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1.
Invest. educ. enferm ; 40(1): 37-52, 01/03/2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1367715

ABSTRACT

Objective. To investigate the effect of teach-back education on patient asthma control and family care pressure of patients with asthma. Methods. The present study is a clinical trial and the study population was patients referred to Shahid Faghihi and Shahid Motahhari clinics in Shiraz, Iran. 58 patients with asthma and their caregivers were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups, for a total of 29 subjects in each group. In the intervention group: the teach-back method was delivered individually to the patient and his or her primary caregiver in three sessions of approximately 60 minutes at one-day intervals. each session included presentations, practical techniques and a booklet. In this study, patients and caregivers in the control group were not trained. Before the intervention, 4 and 8 weeks after the intervention, asthma control test and spirometry test were performed to evaluate asthma control; Also, before the intervention and 8 weeks after the intervention, Zarit test was performed to evaluate the care burden. Results. The findings of repeated measures tests showed that, compared to the control group, the intervention group obtained a greater increase in the vital capacity index (p=0.028) and in the disease control score (p=0.001), as well as a reduction in the burden of care on family members (p<0.001). Conclusion. The present study showed that teaching asthma related topics to the patient and her caregiver along with the follow-up and supervision of the nurse improves the asthma control of the patient and also reduces the caregiver pressure.


Objetivo. Investigar el efecto de la educación con el método teach-back sobre el control del asma y la carga del cuidado familiar de estos pacientes. Métodos. Ensayo clínico cuya población de estudio fueron los pacientes remitidos a las clínicas Shahid Faghihi y Shahid Motahhari en Shiraz, Irán. Se asignaron aleatoriamente 58 pacientes con asma y sus cuidadores a los grupos de intervención y control, con un total de 29 díadas en cada grupo. Las personas del grupo de intervención recibieron formación con el método teach-back que se impartió individualmente al paciente y a su cuidador principal en tres sesiones de aproximadamente 60 minutos en tres días consecutivos. Cada sesión incluía presentaciones, técnicas prácticas y un folleto. Los pacientes y cuidadores del grupo de control no recibieron formación. Antes de la intervención y a las 4 y 8 semanas después de la misma, se aplicaron las escalas de control del asma y la de Zarit para evaluación de la carga del cuidado y, además se practicó una espirometría. Resultados. Las pruebas de medidas repetidas entre los grupos de estudio mostraron que, comparando con el grupo control, el grupo de intervención obtuvo mayor aumento del índice de capacidad vital (p=0.028) y del puntaje de control de la enfermedad (p=0.001), además, se redujo la carga del cuidado en los familiares (p<0.001). Conclusión. El presente estudio mostró que con la enseñanza de temas relacionados con el asma al paciente y a su cuidador, junto con el seguimiento y la supervisión de la enfermera, se mejora el control del asma en el paciente y también se reduce la carga del cuidador.


Objetivo. Investigar o efeito da educação com o método teach-back sobre o controle da asma e a carga do cuidado familiar destes pacientes. Métodos. Ensaio clínico no qual a população de estudo foram os pacientes enviados às clínicas Shahid Faghihi e Shahid Motahhari em Shiraz, Irã. 58 pacientes com asma e seus cuidadores foram designados aleatoriamente aos grupos de intervenção e controle, com um total de 29 díade em cada grupo. As pessoas do grupo da intervenção receberam formação com o método teach-back que se transmitiu individualmente ao paciente e ao seu cuidador principal em três sessões de aproximadamente 60 minutos em três dias consecutivos. Cada sessão incluía apresentações, técnicas práticas e um folheto. Os pacientes e cuidadores do grupo de controle não receberam formação. Antes da intervenção e às 4 e 8 semanas depois dela, se aplicaram as escalas de controle da asma e a de Zarit para avaliação da carga do cuidado e, além disso se praticou uma espirometria. Resultados. As provas de medidas repetidas entre os grupos de estudo mostraram que, comparando com o grupo de controle, o grupo de intervenção obteve maior aumento do índice de capacidade vital (p=0.028) e da pontuação de controle da doença (p=0.001), ademais de que se reduziu a carga do cuidado nos familiares (p<0.001). Conclusão. O presente estudo mostrou que o ensino de temas relacionados com a asma ao paciente e ao seu cuidador, junto com o seguimento e a supervisão da enfermeira, se melhora o controle da asma no paciente e também se reduz a carga do cuidador.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma , Teach-Back Communication , Caregiver Burden , Education
2.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 21: e20226552, 01 jan 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1381115

