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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255080, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364503

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the current context of emerging drug-resistant fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis, discovery of new antifungal agents is an urgent matter. This research aimed to evaluate the antifungal potential of 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide against fluconazole-resistant clinical strains of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis. The antifungal activity of 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide was evaluated in vitro by the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), inhibition of biofilm formation and its rupture, sorbitol and ergosterol assays, and association between this molecule and common antifungal drugs, amphotericin B and fluconazole. The test product inhibited all strains of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, with a MIC ranging from 128 to 256 µg.mL-1, and a MFC of 512-1,024 µg.mL-1. It also inhibited up to 92% of biofilm formation and rupture of up to 87% of preformed biofilm. 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide did not promote antifungal activity through binding to cellular membrane ergosterol nor it damages the fungal cell wall. Antagonism was observed when combining this substance with amphotericin B and fluconazole. The substance exhibited significant antifungal activity by inhibiting both planktonic cells and biofilm of fluconazole-resistant strains. Its combination with other antifungals should be avoided and its mechanism of action remains to be established.


Resumo No atual contexto de patógenos fúngicos resistentes emergentes tais como Candida albicans e Candida parapsilosis, a descoberta de novos agentes antifúngicos é uma questão urgente. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antifúngico da 2-cloro-N-fenilacetamida contra cepas clínicas de C. albicans e C. parapsilosis resistentes a fluconazol. A atividade antifúngica da substância foi avaliada in vitro através da determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM), concentração fungicida mínima (CFM), ruptura e inibição da formação de biofilme, ensaios de sorbitol e ergosterol, e associação entre esta molécula e antifúngicos comuns, anfotericina B e fluconazol. O produto teste inibiu todas as cepas de C. albicans e C. parapsilosis, com uma CIM variando de 128 a 256 µg.mL-1, e uma CFM de 512-1,024 µg.mL-1. Também inibiu até 92% da formação de biofilme e causou a ruptura de até 87% de biofilme pré-formado. A 2-cloro-N-fenilacetamida não promoveu atividade antifúngica pela ligação ao ergosterol da membrana celular fúngica, tampouco danificou a parede celular. Antagonismo foi observado ao combinar esta substância com anfotericina B e fluconazol. A substância exibiu atividade antifúngica significativa ao inibir tanto as células planctônicas quanto o biofilme das cepas resistentes ao fluconazol. Sua combinação com outros antifúngicos deve ser evitada e seu mecanismo de ação deve ser estabelecido.

2.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-6, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370924

ABSTRACT

Objective: to evaluate the molecular interaction of silibinin with the targets ALS3 and SAP5. Methodology: Molecular docking protocols were conducted to analyze the binding interaction of silibinin with ALS3 and SAP5. Results: Eleven interactions of ALS3 with silibinin and four with fluconazole were found, while six interactions were observed of SAP5 with silibinin and four with fluconazole. Conclusion: Molecular docking between silibinin and ALS3 identified important interactions, but no significant interactions were observed with SAP5, even though silibinin can exhibit affinity and interactions with other SAP5 sites.


Objetivo: Avaliar a interação molecular da silibinina com os alvos ALS3 e SAP5. Metodologia: Protocolos de docking molecular foram conduzidos para analisar a interação de ligação da silibinina com ALS3 e SAP5. Resultados: Foram encontradas onze interações de ALS3 com silibinina e quatro com fluconazol, enquanto seis interações foram observadas de SAP5 com silibinina e quatro com fluconazol. Conclusão: Docking molecular entre silibinina e ALS3 identificou interações importantes, mas não foram observadas interações significativas com SAP5, embora a silibinina possa apresentar afinidade e interações com outros sítios SAP5.


Subject(s)
Candida albicans , Silymarin , Proteins , Invasive Fungal Infections
3.
Braz. dent. j ; 33(1): 96-104, jan.-fev. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1364485

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bacteria are related do different oral diseases, such as dental caries and periodontal disease. Therefore, the control or/and eradication of microorganisms and their by-products is primordial for the success of their treatment. An alternative for decrease bacterial load is the use of plant extracts used in popular medicine. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial action of extracts of Cariniana rubra Gardiner ex Miers, Senna martiniana, Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan and Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil. against strains of Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aggregatibacter actinomyces- tencomitans and Candida albicans were investigated. Cytotoxicity was assessed at concentrations of 1, 10, 40, 80, 100 and 1000 μg/mL by means of the MTT test and compared to a control group with untreated cells. Those with acceptable cytotoxicity had the antimicrobial action measured by the XTT test. As a positive control, sodium hypochlorite was used. Cariniana rubra Gardiner ex Miers had the highest citototoxicity results while Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil. had the best results, but all extracts showed acceptable cytotoxicity at different concentrations. The plant extracts showed higher activity against A. actinomycetencomitans: Anadenanthera columbrina (Vell.) Brenan (80.52%) at 40 μg/mL, Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil (78.48%) in 1 μg/mL, Senna martiniana (73.28%) in the concentration of 40 μg/mL and Cariniana rubra Gardiner ex Miers (70.50%) in 10 μg/mL. All extracts analyzed showed acceptable cytotoxicity at different concentrations and were promising for inhibition of the pathogenic microorganisms studied.


