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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255080, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364503

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the current context of emerging drug-resistant fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis, discovery of new antifungal agents is an urgent matter. This research aimed to evaluate the antifungal potential of 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide against fluconazole-resistant clinical strains of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis. The antifungal activity of 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide was evaluated in vitro by the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), inhibition of biofilm formation and its rupture, sorbitol and ergosterol assays, and association between this molecule and common antifungal drugs, amphotericin B and fluconazole. The test product inhibited all strains of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, with a MIC ranging from 128 to 256 µg.mL-1, and a MFC of 512-1,024 µg.mL-1. It also inhibited up to 92% of biofilm formation and rupture of up to 87% of preformed biofilm. 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide did not promote antifungal activity through binding to cellular membrane ergosterol nor it damages the fungal cell wall. Antagonism was observed when combining this substance with amphotericin B and fluconazole. The substance exhibited significant antifungal activity by inhibiting both planktonic cells and biofilm of fluconazole-resistant strains. Its combination with other antifungals should be avoided and its mechanism of action remains to be established.


Resumo No atual contexto de patógenos fúngicos resistentes emergentes tais como Candida albicans e Candida parapsilosis, a descoberta de novos agentes antifúngicos é uma questão urgente. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antifúngico da 2-cloro-N-fenilacetamida contra cepas clínicas de C. albicans e C. parapsilosis resistentes a fluconazol. A atividade antifúngica da substância foi avaliada in vitro através da determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM), concentração fungicida mínima (CFM), ruptura e inibição da formação de biofilme, ensaios de sorbitol e ergosterol, e associação entre esta molécula e antifúngicos comuns, anfotericina B e fluconazol. O produto teste inibiu todas as cepas de C. albicans e C. parapsilosis, com uma CIM variando de 128 a 256 µg.mL-1, e uma CFM de 512-1,024 µg.mL-1. Também inibiu até 92% da formação de biofilme e causou a ruptura de até 87% de biofilme pré-formado. A 2-cloro-N-fenilacetamida não promoveu atividade antifúngica pela ligação ao ergosterol da membrana celular fúngica, tampouco danificou a parede celular. Antagonismo foi observado ao combinar esta substância com anfotericina B e fluconazol. A substância exibiu atividade antifúngica significativa ao inibir tanto as células planctônicas quanto o biofilme das cepas resistentes ao fluconazol. Sua combinação com outros antifúngicos deve ser evitada e seu mecanismo de ação deve ser estabelecido.

2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 123-130, ene. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372547

ABSTRACT

The genus Fuchsia is generally used in herbal preparations to treat conditions caused by microorganisms. Based on the popular use of this type of plants, the objective of this study was to obtain sequential extracts of increasing polarity from the branches of Fuchsia lycioides by maceration at room temperature and by the Soxhlet method at 60ºC, to later evaluate the antifungal capacity of the extracts against different clinical isolates of the Candida genus. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited strong anti-fungal activity, selectively inhibiting C. albicans strains with MIC and CMF values of 10 and 15 µg/mL, respectively; comparable with the drug itraconazole®. The analysis of the extract by GC-MS showed a high concentration of terpenoids (mainly phytol) and phenylpropanoids (mainly cinnamic acid), possibly responsible for the antifungal activity of the ethyl acetate extract of F. lycioides.


El género Fuchsia se usa generalmente en preparaciones de hierbas para tratar afecciones provocadas por microorganismos. En base al uso popular de este tipo de plantas, el objetivo de este estudio fue obtener los extractos secuenciales de polaridad creciente de las ramas de Fuchsia lycioides por maceración a temperatura ambiente y por el método Soxhlet a 60ºC, para luego evaluar la capacidad antifúngica de los extractos frente a diferentes aislados clínicos del genero Candida. El extracto de acetato de etilo exhibió una fuerte actividad antifúngica inhibiendo en forma selectiva las cepas de C. albicans con valores de CMI y de CMF de 10 y 15 µg/mL, respectivamente; comparables con el fármaco itraconazol®. El análisis del extracto por CG-EM mostró una alta concentración de terpenoides (principalmente fitol) y fenilpropanoides (principalmente ácido cinámico), posibles responsables de la actividad antifúngica del extracto de acetato de etilo de F. lycioides.


Subject(s)
Candida albicans/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Onagraceae/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Phenylpropionates/analysis , Temperature , Terpenes/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antifungal Agents/chemistry
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907153

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the in vitro synergistic antifungal activity of HDAC inhibitors in combination with azole drugs against azoles-resistant Candida strains. Methods The checkerboard microdilution method was used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the HDAC inhibitors in combination with azole drugs against clinically drug-resistant strains. The fungistatic activity and toxicity of Rocilinostat was determined through time-growth curve assay and cytotoxicity assay. Results The compound Rocilinostat combined with azole drugs showed excellent synergistic antifungal activity against a variety of azoles-resistant Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. The combination of high concentration Rocilinostat with FLC exhibited fungistatic effects. Very low toxicity was detected with Rocilinostat towards normal cells. Rocilinostat showed better HDAC inhibitory activity than SAHA. Conclusion As a fungi HDAC inhibitor, Rocilinostat has excellent in vitro synergistic antifungal activity and no severe toxicity to normal human cells.