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: descrever o perfil sociodemográfico e clínico, os hábitos de vida e a sobrecarga do trabalho de cuidador familiar de idosos internados em um hospital universitário. MÉTODO: trata-se de um estudo transversal, quantitativo, realizado com 161 cuidadores/familiares de idosos durante a hospitalização em um hospital universitário. Foi aplicado aos participantes o Questionário de Avaliação de Sobrecarga do Cuidador Informal, sendo os dados analisados no programa STATA 12.0®. RESULTADOS: caracterizou-se a predominância do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 63 anos, sedentários, com sobrepeso, com hipertensão arterial sistêmica como principal comorbidade e detectou-se sobrecarga grave (41,6%) e extremamente grave (29,9%) nos participantes da pesquisa. Observou-se que o instrumento utilizado apresentou boa consistência interna, onde os domínios Sobrecarga Emocional, Implicações na Vida Pessoal, Sobrecarga Financeira e Suporte Familiar apresentaram maior pontuação. CONCLUSÃO: a sobrecarga dos cuidadores informais dos idosos foi detectada como grave e extremamente grave, repercutindo diretamente na saúde mental, vida social e financeira.


OBJECTIVE: to describe the sociodemographic and clinical profile, life habits and workload of a family caregiver of elderly people admitted to a university hospital. METHOD: this is a cross-sectional, quantitative study carried out with 161 caregivers/relatives of the elderly during hospitalization at a university hospital. The Informal Caregiver Burden Assessment Questionnaire was applied to the participants, and the data were analyzed using the STATA 12.0® program. RESULTADOS: we characterized the predominance of females, with a mean age of 63 years, sedentary, overweight, with systemic arterial hypertension as the main comorbidity, and severe (41.6%) and extremely severe (29.9%) overload was detected in the research participants. It was observed that the instrument used had good internal consistency, where the domains Emotional Burden, Implications for Personal Life, Financial Burden and Family Support had higher scores. CONCLUSION: the burden of informal caregivers of the elderly was detected as serious and extremely serious, directly impacting mental health, social and financial life.


OBJETIVO: describir el perfil sociodemográfico y clínico, los hábitos de vida y la sobrecarga de trabajo de cuidador familiar de ancianos internados en un hospital universitario. MÉTODO: trátase de un estudio transversal, cuantitativo, realizado con 161 cuidadores/familiares de ancianos durante la hospitalización en un hospital universitario. El Cuestionario de Evaluación de Sobrecarga del Cuidador Informal fue dado a los participantes y los datos fueron analizados en el programa STATA 12.0®. RESULTADOS: quedó caracterizada la predominancia del sexo femenino, con promedio de edad de 63 años, sedentarios, con sobrepeso, con hipertensión arterial sistémica como principal comorbilidad y se detectó sobrecarga grave (41,6%) y extremamente grave (29,9%) en los participantes de la investigación. Se observó que el instrumen-to utilizado presentó buena consistencia interna, donde los dominios Sobrecarga Emocional, Implicancias en la Vida Personal, Sobrecarga Financiera y Apoyo Familiar presentaron puntuación más elevada. CONCLUSIÓN: la sobrecarga de los cuidadores informales de los ancianos fue detectada como grave y sumamente grave, repercutiendo directamente en la salud mental, vida social y financiera.

3.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e58924, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367775

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to understand centenarian caregivers' perception of care burden according to sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity level. This is a descriptive study that used a mixed data (quantitative and qualitative) approach. Sixty-seven caregivers of centenarians from municipalities in Santa Catarina participated in this study. Interviews were held for application of questions about sociodemographic data, transport-related and leisure-time physical activity, caregiver burden, and suggestions for improving care. The data were collected in the centenarian's home where the caregiver worked. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and qualitative data by content analysis. The results showed that 58.2% of the caregivers were overburdened. Of these, 92.3% were females, 56.4% were 60-75 years old, 48.7% had 7 to 11 years of schooling, 53.8% were married, 66.7% were children of centenarians, the caregiving duration ranged from 1 to 5 years in 35.9%, and 69.2% cared for the older adult 24 hours/day. There was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.01) between the level of leisure-time physical activity and caregiving burden, with 64.9% of insufficiently active caregivers tending to be overburdened with the care demand. The suggestions of caregivers for improving centenarian care included having help from health professionals and relatives for care, infrastructure, and financial resources. Most burdened caregivers are insufficiently active and need assistance in taking care of their own health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Exercise , Caregivers , Caregiver Burden , Sociodemographic Factors , Aged , Family Relations , Centenarians , Leisure Activities
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928744