Resumo Bactérias estão relacionadas a diferentes doenças bucais, como a cárie dentária e a doença periodontal. Assim, o controle e/ou erradicação de microrganismos e seus subprodutos é primordial para o sucesso dos tratamentos. Uma alternativa para diminuir a carga bacteriana é a utilização de extratos vegetais utilizados na medicina popular. A citotoxicidade e ação antimicrobiana de extratos de Cariniana rubra Gardinerex Miers, Senna martiniana H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan e Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil. contra cepas de Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcusfaecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Agartibacter actinomycetencomitans e Candida albicans foram investigados. A citotoxicidade foi avaliada nas concentrações de 1, 10, 40, 80, 100 e 1000 μg/mL por meio do teste MTT. Aqueles com citotoxicidade aceitável tiveram a ação antimicrobiana medida pelo teste XTT. Cariniana rubra Gardinerex Miers apresentou os maiores resultados de citototoxicidade, enquanto Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil. obteve os melhores resultados, mas todos os extratos apresentaram citotoxicidade aceitável em diferentes concentrações. Os extratos vegetais apresentaram maior atividade contra A. actinomycetencomitans: Anadenanthera columbrina (Vell.) Brenan (80,52%) a 40 μg/mL, Spiranthera odoratissima St. Hil (78,48%) em 1 μg/mL, Senna martiniana H.S. Irwin & Barneby (73,28%) na concentração de 40 μg/mL e Cariniana rubra Gardinerex Miers (70,50%) em 10 μg/mL. Todos os extratos analisados apresentaram citotoxicidade aceitável em diferentes concentrações e foram promissores na inibição dos microrganismos patogênicos estudados.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238180, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278486

ABSTRACT

Abstract Urinary tract infections are responsible for most human infections, these are caused by bacteria, fungi, protozoa and associated microorganisms. The goal of this study was to determine the rate of vaginal infection-causing agents in routine cytological exams and also to evaluate the characteristics of positive tested Pap smears. A retrospective documental with descriptive aspect research was performed in a Clinical Pathology laboratory from Maceió-AL. The results of the Pap smears exams for Trichomonas vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida spp and HPV were arranged in a database as well as other data such as bacterial, protozoan, fungal and viral coinfections. The sample was composed by 18.645 women who have undergone Pap smear exams from 2013 to 2017. Of these analyzed exams, 27.4% in 2013, 10.9% in 2014, 10.6% in 2015, 15.2% in 2016 and 13.67% in 2017 were within normal range, however more than half of these exams presented some infections caused by unspecific or microbiological agents. By analyzing all the reports, 4.073 (21.84%) presented inflammations caused by some species of infectious agent with the following rate order: G. vaginalis and T. vaginalis. Furthermore, it was possible to confirm high rates of coinfection by and Candida spp. The rate of genital infections in this study highlights that there is a public health matter that must be controlled, which points a greater need for monitoring, guidance and actions towards greater awareness in order to prevent these problems.


Resumo Infecções do trato urinário são responsáveis pela maior parte das infecções humanas, sendo causadas por bactérias, fungos, protozoários, e por microrganismos associados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a frequência de agentes causadores de infecções vaginais nos exames citológicos de rotina, bem como avaliar as características dos esfregaços positivos. Foi realizada uma pesquisa do tipo documental retrospectiva de aspecto descritivo, com abordagem quantitativa, em um Laboratório de Patologia Clínica de Maceió-AL. Nesse sentido, os resultados dos exames colpocitológicos para Trichomonas vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida spp e HPV foram organizados em um banco de dados, contendo os resultados para estes agentes, bem como a coinfecção bacteriana, protozoária, fúngica e viral. A amostra foi composta por 18.645 mulheres que realizaram exame colpocitológico, no período de 2013 a 2017. Destes exames analisados 27,4% em 2013, 10,9% em 2014, 10,6% em 2015, 15,2% em 2016 e 13,67% em 2017, estavam dentro do limite da normalidade, porém mais que a metade desses exames analisados apresentou algumas infecções causadas por agentes inespecíficos ou microbiológicos. Do total de laudos analisados, 4.073 (21,84%), apresentaram inflamações causadas por algum tipo de agente infeccioso, com a seguinte ordem de frequência: G. vaginalis, e T. vaginalis. Além disto, foi possível confirmar a elevada frequência de coinfecção entre G. vaginalis e Candida spp. Os índices de infecções genitais nesse trabalho mostram que há um problema de saúde pública que deve ser controlado, apontando uma necessidade maior de acompanhamento, orientações e de ações para uma maior conscientização para prevenir esses problemas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Urinary Tract Infections , Papanicolaou Test , Vaginal Smears , Retrospective Studies , Genitalia
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907153

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the in vitro synergistic antifungal activity of HDAC inhibitors in combination with azole drugs against azoles-resistant Candida strains. Methods The checkerboard microdilution method was used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the HDAC inhibitors in combination with azole drugs against clinically drug-resistant strains. The fungistatic activity and toxicity of Rocilinostat was determined through time-growth curve assay and cytotoxicity assay. Results The compound Rocilinostat combined with azole drugs showed excellent synergistic antifungal activity against a variety of azoles-resistant Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. The combination of high concentration Rocilinostat with FLC exhibited fungistatic effects. Very low toxicity was detected with Rocilinostat towards normal cells. Rocilinostat showed better HDAC inhibitory activity than SAHA. Conclusion As a fungi HDAC inhibitor, Rocilinostat has excellent in vitro synergistic antifungal activity and no severe toxicity to normal human cells.

