kindled by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), and to explore the possible material basis of Chloriti Lapis. Method:PTZ kindling method was used to establish epileptic rat model. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) were used to determine the contents of metal elements in brain tissue and plasma of the blank group, model group, carbamazepine group (0.1 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) and Chloriti Lapis group (2 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>). The data were statistically analyzed by SPSS 18.0 software. Result:Compared with the blank group, the contents of Sr, Sb and Ba in brain tissue of rats in the model group were significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), while the contents of Zn, Fe, Cu, K, Li, Co, Sn and Pb were significantly decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, the contents of Zn, Fe, K, Li, Co, As and Pb in brain tissue of rats in the Chloriti Lapis group were obviously increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), while the contents of Sr and Sb were significantly decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). These results showed that Chloriti Lapis had positive effect on the regulation of the content of metal elements in rat brain tissue to normal level, the intervention effect was clear, and the overall effect was better than that of carbamazepine group. The determination of 21 metal elements in plasma showed that compared with the blank group, the levels of K, Sr and Cd in the model group were significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05), and the contents of Li, Al, Ti and Cr were significantly decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Compared with the model group, the contents of Ca, K, Li, Al and V in the Chloriti Lapis group were obviously increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), and the contents of Fe, Ti, Sr and Cd were significantly decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01). The correlation analysis of metal elements among the groups showed that there were 17 pairs of elements had positively correlation in the brain tissue of rats, 2 pairs of elements had significant negative correlation. In the plasma of rats, 8 pairs of elements had significant positive correlation and 6 pairs of elements had significant negative correlation. Conclusion:The metal element groups represented by Zn, Fe, K, Li, Co, As, Pb, Sr, Sb, Ca, Al, V, Ti and Cd may be the effective material basis for Chloriti Lapis to interfere PTZ-kindled epileptic model rats, which may be related to the influence of these metal element groups on the release of neurotransmitters and the electrical balance of neurons, the regulation of abnormal synchronous discharge induced by Na<sup>+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup>, Ca<sup>2+</sup> channel disorders and intervention of metabolism pathways in brain tissue related to epilepsy. It can make the excitatory and inhibitory activities restrain each other, and finally reach the normal physiological state of neurons and cells. The intervention effect of Chloriti Lapis group was better than that of carbamazepine group.

3.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(3): 1882-1888, mayo.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127048

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se supone que aproximadamente 80 millones de personas a nivel mundial están infectadas con el virus de la hepatitis C. Un aproximado del 60 % de dichos pacientes aqueja síndrome de fatiga crónica. Se presentó un paciente portador de hepatitis crónica de tipo C, con manifestaciones clínicas de síndrome de fatiga crónica por más de dos años. Se han reportado estudios internacionales que han demostrado la relación existente entre el desarrollo de la respuesta inmune y el daño que ocasiona en el tejido cerebral la infección por virus de hepatitis C. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo la presentación del primer caso que se tiene referencia (AU).


ABSTRACT It is believed that almost 80 million persons are infected with the Hepatitis C virus around the world, and 60 % of them suffer the chronic fatigue syndrome. For that reason we present the case of a patient who is a carrier of the chronic fatigue syndrome for more than two years. Reports of international research have showed the relation between the immune answer and the damage caused by the infection of the hepatitis C virus in the brain tissues. The aim of this work is presenting the first case reported in Cuba (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/etiology , Hepatitis C/complications , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/drug therapy , Interferons/adverse effects , Interferons/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Antibody Formation
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846264