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the change of serum C1q in the course of multiple myeloma (MM) and its correlation with clinical characteristics.@*METHODS@#A total of 138 newly diagnosed MM patients in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from June 2016 to December 2019 were selected as research objects, during the same period 50 age-matched anemia patients, 50 lymphoma patients, 50 leukemia patients, and 50 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients were selected as control groups. All the patients met WHO disease classification, and were definitely diagnosed by pathology or bone marrow smear/biopsy. The changes of C1q between MM patients and control group, as well as in different therapeutic responses of MM patients before and after treatment were compared, also the difference of clinical characteristics among MM patients with different C1q level, so as to analyze risk factors which led to C1q decline.@*RESULTS@#The average value of C1q in MM patients was (128.18±51.24) mg/L, which was significantly lower than control group (P<0.01). The levels of white blood cell, platelet (PLT), hemoglobin (Hb), serum calcium, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in newly diagnosed high C1q group were significantly higher than those in low C1q group (P<0.05). Logistic analysis showed that the levels of PLT, Hb, albumin, and LDH in newly diagnosed high C1q group were higher than those in low C1q group (r=0.248, r=0.394, r=0.405, r=0.295). After treatment, the levels of C1q in MM patients with complete remission and very good partial remission were significantly higher than before treatment (P<0.05), while those with partial remission and stable disease also increased but not significantly (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The C1q level in MM patients is significantly lower than that in patients with other hematologic system diseases, and it increases with the remission of the disease after treatment.


Subject(s)
Albumins , Bone Marrow , Complement C1q , Humans , Multiple Myeloma , Risk Factors
5.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 541-546, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927236

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To estimate the burden of disease (BOD) attributable to main risk factors of chronic diseases in Zhejiang Province in 2017, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the control strategy for chronic diseases and reducing BOD.@*Methods@#The results of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 ( GBD 2017 ) were extracted to evaluate years of life lost due to premature mortality ( YLL ), years lived with disability ( YLD ) and disability-adjusted life years ( DALY ). The gender- and age-specific BOD attributable to main risk factors of chronic diseases, including the environment, metabolism and behaviors, in Zhejiang Province in 2017 was estimated and compared with those in 1990.@*Results@#High DALY rates of chronic diseases were estimated attributable to tobacco use ( 2 807.08/105 ), unreasonable diet ( 2 724.72/105 ) and hypertension ( 1 878.69/105 ) in Zhejiang Province in 2017, and high DALY rates of chronic diseases were estimated in men attributable to tobacco use ( 4 764.77/105 ), unreasonable diet ( 3 297.00/105 ) and hypertension ( 2 076.92/105 ), while high DALY rates of chronic diseases were estimated in women attributable to unreasonable diet ( 2 117.16/105 ), hypertension ( 1 668.24/105 ) and hyperglycemia ( 1 100.53/105 ), respectively. Among individuals at ages of 15 to 49 years, high DALY rates of chronic diseases were estimated attributable to unreasonable diet ( 759.29/105 ), drug abuse ( 611.71/105 ) and tobacco use ( 605.37/105 ); among individuals at ages of 50 to 69 years, high DALY rates of chronic diseases were estimated attributable to tobacco use ( 5 528.37/105 ), unreasonable diet ( 4 628.18/105 ) and hypertension ( 2 757.78/105 ); and among individuals at ages of 70 years and older, high DALY rates of chronic diseases were estimated attributable to unreasonable diet ( 16 370.09/105 ), tobacco use ( 15 551.40/105 ) and hypertension ( 14 408.63/105 ). As compared to those in 1990, the DALY rates of chronic diseases attributable to high body mass index, alcohol use, hyperglycemia, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and drug abuse increased by 108.23%, 48.59%, 23.17%, 17.64% and 6.06%, and the DALY rates of chronic diseases attributable to air pollution, occupational risks, unreasonable diet and impaired renal function reduced by 51.11%, 44.81%, 22.49% and 19.83%, and no significant alterations were detected in DALY rates of chronic diseases attributable to tobacco use or hypertension in 2017.@*Conclusions@#There was a high BOD of chronic diseases attributable to tobacco use, unreasonable diet and hypertension in Zhejiang Province in 2017, and the BOD of chronic diseases attributable to high body mass index, alcohol use and hyperglycemia appeared a tendency towards a rise in Zhejiang Province in 2017 relative to in 1990.