6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18719, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364412

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of present study was calculate the Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of silver nanoparticles and clotrimazole for Candida species and their interaction by the adaptation of standarized methods. The MICs values of clotrimazole were 9 E-04-3 E-03 ug/ml, 0.1-0.6 ug/ml, 3 E-03- 0.1 ug/ml and 3 E-03-0.3 ug/ml for Candida albicans susceptible to fluconazole, Candida albicans resistance to fluconazole, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis respectively. The MICs values of silver nanoparticles were 26.50- 53 ug/ml; 26.50-106 ug/ml; 106-212 ug/ ml and 26.50- 53 ug/ml for Candida albicans susceptible to fluconazole, Candida albicans resistance to fluconazole, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis respectively. Synergism between clotrimazole and silver nanoparticles was measured by checkerboard BMD (broth microdilution) test and shown only for C. albicans susceptible to fluconazole because the fractional inhibitory concentrations (FICs) values were 0.07 - 0.15 ug/ml. Indifference was shown for the other species tested because the FICs values were between 0.5 - 2- 3.06 ug/ml. The results suggest synergistic activity depending on the fungus species analysed, however we recommend the incorporation of others measurement methodologies to confirm our results. As for measurement methodologies of MICs of silver nanoparticles and clotrimazole international normative were respected to guarantee reproducible and comparable results.


Subject(s)
Candida/classification , Clotrimazole/analogs & derivatives , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/instrumentation , Fungi
7.
Braz. dent. sci ; 25(1): 1-14, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1361900

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eficácia da adição de nanopartículas de óxido de zircônio (ZrO2), óxido de titânio (TiO2) e óxido de sílica (SiO2) a um material de revestimento macio curado a frio na adesão de Candida albicans (CA). Material e Método: Cinquenta e quatro pacientes foram selecionados e divididos em três grupos de acordo com a modificação do revestimento com nanopartículas de ZrO2, TiO2 e SiO2 (18 cada). Cada paciente recebeu prótese total maxilar com três cavidades, as cavidades foram revestidas com forro macio curado a frio modificado com diferentes concentrações (0%, 3% e 7%) de nanopartículas de óxido metálico. Nos dias 14 e 28, as trocas foram retiradas do local de realinhamento e imediatamente cultivadas para avaliação fúngica. O número de colônias foi contado, os dados coletados e explorados para normalidade usando o teste de Shapiro-Wilk e a transformação logarítmica da contagem de CA foi realizada. ANOVA para medidas repetidas e de uma via (one-way) foram usados, seguidos por teste de Tukey (HSD). O teste t independente foi usado para comparar as contagens de CA em diferentes períodos. Resultados: A adesão do CA foi significativamente diminuída pela adição de nanopartículas de ZrO2, TiO2 e SiO2 em comparação com o grupo controle, também a cobertura antifúngica aumentou com o aumento da concentração de nanopartículas (p <0,005). A maior contagem de CA foi identificada no grupo SiO2 seguido por ZrO2, enquanto TiO2apresentou a menor contagem de CA (p <0,001). Conclusão: Adição de diferentes nanopartículas; ZrO2, TiO2 e SiO2para revestimento macio curado a frio é um método eficaz para reduzir a adesão de CA (AU)


Objective: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of addition of zirconium oxide (ZrO2), titanium oxide (TiO2), and silica oxide (SiO2) nanoparticles to cold-cured soft liner on adhesion of Candida albicans (CA). Material and Methods: Fifty-four patients had been selected and divided into three groups according to the modification of soft liner with ZrO2, TiO2, and SiO2 nanoparticles (18 each of). Each patient received maxillary complete denture having three cavities, the cavities were lined using cold cured soft liner modified with different concentration (0%, 3%, and 7%) of metal oxide nanoparticles. On days 14 and 28, swaps were taken out from relining site and immediately cultured for fungal evaluation. The number of colonies were counted, data collected and explored for normality using Shapiro-Wilk test, logarithmic transformation of CA count was performed. Repeated and one-way ANOVA were used followed by Tukey HSD. Independent-t test used to compare between CA counts at different periods. Results: The CA adhesion was significantly decreased by the addition of ZrO2, TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles in comparison with control group, also the antifungal coverage increased with nanoparticles concentration increased (P<0.005). The highest CA count was identified in group SiO2 followed by ZrO2, while TiO2 showed the lowest CA count (P <0.001). Conclusion: Addition of different nanoparticles; ZrO2, TiO2 and SiO2 to cold-cured soft liner is an effective method for reducing CA adhesion. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida albicans , Denture Liners , Nanoparticles , Antifungal Agents
8.
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2022. 85 p. ilus, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1371207