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a sensitive, accurate and reliable LC-MS-MS analysis method for the nine major components (berberine, berberrubine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine, baicalin, wogonin, oroxylin A, geniposide and gardenin B) in Huanglian Jiedu Decoction (HJD) in rat hippocampus, cortex, striatum, and cerebrospinal fluid, and to study the distribution characteristics of the components in brain tissues of rats. Methods: The mass spectrometry detection conditions and chromatographic analysis conditions of nine main components and internal standards (clarithromycin and chloramphenicol) was optimized, and then the methodological investigations were performed. After HJD was administrated for 1 h, the samples of cerebrospinal fluid, hippocampus, cortex and striatum tissues were collected, and the contents of nine components in these samples were measured. Results: Berberine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine, baicalin, wogonin, oroxylin A and gardenin B showed a good linear relationship in the range of 1-250 ng/mL (r2 > 0.99). Berberrubine had a good linear relationship in the range of 1-500 ng/mL (r2 = 0.991 2), and geniposide had a good linear relationship in the range of 5-500 ng/mL, respectively (r2 = 0.999 5). The intra-day and inter-day precision of each component was less than 12.94%, the accuracy was from -12.71% to 6.91%; The extraction recovery rate was from 88.02% to 106.7%; The matrix effect was from 88.92% to 105.10%; And the short-term, freeze-thaw cycle and long-term stability were less than 12.51%. The content of each component in the hippocampus, cortex and striatum was berberine > baicalin > geniposide > berberrubine > palmatine > wogonin > jatrorrhizine > oroxylin A > gardenin B; And the content of each component in cerebrospinal fluid was geniposide > berberine > berberrubine > palmatine > baicalin> gardenin B > jatrorrhizine > wogonin > oroxylin A. Conclusion: The method can be used for the simultaneous detection of the concentration of nine active components in brain tissues of rats, and successfully applied to the study of brain tissue distribution, which provides a reference for HJD to treat brain diseases.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-843931

ABSTRACT

Objective: To improve the traditional teaching technique of using probe to destroy the brain tissue and spinal cord of toads. Methods:On the basis of the traditional teaching content, the distance of the probe entering the skull cavity and the specific feeling mark of destroying the brain tissue and spinal cord were added. Students were randomly divided into normal group and improved group according to the class. We observed the success rate and time spent on both the first and the second operations in the two groups. Results: The success rate of destroying the brain tissue and spinal cord in the improved group was high (93.2% vs. 72.3% for the first time). The secondary success rate was 97.7% vs. 85.1%, and it took less time (311.7±89.3) seconds vs. (511.6±171.1) seconds for the initial operation, The secondary operation time was (161.3±63.5) seconds vs. (266.0±98.2) seconds, with significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05).Conclusion: After the improvement of the content of destroying the brain tissue and spinal cord of toads in traditional teaching, it is easy to be mastered by students, with high success rate, less time spent, greater consistency with the 3R principle, and easier to be popularized and applied in teaching.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-841556

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the|protective effect of Shuxuening Injection on the brain tissue of the rats with acute cerebral infarction, and to elucidate its mechanism. Methods: Fifty rats were randomly divided into control group, sham operation group, model group, nimodipine group and Shuxuening Injection group ( n=10). The rat models of acute cerebral infarction were made by internal carotid artery suture method in model group, nimodipine group and Shuxuening Injection group. The common carotid arteries, the external carotid arteries and the internal carotid arteries of the rats in sham operation group were separated∗ and only the external carotid arteries were ligated; the rats in control group were not treated with operation; the rats in Shuxuening Injection group were given Shuxuening Injection, the rats in nimodipine group were given nimodipine∗ and the rats in control group, model group and sham operation group were given normal saline at the same volume. The score of neurological impairment, water contents in brain tissue and relative cerebral infarction areas of the rats in various groups were measured. HE staining was used to observe the morphology of brain tissue of the rats in various groups, and immumohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression levels of growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in brain tissue of the rats in various groups. EL ISA method was used to detect the levels of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1(3 (1L-1|3) in brain tissue of the rats in various groups. Results: The cortical structures of cortex of the rats in control group and sham operation group were complete and the cells were arranged neatly; the cytoplasm and nucleus of the nerve cells of the rats in model group were wrinkled, and the interstitium between nerve cells and capillaries were loose; the swelling degrees of cerebral cortical nerve cells and glial cells and the loose degrees of stroma of the rats in Shuxuening Injection group were reduced, and the histopathological manifestations were similar to those in nimodipine group. Compared with control group and sham operation group∗ the water content in brain tissue of the rats in model group was significantly increased ( P 0.05). Conclusion: Shuxuening Injection can protect the acute cerebral infarction by up-regulating the expression of GDF-15 and inhibiting the expression of CRP in brain tissue of the rats with acute cerebral infarction, reducing the levels of inflammatory cytokines and improving the neurological function.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872876