6.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1474-1478, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927195

ABSTRACT

OBJECT IVE To investigate the influential factors of direct economic burden of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD)patients in hospital ,and to provide related suggestions to reduce the direct economic burden of hospitalization. METHODS During Dec. 1st,2019-Oct. 31st,2020,the data of 1 923 AECOPD patients admitted into the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University were collected. The information of demographic sociological characteristics,clinical characteristics and cost characteristics were collected ;descriptive analysis ,single factor regression analysis and multiple linear stepwise regression analysis were adopted to investigate the influential factors of direct economic burden of hospitalization. On the basis of literature review ,relevant suggestions were put forward to reduce the direct economic burden of AECOPD patients in hospital. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS The median of hospitalization cost of AECOPD patients was 15 621.00 yuan. The multiple linear stepwise analysis regression analysis revealed that the influential factors of direct economic burden of AECOPD patients in descending order (by partial regression coefficient )were the length of stay (logarithmic conversion value ), admission to ICU ,surgical treatment ,discharge outcome ,whether to salvage ,the use of respirator ,common complications and smoking history (model F=572.200,R2=0.750,P<0.001). It is suggested to strengthen comprehensive hospital management and promote multidisciplinary cooperation to reduce hospitalization days ;strictly follow the diagnosis and treatment guidelines and clinical pathways to avoid deterioration of the condition and transfer to ICU treatment ;control indications for surgery to avoid“ask for great treatment with only miner illness ”;do a good job in the publicity and education of disease and smoking cessation ,and improve the self-management ability of patients.

7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0286, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356781

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cancers are the second main cause of morbidity worldwide, but robust information on lip, oral cavity, and pharynx cancers in Brazil is lacking. This study aimed to analyze the trends of incidence and mortality caused by lip, oral cavity, and pharynx cancers and age-period-cohort effects in the Brazilian population of 30 years of age and over, in the period of 1990 to 2019. METHODS: A time series study of the incidence and mortality rates for oral cavity and pharynx cancer ("Lip and oral cavity cancer", "Nasopharynx cancer", and "Other pharynx cancer") was conducted, with corrected data from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2019. Age-standardized rates per 100,000 inhabitants, for the global population, were gathered according to the individuals' sex. The annual average percentage change (AAPC) was estimated, as was the age-period-cohort effects. RESULTS: The incidence and mortality rates were higher for men in the studied anatomical regions. The cancers tended to decrease for men, except for nasopharynx cancer, which increased in individuals of both sexes. Mortality tended to present a decline in most of the groups studied. For men and women, the age-period-cohort model presented a better adjustment for both incidence and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Incidence and mortality caused by the main head and neck cancers showed a tendency to decline over the past 30 years in Brazil, except for nasopharynx cancer, which showed an increase in incidence and mortality in some segments of the population. Higher rates were found for lip and oral cavity cancers in men.

8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0285, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356783

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders are a major cause of disability worldwide. Different modifiable risk factors are associated to these disorders. The objective of this study was to analyze the burden of low back pain (LBP), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA), and gout, attributable to risk factors, in 2017. METHODS: The burden of LBP, RA, OA, and gout, and attributable risk factors were analyzed using data extracted from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Brasil-2017 study. Descriptive analysis was conducted to compare disability-adjusted life years (DALY) rates between sexes and age groups (15-49 and 50-69 years), in 2017. RESULTS: The highest rates of DALY due to LBP were attributed to occupational ergonomic factors in the 15-49-year group, regardless of sex and males aged 50-69 years, whereas smoking was the major contributor in the 50-69-year female group. RA-related DALY rates were attributed to smoking and were higher among women aged 50-69 years. High body mass index (BMI) was the most relevant risk factor for the burden of OA, with higher rates detected in the 50-69-year group, and it was the most significant risk factor for DALY rate attributed to gout, regardless of sex or age group. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational surveillance measures are indicated to prevent LBP. Actions to decrease smoking and overweight, and the surveillance of weight gain are warranted to decrease the burden of LBP, RA and OA, and gout, respectively. These actions will be more effective if age and sex differentials are considered in planning.