4.
Braz. dent. sci ; 25(1): 1-14, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1361900

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eficácia da adição de nanopartículas de óxido de zircônio (ZrO2), óxido de titânio (TiO2) e óxido de sílica (SiO2) a um material de revestimento macio curado a frio na adesão de Candida albicans (CA). Material e Método: Cinquenta e quatro pacientes foram selecionados e divididos em três grupos de acordo com a modificação do revestimento com nanopartículas de ZrO2, TiO2 e SiO2 (18 cada). Cada paciente recebeu prótese total maxilar com três cavidades, as cavidades foram revestidas com forro macio curado a frio modificado com diferentes concentrações (0%, 3% e 7%) de nanopartículas de óxido metálico. Nos dias 14 e 28, as trocas foram retiradas do local de realinhamento e imediatamente cultivadas para avaliação fúngica. O número de colônias foi contado, os dados coletados e explorados para normalidade usando o teste de Shapiro-Wilk e a transformação logarítmica da contagem de CA foi realizada. ANOVA para medidas repetidas e de uma via (one-way) foram usados, seguidos por teste de Tukey (HSD). O teste t independente foi usado para comparar as contagens de CA em diferentes períodos. Resultados: A adesão do CA foi significativamente diminuída pela adição de nanopartículas de ZrO2, TiO2 e SiO2 em comparação com o grupo controle, também a cobertura antifúngica aumentou com o aumento da concentração de nanopartículas (p <0,005). A maior contagem de CA foi identificada no grupo SiO2 seguido por ZrO2, enquanto TiO2apresentou a menor contagem de CA (p <0,001). Conclusão: Adição de diferentes nanopartículas; ZrO2, TiO2 e SiO2para revestimento macio curado a frio é um método eficaz para reduzir a adesão de CA (AU)


Objective: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of addition of zirconium oxide (ZrO2), titanium oxide (TiO2), and silica oxide (SiO2) nanoparticles to cold-cured soft liner on adhesion of Candida albicans (CA). Material and Methods: Fifty-four patients had been selected and divided into three groups according to the modification of soft liner with ZrO2, TiO2, and SiO2 nanoparticles (18 each of). Each patient received maxillary complete denture having three cavities, the cavities were lined using cold cured soft liner modified with different concentration (0%, 3%, and 7%) of metal oxide nanoparticles. On days 14 and 28, swaps were taken out from relining site and immediately cultured for fungal evaluation. The number of colonies were counted, data collected and explored for normality using Shapiro-Wilk test, logarithmic transformation of CA count was performed. Repeated and one-way ANOVA were used followed by Tukey HSD. Independent-t test used to compare between CA counts at different periods. Results: The CA adhesion was significantly decreased by the addition of ZrO2, TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles in comparison with control group, also the antifungal coverage increased with nanoparticles concentration increased (P<0.005). The highest CA count was identified in group SiO2 followed by ZrO2, while TiO2 showed the lowest CA count (P <0.001). Conclusion: Addition of different nanoparticles; ZrO2, TiO2 and SiO2 to cold-cured soft liner is an effective method for reducing CA adhesion. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida albicans , Denture Liners , Nanoparticles , Antifungal Agents
5.
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2022. 85 p. ilus, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1371207

ABSTRACT

O objetivo geral do presente estudo foi avaliar a aplicação dos jatos de plasma de baixa temperatura sob pressão atmosférica (PBTPA) produzidos por gás de argônio e hélio como gases de trabalho, no controle de biofilmes cariogênicos. Para tanto, foram estabelecidos os parâmetros físicos dos PBTPA gerados com argônio e hélio que se mostraram efetivos frente a biofilmes mono, dual e polimicrobianos compostos por combinações das espécies Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus sanguinis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Candida albicans e Actinomyces naeslundii. Os biofilmes mono, dual e multi-espécies foram submetidos ao tratamento com PBTPA produzidos por dois dispositivos diferentes, um obtido comercialmente (kINPen09®) que usou argônio como gás de trabalho, e outro protótipo desenvolvido pela FEG-UNESP (Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá) que usou hélio. Análises quantitativas e microscópicas (confocal, microscopia eletrônica de varredura) foram realizadas. Foi incluído controle negativo (sem tratamento), positivo (clorexidina 0,12%) e controle de gás, utilizando apenas fluxo de gás, sem produzir plasma. Além disso, os efeitos celulares do PBTPAargônio e hélio sobre biofilme dual e multi-espécies também foram analisados em microscopia eletrônica de varredura e microscopia de varredura a laser confocal. Todos os ensaios foram realizados em triplicata em três experimentos independentes. Os resultados foram tabulados e analisados quanto à distribuição. A seguir, os testes estatísticos mais adequados foram selecionados. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Os resultados obtidos para os tratamentos dos biofilmes mono, dual ou multi-espécies com PBTPA-argônio e hélio foram todos significativos em comparação ao controle negativo em todos os tempos analisados. Para PBTPA-argônio, não houve recuperação de S. gordonii e S. sanguinis em todos tempos analisados. Para PBTPA-hélio, os melhores resultados foram obtidos em 5 e 7 minutos de exposição dos biofilmes ao PBTPA. Finalmente, tanto o dispositivo gerador de PBTPA que trabalhou com gás argônio quanto o dispositivo que trabalhou com gás hélio, demonstraram resultados promissores e poderão contribuir para o desenvolvimento de novos protocolos de Odontologia de Intervenção Mínima. (AU) The general objective of this study was to evaluate the application of lowtemperature plasma under atmospheric pressure (PBTPA) of argon and helium flow, in the control of cariogenic biofilms. For this, the effective physical parameters of PBTPA-argon and helium in mono, dual and polymicrobial biofilms composed of combinations of the species Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus sanguinis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Candida albicans and Actinomyces naeslundii were established. The multi-species biofilms were treated by different PBTPA generating devices, one obtained commercially (kINPen09®) that used argon as working gas, and another prototype developed by FEG-UNESP (Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá) that used helium as working gas. Quantitative and microscopic analyzes (confocal, scanning electron microscopy) were performed. Negative control (no treatment), positive control (chlorhexidine 2%) and gas control (argon) were included. Besides that, cellular effects of PBTPA-argon and helium on dual and multi-species biofilms were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results obtained for the treatments of mono, dual or multispecies biofilms with both PBTPA-argon and helium were all significant when compared to the negative control at all times analyzed. For PBTPA-argon, there was no recovery of S. gordonii and S. sanguinis at all analyzed times. For PBTPA-helium, the best results were obtained at 5 and 7 min of exposure of biofilms to PBTPA. All the tests were carried out in triplicate in three independent experiments. The results are tabulated and analyzed in terms of distribution. Next, the most suitable statistical tests were selected. The level of significance was 5%. The results obtained for the treatments of mono, dual or multi-species biofilms with PBTPA-argon and helium were all significant compared to the negative control at all analyzed times. Finally, both PBTPA generating could contribute to the development of new protocols for Minimal Intervention Dentistry (AU)