ABSTRACT

Objective:Metabolomics was used to analyze the brain tissue samples of model mice with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) depression, in order to find out the differential metabolites related to depression and to explore the possible antidepressant mechanism of iridoid part of Valerianae Jatamansi Rhizoma et Radix (IEFV). Method:Forty-two Kunming mice were randomly divided into 6 groups, including the normal group, the model group, the fluoxetine group (2.5 mg·kg-1) and the IEFV low, medium, and high dose groups (doses were 5.73, 11.47, 22.94 mg·kg-1, respectively). The behavioral and biochemical indicators of CUMS model mice were used for pharmacodynamic evaluation with IEFV and a positive drug (fluoxetine) as the intervention drugs. Then, the effect of IEFV on endogenous substances of the brain tissue in CUMS model mice were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance hydrogen spectrum (1H-NMR) metabolomics, and multivariate statistical analysis was used to identify the differential metabolites and to enrich the metabolic pathways involved in the differential metabolites. Result:After modeling, the immobility time of the model mice increased significantly, their sucrose preference rate and the excitatory neurotransmitters [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE)] decreased significantly, indicating the success of modeling. The depression was relieved after IEFV administration, mainly manifested by the recovery of the immobility time, sucrose preference rate and the excitatory neurotransmitters (5-HT and NE). Principal component analysis (PCA) of endogenous metabolites in brain tissue showed that the model group could be significantly separated from the normal group, while the IEFV groups and fluoxetine group all showed a trend of deviating from the model group to the normal group, which was consistent with the behavioral results. The results of orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) showed that there were 16 different metabolites between the model group and the normal group, including 12 water-soluble metabolites and 4 liposoluble metabolites. Seven potential metabolism pathways were obtained through MetPA analysis, including metabolism of phenylalanine, metabolism of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan, metabolism of taurine and hypotaurine acid, metabolism of alanine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, biosynthesis of valine, leucine and isoleucine, metabolism of D-glutamine and D-glutamate and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). IEFV-high dose group could significantly recall 11 differential metabolites. Conclusion:IEFV may play an antidepressant role mainly by affecting energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism and neurotransmitter levels, which provides a reference for further study on the antidepressant mechanism of IEFV.

8.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 298-302, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-817333

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To investigate th e effects of juglone on brain tissu e of rats and its relationship with the biomarkers related to brain tissue injury. METHODS :Totally 40 rats were divided into blank group ,juglone high-dose ,medium-dose and low-dose groups (34.832,17.416,8.708 mg/kg),with 10 rats in each group. They were given medicine intragastrically once a day , for consecutive 4 weeks.After last administration ,the general behavior ,brain index and brain tissue morphology were investigated. UPLC-MRM-MS method was used to determine the serum contents of L-dopa(L-Dopa),L-tyrosine(L-Tyr)and L-tryptophan(L-Trp) in rats. The chromatographic condition included Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C 18 column,mobile phase consisted of ammonium acetate aqueous solution-acetonitrile ,gradient elution ,at the flow rate of 0.3 mL/min,sample size of 5 μL,column temperature of 30 ℃;MS condition include electrospray ion source ,in positive ion mode ,capillary voltage of 3 500 V,desolvent gas flow of 650 L/h,desolvent temperature of 350 ℃,ion source temperature of 110 ℃. RESULTS :Compared with blank group ,the rats in each dose group showed the behavior of tiredness and weakness of limbs. The brain tissue morphology showed pathological changes , which contained blood vessel congestion in the cerebral and cerebellar cortex ,partial cell nucleus pyknosis in the pyramidal cell layer,deep staining of nuclei ,irregular shape and unclear boundary and other pathological changes ;the brain index of juglone high-dose group increased significantly (P<0.05). The established UPLC-MRM-MS method showed good specificity and the range of L-Dopa,L-Tyr and L-Trp were 31.25-32 000,31.25-32 000,15.625-16 000 ng/mL(r=0.999 1-0.999 9),respectively. The limits of detection were 6.250,5.625,3.125 ng/mL,respectively. The limits of quantitation were 15.625,18.75,10.00 ng/mL,respectively. RSDs of precision ,accuracy and stability (24 h)tests were all Matrix effects were 95.1%-100.1% (RSD are not more than 3.25%,n=3). Compared with blank group,the contents of L-Dopa were increased significantly injuglone medium-dose and high-dose groups (P<0.01). The contents of L-Tyr were increased significantly in juglone lowdose,medium-dose and high-dose gro ups,while the contents of L-Trp were decreased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS :Juglone has an effect on the general behavior,brain index and brain tissue morphology of rats. It may affect the brain function of rats by increasing the contents of L-Dopa and L-Tyr in serum and decreasing the contents of L-Trp.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-849691

