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1.
Rev. inf. cient ; 101(4): e3832, jul.-ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409559

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Los tumores cerebrales son un grupo heterogéneo dada las diferentes líneas celulares que los originan. Los tumores cerebrales más frecuentes son los que se derivan de la glía, siendo los astrocitomas los más comunes. Objetivo: Sistematizar los hallazgos de los estudios que examinaron múltiples factores pronósticos de supervivencia en pacientes con tumores cerebrales tipo astrocitoma. Método: Se realizó una revisión sistemática de estudios observacionales, analíticos, prospectivos. La búsqueda bibliográfica se efectuó en las bases de datos electrónicas Medline, SciELO, LILACS, PubMed y Google Académico, con los siguientes términos descriptores: edad, sexo, factores pronósticos, cáncer cerebral, astrocitoma. Resultados: En la búsqueda se hallaron 136 452 artículos que estaban distribuidos en diferentes bases de datos. Al aplicar los criterios de elegibilidad quedaron para el análisis 13 artículos. En el caso de los factores pronósticos dependientes de la lesión, tumor o enfermedad, en la mayoría de las investigaciones se mostró una tendencia a evaluar el grado histológico y la histología de la lesión. En el caso de los pronósticos dependientes del paciente existió una mayor inclinación hacia la edad, el sexo y la sintomatología presentada, mientras que en los dependientes del tratamiento se mostraron indistintamente las modalidades de tratamiento sugeridas a los pacientes: cirugía, quimioterapia y radioterapia. Conclusiones: En esta investigación se presentaron los principales factores pronósticos en pacientes con tumores astrocíticos contenidos en las literaturas referentes al tema, que se agrupan en factores pronósticos dependientes del tumor, el paciente y el tratamiento. Estos deben ser tenidos en cuenta para evaluar al paciente con estas lesiones tumorales cerebrales.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Brain tumors are a heterogeneous group given the different cells that originate them. The most frequent brain tumors are those derived from the glia, with astrocytomas being the most common. Objective: To systematize the findings of studies that examined multiple prognostic factors for survival in patients with astrocytoma-type brain tumors. Method: a systematic review of observational, analytical, prospective studies was carried out. The bibliographic search was carried out in the electronic databases Medline, SciELO, LILACS, PubMed and Google Scholar, with the following descriptive terms: age, sex, prognostic factors, brain cancer, astrocytoma. Results: The search found 136,452 articles that were distributed in different databases. When applying the eligibility criteria, 13 articles remained for analysis. In the case of prognostic factors dependent on the lesion, tumor or disease, most researches showed a tendency to evaluate the histologic grade and the histology of the lesion. In the case of the patient-dependent prognoses, there was a greater inclination towards age, sex and the symptoms presented, while in those dependent on the treatment, the treatment modalities suggested to the patients were shown indistinctly: surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Conclusions: In this research, the main prognostic factors contained in the literature about patients with astrocytic tumors were presented, which are grouped into prognostic factors depending on the tumor, the patient and the treatment. These must be taken into account to evaluate the patient with these brain tumor lesions.


RESUMO Introdução: Os tumores cerebrais são um grupo heterogêneo devido às diferentes linhagens celulares que os originam. Os tumores cerebrais mais frequentes são os derivados da glia, sendo os astrocitomas os mais comuns. Objetivo: Sistematizar os achados de estudos que examinaram múltiplos fatores prognósticos de sobrevida em pacientes com tumores cerebrais do tipo astrocitoma. Método: Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática de estudos observacionais, analíticos e prospectivos. A busca bibliográfica foi realizada nas bases de dados eletrônicas Medline, SciELO, LILACS, PubMed e Google Acadêmico, com os seguintes termos descritivos: idade, sexo, fatores prognósticos, câncer cerebral, astrocitoma. Resultados: A busca encontrou 136.452 artigos que foram distribuídos em diferentes bases de dados. Ao aplicar os critérios de elegibilidade, restaram 13 artigos para análise. No caso de fatores prognósticos dependentes da lesão, tumor ou doença, a maioria das investigações mostrou uma tendência a avaliar o grau histológico e a histologia da lesão. No caso dos prognósticos paciente-dependentes, houve maior inclinação para a idade, sexo e os sintomas apresentados, enquanto nos dependentes do tratamento, as modalidades de tratamento sugeridas aos pacientes foram mostradas indistintamente: cirurgia, quimioterapia e radioterapia. Conclusões: Nesta pesquisa foram apresentados os principais fatores prognósticos em pacientes com tumores astrocíticos contidos na literatura sobre o assunto, os quais são agrupados em fatores prognósticos dependendo do tumor, do paciente e do tratamento. Estes devem ser levados em consideração para avaliar o paciente com essas lesões tumorais cerebrais.