O objetivo geral do presente estudo foi avaliar a aplicação dos jatos de plasma de baixa temperatura sob pressão atmosférica (PBTPA) produzidos por gás de argônio e hélio como gases de trabalho, no controle de biofilmes cariogênicos. Para tanto, foram estabelecidos os parâmetros físicos dos PBTPA gerados com argônio e hélio que se mostraram efetivos frente a biofilmes mono, dual e polimicrobianos compostos por combinações das espécies Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus sanguinis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Candida albicans e Actinomyces naeslundii. Os biofilmes mono, dual e multi-espécies foram submetidos ao tratamento com PBTPA produzidos por dois dispositivos diferentes, um obtido comercialmente (kINPen09®) que usou argônio como gás de trabalho, e outro protótipo desenvolvido pela FEG-UNESP (Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá) que usou hélio. Análises quantitativas e microscópicas (confocal, microscopia eletrônica de varredura) foram realizadas. Foi incluído controle negativo (sem tratamento), positivo (clorexidina 0,12%) e controle de gás, utilizando apenas fluxo de gás, sem produzir plasma. Além disso, os efeitos celulares do PBTPAargônio e hélio sobre biofilme dual e multi-espécies também foram analisados em microscopia eletrônica de varredura e microscopia de varredura a laser confocal. Todos os ensaios foram realizados em triplicata em três experimentos independentes. Os resultados foram tabulados e analisados quanto à distribuição. A seguir, os testes estatísticos mais adequados foram selecionados. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Os resultados obtidos para os tratamentos dos biofilmes mono, dual ou multi-espécies com PBTPA-argônio e hélio foram todos significativos em comparação ao controle negativo em todos os tempos analisados. Para PBTPA-argônio, não houve recuperação de S. gordonii e S. sanguinis em todos tempos analisados. Para PBTPA-hélio, os melhores resultados foram obtidos em 5 e 7 minutos de exposição dos biofilmes ao PBTPA. Finalmente, tanto o dispositivo gerador de PBTPA que trabalhou com gás argônio quanto o dispositivo que trabalhou com gás hélio, demonstraram resultados promissores e poderão contribuir para o desenvolvimento de novos protocolos de Odontologia de Intervenção Mínima. (AU)


Subject(s)
Plasma , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus sanguis , Actinomycosis , Candida albicans , Dental Caries , Dental Plaque , Streptococcus gordonii , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus casei
6.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357581

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar el efecto fotodinámico de azul de metileno (MB) y azul de toluidina (TBO) activadas con láser terapéutico sobre biofilms de Streptococcus mutans y Candida albicans. Material y métodos: Se analizaron 61 muestras de biopelículas, en medios de cultivo cerebro corazón (BHI) por 6 días, las muestras se dividieron en 4 grupos y se sumergieron en: grupo experimental en MB al 0,01% y TBO al 0,05%, grupo control positivo en gluconato de clorhexidina (CHX) al 0,12% y grupo control negativo en cloruro de sodio (NaCl) al 0,9%. Las muestras de MB y TBO fueron irradiadas con láser terapéutico con una longitud de onda de 660 nm, y 9 J/cm2 de potencia, cada bloque de esmalte estuvo en cultivo post irradiación. las muestras pasaron a cultivo, para la cepa S. mutans y C. albicans por separado, El método empleado fue el de diluciones seriadas para la cuantificación de UFC luego de 5 días de cultivo. Para el análisis se usó T de student y Anova de un factor. Resultados: encontrando diferencias estadísticas entre los cuatro grupos de experimentación en el crecimiento microbiano (ANOVA p<0,05), al análisis con el grupo control positivo, no hubo diferencias significativas entre MB frente al S. mutans y C. albicans, en contraste con el TBO que mostro diferencias significativas (p<0,05). Conclusión: el MB y TBO muestran en laboratorio, una disminución en el crecimiento de las cepas del biofilm, el TBO mostró mejor efecto a la reducción de crecimiento del S. mutans y C. albicans.


Objetive: To determine the photodynamic effect of methylene blue (MB) and toluidine blue (TBO) activated with therapeutic laser on Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans biofilms. Material and methods: Sixty-one biofilm samples were analyzed in brain heart culture media (BHI) for 6 days, the samples were divided into 4 groups and immersed in: experimental group in 0.01% MB and 0.05% TBO, positive control group in 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and negative control group in 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl). The MB and TBO samples were irradiated with 2 therapeutic laser with a wavelength of 660 nm, and 9 J/cmof power, each enamel block was in post-irradiation culture. The samples were cultured separately for the S. mutansand C. albicans strains, the method used was that of serial dilutions for the quantification of CFU after 5 days of culture. For the analysis, Student's Tand Anova of one factor were used. Results: finding statistical differences between the four experimental groups in microbial growth (ANOVAp<0.05), in the analysis with the positive control group, there were no significant differences between MB versus S. mutansand C. albicans, in contrast to the TBO that showed significant differences (p<0.05). Conclusion: MB and TBO show in laboratory, a decrease in the growth of biofilm strains, TBO showed better effect in reducing the growth of S. mutansand C. albicans.