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of Beagle's cranium on shockwave blocking after free field explosion, and whether a quantitative relationship exists between intra- and extracranial pressure. Methods Eighteen Beagle dogs were used in the free field explosion experiment. The explosion source was 1 kg and 3.5 kg column-shaped trinitrotoluene (TNT), which was located 1.5 m above the land to rule out the possibility of reflex. Measurment instruments were located 1-6 m from the explosion source. Head of Beagle dog was located at the same location as that of measurment instruments. After Beagle dog was anaesthetised, pressure sensor was planted under parietal bone. One side of the sensor borehole faced to the brain tissue, and the other side of the sensor borehole faced to the cranium to measure the pressure from the skull direction. All Beagle dogs were recumbent fixed, the head was positively faced to the source of explosion. Pressures from the bone and from the brain tissue were measured respectively. Results One dog died after the explosion and the remaining 17 dogs were alive. Twenty-four hours later, Tarlov scores of the alive dogs were graded 4-5, and neurofunctional score in large animals was more than 13. The peak explosive wave pressure was 207(47.6-207) kPa with a mean of 122 kPa. The maximal impact pressure impulse reached to 88 Pa·s. The pressure curve from the cranium direction of Beagle dog was similar to that from the brain tissue, but the pressure curve from the brain tissue direction changed more gently. A logarithmic trend existed of the peak pressure of the shockwave from the cranium direction and the external shockwave at the same position (correlation coefficient = 0.804). Conclusions In free field explosion, shockwave can enter the brain through cranium, chest and abdomen. The cranium has some blocking effect on the shockwave, and partial shockwave pressure can be uploaded to the brain tissue through the chest and abdomen, but because of the blocking of the body tissue, the change curve is relatively smooth.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-843984

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of total paeony glucoside on brain Notch signaling pathway in focal cerebral infarction rats. Methods: Stroke rats were prepared and divided into 5 groups: model group, low dosetotal peony glucoside group, medium dosetotal peony glucoside group, and high dosetotal paeony glucoside group, with 20 rats in each group. All groups received the medication for 20 days. The body weight, brain water content, cerebral infarction size, brain tissue NICD, Hes1 and Hes5 proteins and Hes1 and Hes5 mRNA expressions were measured in each group. Results: There was no significant difference in body weight before administration within these groups (P>0.05). After treatment, compared with those in the control group, the body weight significantly decreased (P<0.05); NICD, Hes1 and Hes5 significantly increased; Hes1 and Hes5mRNA significantly increased in the model group (P<0.05). Compared with those in the model group, the body weight significantly increased (P<0.05); the NICD, Hes1 and Hes5 significantly decreased; Hes1 and Hes5mRNA significantly decreased (P<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: Total peony glucoside can treat focal cerebral infarction by inhibiting Notch signaling pathway in rat brain tissue.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-754491