2.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 71(3): 241-246, July-set. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405460

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To report the case of a teenager (12 years old) diagnosed with a brain tumor in the right frontal-parietal region emphasizing the main characteristics observed in neuropsychological examinations. Methods In the pre-surgical evaluation, the patient presented behavioral alterations, including deficits in verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, working memory, processing speed, and slight alterations regarding constructive praxis. Results A reevaluation after two years surgery revealed significant improvement in verbal and perceptual comprehension and constructive praxis while remaining a slight change in processing speed. These results suggest that the tumor's surgical resection produced significant improvements in the patient's neurocognitive context, especially in executive functions. This study also indicates that Neuropsychological evaluation are useful for pre- and post- surgical evaluation of cognitive functioning and its evolution. Conclusion Brain tumor causes cognitive and behavioral changes and its resection can result in improvements in the patient's quality of life.


RESUMO Objetivo Relatar o caso de uma adolescente (12 anos de idade) diagnosticada com tumor cerebral na região frontoparietal direita, enfatizando as principais características observadas em exames neuropsicológicos. Métodos Na avaliação pré-cirúrgica, a paciente apresentou alterações comportamentais, incluindo déficits na compreensão verbal, organização perceptual, memória de trabalho, velocidade de processamento e pequenas alterações na praxia construtiva. Resultados Uma reavaliação dois anos após a cirurgia revelou melhora significativa na compreensão verbal e perceptiva e na práxis construtiva, permanecendo uma ligeira alteração na velocidade de processamento. Esses resultados sugerem que a ressecção cirúrgica do tumor produziu melhoras significativas no contexto neurocognitivo da paciente, sobretudo nas funções executivas. Este estudo também indica que a avaliação neuropsicológica é útil para avaliação pré e pós-cirúrgica do funcionamento cognitivo e sua evolução. Conclusão O tumor cerebral causa alterações cognitivas e comportamentais e a sua ressecção pode resultar em melhorias na qualidade de vida do paciente.

3.
Rev. mex. anestesiol ; 45(2): 114-120, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395026

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La craneotomía con el paciente despierto se refiere a aquellos procedimientos en los que el paciente conserva su estado de consciencia durante toda la cirugía o en parte de ésta con el objetivo de explorar la integridad de sus funciones cerebrales superiores en tiempo real. Estas técnicas neuroanestésicas son útiles para ayudar al neurocirujano a preservar la integridad del tejido cerebral, o bien, no causar mayor daño del que la propia enfermedad ha causado.


Abstract: Awake craniotomy refers to those procedures in which the patient remains conscious for all or part the time, with the aim of explore in real time the integrity of their higher brain functions. This kind of neuroanesthetic techniques are useful in assisting the neurosurgeon to preserve the integrity of the brain or not to damage more than what the disease has caused.

4.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(4)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1408943

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El glioblastoma multiforme es el tumor cerebral primario más frecuente y agresivo en adultos, representa cerca de 25 % de los tumores intracraneales. Las principales manifestaciones clínicas están dadas por cefalea, convulsiones, cambios de conducta y un síndrome focal más definido (frontal, temporal, parietooccipital o del cuerpo calloso). En algunos pacientes, el comienzo es brusco por hemorragia o crecimiento rápido de un quiste intratumoral. El diagnóstico se realiza por resonancia magnética y se confirma con biopsia cerebral. El tratamiento es multidisciplinario e incluye resección quirúrgica, quimioterapia y radioterapia. No obstante, el pronóstico es desfavorable en la mayor parte de los pacientes. Objetivo: Describir el caso de un paciente con glioblastoma multiforme que se presentó en forma seudovascular. Caso clínico: Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 60 años de edad con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial y enfermedad cerebrovascular. Tres días antes de su ingreso comenzó a manifestar dificultad para hablar y alteración en la marcha por pérdida de la fuerza muscular en el hemicuerpo derecho. Por lo anteriormente expuesto fue llevado al Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico "Julio Trigo López" donde fue ingresado y se diagnosticó un tumor cerebral. El paciente evolucionó tórpidamente y falleció. El estudio anatomopatológico arrojó la presencia de un glioblastoma multiforme. Conclusiones: El caso presentado de glioblastoma multiforme forma de defecto motor ofrece información sobre esta afección que en nuestro centro no es habitual.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Glioblastoma multiforme is the most frequent and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults, representing about 25% of intracranial tumors. The main clinical manifestations are given by headache, seizures, behavior changes and a more defined focal syndrome (frontal, temporal, parieto-occipital or corpus callosum). In some patients, the onset is abrupt due to bleeding or rapid growth of an intratumoral cyst. The diagnosis is made by magnetic resonance imaging and confirmed with brain biopsy. Treatment is multidisciplinary and it includes surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. However, the prognosis is poor in most patients. Objective: To describe the case of a patient with glioblastoma multiforme that presented in a pseudovascular form. Clinical report: The case of a 60-year-old male patient with a history of arterial hypertension and cerebrovascular disease is report. Three days before his admission, he began to show difficulty speaking and gait disturbance due to loss of muscle strength in the right half of his body. For the foregoing, he was taken to Julio Trigo López Surgical Clinical Hospital where he was admitted and diagnosed with a brain tumor. The patient evolved torpidly and died. The pathological study revealed the presence of a glioblastoma multiforme. Conclusions: The reported case of glioblastoma multiforme in the form of a motor defect provides information on this condition that is not common in our center.

