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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252143, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364526

ABSTRACT

Cadmium (Cd) is one of non-essential heavy metals which is released into environment naturally or anthropogenically. It is highly persistent toxic metals that are exceptionally distressing industrial and agriculture activities by contaminating soil, water and food. Its long-duration endurance in soil and water results in accumulation and uptake into plants, leading to the food chain. This becomes a serious global problem threatening humans and animals as food chain components. Living organisms, especially humans, are exposed to Cd through plants as one of the main vegetative food sources. This review paper is concentrated on the symptoms of the plants affected by Cd toxicity. The absorption of Cd triggers several seen and unseen symptoms by polluted plants such as stunted growth, chlorosis, necrosis and wilting. Apart from that, factors that affect the uptake and translocation of Cd in plants are elaborated to understand the mechanism that contributes to its accumulation. By insight of Cd accumulation, this review also discussed the phytoremediation techniques-phytoextraction, phytostimulation, phytostabilization, phytovolatization and rhizofiltration in bioremediating the Cd.


O cádmio (Cd) é um dos metais pesados ​​não essenciais que é liberado no meio ambiente de forma natural ou antropogênica. São metais tóxicos altamente persistentes que prejudicam excepcionalmente as atividades industriais e agrícolas, contaminando o solo, a água e os alimentos. Sua resistência de longa duração no solo e na água resulta em acúmulo e absorção pelas plantas, levando à cadeia alimentar. Isso se torna um sério problema global que ameaça humanos e animais como componentes da cadeia alimentar. Os organismos vivos, principalmente os humanos, são expostos ao Cd através das plantas como uma das principais fontes de alimento vegetativo. Este artigo de revisão concentra-se nos sintomas das plantas afetadas pela toxicidade do Cd. A absorção de Cd desencadeia vários sintomas visíveis e invisíveis por plantas poluídas, como crescimento atrofiado, clorose, necrose e murcha. Além disso, são elaborados fatores que afetam a absorção e translocação de Cd nas plantas para entender o mecanismo que contribui para o seu acúmulo. A partir do conhecimento do acúmulo de Cd, esta revisão também discutiu as técnicas de fitorremediação - fitoextração, fitoestimulação, fitoestabilização, fitovolatização e rizofiltração na biorremediação do Cd.


Subject(s)
Plants/toxicity , Cadmium , Metals, Heavy , Food/toxicity
2.
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 43: 1-10, 20220101.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353207

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Cadmium is an essential industrial metal and acts as an environmental toxicant that is a major cause of kidney diseases. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the possible nephroprotective effects of zingerone (ZGO), a major flavonoid constituent in ginger (Zingiber officinale) dry roots, against cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methods: In this study, Wistar albino rats [ACUC: HU2020/Z/FMS0120-01] were allocated randomly to 4 groups with seven animals in each group. The control group which received physiological saline; cadmium chloride (CdCl2) treatment group which received CdCl2 at a dose of 6.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 7 consecutive days; zingerone treatment group which received 25 mg/kg of zingerone orally for 7 consecutive days and CdCl2(6.5 mg/kg; i.p.)+ZGO (25 mg/kg; p.o.) treatment group which received CdCl2 and ZGO for 7 consecutive days. Results: Co-administration of ZGO along with CdCl2 resulted in a significant reduction in creatinine and urea levels of serum. Additionally, ZGO significantly diminished the tissue levels of Cd concentration, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide and significantly recovered the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant molecules, namely glutathione, total superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione recycling enzymes peroxidase and reductase, in kidney tissue. Furthermore, ZGO treatment prevented the inflammation produced by CdCl2 by restraining the elevation in the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin1beta). Moreover, ZGO improved histopathological alternations in the kidney by preventing apoptosis cascade in kidney tissue by stimulating Bcl-2 and suppressing Bax and caspase-3. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that ZGO has nephroprotective activity in cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity mostly via modulating of oxidant/antioxidant balance, inflammatory response, and apoptosis.

3.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 15(2): 141-147, 2022. tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1379820

ABSTRACT

Background: The unprecedented increase in metal exposure has been aided by modern industrialization and anthropogenic activities. Cadmium and mercury are recognized as two of the most common heavy metals with destructive impacts on most organ systems. The present study was designed to investigate and improve existing literature on the possible deleterious effects of cadmium and mercury exposure. Methods: Adult Wistar rats were treated with cadmium chloride (5 mg/kg/day) and mercury chloride (4 mg/kg/day) for 14 days. Body, brain and cerebellar weights, motor deficits, antioxidant and lipid peroxidation activities as well as histological alterations to the cerebellum were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Results: Findings showed a significant reduction in body and brain weights, dysregulation of antioxidant enzymes activity and impaired locomotion and exploratory activity in treated rats. Also, an increase in lipid peroxidation and degeneration of Purkinje cells of the cerebellum was observed in treated rats. Conclusion: Overall, these results corroborate previous findings that cadmium and mercury induce deleterious effects on the cerebellum and central nervous system. In addition, this study helps to provide an anatomical perspective and information on the exact cerebellar changes induced by cadmium and mercury in Wistar rats.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Antioxidants , Cadmium , Cerebellar Diseases , Enzymes , Locomotion
4.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 26-31, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928522