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the effects of 3 neuroprotective measures on the expressions of apoptosis-related factors and their ligands (Fas and FasL) in brain tissue of neonatal rats with hypoxic ischemic brain injury. Methods One hundred and twenty Wistar rats 7 days old were selected as experimental subjects, the rats were divided into four groups: neural stem cell, erythropoietin (EPO), ω-3 unsaturated fatty acid treatment groups and hypoxic ischemic brain damage model group according to random number table method, with 30 rats in each group. Neural stem cell group, EPO group and ω-3 unsaturated fatty acid group were respectively injected with neural stem cells, EPO and ω-3 unsaturated fatty acid, each 5 mL via tail vein after modeling; the hypoxic ischemic brain damage model group was given equal volume of normal saline. At 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after administration of drug, 6 rats were sacrificed in each group, brain tissue was taken, the mRNA expression levels of Fas/FasL, protein expression levels of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6) and cell apoptotic rate in hippocampus tissue were measured. Results ① mRNA expressions: the mRNA expressions of Fas and FasL of the 3 experimental groups were significantly lower than those of the hypoxic ischemic brain damage model group, the degrees of descent after administration for 24 hours were the most significant, neural stem cell treatment group < EPO treatment group < ω-3 unsaturated fatty acid treatment group < hypoxic ischemic brain damage model group [Fas mRNA expression (2-ΔΔCt): 140.5±2.9, 156.4±2.5, 165.2±2.7 vs. 173.7±2.8, FasL mRNA expression (2-ΔΔCt): 143.1±4.3, 154.6±1.5, 160.7±1.4 vs. 174.7±2.8], the differences were statistically significant (all P < 0.05). ② Protein expressions: the protein expressions of TLR4, NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 of the 3 experimental groups were significantly lower than those of the hypoxic ischemic brain damage model group (TLR4/GAPDH: 0.7±0.2, 0.6±0.1, 0.2±0.1 vs. 1.4±0.1; NF-κB/GAPDH: 6.7±0.4, 5.3±0.1, 1.1±0.2 vs. 11.2±0.3; TNF-α/GAPDH: 14.3±1.4, 11.2±1.2, 3.2±2.1 vs. 23.2±0.5; IL-1β/GAPDH: 9.4±0.2, 7.4±0.3, 2.2±0.3 vs. 13.4±0.1; IL-6/GAPDH: 36.2±4.4, 39.3±1.5, 26.2±2.1 vs. 51.4±1.4, all P < 0.05), the protein expression levels of above indexes in neural stem cell treatment group < those of EPO treatment group < those of ω-3 unsaturated fatty acid treatment group < those of hypoxic ischemic brain damage model group. ③ Apoptotic rates:after drug administration, the apoptotic rates of the ω-3 unsaturated fatty acid group, EPO treatment group, neural stem cell treatment group were obviously lower than the rate of model group [(3.7±0.3)%, (3.4±0.2)%, (2.5±0.1)% vs. (5.5±0.4)%, all P < 0.05]. Conclusion The mRNA expressions of Fas/FasL in the brain of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage are high, and the treatment with each of the following agents; neural stem cells, EPO and ω-3 unsaturated fatty acid can reduce the mRNA expressions of Fas/FasL in such rats' brain tissues.

12.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 244-252, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775439

ABSTRACT

Investigating the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying brain disorders is a priority if novel therapeutic strategies are to be developed. In vivo studies of animal models and in vitro studies of cell lines/primary cell cultures may provide useful tools to study certain aspects of brain disorders. However, discrepancies among these studies or unsuccessful translation from animal/cell studies to human/clinical studies often occur, because these models generally represent only some symptoms of a neuropsychiatric disorder rather than the complete disorder. Human brain slice cultures from postmortem tissue or resected tissue from operations have shown that, in vitro, neurons and glia can stay alive for long periods of time, while their morphological and physiological characteristics, and their ability to respond to experimental manipulations are maintained. Human brain slices can thus provide a close representation of neuronal networks in vivo, be a valuable tool for investigation of the basis of neuropsychiatric disorders, and provide a platform for the evaluation of novel pharmacological treatments of human brain diseases. A brain bank needs to provide the necessary infrastructure to bring together donors, hospitals, and researchers who want to investigate human brain slices in cultures of clinically and neuropathologically well-documented material.