5.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(3): 253-256, 15/09/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362147

ABSTRACT

Tumor heterogeneity is the concept that different tumor cells provide distinct biomorphological lesions, gene expressions, proliferation, microenvironment and graduated capacity of metastatic lesions. Brain tumor heterogeneity has been recently discussed about the interesting interaction of chronic inflammation, microenvironment, epigenetics and glioma steam cells. Brain tumors remain a challenge with regards to medication and disease, due to the lack of treatment options and unsatisfactory results. These results might be the result of the brain tumor heterogeneity and its multiple resistance mechanisms to chemo and radiotherapy.


Subject(s)
Neoplastic Stem Cells/cytology , Brain Neoplasms/genetics , Genetic Heterogeneity , Gene Expression Profiling , Glioma/genetics , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Stem Cell Niche/genetics , Tumor Microenvironment , Clonal Evolution/genetics , Cellular Microenvironment/genetics , RNA-Seq
6.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(2): 113-119, 15/06/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362174

ABSTRACT

Objective The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the usefulness of intraoperative ultrasound guidance as a technique for the assessment, in real time, of tumor resection and as a navigation aid during intra-axial brain lesion removal on patients admitted in the Neurosurgical Department at the Hospital Universitario de Caracas, Caracas, Venezuela, in 2018. Methods A total of 10 patients were enrolled, each with intra-axial brain lesions with no previous neurosurgical procedures and a mean age of 49 years old, ranging from 29 to 59 years old. Results A male predominance was observed with 7 cases (70%) over 3 female cases (30%). Six patients had lesions in the dominant hemisphere. The frontal lobe was the most commonly affected,with 5 cases, followed by the parietal lobe,with 4 cases. After craniotomy, ultrasound evaluation was performed previously to dural opening, during tumor resection and after tumor removal. The mean tumor size in axial, coronal and sagittal views was 3.72 cm, 3.08 cm and 3.00 cm, respectively, previously to dural opening with intraoperative ultrasound. The average tumor depth was 1.73 cm from the cerebral cortex. The location and removal duration from the beginning of the approach (ultrasound usage time) was 83.60 minutes, and the average surgery duration was 201 minutes. Navigation with intraoperative ultrasound served to resect intra-axial tumors more precisely and safely. There was no postoperative complication associated with the surgery in this series of cases. Conclusions Intraoperative ultrasound guidance for intra-axial subcortical tumor resection is a technique that serves as a surgical and anatomical orientation tool.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Brain Neoplasms/surgery , Monitoring, Intraoperative/methods , Ultrasonography , Neuronavigation/methods , Glioma/surgery , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Craniotomy/methods , Glioma/physiopathology , Glioma/diagnostic imaging
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(2)abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385335

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La clasificación de los Tumores Primarios del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC) tiene su origen en la descripción morfológica, cuyo análisis histopatológico ha permitido identificar la línea celular involucrada en estos tumores y obtener el reconocimiento de ciertas características de estas lesiones y su evolución clínica. El estudio molecular ha venido a complementar el diagnóstico inicial permitiendo reconocer entidades que no son distinguibles de otra manera y que han variado los conceptos y definiciones de varias entidades patológicas que modifican el horizonte visible de estas enfermedades. El papel de las imágenes de Resonancia Magnética (RM) en el manejo de los tumores intraaxiales se puede dividir ampliamente en el diagnóstico y la clasificación de los tumores, la planificación del tratamiento y el tratamiento posterior. El presente artículo resume la evidencia epidemiológica relacionada en la clasificación de los tumores primarios del SNC con marcadores moleculares y biomarcadores de imágenes de RM, apuntando a la importancia del uso de la investigación clínica con el manejo terapéutico.