ABSTRACT

O objetivo geral do presente estudo foi avaliar a aplicação dos jatos de plasma de baixa temperatura sob pressão atmosférica (PBTPA) produzidos por gás de argônio e hélio como gases de trabalho, no controle de biofilmes cariogênicos. Para tanto, foram estabelecidos os parâmetros físicos dos PBTPA gerados com argônio e hélio que se mostraram efetivos frente a biofilmes mono, dual e polimicrobianos compostos por combinações das espécies Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus sanguinis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Candida albicans e Actinomyces naeslundii. Os biofilmes mono, dual e multi-espécies foram submetidos ao tratamento com PBTPA produzidos por dois dispositivos diferentes, um obtido comercialmente (kINPen09®) que usou argônio como gás de trabalho, e outro protótipo desenvolvido pela FEG-UNESP (Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá) que usou hélio. Análises quantitativas e microscópicas (confocal, microscopia eletrônica de varredura) foram realizadas. Foi incluído controle negativo (sem tratamento), positivo (clorexidina 0,12%) e controle de gás, utilizando apenas fluxo de gás, sem produzir plasma. Além disso, os efeitos celulares do PBTPAargônio e hélio sobre biofilme dual e multi-espécies também foram analisados em microscopia eletrônica de varredura e microscopia de varredura a laser confocal. Todos os ensaios foram realizados em triplicata em três experimentos independentes. Os resultados foram tabulados e analisados quanto à distribuição. A seguir, os testes estatísticos mais adequados foram selecionados. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Os resultados obtidos para os tratamentos dos biofilmes mono, dual ou multi-espécies com PBTPA-argônio e hélio foram todos significativos em comparação ao controle negativo em todos os tempos analisados. Para PBTPA-argônio, não houve recuperação de S. gordonii e S. sanguinis em todos tempos analisados. Para PBTPA-hélio, os melhores resultados foram obtidos em 5 e 7 minutos de exposição dos biofilmes ao PBTPA. Finalmente, tanto o dispositivo gerador de PBTPA que trabalhou com gás argônio quanto o dispositivo que trabalhou com gás hélio, demonstraram resultados promissores e poderão contribuir para o desenvolvimento de novos protocolos de Odontologia de Intervenção Mínima. (AU) The general objective of this study was to evaluate the application of lowtemperature plasma under atmospheric pressure (PBTPA) of argon and helium flow, in the control of cariogenic biofilms. For this, the effective physical parameters of PBTPA-argon and helium in mono, dual and polymicrobial biofilms composed of combinations of the species Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus sanguinis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Candida albicans and Actinomyces naeslundii were established. The multi-species biofilms were treated by different PBTPA generating devices, one obtained commercially (kINPen09®) that used argon as working gas, and another prototype developed by FEG-UNESP (Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá) that used helium as working gas. Quantitative and microscopic analyzes (confocal, scanning electron microscopy) were performed. Negative control (no treatment), positive control (chlorhexidine 2%) and gas control (argon) were included. Besides that, cellular effects of PBTPA-argon and helium on dual and multi-species biofilms were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results obtained for the treatments of mono, dual or multispecies biofilms with both PBTPA-argon and helium were all significant when compared to the negative control at all times analyzed. For PBTPA-argon, there was no recovery of S. gordonii and S. sanguinis at all analyzed times. For PBTPA-helium, the best results were obtained at 5 and 7 min of exposure of biofilms to PBTPA. All the tests were carried out in triplicate in three independent experiments. The results are tabulated and analyzed in terms of distribution. Next, the most suitable statistical tests were selected. The level of significance was 5%. The results obtained for the treatments of mono, dual or multi-species biofilms with PBTPA-argon and helium were all significant compared to the negative control at all analyzed times. Finally, both PBTPA generating could contribute to the development of new protocols for Minimal Intervention Dentistry (AU)


O objetivo geral do presente estudo foi avaliar a aplicação dos jatos de plasma de baixa temperatura sob pressão atmosférica (PBTPA) produzidos por gás de argônio e hélio como gases de trabalho, no controle de biofilmes cariogênicos. Para tanto, foram estabelecidos os parâmetros físicos dos PBTPA gerados com argônio e hélio que se mostraram efetivos frente a biofilmes mono, dual e polimicrobianos compostos por combinações das espécies Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus sanguinis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Candida albicans e Actinomyces naeslundii. Os biofilmes mono, dual e multi-espécies foram submetidos ao tratamento com PBTPA produzidos por dois dispositivos diferentes, um obtido comercialmente (kINPen09®) que usou argônio como gás de trabalho, e outro protótipo desenvolvido pela FEG-UNESP (Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá) que usou hélio. Análises quantitativas e microscópicas (confocal, microscopia eletrônica de varredura) foram realizadas. Foi incluído controle negativo (sem tratamento), positivo (clorexidina 0,12%) e controle de gás, utilizando apenas fluxo de gás, sem produzir plasma. Além disso, os efeitos celulares do PBTPAargônio e hélio sobre biofilme dual e multi-espécies também foram analisados em microscopia eletrônica de varredura e microscopia de varredura a laser confocal. Todos os ensaios foram realizados em triplicata em três experimentos independentes. Os resultados foram tabulados e analisados quanto à distribuição. A seguir, os testes estatísticos mais adequados foram selecionados. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Os resultados obtidos para os tratamentos dos biofilmes mono, dual ou multi-espécies com PBTPA-argônio e hélio foram todos significativos em comparação ao controle negativo em todos os tempos analisados. Para PBTPA-argônio, não houve recuperação de S. gordonii e S. sanguinis em todos tempos analisados. Para PBTPA-hélio, os melhores resultados foram obtidos em 5 e 7 minutos de exposição dos biofilmes ao PBTPA. Finalmente, tanto o dispositivo gerador de PBTPA que trabalhou com gás argônio quanto o dispositivo que trabalhou com gás hélio, demonstraram resultados promissores e poderão contribuir para o desenvolvimento de novos protocolos de Odontologia de Intervenção Mínima. (AU)