9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0263, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356784

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: To better understand trends in the main cause of death in Brazil, we sought to analyze the burden of cardiovascular risk factors (RF) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) attributable to specific RFs in Brazil from 1990 to 2019, using the estimates from the GBD 2019 study. METHODS: To estimate RF exposure, the Summary Exposure Value (SEV) was used, whereas for disease burden attributed to RF, mortality and disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) due to CVD were used. For comparisons over time and between states, we compared age-standardized rates. The sociodemographic index (SDI) was used as a marker of socioeconomic conditions. RESULTS: In 2019, 83% of CVD mortality in Brazil was attributable to RF. For SEV, there was a reduction in smoking and environmental RF, but an increase in metabolic RF. High systolic blood pressure and dietary risks continue to be the main RF for CVD mortality and DALY. While there was a decline in age-standardized mortality rates attributable to the evaluated RF, there was also a stability or increase in crude mortality rates, with the exception of smoking. It is important to highlight the increase in the risk of death attributable to a high body mass index. Regarding the analysis per state, SEVs and mortality attributable to RF were higher in those states with lower SDIs. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the reduction in CVD mortality and DALY rates attributable to RF, the stability or increase in crude rates attributable to metabolic RFs is worrisome, requiring investments and a renewal of health policies.

10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0269, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356785

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Larynx cancer is one of the most common head and neck cancers, whose main risk factors are smoking and alcohol use, and its occurrence and prognosis depend on adequate and timely preventive measures. This study aimed to investigate the burden of larynx cancer in Brazil and its states. METHODS: Using estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, this study analyzed the trends of incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for larynx cancer between 1990 and 2019, besides the mortality-to-incidence ratio and the socio demographic index. RESULTS: Incidence and mortality due to larynx cancer in Brazil, which are approximately eight-fold higher for men, showed a declining trend between 1990 and 2019 (APPC: -0.4% and -1.0%, respectively). The DALYs also showed negative variation between 1990 and 2019 for both sexes in Brazil, mainly due to the decrease in premature deaths, with the greatest reduction in the state of São Paulo. For the states of Brazil in 2019, the higher age-standardized incidence rate (Rio Grande do Sul, 3.83 cases per 100,000 inhabitants) is twice the lowest rate (Piauí, 1.56 cases per 100,000 inhabitants). CONCLUSIONS: A fall in the burden of larynx cancer was observed in Brazil over the past 30 years, which may be attributed to a reduction in smoking and to an improvement in treatment. However, the regional inequalities in the country remain evident, especially for males. This data can guide public policy priorities to control the disease in Brazil.

11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0261, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356791

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazil ranks 5th in the number of deaths due to road injuries. This study aimed to analyze mortality and disabilities resulting from road injuries in Brazil, and to assess the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) target of reducing deaths due to road injuries by 50% by 2030. METHODS: This descriptive and exploratory study used the estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2019: indicators of mortality, premature deaths, and disabilities according to sex, age group, and type of transport for 1990, 2015, and 2019. Time trends in mortality rates from 1990 to 2019 were assessed, and a projection for 2030 was calculated, applying a linear regression model. RESULTS: Deaths due to road injuries were 44,236 in 1990, and 44,529 in 2019, representing a 43% reduction in mortality rates. The highest rates were in the North, Northeast, and Midwest regions of Brazil, in males and young adults. A 77% reduction was observed in mortality rates for pedestrians and an increase of 53% for motorcyclists and of 54% for cyclists during the period. In terms of motorcycle road injuries, the mortality rate for men increased from 7.3/100,000 (1990) to 11.7/100,000 inhabitants (2019). The rates of premature deaths and disabilities were also higher for men when compared to women. Amputations, fractures, spinal cord injuries, and head trauma were the main types of road injuries. The projections for 2030 show that Brazil might not reach the SDG target. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the decline in mortality rates, the 2030 Agenda's target might not be achieved.