7.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 9(1): 1-17, jun. 2021. ilus., tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284388

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: el aumento de la incidencia de las micosis ha generado la necesidad de desarrollar técnicas in vitro para el estudio de la susceptibilidad a los antifùngicos; El documento CLSI M27-A2 es el método de referencia para estudios de sensibilidad en levaduras. No obstante, este no subsana las necesidades de rutina de los laboratorios, principalmente por ser laboriosos; en consecuencia, métodos alternativos surgen ante la necesidad de contar con técnicas más sencillas, una de ellos es el ATB FUNGUS 3 que permite determinar la sensibilidad de Candida frente a diferentes antifùngicos. OBJETIVO: validar el método comercial ATB FUNGUS 3, frente al método de referencia M27-A2, con el fin de conocer su valor diagnóstico. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: se determinó la eficacia del método a través de parámetros de test diagnóstico; además, se evaluó la sensibilidad de 50 cepas de Candida albicans frente a Fluconazol (FLZ) e Itraconazol (ITZ) mediante el método comercial y el de referencia. RESULTADOS: se encontró que el ATB - FUNGUS 3 presenta una especificidad para FLZ de 100%, sensibilidad de 91%, valor predictivo positivo (VPP) de 56%, valor predictivo negativo (VPN) de 100%, con una eficacia diagnóstica de 92%, calculados para un intervalo de confianza (IC) de 95%; para ITZ la especificidad y sensibilidad fue de 88 % y 90% respectivamente, con un VPP de 64%, un VPN de 97%, eficacia diagnóstica de 90%, IC 95%. Para las pruebas de concordancia, el índice Kappa para FLZ e ITZ fue de 0,67 y 0,68 respectivamente. La prueba de Likelihood ratio para el FLZ fue (LR+) de 11,25 mientras que el (LR-) fue 0; para el ITZ (LR+) de 9,19 y el (LR-) fue 0,14. Reproducibilidad de 90 % (FLZ) y 85% (ITZ). CONCLUSIONES: el ATB FUNGUS 3, es una técnica rápida, de fácil realización y reproducible; pero el desempeño global de la técnica, sugiere que aún no es confiable para el diagnóstico en laboratorios, debido a los valores bajos obtenidos en los VPP, que indican que se podría derivar en errores al momento de determinar una cepa como sensible o resistente, punto importante al momento de decidir la conducta terapéutica.


INTRODUCTION: the higher incidence of mycoses has generated the need to develop in vitro techniques for susceptibility study to antifungal agents. CLSI M27-A2 is a reference method for yeast susceptibility studies. However, this method does not meet the needs of routine laboratories because it is difficult to follow all the processes. Consequently, alternative methods arise due to the need for simpler techniques. Then, one of them is ATB FUNGUS 3 which allows determining Candida's sensitivity to different antifungal agents. OBJECTIVE: validate the commercial method ATB FUNGUS 3 compared with the reference method M27-A2 in order to know its diagnostic value. MATERIAL AND METHODS: efficacy was determined by diagnostic test parameters. Moreover, sensitivity of 50 strains of Candida albicans at Fluconazole (FLZ) and Itraconazole (ITZ) was evaluated by the commercial and reference methods. RESULTS: ATB - FUNGUS 3 presents a specificity for FLZ of 100%, sensitivity of 91%, positive predictive value (PPV) 56%, negative predictive value (NPV) 100% with a diagnostic efficacy of 92%, calculated for a 95% confidence interval (CI). For ITZ, the specificity and sensitivity were 88% and 90% respectively, with a PPV 64%, a NPV 97% with a diagnostic efficacy of 90%, 95% CI. For the concordance tests, the Kappa index for FLZ and ITZ was 0.67 and 0.68 respectively. The Likelihood ratio test for FLZ was (LR +) of 11.25 while the (LR-) was 0; for ITZ (LR +) of 9.19 and the (LR-) was 0.14. Reproducibility of 90% (FLZ) and 85% (ITZ). CONCLUSIONS: the ATB FUNGUS 3 is a fast, easy and reproducible technique. However, the overall performance of the technique suggests that this method hasn't been reliable for diagnostic laboratory yet, because PPVS obtained low values. These PPVS indicate that it could lead to errors when determining a strain as sensitive or resistant. This is an important point when deciding the therapeutic conduct.


Subject(s)
Candida albicans , Antifungal Agents , Confidence Intervals , Diagnosis
8.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(2): 1-8, 2021-05-18. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363196

ABSTRACT

Background: "Dividivi" Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd fruits are traditionally used by the Wayuú community in La Guajira (Colombia) to treat oral and skin cavity diseases caused by bacteria and fungi. Streptococcus pyogenes is a gram-positive cocci of group A (beta-hemolytic) that is the cause of pharyngeal disease, scarlet fever, cellulitis, erysipelas, or toxic shock-like syndrome. Alternatively, Candida albicans is a yeast-like fungus that is a normal flora of the digestive tract, vagina, or skin folds; it has been known to be the root cause of opportunistic diseases such as diaper rash, oral and esophagus thrush, or vulvovaginitis. Objective: This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of C. coriaria (Jacq.) Willddry fruits on S. pyogenes ATCC 12384andC. albicans ATTC 14053. Method: C. coriaria extracts were obtained from the Soxhlet method using two solvents (methanol and ethanol 98%) prepared from pulverized fruits. A phytochemical test and an antimicrobial activity assay were performed using the obtained extracts and tested using S. pyogenes ATCC 12384 and C. albicans ATTC 14053 strains. Results: A phytochemical profile was performed, examining the presence of bioactive metabolites (tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, and anthraquinones) from each extract. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that the ethanolic extract inhibited S. pyogenes ATCC 12384,causing inhibition halos of 14.1 ± 0.1 mm and a Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 172 mg/ml, and C. albicans test shows inhibition halos of 16.1 ± 0.2 mm and MIC of 212 mg/ml. Additionally, the methanolic extract inhibited S. pyogenes with inhibition halos of 15.2 ± 0.2 mm and MIC of 152 mg/ml; no inhibitory effect was observed on C. albicans.Conclusion: This study revealed that C. coriaria has an antimicrobial effect on the tested species opening the field of its possible use as a therapeutic agent