Subject(s)
Plasma , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus sanguis , Actinomycosis , Candida albicans , Dental Caries , Dental Plaque , Streptococcus gordonii , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus casei
9.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(4): 412-415, 26/11/2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362160

ABSTRACT

Background Fungal spondylodiscitis is not common but should be suspected in some cases. Candida tropicalis infections are being more frequently diagnosed due to some factors related to the microorganism. Case Description A C. tropicalis spondylodiscitis is described in a 72-year-old man who was treated with a combination of echinocandin (micafungin) and surgery. Conclusion The presence of some risk factors should promptly raise the suspicion of fungal spondylodiscitis. Treatment should be instituted as early as possible for the best outcome for the patient.

10.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 14(Supl. 1): e8022, Dez. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367919

ABSTRACT

Neste estudo foram identificadas espécies de Candida em isolados de secreção vaginal, avaliados os perfis de suscetibilidade in vitro a antifúngicos e correlacionados com os antifúngicos prescritos para pacientes em um serviço de atenção primária. A identificação das espécies pela Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase mostrou que 36,5% dos isolados foram caracterizados como espécie não-C.albicans. Nos testes de sensibilidade a maioria dos isolados foi suscetível a cetoconazol, fluconazol e itraconazol, contudo cerca de 40% e 50% apresentaram resistência ou sensibilidade dose-dependente a miconazol e nistatina, respectivamente. A análise dos fármacos prescritos para as pacientes revelou que 34,2% dos isolados foram considerados resistentes aos agentes utilizados no tratamento. Diversas espécies de Candida podem causar vulvovaginite com variados perfis de suscetibilidade aos antifúngicos comumente utilizados no tratamento. A identificação das espécies de Candida é relevante para o gerenciamento epidemiológico das infecções, além de ser útil, assim como os testes de suscetibilidade, na escolha do tratamento farmacológico mais eficaz para a paciente.


In this study were identified Candida species from vaginal secretion isolates, evaluated their in vitro antifungal susceptibilities, and correlated these features with antifungal agents prescribed for patients assisted in a primary care service. Species identification by Polymerase Chain Reaction showed that 36.5% of isolates were characterized as non-C. albicans species. In antifungal susceptibility tests most isolates were susceptible to ketoconazole, fluconazole, and itraconazole, although between 40% and 50% of isolates show resistance or dose-dependent susceptibility to miconazole and nystatin, respectively. Analysis of drugs prescribed to patients revealed that 34.2% of the isolates were considered resistant to agents used in treatment. Several Candida species can cause vulvovaginitis and exhibit different susceptibility profiles to antifungal drugs used in treatment. The identification of Candida species is relevant and useful to the epidemiological management of infections. The antifungal susceptibility test may also be useful for choosing most effective drug treatment for each patient.

11.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357581

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar el efecto fotodinámico de azul de metileno (MB) y azul de toluidina (TBO) activadas con láser terapéutico sobre biofilms de Streptococcus mutans y Candida albicans. Material y métodos: Se analizaron 61 muestras de biopelículas, en medios de cultivo cerebro corazón (BHI) por 6 días, las muestras se dividieron en 4 grupos y se sumergieron en: grupo experimental en MB al 0,01% y TBO al 0,05%, grupo control positivo en gluconato de clorhexidina (CHX) al 0,12% y grupo control negativo en cloruro de sodio (NaCl) al 0,9%. Las muestras de MB y TBO fueron irradiadas con láser terapéutico con una longitud de onda de 660 nm, y 9 J/cm2 de potencia, cada bloque de esmalte estuvo en cultivo post irradiación. las muestras pasaron a cultivo, para la cepa S. mutans y C. albicans por separado, El método empleado fue el de diluciones seriadas para la cuantificación de UFC luego de 5 días de cultivo. Para el análisis se usó T de student y Anova de un factor. Resultados: encontrando diferencias estadísticas entre los cuatro grupos de experimentación en el crecimiento microbiano (ANOVA p<0,05), al análisis con el grupo control positivo, no hubo diferencias significativas entre MB frente al S. mutans y C. albicans, en contraste con el TBO que mostro diferencias significativas (p<0,05). Conclusión: el MB y TBO muestran en laboratorio, una disminución en el crecimiento de las cepas del biofilm, el TBO mostró mejor efecto a la reducción de crecimiento del S. mutans y C. albicans.