12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0328, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356793

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The goal of reducing the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) requires close monitoring. Our objective is to characterize the decline of premature NCD mortality in Brazil based on Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) Study 2019 estimates. METHODS: We used GBD 2019 data to estimate death rates of the four main NCDs - cardiovascular diseases, neoplasms, diabetes, and chronic respiratory diseases. We estimated the unconditional probability of death between ages 30 to 69, as recommended by the World Health Organization, as well as premature crude- and age-standardized death rates and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost for these conditions. We also estimated trends in suicide (self-harm) death rates. RESULTS: From 2010 to 2019, the age-standardized unconditional probability of premature death declined -1.4%/year (UI: -1.7%;-1.0%) . Age-standardized death rates declined -1.5%/year (UI: -1.9%; -1.2%), and crude death rates -0.6%/year (UI: (-1.0%; -0.2%). Level of development correlated strongly with the rate of decline, with greatest declines occurring in the Southeast, Center West and South regions. Age-standardized mortality from self-harm declined, most notably in the elderly. CONCLUSIONS: Premature mortality due to the main NCDs has declined from 1990 in Brazil, although at a diminishing rate over time. The unconditional probability of death and the age-standardized mortality rate produced similar estimates of decline for the four main NCDs, and mirror well decline in mortality from all NCDs. Declines, especially more recent ones, fall short of the international goals. Strategic public health actions are needed. The challenge to implement them will be great, considering the political and economic instability currently faced by Brazil.

13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0282, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356794

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: An unhealthy diet is a modifiable risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), one of the most important public health problems in Brazil. This study aimed to analyze the burden of NCDs attributable to dietary risks in Brazil between 1990-2019. METHODS: Secondary data from the Global Burden of Disease Study were used to estimate the burden attributable to fifteen dietary risks in Brazil. The main sources of data for Brazil were national surveys and international databases. A comparative risk assessment was used to obtain the population attributable fraction. We described the intake of each dietary risk and the distribution of number and rates of deaths and Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to diet by sex, age, state, and year from 1990-2019. RESULTS: Cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and neoplasms were the main NCDs attributable to an unhealthy diet. Age-standardized mortality and DALYs rates attributable to unhealthy diet decreased between 1990-2019 (-51.5% and -48.8, respectively). Diet high in red meat and sodium, and low in whole grains were the three main risk factors contributing to the burden of NCDs both in 1990 and 2019. The burden of NCDs was higher among males in the middle-aged population (around 50 years), as well as in the states of Maranhão, Rio de Janeiro, and Alagoas. CONCLUSIONS: The present study found a suboptimum diet among the Brazilian population. The major contributors to this burden were diet high in red meat and sodium and low in whole grains. This study supports priorities in public policies on food and nutrition to reduce the burden of NCDs.

14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0262, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356796

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Monitoring trends in risk factors (RFs) and the burden of diseases attributable to exposure to RFs is an important measure to identify public health advances and current inadequate efforts. Objective: Analyze the global burden of disease attributable to exposure RFs in Brazil, and its changes from 1990 to 2019, according to the sex and age group. METHODS: This study used data from the Global Burden of Disease study. The Summary Exposure Value, which represents weighted prevalence by risk, was used to estimate exposure to RFs. The mortality and DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) measurements were used to estimate the burden of diseases. For comparisons by year and between Brazilian states, age-standardized rates were used. RESULTS: Arterial hypertension was the factor responsible for most deaths in both sexes. For DALYs, the most important RF was the high body mass index (BMI) for women and alcohol consumption for men. Smoking had a substantial reduction in the attributable burden of deaths in the period. An important reduction was identified in the exposure to RFs related to socioeconomic development, such as unsafe water, lack of sanitation, and child malnutrition. Metabolic RFs, such as high BMI, hypertension, and alcohol consumption showed an increase in the attributable burden. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings point to an increase in metabolic RFs, which are the main RFs for mortality and DALYs. These results can help to consolidate and strengthen public policies that promote healthy lifestyles, thus reducing disease and death.

15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0275, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356797

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) have become the main cause of disease burden in Brazil. Our objective was to describe trends (1990 to 2019) in prevalence and attributable burden of five modifiable risk factors and related metabolic risk factors in Brazil and its states. METHODS: In Global Burden of Disease 2019 analyses, we described trends in prevalence of modifiable risk factors and their metabolic mediators as percentage change in Summary Exposure Value (SEV). We estimated deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to the risk factors. RESULTS: Age-adjusted exposures to alcohol [41.0%, Uncertainty Interval (UI): 24.2 - 63.4], red meat (61.2%, UI: 42.4-92.3), low physical activity (3.9%, UI: -5-17.5) and ambient particulate matter pollution (3.3%, UI: -48.9-128.0) have worsened. Those for smoking (-51.4%, UI: -54.7- - 47.8), diet low in fruits (-28.1%, UI: -39.1- -18.7) and vegetables (-19.6%, UI: -32.7 - -8.7), and household air pollution (-85.3%, UI: -92.9- -74.3) have improved. All mediating metabolic risk factors, except high blood pressure (0.7%, UI: -6.9-8.3), have worsened: BMI (110.2%, UI: 78.6-161.7), hyperglycemia (15.1%, UI: 9.3-21.2), kidney dysfunction (12.0%, UI: 8.4-17.2), and high LDL-c (11.8%, UI: 6.9-17.2). CONCLUSIONS: A variable pattern of progress and failure in controlling modifiable risk factors has been accompanied by major worsening in most metabolic risk factors. The mixed success in public health measures to control modifiable risk factors for NCDs, when gauged by the related trends in metabolic risk factors, alert to the need for stronger actions to control NCDs in the future.