ABSTRACT

Environmental factors may negatively contribute to a progressive worsening of semen quality, and differences in semen quality may result from different environmental exposures (regional differences) or lifestyle differences. Heavy metals are factors with a confirmed negative influence on male fertility. Among them, lead and cadmium are commonly found in human surroundings. Thus, we analyzed semen parameters (according to the World Health Organization 2010 recommendations) and semen lead and cadmium concentrations in 188 men from two different regions in Poland, a typical agricultural area and an industrial area, in couples that had been diagnosed with infertility. The assays were performed using flameless electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. In the statistical analysis, regional comparisons and then taxonomic comparisons based on three parameters (age, semen concentration, and sperm morphology) were applied. We showed that more cadmium than lead accumulated in semen, a higher cadmium concentration was observed in semen obtained from men from the agricultural region, and better semen quality and lower cadmium concentrations were found in the semen of men from the industrial, more polluted region. We thus showed an existing regionalism in the sperm quality properties. However, semen parameters such as morphology and progressive and nonprogressive motility followed the same trends, regardless of the patient's age, region, or class. We could conclude that the environment has a minor impact on sperm morphology and progressive and nonprogressive motility and that other existing factors could have an indirect influence on semen quality.


Subject(s)
Cadmium , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans , Infertility, Male/chemically induced , Male , Semen , Semen Analysis , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932927

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of motion correction (MC) on the calculated values of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) based on cadmium-zinc-telluride SPECT (CZT SPECT) images.Methods:Twenty-eight consecutive patients (10 males, 18 females, age: (60.75±11.62) years) with suspected or known coronary artery disease who underwent myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with dynamic CZT SPECT between June 2019 and August 2019 in TEDA International Cardiovascular Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The MBF and MFR during rest imaging and stress imaging were quantitatively analyzed. Corridor 4DM software was used to calculate the stress MBF (sMBF) and MFR of the coronary artery branches and left ventricular (LV) before and after MC. The paired t test and Pearson correlation were used for data analysis. Results:The sMBF and MFR of LV before MC were (0.82±0.49) ml·min -1·g -1 and 1.69±0.68 respectively. After MC the two parameters increased to (1.05±0.64) ml·min -1·g -1 and 2.12±0.77 respectively ( t values: -4.87, -6.01, both P<0.001). The sMBF and MFR in left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCX), right coronary artery (RCA) and LV before MC were correlated with those after MC ( r values: 0.69-0.96, all P<0.001). If MFR <2.0 was used as the reference of impaired MFR, data before MC showed 19 patients (67.9%, 19/28) had impaired MFR, while 13 patients (46.4%, 13/28) had impaired MFR based on MFR values after MC. Conclusion:For MPI quantitative imaging with CZT SPECT, the calculated values of sMBF and MFR after MC is higher than those before MC, suggesting that MC is helpful to reduce the false positive results which may be caused by the " creep" effect of the heart.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929602

ABSTRACT

Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles are a new type of semiconductor nanomaterials used in many applications. Studies have shown that cadmium sulfide nanoparticles have toxic effects on the reproductive system, liver, and kidney of the body, and the toxicities are affected by various factors. This paper summarized the current research on the toxicity of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles at home and abroad, and reviewed the latest research progress on the mechanisms of its toxic effects and influencing factors.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929587

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo assess the effects of non-occupational mixed exposure to cadmium, lead and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) on thyroid hormones (TH) in healthy adult residents in Shanghai. MethodsIn November 2018, adults in Shanghai Suburban Adult Cohort and Biobank study, who visited a community health service center for examination with no history of occupational exposure, thyroid diseases or chronic diseases, were recruited. A social-demographic information questionnaire survey was conducted and urine and blood samples were collected. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to measure their urinary cadmium (UCd), blood cadmium (BCd) and blood lead (BPb) concentrations. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF MS) was used to measure 11 kinds of PFASs. Total and free triiodothyronine (TT3, FT3), total and free thyroxine (TT4, FT4) and thyroid simulating hormones were measured by chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunoassay. 436 participants were finally included and LASSO regression, multivariate regression and weighted quantile sum regression were used to evaluate the associations of these environmental pollutants with thyroid hormones. ResultsAmong the participants, 185 were male (42.5%) and the median age was 60 (P25‒P75: 50‒66). The detection rates of urinary cadmium, blood cadmium and blood lead were all more than 95% and the detection rates of 7 PFASs (PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, PFUnDA, PFNA, PFD, and PFBS) were more than 90%. The median exposure level of PFOA was the highest (49.6 µg‧L-1) among PFASs, followed by PFHxS (22.8 µg‧L-1) and PFOS (15.4 µg‧L-1), and the median exposure levels of urinary cadmium, blood cadmium and blood lead were 0.7 μg‧g-1(Corrected for creatinine of urine), 0.8 µg‧L-1, and 15.4 µg‧L-1, respectively. The results showed that UCd was negatively associated with TSH and BCd was positively associated with TT3, while PFASs mainly affected FT4, TT4, and TT3, with gender differences. In males, 7 PFASs had a significant negative mixture effect on TT3 and TT4, while the direction of effect of PFASs in females differed, with PFOS and PFUnDA having a significant positive correlation with FT4 and TT4 while PFDA having a significant negative correlation with FT4 and TT4. ConclusionIn a healthy population with no occupational exposure, co-exposure to cadmium, lead and PFASs affects different thyroid hormone indicators, and such effect could be gender-related, indicating that the effect of mixed exposure to metal and emerging compounds on thyroid functions warrants further attention.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928043