Objetive: To determine the photodynamic effect of methylene blue (MB) and toluidine blue (TBO) activated with therapeutic laser on Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans biofilms. Material and methods: Sixty-one biofilm samples were analyzed in brain heart culture media (BHI) for 6 days, the samples were divided into 4 groups and immersed in: experimental group in 0.01% MB and 0.05% TBO, positive control group in 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and negative control group in 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl). The MB and TBO samples were irradiated with 2 therapeutic laser with a wavelength of 660 nm, and 9 J/cmof power, each enamel block was in post-irradiation culture. The samples were cultured separately for the S. mutansand C. albicans strains, the method used was that of serial dilutions for the quantification of CFU after 5 days of culture. For the analysis, Student's Tand Anova of one factor were used. Results: finding statistical differences between the four experimental groups in microbial growth (ANOVAp<0.05), in the analysis with the positive control group, there were no significant differences between MB versus S. mutansand C. albicans, in contrast to the TBO that showed significant differences (p<0.05). Conclusion: MB and TBO show in laboratory, a decrease in the growth of biofilm strains, TBO showed better effect in reducing the growth of S. mutansand C. albicans.

12.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 780-785, oct. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351051

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de las infecciones fúngicas atendidas en un centro de quemados de alta complejidad situado en Buenos Aires, entre 2011 y 2014, mediante el análisis de las histo rias clínicas (n = 36). Las edades de los pacientes estuvieron entre 18 y 87 años, y 23 (63.9%) fueron mujeres. La extensión de la superficie corporal afectada más prevalente varió entre 30 y 50% (p = 0.03), y entre 71% y 100% en pacientes de menor edad, relacionándose con intentos de femicidio. En el 69.4% la profundidad de la quemadura fue grado 4, y en el 50% de los casos se observaron lesiones por inhalación, con una alta mortali dad (p = 0.04). El Candida score resultó de 3 en el 77.7% de los casos. Se usaron vías centrales y ventilación mecánica. Todos los pacientes recibieron tratamiento antibiótico y en 33 (91.7%) antifúngicos. La escisión qui rúrgica de la quemadura se practicó en 33 (91.7%) y los autoinjertos de piel en 29 (80.6%). La infección fúngica se desarrolló en una media de 21.4 días del ingreso en UCI. Se estudiaron 52 muestras de levaduras que se aislaron de urocultivo (42.3%), hemocultivo (26.9%), biopsia cutánea (9.6%), punta de catéter (15.4%) y aspirado traqueal (5.8%). Por cultivo microbiológico y métodos moleculares se identificaron a Candida albicans (53.8%), C. tropicalis (23.1%), C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (13.5%), C. krusei (5.8%), C. glabrata (1.9%) y C. dubliniensis (1.9%). Las infecciones fúngicas representan severas complicaciones en quemados con factores de riesgo.


Abstract A retrospective analysis of fungal infections was carried out in a health-care burn center between 2011 and 2014 using the patients' medical records (n = 36). Patients ranged from 18 to 87 years of age, with 23 (63.9%) being women. The most prevalent widespread total body surface area affected (TBSA) was 30-50% (p = 0.03), and 71-100% in younger patients, mainly associated with femicide. Fourth degree burns were revealed in 69.4% of the patients while in 50%, inhalation injuries were observed to represent a higher mortality rate (p = 0.04). The Candida score was 3 in 77.7% of cases respectively. Central venous catheter and mechanical ventilation were used. All patients received antibiotic treatment and 91.7% antifungal treatment. Surgical excision of the burn was performed in 33 (91.7%) patients, and skin autografting in 29 (80.6%). The median of the fungal infection devel oped was 21.4 days after admission to the ICU. The specimens analyzed involved 52 yeast samples isolated from different cultures: urine (42.3%), blood (26.9%), skin biopsy (9.6%), catheter tip (15.4%) and tracheal aspirate (5.8%). The use of microbiological culture and molecular methods allowed for the identification of Candida albicans (53.8%), C. tropicalis (23.1%), C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (13.5%), C. krusei (5.8%), C. glabrata (1.9%) and C. dubliniensis (1.9%). Fungal infections observed in skin burns lead to severe complications in at-risk patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Candida , Mycoses/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Antifungal Agents
13.
Medicina (Ribeirão Preto) ; 54(1)jul, 2021. fig.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353671

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Introdução: O gênero Candida possui alta taxa de incidência no ser humano, sendo a espécie Candida albicans a mais isolada em infecções invasivas e superficiais. Porém, tem sido relatado um aumento considerável de espécies de Candidanão-albicans em infecções fúngicas. Os óleos essenciais, por serem voláteis, podem agir como sinais de comunicação química e arma de defesa. Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia, in vitro, dos óleos essenciais de Syzygium aromaticum e Eu-calyptus globulus na inibição do crescimento de espécies de Candida não-albicans. Métodos: Para avaliação da atividade antifúngica de S. aromaticum e de E. globulus e do efeito dos seus óleos essenciais sobre a micromorfologia das espécies Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis e Candida glabrata, foram empregadas, nesta ordem, a técnica de difusão em ágar e de microcultivo para leveduras. Resultados: Na técnica de difusão, o óleo essencial de S. aromaticum apresentou for-mação de halo de inibição para Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis e Candida glabrata. O óleo de E. globulus, por sua vez, não apresentou crescimento de halos de inibição em nenhuma das concentrações testadas frente às três espécies de Candida não-albicans. Todavia, com o microcultivo, ambos os óleos essenciais se provaram, in vitro, eficazes antimi-crobianos tendo apresentado estruturas indicativas de atividade antifúngica na maior concentração dos óleos e diferentes graus de destruição celular nas demais concentrações. Conclusão: Nas condições deste estudo, concluiu-se que os pro-dutos avaliados exerceram atividade antifúngica contra cepas de Candida não-albicans, destacando-se o óleo essencial de S. aromaticum que apresentou atividade antimicrobiana em ambas as metodologias. (AU)