SUMMARY: The classification of primary tumors of the Central Nervous System (CNS) has its origin in the morphological description whose histopathological analysis has allowed to identify the cell line involved in these tumors and obtain the recognition of certain characteristics of these lesions and their clinical evolution. The molecular study has come to complement the initial diagnosis allowing to recognize entities that are not distinguishable in another way and that have varied the concepts and definitions of various pathological entities modifying the visible horizon of these diseases. The role of Magnetic Resonance (MR) images in the management of intraaxial tumors can be broadly divided into the diagnosis and classification of tumors, treatment planning and subsequent treatment. The present article summarizes the epidemiologic evidence related to the classification of primary tumors of the CNS with molecular markers and MR imaging biomarkers.

8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(7): e10612, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249314

ABSTRACT

Genomic studies have provided insights into molecular subgroups and oncogenic drivers of pediatric brain tumors (PBT) that may lead to novel therapeutic strategies. Participants of the cohort Pediatric Brain Tumor Atlas: CBTTC (CBTTC cohort), were randomly divided into training and validation cohorts. In the training cohort, Kaplan-Meier analysis and univariate Cox regression model were applied to preliminary screening of prognostic genes. The LASSO Cox regression model was implemented to build a multi-gene signature, which was then validated in the validation and CBTTC cohorts through Kaplan-Meier, Cox, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses. Also, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and immune infiltrating analyses were conducted to understand function annotation and the role of the signature in the tumor microenvironment. An eight-gene signature was built, which was examined by Kaplan-Meier analysis, revealing that a significant overall survival difference was seen, either in the training or validation cohorts. The eight-gene signature was further proven to be independent of other clinic-pathologic parameters via the Cox regression analyses. Moreover, ROC analysis demonstrated that this signature owned a better predictive power of PBT prognosis. Furthermore, GSEA and immune infiltrating analyses showed that the signature had close interactions with immune-related pathways and was closely related to CD8 T cells and monocytes in the tumor environment. Identifying the eight-gene signature (CBX7, JADE2, IGF2BP3, OR2W6P, PRAME, TICRR, KIF4A, and PIMREG) could accurately identify patients' prognosis and the signature had close interactions with the immunodominant tumor environment, which may provide insight into personalized prognosis prediction and new therapies for PBT patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Brain Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Prognosis , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Cell Cycle Proteins , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Tumor Microenvironment , Polycomb Repressive Complex 1
9.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887133

ABSTRACT

Since foreign patients may have inadequate Japanese language proficiency, rehabilitation techniques and evaluations of the higher brain and language function are often challenging. Here, we report a Hongkongese patient who suffered from higher brain dysfunction and dysgraphia after brain surgery. The patient was a 29-year-old left-handed man admitted to the Osaka International Cancer Institute for surgical resection of a choroid plexus tumor located on the trigone in the right lateral ventricle. Since the patient's mastery of the Japanese language was poor on preoperative evaluation, we partially evaluated his higher brain functions in Cantonese and English. However, he experienced left hemispatial neglect and spatial dysgraphia on postoperative day (POD) 2. On POD 48, his spatial dysgraphia (mainly in Cantonese) and higher brain functions improved with rehabilitation treatment, which involved verbal and non-verbal techniques such as task presentation and pointing. Although rehabilitation tasks and techniques are difficult due to language barriers, non-verbal techniques can be effective in providing treatment. Furthermore, it is important to evaluate the patient's language proficiency on preoperative assessment, especially in non-native Japanese speakers.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2306-2325, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888864

ABSTRACT

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) strictly controls matter exchange between blood and brain, and severely limits brain penetration of systemically administered drugs, resulting in ineffective drug therapy of brain diseases. However, during the onset and progression of brain diseases, BBB alterations evolve inevitably. In this review, we focus on nanoscale brain-targeting drug delivery strategies designed based on BBB evolutions and related applications in various brain diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury and brain tumor. The advances on optimization of small molecules for BBB crossing and non-systemic administration routes (

11.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 39(4): 311-316, 15/12/2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362346