ABSTRACT

Chuanxiong Rhizoma is a traditional Chinese medicinal material mainly produced in Sichuan and Chongqing of China. In recent years, the cadmium content in Chuanxiong Rhizoma produced in most of the genuine producing areas has exceeded the standard, which makes Chuanxiong Rhizoma difficult to be exported. To solve the problem of excessive cadmium content in soil, this study employed the MaxEnt model to simulate the potential geographic distribution of Ligusticum chuanxiong and evaluate important environmental factors, and re-plan its ecologically suitable areas based on the mineral distribution characteristics and soil cadmium pollution status. The results showed that the places suitable for L. chuanxiong growing covered an area of 335 523.69 km~2, mainly in central and eastern Sichuan, southern Shaanxi and most parts of Chongqing. Among them, the highly suitable areas of L. chuanxiong were mainly concentrated in Chengdu, Ya'an, Deyang, and Mianyang. Solar radiation, annual precipitation, and annual range of temperature were evaluated as important variables affecting the distribution of L. chuanxiong, with the contribution rates of 62.3%, 13.3%, and 6.8%, respectively. In addition, Qionglai county, Chongqing county, Mianyang city(Youxian district and Fucheng district), Qingchuan county, and Xinjin county were classified into the first-class ecologically suitable zone, covering a total area of 2 768.87 km~2. The se-cond-class ecologically suitable zone was even wider, involving such counties as Tongjiang county, Renshou county, Jianyang county, and Nanjiang county, and the total area reached 43 616.92 km~2. The re-planning of the ecologically suitable areas for L. chuanxiong has provided strong data support for the cultivation and resource development of L. chuanxiong and also new ideas for solving the problem of excessive cadmium content in L. chuanxiong.


Subject(s)
Cadmium/toxicity , Environmental Pollution , Ligusticum , Rhizome , Soil
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1915-1928, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927827

ABSTRACT

In this study, the effects of two plant growth-promoting bacteria Klebsiella michiganensis TS8 and Lelliottia Jeotgali MR2 on the growth and cadmium (Cd) uptake of Arabidopsis thaliana under Cd stress were explored. A wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana was selected as the experimental plant and was planted at different Cd concentrations. MR2 and TS8 bacterial suspensions were sprayed onto the rhizospheric soil during the planting process. The initial Cd concentration of the bought soil was 14.17 mg/kg, which was used as the pot soil of the low-concentration Cd treatment group (LC). The concentration of soil Cd at high-concentration Cd treatment group (HC) were 200 mg/kg higher than that at LC group. Compared with the control group, MR2 suspension significantly promoted the growth of A. thaliana at both low and high concentrations, while TS8 strain and MR2_TS8 mixture only exhibited growth-promoting effect at high concentration. However, it was noteworthy that, TS8 suspension significantly reduced the Cd content in the underground parts of A. thaliana (60% and 59%), and significantly improved the Cd content in the aboveground parts of A. thaliana (234% and 35%) at both low and high concentrations. In addition, at low concentration, both single strain and mixed strains significantly improved the transformation from reducible Cd to acid-extractable Cd in soil, promoted Cd intake, and thereby reduced the total Cd content in soil. Therefore, the rational application of plant growth-promoting bacteria may improve crop yield and remediate Cd contamination in soil.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis , Bacteria , Biodegradation, Environmental , Cadmium/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae , Klebsiella , Plant Roots/chemistry , Soil , Soil Pollutants
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e250865, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285604