Subject(s)
Brain , Brain Diseases , Drug Therapy , Humans , Tissue Culture Techniques
13.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 283-288, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775437

ABSTRACT

Advances in cellular and molecular biology underpin most current therapeutic advances in medicine. Such advances for neurological and neurodegenerative diseases are hindered by the lack of similar specimens. It is becoming increasingly evident that greater access to human brain tissue is necessary to understand both the cellular biology of these diseases and their variation. Research in these areas is vital to the development of viable therapeutic options for these currently untreatable diseases. The development and coordination of human brain specimen collection through brain banks is evolving. This perspective article from the Sydney Brain Bank reviews data concerning the best ways to collect and store material for different research purposes.


Subject(s)
Aging , Pathology , Physiology , Biomedical Research , Methods , Brain , Pathology , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Pathology , Therapeutics , Tissue Banks , Tissue Preservation
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-789211

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of cuboid stereotactic aspiration of necrotic brain tissue for treating malignant middle cerebral artery infarction in the elderly patients.Methods Sixteen elderly patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction were selected from June 2017 to January 2019 in our hospital.Patients were followed up for 6 months to evaluate the efficacy of stereotactic aspiration of necrotic brain tissue using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS).Results The 30-day mortality was 18.75%.Among the 16 elderly patients,6 (37.5%) had an mRS score of 3 (defined as moderate disability),6 (37.5%) had an mRS score of 4 (defined as moderate to severe disability),1 (6.25%) had an mRS score of 5 (defined as severe disability),and 3 (18.75%) had an mRS score of 6.The probability of 6-month favorable outcome,defined as an mRS score of ≤ 3,was 37.5%,and the 6-month mortality was 18.75%.Conclusions It is a simple,minimally invasive,effective and safe method to treat malignant middle cerebral artery infarction in the elderly patients with cuboid stereotactic aspiration of necrotic brain tissue,which needs to be confirmed by further randomized controlled studies.

15.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 436-445, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763762

ABSTRACT

Over the last two decades, several tissue clearing methodologies have been established that render tissues optically transparent and allow imaging of unsectioned tissues of significant volumes, thus improving the capacity to study the relationships between cell and 3D tissue architecture. Despite these technical advances, the important unsolved challenges that these methods face include complexity, time, consistency of tissue size before and after clearing, and ability to immunolabel various antibodies in cleared tissue. Here, we established very simple and fast tissue clearing protocol, FxClear, which involves acrylamide-free electrophoretic tissue clearing (ETC). By removal of the acrylamide infusion step, we were able to achieve fast reaction time, smaller tissue expansion, and higher immunoreactivity. Especially, immunoreactivity and fluorescence intensity were increased in FxClear-processed tissues compared to un-cleared tissues. Our protocol may be suitable for small-sized biopsy samples for 3D pathological examinations.


Subject(s)
Acrylamide , Antibodies , Biopsy , Fluorescence , Immunohistochemistry , Methods , Reaction Time , Tissue Engineering , Tissue Expansion
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796629