ABSTRACT

The Virchow-Robin spaces (VRSs), which are often incidentally observed in modern structural neuroimaging examinations, are small cystic cavities that usually surround the small arteries and arterioles at the level of basal ganglia, the anterior perforated substance and the thalamic-mesencephalic junction. Typically, they have similar physicochemical characteristics to cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and there is no contrast enhancement on brain CT andMRI images. Its real meaning is unknown, although some contemporary studies have suggested that it might be related to certain traumatic brain injury or several other central nervous system (CNS) disorders, as degenerative diseases. Occasionally, some wide and atypical VRS may be mistaken for primary cystic brain tumors, especially in the context of large and symptomatic lesions, multiple clustered cysts, cortical lesions and if there is adjacent reactive gliosis. The present paper reports four patients who were affected by atypical VRS mimicking brain tumors that required imaging follow-up or even a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis or to indicate the correct approach. Although it is not so unusual, one of them occurred concomitantly and adjacent to a diffuse glioma (co-deleted 1p19q, WHO-GII).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adult , Middle Aged , Dilatation, Pathologic , Glymphatic System/abnormalities , Glymphatic System/surgery , Glymphatic System/diagnostic imaging , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Glymphatic System/pathology
12.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 1(supl. 1): 47-51, dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1397116

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las amebas de vida libre (AVL) Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, son protozoos ampliamente distribuidos en la naturaleza. Son microorganismos oportunistas, que afectan preferentemente al sistema nervioso central causando cuadros de meningoencefalitis amebiana primaria o de encefalitis granulomatosa amebiana (EGA), ambas patologías de alta mortalidad. Descripsión del Caso: Paciente femenina de 10 años, que ingresa a nuestro hospital por presentar hemiparesia braquiocrural izquierda, vómitos y cefalea de 72 horas de evolución. Se realiza tomografía computada y Resonancia Magnética en la que se identifica una lesión expansiva, sólido-quística ubicada en la región fronto derecha. Se realiza exéresis completa de la misma y se implementa tratamiento farmacológico lográndose la restitución ad-integrum de la función motora y la resolución de la EGA a 30 meses de seguimiento. Discusión: La encefalitis granulomatosa amebiana es una patología causada por amebas de vida libre. Su presentacíon clínica puede ser indistinguible de otras causas de leptomeningitis o encefalitis, como las de origen bacteriano, viral o por micobacterias lo que impide conocer su real incidencia. Su tratamiento antiparasitario es muy complejo y su evolución es habitualmente fatal. Conclusión: Reportamos un caso de Encefalitis Amebiana Granulomatosa en una paciente pediátrica inmunocompetente, con excelente evolución.


Introduction: Free-living amoebas (FLA) Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp., and Balamuthia mandrillaris, are protist widely distributed in nature. Are opportunistic microorganisms, preferentially affect the central nervous system causing primary amoebic meningoencephalitis or amoebic granulomatous encephalitis (AGE), both with high mortality. Case report: A 10 year-old female patient was admitted with a three-day history of left hemiparesis accompanied with headaches and vomiting. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance were performed, in which an expansive solid cystic mass was observed in the right fronto-parietal region. Complete resection was performed and pharmacological treatment was started, achieving complete restitution of motor function and resolution of AGE after 30 months of follow-up. Discussion: AGE is a desease caused by free-living amoebas. Its clinical presentation is similar to other leptomeningitis or encephalitis of different etiology such as bacterial, viral or by mycobacterial, which cannot know its real incidence. Its pharmacological treatment is complex and its evolution is usually fatal. Conclusion: We report a case of Amoebic Granulomatous Encephalitis in an immunocompetent pediatric patient with good outcome.


Subject(s)
Encephalitis , Pediatrics , Acanthamoeba , Tomography
13.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210224

ABSTRACT

A brain tumoris a mass of abnormal cells in the brain. Brain tumors can be benignor malignant. Conventional diagnosis of a brain tumor by the radiologist, is done by examining a set of images produced by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Many computer-aided detection (CAD) systems have been developed in order to help the radiologist reach his goal of correctly classifying the MRI image. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been widely used in the classification of medical images. This paper presents anovel CAD technique for the classification of brain tumors in MRI images The proposed system extracts features from the brain MRI images by utilizingthe strong energy compactness property exhibited by the Discrete Wavelet transform (DWT). The Wavelet features are then applied to a CNNto classify the input MRI image. Experimental results indicate that the proposed approach outperforms other commonly used methods and gives an overall accuracy of 98.5%.