Introducción: Los frutos del "Dividivi" Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd son usados tradicionalmente por la comunidad indígena Wayuú en La Guajira (Colombia) para el tratamiento de enfermedades de la cavidad bucal y cutáneas ocasionadas por bacterias y hongos. Streptococcuspyogenes es un coco grampositivo del grupo A (beta-hemolítico) que es la causa de enfermedad faríngea, escarlatina, celulitis, erisipela o síndrome tipo shock tóxico. Candida albicans es un hongo levaduriforme que es flora normal del tracto digestivo, la vagina o los pliegues de la piel; se sabe que es la causa principal de enfermedades oportunistas como la dermatitis del pañal, aftas bucales y esofágicas, o vulvovaginitis. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana de extractos metanólicos y etanólicos de frutos secos sobre microorganismos patógenos específicamente S. pyogenes ATCC 12384yC. albicansATTC 14053. Método: A partir de frutos polverizados de C. coriaria, usando el método Soxlet, se evaluaron dos solventes (metanol y etanol al 98%), los cuales, fueron usados para estudiar su actividad antimicrobiana evaluando su efecto en cepas de S. pyogenes ATCC 12384 y C. albicans ATTC 14053. Resultados: Mediante un perfil fitoquímico se determinó la presencia de grupos de metabolitos secundarios con compuestos bioactivos (taninos, alcaloides, glucósidos, saponinas, y antraquinonas). Las pruebas de sensibilidad antimicrobiana mostraron que el extracto etanólico tuvo un efecto inhibidor sobre S. pyogenesATCC 12384 con halos de inhibición de 14.1 ± 0.1 mm y una concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI) de 172 mg/mL, y sobre C. albicans se presentaron halos de inhibición de 16.1 ± 0.2 mm y CMI de 212 mg/mL, mientras que el extracto metanólico tuvo un efecto inhibidor sobre S. pyogenes con halos de inhibición de 15.2 ± 0.2 mm y CMI de 152 mg/mL no se observó efecto inhibidor sobre C. albicans. Conclusión: Este estudio demostró que C. coriaria tiene efecto antimicrobiano en las especies evaluadas, abriendo un campo de investigación en la evaluación de su uso como agente terapéutico


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Infective Agents , Skin Diseases , Streptococcus pyogenes , Candida albicans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mouth Diseases
9.
Odontol. sanmarquina (Impr.) ; 24(1): 85-88, Ene-Mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150874

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de esta revisión es presentar el estado del conocimiento respecto a la capacidad que tiene Candida albicans de producir nitrosaminas y de cómo estas se relacionan con la posible malignización de lesiones de la cavidad bucal. La candidiasis oral (CO) es una infección frecuente de la mucosa bucal provocada por hongos de la familia Candida spp. Estos hongos son integrantes de la flora bucal habitual, pero, por diferentes factores locales y sistémicos, pueden producir micosis superficiales. Entre las distintas especies, albicans, es la más frecuente en la cavidad bucal.Posee gran variedad de factores de virulencia, uno de ellos la capacidad de nitrosación de nitratos y nitritos presentes en saliva que últimamente se ha considerado relacionada a la malignización de lesiones mucosas de la cavidad bucal y otras como el estómago.


This literature review was carried out to approach the state of knowledge regarding the capacity of Candida Albicans to produce nitrosamines and how these are related to the possible malignancy of lesions in the oral cavity. Oral candidiasis (CO) is a frequent infection of the oral mucosa caused by fungi of the family Candida spp. These fungi are part of the usual oral flora but, due to different local and systemic factors, can produce superficial mycosis. Among the different species, Albicans is the most frequent in the oral cavity. It has a great variety of virulence factors, one of them the nitrosation capacity of nitrates and nitrites present in saliva that lately has been considered related to the malignization of mucosal lesions of the oral cavity and others such as the stomach.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908491

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical characteristics and influencing factors of mortality in patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis (IAC).Methods:The retrospective case-control study was conducted. The clinicopathological data of 203 IAC patients who were admitted to 7 medical centers from June 2018 to June 2020 were collected, including 54 cases in Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 31 cases in Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, 25 cases in Beijing Hospital, 25 cases in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, 24 cases in China-Japan Friendship Hospital, 22 cases in General Hospital of Eastern Theater Command of Chinese PLA and 22 cases in Chongqing University Cancer Hospital. There were 130 males and 73 females, aged (64±15)years. Observation indicators: (1) candida infection and treatment of IAC patients; (2) analysis of influencing factors for mortality of IAC patients. Measurement data with normal distribution were represented as Mean± SD, and comparison between groups was analyzed using the t test. Measurement data with skewed distribution were represented as M(range), and comparison between groups was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Count data were expressed as absolute numbers or percentages, and comparison between groups was analyzed using the chi-square test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed by Logistic regression model. Results:(1) Candida infection and treatment of IAC patients: 134 cases of candida albicans were cultured in the initial abdominal drainage fluid or intraoperative abdominal specimens of 203 patients, and 49 cases were treated with fluconazole. Of 69 cases infected with non candida albicans, 13 cases were treated with fluconazole. The resistance rate of candida albicans to fluconazole was 5.91%(12/203). Of 203 patients, there were 68 cases with infections shock, 53 cases with renal failure, 84 cases with respiratory failure and 63 cases with multiple organ failure, respectively. There were 148 of 203 patients admitted to intensive care unit for 9 days(range, 3-20 days), and the total hospital stay was 28 days(range, 17-50 days). Of 203 patients, 86 cases were cured and discharged, 50 cases were improved and transferred to local hospitals, 32 cases gave up treatment and discharged automatically, 19 cases died, 16 cases had no follow-up data. The mortality was 25.12%(51/203). (2) Analysis of influencing factors for mortality of IAC patients. Results of univariate analysis showed that acute physiology and chronic health evaluation score, sequential organ failure assessment score, the Cr, bilirubin, albumin, procalcitonin, and PLT on the first day of candida positive culture, of the lowest value in a week and the highest in a week, heart disease, diabetes, infections shock, renal failure, respiratory failure, multiple organ failure, anti-fungal therapy were the related factors for mortality of IAC patients ( t=-2.322, Z=-2.550, -2.262, -4.361, t=2.085, Z=-3.734, -5.226, -2.394, -5.542, t=3.462, Z=-4.957, -5.632, 3.670, -5.805, t=3.966, Z=-3.734, -5.727, χ2=4.071, 4.638, 27.353, 18.818, 13.199, 26.251, 13.388, P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the bilirubin, procalcitonin on the first day of candida positive culture and infections shock were independent risk factors for mortality of IAC patients ( odds ratio=1.021, 1.022, 6.864, 95% confidence interval as 1.010-1.033, 1.001-1.044, 1.858-25.353, P<0.05). Conclusions:The common fungus of IAC was candida albicans, and fluconazole can be used as the initial empirical treatment. The prognosis of patients with abdominal candidiasis is poor. Bilirubin, procalcitonin on the first day of candida positive culture and infections shock are indepen-dent risk factors for mortality of IAC patients.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888117