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the efficacy and safety of cuboid stereotactic aspiration of necrotic brain tissue for treating malignant middle cerebral artery infarction in the elderly patients.@*Methods@#Sixteen elderly patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction were selected from June 2017 to January 2019 in our hospital. Patients were followed up for 6 months to evaluate the efficacy of stereotactic aspiration of necrotic brain tissue using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS).@*Results@#The 30-day mortality was 18.75%. Among the 16 elderly patients, 6 (37.5%) had an mRS score of 3 (defined as moderate disability), 6 (37.5%) had an mRS score of 4 (defined as moderate to severe disability), 1 (6.25%) had an mRS score of 5 (defined as severe disability), and 3 (18.75%) had an mRS score of 6. The probability of 6-month favorable outcome, defined as an mRS score of ≤3, was 37.5%, and the 6-month mortality was 18.75%.@*Conclusions@#It is a simple, minimally invasive, effective and safe method to treat malignant middle cerebral artery infarction in the elderly patients with cuboid stereotactic aspiration of necrotic brain tissue, which needs to be confirmed by further randomized controlled studies.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-804803

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To Effects of n-hexane on learning and memory and the expressions of nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNA and nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) mRNA of brain tissue in mice exposed to N-hexane.@*Methods@#40 Kunming mice were randomly divided into low-dose group, meddle-dose group, high-dose dose group and control group, with 10 mice in each group. All the groups were orally exposed to n-hexane in different doses: low-dose group with 43.5 mg/kg, middle-dose group with 86.5 mg/kg and high-dose group with 173.0 mg/kg, 1 time per day for 20 d. After the poisoning, the Y-arm test and the expressions of NGF mRNA and NGFR mRNA and the concentrations of NGF and NGFR in the brain tissues of each group were measured.@*Results@#In the first Y-arm test, there existed a significant difference in correct reaction rate generally in all groups (P<0.05), and correct reaction rate in the middle-dose group and the high-dose group were low significantly compared with that in the control group(P<0.05). In the second Y-arm test, there existed a significant differences in total electric shock time and correct reaction rate generally in all groups (P<0.01), and the total electric shock time prolonged significantly and the correct response rate decreased significantly in 3 dose groups compared with those of the control group(P<0.05). The expression levels of NGF mRNA in brain tissues of low, meddle and high dose-groups were 0.81±0.66, 0.67±0.37 and 0.69±0.26, and the expression levels of NGFR mRNA were 1.22±0.42, 1.98±0.84 and 2.01±2.01, respectively. Compared with the control group, the expressions of NGF mRNA in the 3 dose groups decreased significantly (P<0.05), and the expression of NGFR mRNA in middle-and high-dose groups increased significantly (P<0.05). The concentrations of NGF in brain tissues of low,meddle and high dose-groups were 39.97±7.24 ng/L, 39.26±7.88 ng/L,31.70±8.21 ng/L,and the concentrations of NGFR were 17.37±6.82 ng/L,21.37±7.16 ng/L, 22.46±7.70 ng/L, respectively. Compared with the control group, the concentrations of NGF in high-dose groups decreased significantly(P<0.05), and the concentrations of NGFR in middle-and high-dose groups increased significantly (P<0.05).@*Conclusion@#N-hexane exposure can result in decrease of learning and memory in mice, which may be related to abnormal expression of NGF mRNA and NGFR mRNA in brain tissue.

18.
Rev. mex. ing. bioméd ; 39(1): 113-120, ene.-abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-902388

ABSTRACT

Abstract: In neuroimaging, brain tissue segmentation is a fundamental part of the techniques that seek to automate the detection of pathologies, the quantification of tissues or the evaluation of the progress of a treatment. Because of its wide availability, lower cost than other imaging techniques, fast execution and proven efficacy, Non-contrast Cerebral Computerized Tomography (NCCT) is the most used technique in emergency room for neuroradiology examination, however, most research on brain segmentation focuses on MRI due to the inherent difficulty of brain tissue segmentation in NCCT. In this work, three brain tissues were characterized: white matter, gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid in NCCT images. Feature extraction of these structures was made based on the radiological attenuation index denoted by the Hounsfield Units using fuzzy logic techniques. We evaluated the classification of each tissue in NCCT images and quantified the feature extraction technique in synthetic images from real tissues with a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 96% for images from cases with slice thickness of 1 mm, and 96% and 98% respectively for those of 1.5 mm, demonstrating the ability of the method as feature extractor of brain tissues.