14.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(3): 1826-1838, mayo.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127044

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: los ependimomas constituyen aproximadamente del 3-5 % de los tumores intracraneales y del 5-10 % de los tumores cerebrales, en la edad pediátrica. Objetivo: caracterizar los pacientes con ependimomas intracraneales intervenidos quirúrgicamente, en el Hospital Pediátrico ¨Juan Manuel Márquez. ¨ Materiales y método: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, a pacientes en edad pediátrica con diagnóstico histológico de ependimoma de localización intracraneal. En el período de enero 2012 a diciembre 2017. El universo quedó conformado por todos los pacientes en edad pediátrica operados con diagnóstico histológico de ependimoma intracraneal en el lugar y período antes mencionado (N=22). Resultados: la edad media fue 2,75 años con límites entre 1 y 17 y una desviación estándar de 3,65. Los pacientes del sexo masculino representaron el 63,64 %, la relación con el sexo femenino en los primeros 4 años fue de 1:1. En cuanto al cuadro clínico, se observó predominio de la hidrocefalia en el 72,73 % de los pacientes. Los ependimomas intracraneales de localización infratentorial, (63,64 %) predominaron. El 45,45 % de las lesiones estudiadas se correspondían con el subtipo histológico de ependimoma anaplásico. Conclusiones: la combinación de cirugía, radioterapia y quimioterapia se empleó en la mayoría de los casos. Predominó el abordaje directo de la lesión a través de craneotomía y exéresis adecuada a la localización del ependimoma, sin embargo, en la mayoría solo se logró resección entre el 50 y 90 %. En la mayoría de los pacientes la evolución luego del diagnóstico, evidenció una tendencia hacia la estabilidad (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: ependymoma are almost 3-5 % of the intracranial tumors and 5-10 % of the brain tumors in pediatric age. Objective: to characterize the patients with intracranial ependymoma who underwent surgery in the Pediatric Hospital ¨Juan Manuel Márquez.¨ Materials and method: retrospective, descriptive study of patients in pediatric age with histological diagnosis of ependymoma of intracranial location in the period January 2012-December 2017. The universe was formed by all patients of pediatric age who underwent surgery with histological diagnosis of intracranial ependymoma in the before-mentioned place and period (N=22). Results: the average age was 2.75 years with limits between 1 and 17 years old. Male patients represented 63.64 %; the relation with female sex during the first 4 years was 1:1. Regarding the clinical characteristics, hydrocephaly predominated in 72.73 % of patients. Intracranial ependymoma of infratentorial location (63.64 %) predominated. 45.45 % of the studied lesions corresponded to the histological subtype of anaplastic ependymoma. Conclusions: the combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy was used in most of the cases. The direct approach of the lesion through craniotomy and a removal adequate to ependymoma location predominated. However, in most of them just the resection of 50-90 % was achieved. The evolution of most of patients after the diagnosis evidenced a tendency to the stability (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Ependymoma/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Ependymoma/surgery , Ependymoma/etiology , Ependymoma/drug therapy , Ependymoma/radiotherapy , Ependymoma/diagnostic imaging
15.
Rev. Fac. Med. UNAM ; 63(1): 34-41, ene.-feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155384

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La tomografía por emisión de positrones/tomografía computada (PET/CT) por sus siglas en inglés, es una modalidad de imagen única que proporciona evidencia in vivo de actividades tanto bioquímicas como fisiológicas en diferentes órganos y estructuras del cuerpo. El meduloblastoma es el tumor maligno más frecuente del sistema nervioso central (SNC) en pacientes pediátricos, por este motivo el PET/CT juega un papel importante en el manejo de estos pacientes ya que proporciona información sobre el grado y extensión del tumor, así como a determinar el sitio adecuado para la toma de biopsia, valorar la respuesta al tratamiento y determinar el pronóstico del paciente. Existen diferentes radiofármacos para la evaluación de los tumores de sistema nervioso central, pero se ha estudiado que el 18F-FDG (flúor-2-fluoro-2-desoxi-D-glucosa) y el 68Ga-DOTA-NOC (68Ga-DOTA0-1NaI3-octreotide) nos ayudan a evaluar y dar seguimiento a pacientes con diagnóstico de meduloblastoma. El meduloblastoma tiene una sobreexpresión de transportadores de glucosa, principalmente tipo 1 y sobreexpresión de receptores de somatostatina predominantemente tipo 2, lo cual permite que exista una gran afinidad por estos radiofármacos.


Abstract: PET/CT (positron emission tomography/computed tomography, for its acronym in English) is a unique imaging method that provides in vivo evidence of both biochemical and physiological activities of the brain, spinal cord and tumors that involve these structures. Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant tumor of the central nervous system (CNS) in pediatric patients, so PET/CT plays an important role as it provides information on the grade and extent of the tumor, as well as to determine the appropriate site for the biopsy, assessing the response to the treatment and the patient's prognosis. There are different radiopharmaceuticals for the evaluation of central nervous system tumors, but 18F FDG (Fluor-2-fluoro-2-desoxy-D-glucose) and 68Ga-DOTA-NOC (68Ga-DOTA0-1NaI3-octreotide) have been studied to help us evaluate and follow up patients diagnosed with medulloblastoma. Medulloblastoma has an overexpression of glucose transporters, mainly type 1, and an overexpression of predominantly type 2 somatostatin receptors, which allows a high affinity for these radiopharmaceuticals.