ABSTRACT: Introduction: The genus Candida possesses a high incidence of infection in humans, with the Candida albicans species being the most isolated in invasive and superficial infections. However, a considerable increase in non-albicans Candidaspecies has been reported in fungal infections. Essential oils, for being volatile, can act as chemical communication sig-nals and defense mechanisms. Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness, in vitro, of the essential oils of Syzygium aromati-cum and Eucalyptus globulus in inhibiting the growth of non-albicans Candida species. Methods: To evaluate the antifun-gal activity of S. aromaticum and E. globulus and the effect of their essential oils on the micromorphology of the species Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata, in this order, the agar diffusion technique and microculture for yeasts. Results: In the diffusion technique, the essential oil of S. aromaticum presented an inhibition halo for Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida glabrata. E. globulus oil, on the other hand, did not show inhibition halo growth in any of the concentrations tested against the three non-albicans Candida species. However, in the microculture, both essential oils have proven to be effective antimicrobials having shown structures indicative of antifungal activity in the highest concentration and different degrees of cell destruction in the other concentrations. Conclusion: In the conditions of this study, it was concluded that the products evaluated exerted antifungal activity against non-albicans Candidastrains, highlighting the essential oil of S. aromaticum that showed antimicrobial activity in both methodologies. (AU)


Subject(s)
Candida , Syzygium , Candida glabrata , Defense Mechanisms , Eucalyptus , Mycoses , Antifungal Agents
14.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 9(1): 1-17, jun. 2021. ilus., tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284388

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: el aumento de la incidencia de las micosis ha generado la necesidad de desarrollar técnicas in vitro para el estudio de la susceptibilidad a los antifùngicos; El documento CLSI M27-A2 es el método de referencia para estudios de sensibilidad en levaduras. No obstante, este no subsana las necesidades de rutina de los laboratorios, principalmente por ser laboriosos; en consecuencia, métodos alternativos surgen ante la necesidad de contar con técnicas más sencillas, una de ellos es el ATB FUNGUS 3 que permite determinar la sensibilidad de Candida frente a diferentes antifùngicos. OBJETIVO: validar el método comercial ATB FUNGUS 3, frente al método de referencia M27-A2, con el fin de conocer su valor diagnóstico. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: se determinó la eficacia del método a través de parámetros de test diagnóstico; además, se evaluó la sensibilidad de 50 cepas de Candida albicans frente a Fluconazol (FLZ) e Itraconazol (ITZ) mediante el método comercial y el de referencia. RESULTADOS: se encontró que el ATB - FUNGUS 3 presenta una especificidad para FLZ de 100%, sensibilidad de 91%, valor predictivo positivo (VPP) de 56%, valor predictivo negativo (VPN) de 100%, con una eficacia diagnóstica de 92%, calculados para un intervalo de confianza (IC) de 95%; para ITZ la especificidad y sensibilidad fue de 88 % y 90% respectivamente, con un VPP de 64%, un VPN de 97%, eficacia diagnóstica de 90%, IC 95%. Para las pruebas de concordancia, el índice Kappa para FLZ e ITZ fue de 0,67 y 0,68 respectivamente. La prueba de Likelihood ratio para el FLZ fue (LR+) de 11,25 mientras que el (LR-) fue 0; para el ITZ (LR+) de 9,19 y el (LR-) fue 0,14. Reproducibilidad de 90 % (FLZ) y 85% (ITZ). CONCLUSIONES: el ATB FUNGUS 3, es una técnica rápida, de fácil realización y reproducible; pero el desempeño global de la técnica, sugiere que aún no es confiable para el diagnóstico en laboratorios, debido a los valores bajos obtenidos en los VPP, que indican que se podría derivar en errores al momento de determinar una cepa como sensible o resistente, punto importante al momento de decidir la conducta terapéutica.