16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0284, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356800

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Epidemiological surveys revealed that Brazil has a high burden of oral diseases. However, no prior study has reported estimates of untreated dental caries, periodontitis, and edentulism over a three-decade period. The objective of this study is to report the trends of prevalence, incidence, and years-lived with disability (YLDs) due to untreated dental caries in primary and permanent teeth, periodontitis, and edentulism in Brazil between 1990 and 2019. METHODS Estimates of prevalence, incidence, and YLDs due to dental caries in primary and permanent teeth, periodontitis, and edentulism were produced for Brazil, by sex and age, between 1990 and 2019, using Dismod-MR 2.1, as part of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 (GBD 2019). Trends of oral disorders were analyzed using generalized linear regression models applying the Prais-Winsten method. RESULTS Almost 100 million Brazilians presented at least one oral disorder in 2019, which was equivalent to a prevalence of 45.3%. All oral diseases combined ranked eighth among all causes of disability, causing more than 970,000 YLDs. Untreated dental caries in primary teeth were estimated to affect 13.5 million children, and untreated dental caries in permanent teeth affected more than 52 million people. Periodontitis affected 29.5 million people, and edentulism affected almost 22 million. The generalized linear regression models revealed a trend of stability of oral disorders between 1990 and 2019. CONCLUSIONS The burden of oral diseases in Brazil is extremely high. Oral disorders, edentulism in particular, caused disability at levels that are comparable to other important chronic diseases.

17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0279, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356801

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Maternal death continues to be one of the most challenging public health problems that needs to be addressed in low and middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to describe the problem of maternal death in Brazil, using estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD). METHODS This study used data from the GBD 2019 to show the numbers of deaths and the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) - number of deaths/100,000 live births - in Brazil and its 27 Federated Units (FU), for ages 10 to 54 years, from 1990 to 2019. The annual variation of the MMR was estimated in 1990, 2010, and 2019. The MMR were shown for specific causes as well as for five-year age groups. The estimates were presented with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI). RESULTS The number of maternal deaths, as well as the MMR showed a 49% reduction from 1990 to 2019. This reduction occurred heterogeneously throughout the country, and the profile of the MMR for specific causes changed between 1990 and 2019: from hypertensive gestation diseases, to indirect maternal deaths, followed by hypertensive gestation diseases. In the extreme age groups, the MMR is higher, with mortality increasing exponentially in direct proportion with age. CONCLUSIONS Maternal deaths in Brazil have decreased substantially since 1990; however, the numbers still fall short of what was established by the World Health Organization (WHO). Indirect causes are the greatest problem in more than 60% of the FU, especially for hypertensive pregnancy diseases.

18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0266, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356802

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Excessive sodium consumption is associated with increased blood pressure, which is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study therefore aimed to describe the burden of NCDs attributable to excessive sodium consumption among Brazilians. METHODS: This observational study used mortality and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) rates, and their respective uncertainty intervals (UI), from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 (GBD 2019). The burden was obtained by the population attributable fraction of each NCD, considering the minimum theoretical value of risk (intake of 0-3g of sodium/day); the excessive consumption proportion in the population, obtained through population inquiries; and the relative risks obtained through meta-analyses. RESULTS: Excessive sodium consumption was the third highest dietary risk contributing to deaths (30,814; 95% UI = 2,034 - 84,130) and DALYs (699,119; 95% UI= 43,130 - 1,914,066) in 2019. States from the Northeast region had the highest age-standardized rates of deaths and DALYs, and the male population was more affected by NCDs caused by excessive sodium consumption. Cardiovascular diseases were the main contributing factors in the burden attributable to excessive sodium consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the progress in addressing NCDs related to this risk factor, the impact remains high, especially among men and in the Northeast region. More effective measures are needed to reduce sodium in industrialized products, such as health promotion actions to combat sodium consumption, in order to prevent and control NCDs in Brazil.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923334