ABSTRACT

This study explored the mechanism of Sanhuang Decoction(SHD) in treating dextran sulfate sodium(DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis(UC) in mice with Candida albicans(Ca) colonization via high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. Specifically, the animal model was established by oral administration of 3.0% DSS for 7 days followed by intragastrical administration of Ca suspension at 1.0 × 10~8 cells for 4 days and then the mice were treated with SHD enema for 7 days. Afterwards, the general signs were observed and the disease activity index(DAI) was recorded every day. After mice were sacrificed, colon length and colon mucosa damage index(CMDI) were determined and the histomorphology was observed with the HE staining method. The fungal loads of feces were detected with the plate method. Anti-saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody(ASCA) and β-1,3-glucan in serum, and TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in serum and colon were detected by ELISA. High-throughput RNA sequencing method was adopted to identify transcriptome of colon tissues from the control, model and SHD(15.0 g·kg~(-1)) groups. Differentially expressed genes(DEGs) among groups were screened and the GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs was performed. The expression levels of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, and IL-1β genes related to the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway which involved 9 DEGs, were examined by qRT-PCR and Western blot. The results demonstrated that SHD improved the general signs, decreased DAI and Ca loads of feaces, alleviated colon edema, erosion, and shortening, and lowered the content of β-1,3-glucan in serum and TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in serum and colon tissues of mice. Transcriptome sequencing revealed 383 DEGs between SHD and model groups, which were mainly involved in the biological processes of immune system, response to bacterium, and innate immune response. They were mainly enriched in the NOD-like signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine interaction pathway, and retinol metabolism pathway. Moreover, SHD down-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, and IL-1β. In a word, SHD ameliorates DSS-induced UC in mice colonized with Ca, which probably relates to its regulation of NOD-like receptor signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Candida albicans/genetics , Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics , Colon , Dextran Sulfate/toxicity , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Mice , Transcriptome
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886872

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the main chemical constituents of the low polarity extracts from pinusmassoniana Lamb. leaves and their synergetic activity with fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans. Methods The pinusmassoniana leaves were extracted with 80% ethanol, and then the extracts were extracted by petroleum ether to obtain the low polarity extracts. The chemical components were detected by GC-MS and elucidated by the comparison with the standard mass spectral data. The relative contents in percentage were calculated using the area normalization method. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC80) of fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains by the low polarity extracts in combination with fluconazole were determined by checkerboard microdilution assay. Results 30 components were detected from the low polarity extracts, and 17 components were identified. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC80) of the 80% ethanol extracts, the low polarity extracts and the petroleum ether extracts from the pinusmassoniana leaves combined with fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans were 7.81 μg/ml, 31.25 μg/ml and >250 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion The 80% ethanol extracts of pinusmassoniana leaves and its low polarity extracts have synergistic activity combined with fluconazole onfluconazole-resistant Candida albicans. The diterpenoids (53.99%) may be the effective components of the low polarity extracts.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880518

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effect and safety of cinnamaldehyde on immunosuppressed mice with invasive pulmonary candidiasis.@*METHODS@#An immunosuppressed BALB/c mouse model was established by intraperitoneal administration of cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg) once daily for 2 days. The immunosuppressed mouse with invasive pulmonary candidiasis model was further established by nasal perfusion of Candida albicans suspension. In the cinnamaldehyde treatment group, immunosuppressed mice with invasive pulmonary candidiasis were orally given cinnamaldehyde 240 mg/(kg·d) for 14 consecutive days. Fluconazole and 0.9% saline were used as the positive and negative controls, respectively. The mice in the cinnamaldehyde safety evaluation group were orally administered cinnamaldehyde 480 mg/(kg·d) for 42 days to observe the safety of the drug. Microscopic identification, fungal culture, histopathological examination, and (1,3)-beta-D-glucans detection were conducted to analyze the effect of cinnamaldehyde on C. albicans.@*RESULTS@#The fungal clearance rate in the cinnamaldehyde treatment group was higher than that in the fluconazole control group (80.00% vs. 56.67%, P<0.05). The level of (1,3)-β-D-glucan in the cinnamaldehyde treatment group was lower than that in the fluconazole positive control group (1160.62 ±89.65 pg/mL vs. 4285.87 ± 215.62 pg/mL, P<0.05). The survival rate of mice in the cinnamaldehyde safety evaluation group was 100%, and no significant pathological changes of kidney, lung and liver were observed.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Cinnamaldehyde was effective and safe in treating immunosuppressed BALB/c mice with invasive pulmonary candidiasis. It would be a potentially novel drug for anti-candidiasis infection.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-843019