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cadmium (Cd) is one of the major toxicants, which affects human health through occupational and environmental exposure. In the current study, we evaluated the protective effects of morel mushrooms against Cd-induced reproductive damages in rats. For this purpose, 30 male rats were divided into 6 groups (n=5/group), the first group served as the control group, second group was treated with an intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of 1 mg/kg/day of Cd. Third and fourth groups were co-treated with 1 mg/kg/day of Cd (i.p) and 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of morel mushroom extract (orally) respectively. The final 2 groups received oral gavage of 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of morel mushroom extract alone. After treatment for 17 days, the animals were euthanized, and testes and epididymis were dissected out. One testis and epididymis of each animal were processed for histology, while the other testis and epididymis were used for daily sperm production (DSP) and comet assay. Our results showed that Cd and morel mushrooms have no effect on animal weight, but Cd significantly decreases the DSP count and damages the heritable DNA which is reversed in co-treatment groups. Similarly, the histopathological results of testes and epididymis show that morel mushrooms control the damage to these tissues. Whereas the morel mushroom extract alone could enhance the production of testosterone. These results conclude that morel mushrooms not only control the damage done by Cd, but it could also be used as a protection mechanism for heritable DNA damage.


Resumo O cádmio (Cd) é um dos principais tóxicos, que afeta a saúde humana por meio da exposição ocupacional e ambiental. No presente estudo, avaliamos os efeitos protetores dos cogumelos morel contra os danos reprodutivos induzidos pelo Cd em ratos. Para tanto, 30 ratos machos foram divididos em 6 grupos (n = 5 / grupo); o primeiro grupo serviu de controle, o segundo grupo foi tratado com injeção intraperitoneal (i.p) de 1 mg / kg / dia de Cd. O terceiro e o quarto grupos foram cotratados com 1 mg / kg / dia de Cd (i.p) e 10 e 20 mg / kg / dia de extrato de cogumelo morel (por via oral), respectivamente. Os dois grupos finais receberam gavagem oral de 10 e 20 mg / kg / dia de extrato de cogumelo morel sozinho. Após o tratamento por 17 dias, os animais foram sacrificados e os testículos e o epidídimo foram dissecados. Um testículo e epidídimo de cada animal foram processados ​​para histologia, enquanto o outro testículo e epidídimo foram usados ​​para produção diária de esperma (DSP) e ensaio cometa. Nossos resultados mostraram que os cogumelos Cd e morel não têm efeito sobre o peso do animal, mas o Cd diminui significativamente a contagem de DSP e danifica o DNA hereditário, que é revertido em grupos de cotratamento. Da mesma forma, os resultados histopatológicos dos testículos e do epidídimo mostram que os cogumelos morel controlam os danos a esses tecidos. Considerando que o extrato de cogumelo morel sozinho pode aumentar a produção de testosterona. Esses resultados concluem que os cogumelos morel não apenas controlam os danos causados pelo Cd, mas também podem ser usados ​​como um mecanismo de proteção para danos hereditários ao DNA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cadmium/toxicity , Agaricales , Ascomycota , Spermatozoa , Testis
11.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 133-139, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940877

ABSTRACT

@#Objective To investigate the effect of acute exposure to cadmium combined with bacitracin on the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in testes and ovaries of rats and its regulation by nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Methods According to the 4×2 factorial design model, 48 specific pathogen free adult SD rats were divided into four groups: the control group and the low-, medium- and high- dose cadmium chloride exposure groups. Each group was further divided into with- or without bacitracin combined subgroup. There were six rats in each subgroup with 3 males and 3 females. The low-, medium- and high- dose groups were intraperitoneally injected with 5, 10, 20 mg/kg body weight of cadmium chloride solution, respectively. The control group was intraperitoneally injected with the same amount of 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Among them, rats in the bacitracin combined subgroup were given a one-time intraperitoneal injection of bacitracin at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight two hours before cadmium chloride exposure. After 48 hours, the rats were sacrificed. The mRNA expression of glucose regulated protein78 kD (Grp78), protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (Perk), Nrf2 in testes and ovaries of rats was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression of GRP78, PERK, NRF2 was determined using Western blotting. Results The mRNA expression of Grp78, Perk, Nrf2 and the protein expression of GRP78, PERK, NRF2 in testes and ovaries of rats in the no bacitracin combined subgroups of the three dose groups showed different degrees of up-regulated changes compared with the no bacitracin combined subgroup of the control group (all P<0.05). Among them, the expression of the three kinds of mRNAs and proteins in the testes and ovaries of rats in the no bacitracin combined subgroups of the high-dose group was up-regulated (all P<0.05), and most of them were higher than those in the no bacitracin combined subgroups of the low- and medium-dose groups (all P<0.05). The expression of most of the three kinds of mRNAs and proteins in testes of rats showed different degrees of down-regulated changes (all P<0.05), but the expression of the three kinds of mRNAs and proteins showed different degrees of up-regulated changes in ovaries (all P<0.05) in the bacitracin combined subgroups of the three doses groups than that in the bacitracin combined subgroups of the control group, and especially in the bacitracin combined subgroups of the high-dose subgroup. The expression of the three kinds of mRNAs and proteins in testes and ovaries of rats in the bacitracin combined subgroups of the three doses groups showed different degrees of changes (all P<0.05) compared with the no bacitracin combined subgroup in the same group, and the expression in the bacitracin combined subgroups of the medium- and high-dose groups showed mainly down-regulated changes (all P<0.05). Conclusion Acute exposure to cadmium can induce different degrees of ERS, activate PERK/NRF2 signaling pathway, and improve the toxicity to testis and ovary. Bacitracin can inhibit cadmium-induced ERS, thereby inhibiting the activation of PERK/NRF2 signaling pathway, and enhancing the synergistic effect of cadmium on testis and ovary toxicity. The higher the exposure dose of cadmium, the more obvious the inhibitory effect.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940493