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the trend of suicide mortality among the elderly aged 60 years and above in Wuhan from 2014 to 2019, to understand the disease burden of suicide deaths among the elderly adults in Wuhan, and to provide a basis for decision making to carry out suicide interventions in the elderly population. Methods The data on suicide deaths in the elderly adults of Wuhan residents whose death age was 60 years or older were collected from 2014 to 2019 using the Wuhan City's Cause of Death Monitoring Information System. Mortality, standardized mortality, years of life lost (YLL) due to early death and average years of life lost (AYLL) were calculated separately. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 26.0. The χ2 test was used to compare the suicide mortality rates among the elderly population by gender and region, and the annual percentage change (APC) was used for trend analysis. Results From 2014 to 2019, a total of 1010 suicide deaths were reported among elderly adults aged 60 years and older in Wuhan, with crude suicide mortality rates ranging from 7.60 to 10.77/100 000. The suicide mortality rate of elderly men was higher than that of elderly women. The suicide mortality rate of rural elderly adults was higher than that of urban elderly adults, and the suicide mortality rate of the rural elderly was decreasing. The overall suicide mortality rate of elderly people in Wuhan increased significantly with age, and the differences between the average suicide mortality rates of elderly males and elderly females in 2014-2019 were statistically significant among all age groups (P<0.01 or P<0.05). From 2014 to 2019, the YLL rate of suicide death among the elderly in Wuhan showed a trend of decreasing first and then increasing, and AYLL kept a slight fluctuation as a whole. The trends of both YLL rate and AYLL changes were not statistically significant. Conclusion The suicide mortality rate of elderly adults aged 60 years and above in Wuhan is high, especially in rural elderly men. The burden of disease caused by suicide deaths in the elderly is high, so it is necessary to take a variety of targeted measures to prevent and reduce the incidence of suicide among the elderly.

20.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 350-356, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923325

ABSTRACT

Objective @#To investigate the economic burden of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions, so as to provide the evidence for improving the management of cervical cancer and formulating the policies for reducing the economic burden of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. @*Methods@#The hospitalized patients with cervical cancer and precancerous lesions were recruited from four hospitals in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from September 2020 to June 2021. The direct medical expenditures, direct non-medical expenditures, duration of absence from work in patients and their family members as carers were collected using a questionnaire designed by the Cancer Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and the economic burdens of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions were estimated. The factors affecting the economic burden of cervical cancer were identified using a multivariable linear regression model.@*Results@#Totally 265 patients with cervical cancer and precancerous lesions were included, with an average age of ( 49.80±10.07 ) years. There were 170 patients with cervical cancer, including 64 cases with stage I, 79 cases with stage II, and 27 cases with stages III/Ⅳ, and 95 patients with precancerous lesions, including 33 cases with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion ( LSIL ) and 62 cases with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion ( HSIL ). The median economic burdens (interquartile range) were 11 481 ( 4 523 ), 17 850 ( 9 096 ), 112 883 ( 59 623 ), 150 875 ( 105 206 ) and 197 842 ( 61 844 ) Yuan per patient among cases with LSIL, HSIL, and stage I, II and III/Ⅳ cervical cancer, respectively, among which the direct medical expenditures accounted for 85.89% to 93.86%. The median economic burdens (interquartile range) were 708 ( 1 711 ), 11 678 (6 590), 2 557 ( 19 472 ), and 14 943 ( 27 773 ) Yuan per patient with precancerous lesions, and were 910 (1 530), 105 770 ( 91 019 ), 39 765 ( 30 490 ), and 146 445 ( 123 039 ) Yuan per patient with cervical cancer during the diagnostic phase, the clinical treatment phase, the follow-up phase, and in total, respectively. Multivariable linear regression analysis results showed that pathological stage ( β'=0.202, P=0.003 ) and duration of hospital stay ( β'=0.695, P<0.001 ) correlated with the economic burden among patients with cervical cancer. @*Conclusion@#There is a high economic burden among patients with cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. Advanced pathological stage and long duration of hospital stay may increase the economic burden among cervical cancer patients.

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