ABSTRACT

@#Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers that occur in the head and neck and can seriously affect the life span and living standard of oral cancer patients. Candida albicans (C. albicans) is the most common opportunistic pathogenic fungus in the oral cavity, shows pathogenicity and easily causes Candida infection when the host′s immune function is low. Recent studies have shown that C. albicans infection is closely related to oral cancer. This paper reviews the epidemiology of C. albicans infection in oral cancer patients, the influence of C. albicans infection on the occurrence and development of oral cancer and research on its mechanism. Existing studies have shown an increased risk of C. albicans infection in oral cancer patients, while C. albicans infection may promote the occurrence and development of oral cancer through mechanisms such as damaging the oral epithelium; producing carcinogens, including nitrosamine and acetaldehyde; and inducing a chronic inflammatory response and T helper cell 17 immune response. However, these mechanisms are still relatively superficial and lack sufficient direct evidence. In the future, additional in-depth studies are still needed to further clarify the cancer-promoting mechanisms of C. albicans and provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of oral cancer.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837458

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the in vitro interaction of amphotericin B (AmB) and fluconazole (FLC) at different time points and provide a reference for clinical combined treatment therapy of polyenes and azoles.@*Methods@#Candida albicans ATCC SC5314 was used in the study. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antifungal drugs was determined using the double microdilution broth method. The same amount of DMSO and low concentration drugs were added to the DMSO treatment group at different time points (0, 2, 4, 6 h) to determine whether the solvent background environment affected the growth of Candida albicans. In the experimental group, to observe the effect of low concentration AmB on the antifungal effect of FLC, the experimental group was administered a low concentration of AmB (0.25 μg/mL or 0.125 μg/mL) added to FLC at different time points (0, 2, 4, 6 h), and the same amount of DMSO was added to FLC at different time points in the single drug control group. In the experimental group, to observe the effect of low concentration of FLC on the antifungal effect of AmB, the experimental group was administered a low concentration of FLC (0.06 μg/mL or 0.03 μg/mL) in AmB at different time points (0, 2, 4, 6 h), and the same amount of DMSO was used at different time points as the single drug control group. In the solvent group, the same amounts of DMSO and low concentration drugs were added at different time points. After resuscitation, the colony growth of each solvent control group, single-drug control group and experimental group was observed to evaluate the interaction between drug concentration and time. Compared with the AmB single-drug control group, there was no significant change in the experimental group with added low concentrations of FLC at 0 h (F=0.27, P=0.775), which was 1.74-1.93 times that of the control group at 2-4 h (P < 0.001), and there was no significant difference in colony count after 6 h (P > 0.05). @*Results@# Under the treatment of FLC at an inhibitory concentration (0.25 μg/ml), adding low concentration AMB did not affect the antifungal effect of FLC, and the multiple of colony count differences were not significant (P > 0.05).@*Conclusion@#The interaction between AmB and FLC was time-dependent. At the early stage (0 h), the interaction effect between fluconazole and amphotericin B was not clear. The fungicidal effect of AmB could be weakened when FLC was supplied at 2-4 h, and the effect of FLC on AmB was absent after 6 h.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878924

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of berberine hydrochloride on the cell wall integrity of Candida albicans hypha. The minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) of berberine hydrochloride against clinical and standard C. albicans strains was detected by micro liquid-based dilution method; the effect of berberine hydrochloride on the colony formation of C. albicans SC5314 was investigated by spot assay; the effect of berberine hydrochloride on the metabolism of C. albicans SC5314 hypha was checked by XTT reduction assay, and the viability of C. albicans SC5314 hypha was tested by fluorescent staining assay. The effect of berberine hydrochloride on the morphology of C. albicans SC5314 hypha was examined by scanning electron microscope. The changes in the cell wall of C. albicans SC5314 hypha after berberine hydrochloride treatment were detected by transmission electron microscopy. The effect of berberine hydrochloride on β-glucan from C. albicans SC5314 was detected by flow cytometry. The effect of berberine hydrochloride on hypha-specific gene ECE1 and β-glucan synthase genes FKS1 and FKS2 in C. albicans was examined by qRT-PCR. The results showed that berberine hydrochloride showed a strong inhibitory effect on both clinical and standard strains of C. albicans, and the MIC was 64-128 μg·mL~(-1). Spot assay, XTT redunction assay and fluorescent staining assay showed that with the increase of berberine hydrochloride concentration, the viability of C. albicans SC5314 gradually decreased. The transmission electron microscopy scanning assay showed that this compound could cause cell wall damage of C. albicans. The flow cytometry analysis showed the exposure degree of C. albicans β-glucan. The qRT-PCR further showed that berberine hydrochloride could significantly down-regulate hypha-specific gene ECE1 and β-glucan synthase-related gene FKS1 and FKS2. In conclusion, this compound can down-regulate C. albicans and β-glucan synthase-related gene expressions, so as to destroy the cell wall structure of C. albicans, expose β-glucan and damage the integrity of the wall.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Berberine/pharmacology , Candida albicans/genetics , Cell Wall , Hyphae , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876858

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the antifungal activity of phenazines derivatives. Methods The anti-fungal activity of phenazine compounds was evaluated initially with micro-liquid dilution. No significant antifungal activity against Candida albicans was found. Then, with the combination of phenazine compounds and fluconazole, the anti-fungal activity against fluconazole-resistant C. albicans was detected. Results The phenazine-17 had significant antifungal activity when combined with fluconazole through the inhibition of hyphae formation. Conclusion This study provides a new idea for the development of antifungal drugs and the solution of antifungal drug resistance.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876437

ABSTRACT

@#Candida albicans is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen capable of causing fatal systemic infections in humans. Presently in Malaysia, there is little information available on the genetic diversity of this organism and trends in behavioural characteristics. In this project, three genotyping methods: 25S rDNA genotyping, Alternative Lengthening of Telomerase (ALT) sequence typing and Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) were applied to study the genetic diversity of strains from infected hospital in-patients and asymptomatic individuals in the community. The results showed that, with the 25S rDNA genotyping, as in other parts of the world, the most common genotype was type A which accounted for approximately 70% of the 111 isolates tested. Further typing with the ALT sequence showed type 3 to be the most common in the isolates tested. MLST analysis revealed many possibly novel sequence types, as well as a statistically significant association between pathogenicity and a group of closely related isolates, most of which were from hospital samples. Further work on genotypes associated with enhanced virulence will help to clarify the value of genotyping for clinical and epidemiological investigations. Keywords:

19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2585-2604, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888873

ABSTRACT

Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) represent a growing public concern for clinicians to manage in many medical settings, with substantial associated morbidities and mortalities. Among many current therapeutic options for the treatment of IFIs, amphotericin B (AmB) is the most frequently used drug. AmB is considered as a first-line drug in the clinic that has strong antifungal activity and less resistance. In this review, we summarized the most promising research efforts on nanocarriers for AmB delivery and highlighted their efficacy and safety for treating IFIs. We have also discussed the mechanism of actions of AmB, rationale for treating IFIs, and recent advances in formulating AmB for clinical use. Finally, this review discusses some practical considerations and provides recommendations for future studies in applying AmB for combating IFIs.

20.
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2021. 59 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1359953

ABSTRACT

Candida albicans possui capacidade de causar uma ampla variedade de manifestações clínicas devido a múltiplos fatores de virulência que agem simultaneamente para vencer o sistema imune e invadir os tecidos do hospedeiro. Estudos recentes demonstraram que o crescimento de C. albicans pode ser inibido por metabólitos produzidos por Streptococcus mutans, que estão presentes no sobrenadante da cultura bacteriana. Assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi investigar se o sobrenadante da cultura de S. mutans, além de inibir o crescimento de C. albicans, é capaz de atenuar os mecanismos de virulência desse fungo. Inicialmente, uma suspensão padronizada de S. mutans (107 células/mL) foi incubada em caldo BHI a 37ºC por 4 h em 5% de CO2. O crescimento em BHI foi filtrado em membrana de 0,22 µm, obtendo-se o sobrenadante da cultura de S. mutans livre de células. A seguir, uma suspensão padronizada de C. albicans (107 células/mL) foi adicionada ao sobrenadante filtrado da cultura de S. mutans em caldo BHI, sendo incubada a 37ºC por 24 h. Para os grupos controle, a suspensão de C. albicans foi colocada em caldo BHI ou YPD esterilizados e incubada nas mesmas condições. Após o período de incubação, o crescimento de C. albicans foi centrifugado e lavado para obtenção de uma suspensão padronizada de C. albicans contendo as células sobreviventes da exposição ao sobrenadante de S. mutans. Essa suspensão de C. albicans foi então utilizada nos testes in vitro e in vivo para determinação dos fatores de virulência desse micro-organismo. No estudo in vitro, foi investigada a atividade proteolítica extracelular de C. albicans, bem como sua capacidade de filamentação, adesão e formação de biofilmes (1:30, 6, 24 e 48 h). Para o estudo in vivo, foi utilizado o modelo de Galleria mellonella, analisando-se a curva de sobrevivência, o número de células fúngicas e hemócitos na hemolinfa de larvas infectadas por C. albicans. Para a análise estatística foi utilizado ANOVA, teste de Tukey, Kruskal-Wallis e Log-rank, com nível de significância de 5%. Verificou-se que as células de C. albicans expostas ao sobrenadante de S. mutans apresentaram redução na filamentação, formação de biofilmes e patogenicidade em G. mellonella em relação ao controle. A exposição ao sobrenadante de S. mutans também mudou o padrão de aderência de C. albicans. Entretanto, o sobrenadante de S. mutans não reduziu a atividade proteolítica de C. albicans. Concluiu-se que o sobrenadante de S. mutans apresentou capacidade de inibir importantes mecanismos de virulência de C. albicans, podendo ser uma fonte de novos agentes antifúngicos a ser explorada


Candida albicans has the ability to cause a wide variety of clinical manifestations due to multiple virulence factors that act simultaneously to overcome the immune system and invade host tissues. Recent studies have shown that the growth of C. albicans can be inhibited by metabolites produced by Streptococcus mutans. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether the culture supernatant of S. mutans is able to attenuate the virulence mechanisms of this fungus. Initially, a standardized suspension of S. mutans (107 cells/mL) was incubated in BHI broth at 37ºC for 4 h in 5% CO2. The growth in BHI was filtered through a 0.22 µm membrane, obtaining the cell free culture supernatant of S. mutans. Then, a standardized suspension of C. albicans (107 cells/mL) was prepared and added to the supernatant of the culture of S. mutans in BHI broth, being incubated at 37ºC for 24 h. For the control groups, the suspension of C. albicans was placed in sterile BHI or YPD broth and incubated under the same conditions. After the incubation period, the growth of C. albicans was centrifuged and washed to obtain a standardized suspension of C. albicans containing the surviving cells from exposure to the S. mutans supernatant. This suspension of C. albicans was then used to perform in vitro and in vivo tests to determine the virulence factors of this microorganism. In the in vitro study, the extracellular proteolytic activity of C. albicans was investigated, as well as its capacity for filamentation, adhesion and biofilm formation (1:30, 6, 24 and 48 h). For the in vivo study, the Galleria mellonella model was used, analyzing the survival curve, the number of fungal cells and hemocytes in the hemolymph of larvae infected with C. albicans. For statistical analysis, ANOVA, Tukey's test, Kruskal-Wallis and Log-rank were used, with a significance level of 5%. It was found that the cells of C. albicans exposed to the supernatant of S. mutans showed a reduction in filament, formation of biofilms and pathogenicity in G. mellonella in relation to the control. Exposure to the S. mutans supernatant also changed the pattern of adherence of C. albicans. However, the S. mutans supernatant did not reduce the proteolytic activity of C. albicans. It was concluded that the supernatant of S. mutans had the capacity to inhibit important mechanisms of virulence of C. albicans, being able to be a source of new antifungal agents to be explored.


Subject(s)
Animals , Streptococcus mutans , Candida albicans , Virulence Factors , Virulence , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Biofilms
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