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the effects of three kinds of microbial fertilizers on the growth, yield, quality, and cadmium (Cd) accumulation of Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CX). MethodTaking CX seeds as materials, field experiments were carried out in the main producing areas, Pengzhou and Meishan. The samples were collected during the harvesting period, and the agronomic characters and yield were determined. The contents of extract, volatile oil, and ferulic acid were analyzed by the collection method of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2020 edition). The content of Cd was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Data were processed by difference significance analysis, correlation analysis and cluster analysis. ResultThree kinds of microbial fertilizers with appropriate concentrations could promote the growth of CX. In terms of yield and quality, the treatment of Jinwuzong (1.50 ton/hm2, 1 ton=1 000 kg, the same below) and Cuijingyuan (1.5 L·hm-2) could increase the yield of medicinal materials by 0.92%-46.34%, while Cuijingyuan (1.8 L·hm-2) and Shenchu (15, 30 kg·hm-2) could increase the water-soluble extract of CX by 0.06%-18.79%, of which Cuijingyuan (1.8 L·hm-2) was significantly increased (P<0.01). The alcohol-soluble extract of CX treated with Jinwuzong (0.75, 1.50, 2.25 ton/hm2), Shenchu (15, 45 kg·hm-2), and Cuijingyuan (1.2 L·hm-2) decreased significantly by 3.51%-22.94% (P<0.01). The content of ferulic acid in CX treated with Jinwuzong (1.50 ton/hm2) and Shenchu (30 kg·hm-2) decreased by 2.14%-30.56%. Three kinds of microbial fertilizers had little effect on the content of volatile oil in CX. In the aspect of Cd enrichment, the concentration of Cd in rhizosphere soil of CX was increased by 11.33%-76.36% (P<0.01) after the treatment of Jinwuzong (0.75, 1.50, 2.25 ton/hm2), Shenchu (15, 30, 45 kg·hm-2) and Cuijingyuan (1.2 L·hm-2). However, the Cd enrichment coefficient of CX reduced by 2.58%-48.38%, the Cd content and Cd accumulation of CX decreased respectively by 9.54%-25.96% and 9.34%-18.88% via Jinwuzong (0.75 ton/hm2) and Cuijingyuan (1.8 L·hm-2). ConclusionThree kinds of microbial fertilizers have a certain positive effect on the growth, substance accumulation, and reduction of Cd content in medicinal parts of CX, and the changes of each index are affected by the producing area and treatment method. Based on the comprehensive analysis of various indicators, Jinwuzong (0.75, 1.50 ton/hm2) can better adapt to the rhizosphere soil micro-ecological environment of CX, it can effectively reduce the content of Cd on the premise of guaranteeing the yield and quality of CX.

13.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(4): 706-720, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355744

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Introduction: Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) is well known for its properties as an anticancer, antioxidant, and scavenger of free radicals. However, its benefits in enhancing spermatogenesis have not been well established. Objective: To study broccoli aqueous extract effects on sperm factors and the expression of genes Catsper1, Catsper2, Arl4a, Sox5, and Sox9 in sperm factors in mice. Materials and methods: Male mice were divided randomly into six groups: (1) Control; (2) cadmium (3 mg/kg of mouse body weight); (3) orally treated with 200 µl broccoli aqueous extract (1 g ml-1); (4) orally treated with 400 µl of broccoli aqueous extract; (5) orally treated with 200 broccoli aqueous extract plus cadmium, and (6) orally treated with 400 µl of broccoli aqueous extract plus cadmium. We analyzed the sperms factors and Catsper1, Catsper2, Arl4a, Sox5, and Sox9 gene expression. Results: An obvious improvement in sperm count and a slight enhancement in sperm motility were observed in mice treated with broccoli extract alone or with cadmium. Sperm viability was reduced by broccoli extract except for the 200 µl dose with cadmium, which significantly increased it. Interestingly, Arl4a gene expression increased in the 400 µl broccoli- treated group. Likewise, the Arl4a mRNA level in mice treated with cadmium and 200 µl of broccoli extract was higher than in the cadmium-treated mice. Furthermore, broccoli extract enhanced the mRNA level of Catsper2 and Sox5 genes in mice treated with 200 µl and 400 µl broccoli extract plus cadmium compared with the group treated solely with cadmium. Conclusion: The higher sperm count in broccoli-treated mice opens the way for the development of pharmaceutical products for infertile men.