16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(1): 34-38, Jan. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088980

ABSTRACT

Abstract Brain tumors are one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths around the world. Angiogenesis is critical in high-grade malignant gliomas, such as glioblastoma multiforme. Objective: The aim of this study is to comparatively analyze the angiogenesis-related genes, namely VEGFA, VEGFB, KDR, CXCL8, CXCR1 and CXCR2 in LGG vs. GBM to identify molecular distinctions using datasets available on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Methods: DNA sequencing and mRNA expression data for 514 brain lower grade glioma (LGG) and 592 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients were acquired from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and the genetic alterations and expression levels of the selected genes were analyzed. Results: We identified six distinct KDR mutations in the LGG patients and 18 distinct KDR mutations in the GBM patients, including missense and nonsense mutations, frame shift deletion and altered splice region. Furthermore, VEGFA and CXCL8 were significantly overexpressed within GBM patients. Conclusions: VEGFA and CXCL8 are important factors for angiogenesis, which are suggested to have significant roles during tumorigenesis. Our results provide further evidence that VEGFA and CXCL8 could induce angiogenesis and promote LGG to progress into GBM. These findings could be useful in developing novel targeted therapeutics approaches in the future.


Resumo Os tumores cerebrais são uma das causas mais comuns de mortes relacionadas ao câncer em todo o mundo. A angiogênese tem caráter crítico em gliomas malignos de alto grau, como o glioblastoma multiforme. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar comparativamente os genes relacionados à angiogênese, VEGFA, VEGFB, KDR, CXCL8, CXCR1 e CXCR2 em GBG vs. GBM para identificar distinções moleculares usando conjuntos de dados disponíveis no The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Métodos: Os dados de sequenciamento de DNA e expressão de mRNA para 514 pacientes com glioma cerebral de baixo grau (GBG) e 592 pacientes com glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) foram adquiridos do TCGA e as alterações genéticas e os níveis de expressão dos genes selecionados foram analisados. Resultados: Identificamos seis mutações KDR distintas nos pacientes GBG e 18 mutações KDR distintas nos pacientes GBM, incluindo mutações missense e nonsense, exclusão de mudança de quadro e região de emenda alterada. Além disso, VEGFA e CXCL8 foram significativamente super-expressos nos pacientes com GBM. Conclusões: VEGFA e CXCL8 são fatores importantes para a angiogênese, os quais parecem ter um papel significativo durante a tumorigênese. Nossos resultados fornecem evidências adicionais de que o VEGFA e o CXCL8 podem induzir a angiogênese e promover o GBG a progredir no GBM. Esses achados podem ser úteis no desenvolvimento de novas abordagens terapêuticas direcionadas no futuro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Neoplasms/genetics , Glioblastoma/genetics , Carcinogenesis/genetics , Glioma/genetics , Neovascularization, Pathologic/genetics , Reference Values , Gene Expression , Interleukin-8/analysis , Point Mutation/genetics , Glioblastoma/pathology , Receptors, Interleukin-8A/analysis , Receptors, Interleukin-8B/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor B/analysis , Glioma/pathology
17.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 15(2): 37-42, 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361898

ABSTRACT

El desarrollo tecnológico y científico en salud de los últimos años ha permitido mejoras en el diagnóstico y mayor eficacia en el tratamiento de pacientes con tumores cerebrales, generado un aumento no solo en la supervivencia, sino también una mayor demanda de los servicios de neuropsicología y rehabilitación, debido a las alteraciones cognitivas asociadas y dificultades en cuanto a la funcionalidad e independencia, disminuyendo significativamente la calidad de vida de estos pacientes. La presente investigación documenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 43 años, remitido al servicio de neuropsicología tras la resección de oligoastrocitoma frontal derecho, en la evaluación neuropsicológica se evidenció alteraciones en funciones ejecutivas, fluidez de lenguaje discursivo y dificultad en habilidades instrumentales. La investigación se realizó bajo el diseño cuasi experimental de caso único, donde se aplicó en repetidas ocasiones a lo largo del tratamiento el Inventario de Adaptabilidad Mayo-Portland (MPAI-4) para determinar las dificultades funcionales del paciente. El objetivo de la rehabilitación neuropsicológica se centró en implementar estrategias de autoinstrucciones y automonitoreo, que pudieran ser aplicadas en contextos cotidianos y en intereses específicos del paciente. Los resultados indican que el proceso de rehabilitación neuropsicológica demostró tener un efecto positivo en la funcionalidad del paciente y las estrategias aprendidas pueden ser trasladadas a su vida cotidiana