Resumen: En neuroimagen, la segmentación de tejidos cerebrales es una parte fundamental de las técnicas que buscan automatizar la detección de patologías, la cuantificación de tejidos o la evaluación del progreso de un tratamiento. Debido a su amplia disponibilidad, menor costo que otras técnicas de imagen, rápida ejecución y eficacia probada, la tomografía computarizada cerebral sin contraste (TCNC) es la técnica mayormente utilizada en emergencias para el examen neurorradiológico, sin embargo, la dificultad inherente que representa la segmentación de los tejidos cerebrales, hace que la mayoría de las investigaciones sobre la segmentación del cerebro se centren en la resonancia magnética. En este trabajo se realizó la caracterización de tres tejidos cerebrales: sustancia blanca, sustancia gris y líquido cefalorraquídeo en imágenes TCNC. Dichas estructuras fueron caracterizadas con base en el índice de atenuación radiológica denotadas por las Unidades Hounsfield utilizando técnicas de lógica difusa. Se evaluó la caracterización de cada tejido en diversos cortes de TCNC y se cuantificó la técnica de extracción de características en imágenes sintéticas a partir de tejidos reales con una sensibilidad de 92% y una especificidad de 96% para tejidos en cortes de 1 mm de grosor y 96% y 98% para los de 1.5 mm demostrando la habilidad del método como extractor de características de los tejidos cerebrales.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-843726

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the quality of RNA extracted from fresh and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) brain tissues and to explore the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression level. Methods: FFPE samples stored under various conditions and paired frozen brain tissues were collected and total RNA qualities were then detected. Amplification efficiency (AE) and expression stability of each RNA marker were calculated and analyzed based on real-time quantitative PCR. After selecting reference biomarkers, normalized △ Ct values of candidate makers within different amplicon size were measured to assess the possibility of lncRNA quantification in FFPE tissues. Results: The purity of RNA extracted from FFPE was relatively high, but the RNA integrity was lower than fresh samples. All biomarkers were successfully amplified and amplification efficiencies of long-chain RNA markers were correlated with amplicon sizes, sample treatment and preservation conditions, namely temperature and storage time. 5S, miR-9 and miR-125b achieved optimal AE and showed quite stable expression in all specimens, therefore they were chosen as control markers. Compared with fresh samples, the △ Ct values of only 2 lncRNA (HAR1F and MALAT1-L, whose amplicon size were both higher than 200 bp, respectively) increased in the FFPE samples kept in 4 ℃, while in FFPE tissues kept in room temperature, increments of the △ Ct values were significant for most target genes except for short amplicon markers (<60 bp), which showed consistently stable expression in all brain specimens. Conclusion: RNA integrity is affected by sample treatment and preservation conditions, but lncRNA expression levels in FFPE tissues can be accurately quantificated by using optimal amplicon sizes and considerable reference markers.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-852273

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of compatibility on brain tissue distribution in rat of corydaline, tetrahydropalmatine, protopine, imperatorin and isoimperatorin in Corydalis Rhizoma and Angelicae Dahuricae Radix, and to provide further experimental evidence for confirming the Q-marker of Yuanhu Zhitong Prescription. Methods After oral administration of Corydalis Rhizoma, Angelicae Dahuricae Radix, and Yuanhu Zhitong Prescription extracts respectively, the concentration of five compounds in brain tissue samples at different time points was determined by UPLC-MS/MS, and the effect of compatibility on brain tissue distribution was further evaluated by kinetic parameters. Results Compared with single-herb group, AUC and Cmax of corydaline, tetrahydropalmatine and protopine in Yuanhu Zhitong Prescription group were increased significantly, and MRT of imperatorin and isoimperatorin were prolonged at the same time. Conclusion Corydalis Rhizoma and Angelicae Dahuricae Radix exist synergistic effect, the compatibility of these two herbs promote brain tissue distribution of corydaline, tetrahydropalmatine, protopine, imperatorin and isoimperatorin, which can be used as Q-marker of Yuanhu Zhitong Prescription.

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