Resumen | Introducción. El brócoli (Brassica oleracea) se conoce por sus propiedades como anticancerígeno, antioxidante y eliminador de radicales libres. Sin embargo, sus beneficios en la espermatogénesis aún no se han determinado suficientemente. Objetivo. Estudiar los efectos del extracto acuoso de brócoli sobre los factores espermáticos y la expresión de los genes Catsper1, Catsper2, Arl4a, Sox5 y Sox9 en ratones. Materiales y métodos. Los ratones machos se dividieron aleatoriamente en seis grupos: 1) control; 2) tratados con cadmio, 3 mg/kg de peso corporal; 3) tratados con 200 µl de extracto acuoso de brócoli (1 g ml-1); 4) tratados con 400 µl de extracto acuoso de brócoli; 5) tratados con 200 µl de extracto acuoso de brócoli más cadmio, y 6) tratados con 400 µl de extracto acuoso de brócoli más cadmio. El extracto acuoso de brócoli se administró por vía oral. Se analizaron los factores espermáticos y la expresión de los genes Catsper1, Catsper2, Arl4a, Sox5 y Sox9. Resultados. Se observó una mejoría obvia en el recuento y una ligera mejoría en la motilidad de los espermatozoides, en ratones tratados con extracto de brócoli solo o con cadmio. La viabilidad de los espermatozoides se redujo con el extracto de brócoli, excepto con la dosis de 200 µl más cadmio, la cual la aumentó significativamente. Curiosamente, la expresión del gen Arl4a aumentó en el grupo tratado con 400 µl del extracto. Asimismo, el ARNm del Arl4a en ratones tratados con cadmio y 200 µl del extracto, fue más abundante que en los ratones tratados solo con cadmio. Además, el extracto de brócoli aumentó la cantidad de ARNm de los genes Catsper2 y Sox5 en ratones tratados con 200 y 400 µl de extracto de brócoli más cadmio, en comparación con el grupo tratado únicamente con cadmio. Conclusión. El mayor número de espermatozoides en ratones tratados con brócoli abre el camino al desarrollo de productos farmacéuticos para hombres infértiles.


Subject(s)
Spermatogenesis , Brassica , Cadmium , Gene Expression , Mice
14.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 329-336, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345281

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: There is limited research examining reasons causing refractory chronic constipation (RCC) in children. The effects of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) exposures on this condition have been even less clear. However, some related factors may contribute to evaluation of blood lead levels (BLLs) and blood cadmium levels (BCLs). OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to examine the relationship between Pb and Cd exposures and RCC in children living in the city of Ahvaz, Khuzestan Province, in Southwestern Iran. METHODS: This study was performed on a total number of 48 children aged 2-13 years, including 36 medically-diagnosed RCC cases and 12 controls referring to a pediatric clinic in the city of Ahvaz. Their BLLs and BCLs were then determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data from the researcher-designed questionnaire were also recoded and the related risk factors were analyzed through Spearman's correlation and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The findings revealed that the geometric means of Pb and Cd in blood samples in the control group were 58.95 µg/dL and 0.45 µg/dL; respectively. These values in the case group were equally 45.26 µg/dL and 0.26 µg/dL; respectively. A significant difference was additionally observed between BCLs in the case and control groups (P<0.01). All children in both groups also had BLLs greater than the permissible limit endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) (≤10 µg/dL). On the other hand, 8.3% of the individuals in the case group and 33.3% of those in the control group had BCLs higher than the acceptable range mentioned by WHO (≤0.5 µg/dL). CONCLUSION: Pb and Cd exposures due to environmental pollution and susceptibility to heavy metals may not be associated with RCC in children living in the city of Ahvaz. Although this research was the first one providing data on BLLs and BCLs in children with RCC, the findings could be useful for designing future epidemiologic studies.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Há limitadas pesquisas que procuram razões que causem constipação crônica refratária (CCR) em crianças. Os efeitos das exposições de chumbo (Pb) e cádmio (Cd) nesta condição têm sido ainda menos claros. No entanto, alguns fatores relacionados podem contribuir para a avaliação dos níveis de Pb no sangue (NPbSs) e dos níveis de Cd no sangue (NCdSs). OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo examinar a relação entre as exposições de Pb e Cd e a CCR em crianças residentes na cidade de Ahvaz, província de Khuzestan, no Sudoeste do Irã. MÉTODOS: Este estudo foi realizado em um número total de 48 crianças de 2 a 13 anos, incluindo 36 casos de CCR diagnosticados clinicamente, e 12 controles encaminhados a uma clínica pediátrica na cidade de Ahvaz. Seus NPbSs e NCdSs foram então determinados usando um espectrógrafo de absorção atômica do forno de grafite. Os dados do questionário projetado pelo pesquisador também foram recodificados, e os fatores de risco relacionados foram analisados por meio da análise de correlação e regressão logística de Spearman. RESULTADOS: Os achados revelaram que as médias geométricas de Pb e Cd em amostras de sangue no grupo controle foram de 58,95 μg/dL e 0,45 μg/dL; respectivamente. Esses valores no grupo constipação foram igualmente 45,26 μg/dL e 0,26 μg/dL; respectivamente. Observou-se diferença significativa entre os NCdSs nos grupos de caso e controle (P<0,01). Todas as crianças de ambos os grupos também apresentaram NPbSs maiores do que o limite permitido endossado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) (≤10 μg/dL). Por outro lado, 8,3% dos indivíduos no grupo de casos e 33,3% dos do grupo controle apresentaram NCdSs superiores à faixa aceitável mencionada pela OMS (≤0,5 μg/dL). CONCLUSÃO: As exposições de Pb e Cd por poluição ambiental e suscetibilidade a metais pesados podem não estar associadas à CCR em crianças residentes na cidade de Ahvaz. Embora esta pesquisa tenha sido a primeira a fornecer dados sobre NPbSs e NCdSs em crianças com CCR, os achados poderiam ser úteis para a concepção de futuros estudos epidemiológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Cadmium/analysis , Lead/analysis , Risk Factors , Constipation/chemically induced , Iran/epidemiology
15.
rev. udca actual. divulg. cient ; 24(1): e1313, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290438