The technological and scientific development on health in recent years has allowed improvements in diagnosis and treatment on brain tumor patients, have increase not only their survivor rate but also their need of neuropsychology and rehabilitation services due to cognitive alterations associated and the subsequent struggling with independence and functionality that reduces significantly their life quality. The present research documents the case of a male patient, 43 years old, referred to the service after resection of right frontal oligoastrocytoma, in the neuropsychologic evaluation evidenced executive functions, discursive language fluency alterations and difficulties in instrumental skills. The research was carried out under the quasi experimental design of a single case where there will be applied repeatedly during the course of treatment the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4) to identify functional difficulties on the patient. The objective of the neuropsychological rehabilitation focuses on implementing self-instruction and self-observance strategies in order to apply them on an ordinary context and the patient's specific areas of interest. The results indicate that the neuropsychological rehabilitation treatment has shown a positive effect on the patient's functionality and an improvement on his ability to apply the learned strategies to his day to day life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Oligodendroglioma/rehabilitation , Astrocytoma/rehabilitation , Brain Neoplasms/rehabilitation , Executive Function/physiology , Neurological Rehabilitation/methods , Frontal Lobe
18.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-842968

ABSTRACT

Intracranial germ cell tumor is more common in Asian countries, including Japan, than in Western countries. The disease is characterized by juvenile onset with a mean age at diagnosis of 18 years. Most patients with intracranial germ cell tumors in the basal ganglia manifest paralytic symptoms, but few of these patients have been reported to have long-term progression of motor paralysis and rehabilitation interventions.A young male patient was diagnosed as having right basal ganglia germinoma and left hemiplegia at the age of 10 years. He received intervention and long-term follow-up for upper limb function. He underwent hybrid assistive neuromuscular dynamic stimulation therapy at the age of 14 years and modified constraint-induced movement therapy (modified CI therapy) at the age of 20 years. With such a gradual neurorehabilitation intervention, the Fugl-Meyer assessment score for the upper limb improved from 41 to 58 points, and the frequency of use of the paralyzed hand also improved. We hope that this report will provide guidance when considering treatment options for similar diseases in the future.

19.
Palliative Care Research ; : 277-284, 2020.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829830

ABSTRACT

Recently, the importance of terminal care has been emphasized in studies of patients with malignant brain tumors. Healthcare professionals should have knowledge of symptoms caused by brain tumors when treating patients in the terminal phase. This study aimed to investigate the data collection method, evaluation time, and symptoms of patients with brain tumor in the terminal phase through literature search. Seven papers were extracted by a literature search. Data collection methods included collecting information from medical records (4 papers), questionnaire (2 papers), and telephone survey (1 paper). Evaluation times ranged from 46 days to 1 week before death. Symptoms presented by patients with malignant brain tumors in the terminal phase could be classified according to disease-specific symptoms and general symptoms presented by patients with other types of terminal cancer. The most commonly reported disease-specific symptoms were disturbance of consciousness (4 papers), seizures (7 papers), dysphagia (6 papers), and headache (6 papers). The proportion of patients with dysphagia increased as they approached the end of life. These results suggest that the data collection method and evaluation time differ depending on the previous studies and that patients with brain tumors in the terminal phase are likely to present disease-specific symptoms.

20.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825953

ABSTRACT

Intracranial germ cell tumor is more common in Asian countries, including Japan, than in Western countries. The disease is characterized by juvenile onset with a mean age at diagnosis of 18 years. Most patients with intracranial germ cell tumors in the basal ganglia manifest paralytic symptoms, but few of these patients have been reported to have long-term progression of motor paralysis and rehabilitation interventions.A young male patient was diagnosed as having right basal ganglia germinoma and left hemiplegia at the age of 10 years. He received intervention and long-term follow-up for upper limb function. He underwent hybrid assistive neuromuscular dynamic stimulation therapy at the age of 14 years and modified constraint-induced movement therapy (modified CI therapy) at the age of 20 years. With such a gradual neurorehabilitation intervention, the Fugl-Meyer assessment score for the upper limb improved from 41 to 58 points, and the frequency of use of the paralyzed hand also improved. We hope that this report will provide guidance when considering treatment options for similar diseases in the future.

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