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM) es un importante ecosistema para la biodiversidad del planeta. Las actividades antrópicas generan residuos e incrementan los niveles de contaminantes, afectando la calidad del agua, la salud de la población y del ambiente. Con el objetivo de determinar el contenido de metales pesados y calidad del agua de la CGSM, se analizaron muestras de agua, en nueve sitios para las variables temperatura, sólidos disueltos totales (STD), pH, conductividad eléctrica (CE), salinidad, NO3 -, NH4 + , PO4 3-, Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+, SO4 2-, CO3 2-, HCO3 -, Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb, Coliformes totales y termotolerantes. La concentración de Pb, Cd, Cr y Ni fue más baja que el valor de referencia para agua marina. La máxima concentración de Pb y Cd, se presentó en el sitio 6, con 17,76 y 0,48ppb, respectivamente. La salinidad correlacionó con Ni (r = 0,98), pH con contenidos de Ni y Cr (r = 0,99 y 0,43, respectivamente), OD se asoció con concentración de Cd y Pb (r = 0,72 y 0,67, respectivamente), STD se encuentra asociado con NI y Cr (r = 0,97 y 0,56, respectivamente), DBO con concentración de Cd (r = 0,79). La concentración de metales pesados encontrados constituye una alerta para el ecosistema, debido a la posible biodisponibilidad ante algunas condiciones ambientales y, a la vez, son reflejo de afectación de variables de calidad del agua del estuario, con transporte de materia orgánica, sedimentos y aportes de nutrientes. Los valores elevados de CT y CF afectan la salud del ecosistema.


ABSTRACT The Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM) is an important ecosystem for the planet's biodiversity. Anthropic activities increase levels of pollutants and affect the water quality, the inhabitants' health and the environment. In order to determine the CGSM heavy metal content and water quality, samples were collected from nine sites. Temperature, total dissolved solids, hydrogen potential (pH), electrical conductivity, salinity, NH4 +, PO4 3-, Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+, SO4 2-, N-NO3 -, CO3 2-, HCO3 -, Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb, total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms were determined. The Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni concentrations, did not exceed the reference value for seawater. The maximum concentration of Pb and Cd were observed in point 6 with 17.76 ppb and 0.48 ppb, respectively. Salinity correlated with Ni (0.98), pH with Ni and Cr contents (r = 0.99 and 0.43, respectively), OD was associated with Cd and Pb concentration (r = 0.72 and 0.67, respectively), TDS is associated with NI and Cr (r = 0.97 and 0.56, respectively), BOD with Cd concentration (r = 0.79). The heavy metals concentrations found, undoubtedly constitute an alert for the ecosystem due to the possible bioaccumulation in some environmental conditions and, it is reflection of the impact on parameters of water quality in the estuary, with the transport of organic matter, sediments, and nutrients inputs. High CT and CF values, affect ecosystem health.

16.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1113-1117, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905052

ABSTRACT

@#Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal commonly seen in the environment. Long-term exposure to low dose of cadmium has toxic effects on multiple systems and organs of human body. The kinetic model is a new technology to quantitatively evaluate the correlation between internal and external exposure of chemicals, which can provide reliable information for risk assessment. There are two kinetic models of cadmium: toxicokinetic model (TK) and physiologically-based toxicokinetic model (PBTK). They have played a role in the establishment of cadmium exposure limits and risk prediction. This article reviews the construction, development, and limitations of the two models, and looks forward to the direction in which the models can be further optimized, providing the reference for risk assessment of cadmium exposure in China.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1978-1992, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888846

ABSTRACT

Tumor recurrence after surgery is the main cause of treatment failure. However, the initial stage of recurrence is not easy to detect, and it is difficult to cure in the late stage. In order to improve the life quality of postoperative patients, an efficient synergistic immunotherapy was developed to achieve early diagnosis and treatment of post-surgical tumor recurrence, simultaneously. In this paper, two kinds of theranostic agents based on gold nanorods (AuNRs) platform were prepared. AuNRs and quantum dots (QDs) in one agent was used for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technology to indicate the occurrence of

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887736

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to assess the risk of cumulative exposure to Pb, Cd, Hg, and iAs through aquatic products consumed by Chinese people.@*Methods@#Heavy metal concentration data were obtained from the national food contamination monitoring program during 2013-2017. Consumption data were derived from the China National Food Consumption Survey in 2014 and the relative potency factor (RPF) method was used to estimate cumulative exposure for neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.@*Results@#The results demonstrated that the cumulative exposure based on neurotoxicity was below the lower confidence limit on benchmark doses of lead (BMDL @*Conclusion@#The cumulative exposures of the 2-6 year-old group to the four heavy metals did not reach (but came close to) the corresponding safety threshold for both neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Given that there are still other food sources of these four heavy metals, it is necessary to more closely study their cumulative health effects.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Arsenic/analysis , Child , Child, Preschool , Dietary Exposure/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Food Contamination/analysis , Humans , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Seafood/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Young Adult
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882018

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the level of cadmium(Cd)in commercial aquatic products in Xiacheng District, Hangzhou. Methods We randomly collected 293 aquatic products which belonged to six aquatic animals in the markets in Xiacheng District to determine the content of Cd. It was further evaluated by single factor pollution index(PI)according to the standard GB 2762-2017. In 11 samples of swimming crabs, Cd was examined in the different parts. Results There was no significant difference in the content of Cd between the samples collected in the markets and those in the supermarkets. It significantly differed in the samples of different aquatic animals(P < 0.05). The prevalence of Cd that exceeded the standard was as follows: seawater crustaceans(28.6%) > cephalopods(11.1%) > freshwater crustaceans(8.4%) > bivalves(6.9%). However, it was not excessive in the samples of fish. The mean level of Cd in the seawater crustaceans was 0.466 3 mg/kg, which resulted in the proportion of the samples that were excessive being 28.6%. Particularly, the mean level in sea crab was as high as 1.101 mg/kg with the proportion being 66.7%. In the samples of swimming crabs, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of Cd between swimming crab gonads and crab chests or legs(P > 0.05), while no statistical difference between crab chests and legs(P > 0.05). Conclusion The content of Cd in the aquatic products may be excessive in Xiacheng District, which warrants additional regulatory efforts to food safety. The public should reduce the consumption of aquatic products with high content of Cd.

20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 242-252, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878558

ABSTRACT

To screen the available tomato pollution-safe cultivar varieties and reduce the potential food safety risks in Cd-polluted areas, the differences of Cd accumulation in different tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) varieties in southern China were studied by soil culture and hydroponic experiments. Firstly, the high and low accumulation varieties were selected from 25 tomato varieties under 2.94 mg/kg Cd stress by soil culture test, and then the responses of high and low accumulation tomato varieties to Cd stress were determined by hydroponic experiments. The results of soil culture test show that under 2.94 mg/kg Cd stress, there were significant differences in plant height, total biomass and yield among 25 tomato cultivars, and the Cd contents of fruits of all 25 tomato cultivars exceeded the highest limit value (0.05 mg/kg) of CAC (Codex alimentarius commission). Through cluster analysis, 7, 4 and 14 varieties accumulating relatively high, medium, and low concentrations of Cd in the fruits were screened, among which the highest, the lowest, and the average Cd contents in the fruits were 3.06 mg/kg DW, 1.47 mg/kg DW, and 2.21 mg/kg DW, respectively. The results of hydroponic experiment show that under the same concentration of Cd stress, Qiantangxuri F1, a high Cd accumulating variety, absorbed Cd faster, accumulated more Cd, used shorter oxidative stress response time and had stronger tolerance to Cd than Zhefen 3053, a low Cd accumulating variety. The typical high and low Cd accumulating varieties can provide a reference for agricultural production in heavy metal polluted areas and the development of molecular-assisted breeding methods of PSC. At present, cultivating low Cd accumulating PSC varieties and dynamic monitoring of Cd contents in tomato fruits are feasible methods in medium and light Cd-polluted areas.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Cadmium/toxicity , China , Lycopersicon esculentum , Plant Breeding , Plant Roots/chemistry , Soil Pollutants/toxicity
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