INTRODUCTION: the higher incidence of mycoses has generated the need to develop in vitro techniques for susceptibility study to antifungal agents. CLSI M27-A2 is a reference method for yeast susceptibility studies. However, this method does not meet the needs of routine laboratories because it is difficult to follow all the processes. Consequently, alternative methods arise due to the need for simpler techniques. Then, one of them is ATB FUNGUS 3 which allows determining Candida's sensitivity to different antifungal agents. OBJECTIVE: validate the commercial method ATB FUNGUS 3 compared with the reference method M27-A2 in order to know its diagnostic value. MATERIAL AND METHODS: efficacy was determined by diagnostic test parameters. Moreover, sensitivity of 50 strains of Candida albicans at Fluconazole (FLZ) and Itraconazole (ITZ) was evaluated by the commercial and reference methods. RESULTS: ATB - FUNGUS 3 presents a specificity for FLZ of 100%, sensitivity of 91%, positive predictive value (PPV) 56%, negative predictive value (NPV) 100% with a diagnostic efficacy of 92%, calculated for a 95% confidence interval (CI). For ITZ, the specificity and sensitivity were 88% and 90% respectively, with a PPV 64%, a NPV 97% with a diagnostic efficacy of 90%, 95% CI. For the concordance tests, the Kappa index for FLZ and ITZ was 0.67 and 0.68 respectively. The Likelihood ratio test for FLZ was (LR +) of 11.25 while the (LR-) was 0; for ITZ (LR +) of 9.19 and the (LR-) was 0.14. Reproducibility of 90% (FLZ) and 85% (ITZ). CONCLUSIONS: the ATB FUNGUS 3 is a fast, easy and reproducible technique. However, the overall performance of the technique suggests that this method hasn't been reliable for diagnostic laboratory yet, because PPVS obtained low values. These PPVS indicate that it could lead to errors when determining a strain as sensitive or resistant. This is an important point when deciding the therapeutic conduct.


Subject(s)
Candida albicans , Antifungal Agents , Confidence Intervals , Diagnosis
15.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(2): 117-126, 20210630. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348662

ABSTRACT

El brote mundial del SARS-CoV-2, descrito a partir del 2019, provocó la pandemia de COVID-19, originando un riesgo para la salud de las personas, una amenaza a la vida y una emergencia de salud pública internacional, que hasta Julio del 2021 no se ha logrado controlar. La coinfección en estos pacientes, por virus, bacterias y hongos, aumenta la dificultad de diagnóstico, tratamiento y pronóstico de la enfermedad. Es importante profundizar los conocimientos sobre el virus SARS-CoV-2 y las coinfecciones que podrían presentarse, en particular, en pacientes con COVID-19 que presentan micosis. El objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica es, determinar la importancia de las micosis, como enfermedad oportunista, en pacientes con COVID-19. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sistemática, en la base de datos "PubMed-NCBI". Se utilizaron las palabras claves: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "Coronavirus", "COVID-19 and coinfection", "Mycosis", "Aspergillus spp.", "Candida spp.", "COVID-19 and Aspergillus spp.", "COVID-19 and Candida spp.". Del análisis de la bibliografía, se concluye la importancia de las micosis respiratorias, originadas por diversos hongos en pacientes con COVID-19. Hay poca información del manejo de estas, siendo necesario fortalecer la investigación de la coinfección, para así, mejorar los flujogramas de sospecha clínica, contribuyendo a diagnósticos, tratamientos precisos y fomentar la prevención frente a esta pandemia.


The global outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, described as of 2019 whose expansion caused the COVID-19 pandemic, has created a risk to people's health, presenting itself as a threat to life and an international public health emergency, which to the date cannot be controlled. Coinfection in these patients, by viruses, bacteria and fungi, increases the difficulty of diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the disease. It's important to deepen the knowledge about the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the co-infections that could occur, in particular, in patients with COVID-19 who present with mycosis. The objective of this bibliographic review is to determine the importance of mycosis, as an opportunistic disease, in patients affected by SARS-CoV-2. A systematic bibliographic review was carried out in the "PubMed-NCBI" database, using the keywords and / or headings: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "Coronavirus", "COVID-19 and coinfection" ,"Mycosis", "Aspergillus spp.", "Candida spp." COVID-19 and Aspergillus spp.", "COVID-19 and Candida spp.". From the analysis of the literature, one can conclude the importance of respiratory mycoses, caused by various fungal pathogens in patients with COVID-19. The disease was described in 2019 and there is few a information on cases and their management, making it necessary to strengthen the investigation of coinfection in these patients, in order to improve the flow charts of clinical suspicion, contributing to diagnoses, accurate treatments and promoting prevention against to this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus , Candida , Coinfection , SARS-CoV-2 , Immune Tolerance
16.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(2): 547-552, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340650

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to describe the epidemiology of invasive candidiasis in a neonatal intensive care unit. Methods: cross-sectional study that included all neonates with invasive candidiasis confirmed by blood culture from April 2015 to June 2018. Demographic, clinical and microbiological data were analyzed, comparing neonates with extreme low birth weight (ELBW) with neonates ≥ 1000g birth weight, considering a p <0.05 as statistically significant. Results: there were 38 cases of invasive candidiasis, resulting in an overall incidence of 2.5%. Twelve (32%) were ELBW neonates and 26 (68%) neonates ≥ 1000g birth weight, an incidence of 4.4% and 2.0%, respectively. Abdominal surgery was more frequent among neonates with birth weight ≥ 1000g compared to ELBW neonates (85% vs. 17%; p <0.01), as well as the median in days of antibiotics use (18 vs. 10.5; p = 0.04). The median in days of mechanical ventilation was more frequent among ELBW neonates (10 vs. 5.5; p = 0.04). The majority of Candida species were non-albicans (64%). Fatality rate was 32%. Conclusions: the incidence of invasive candidiasis among neonates with birth weight ≥ 1000g was higher than that found in the literature. This group has a higher proportion of gastrointestinal malformations that require surgery. Thus, fluconazole prophylaxis may be necessary for a broader group of neonates.


Resumo Objetivos: descrever a epidemiologia de candidíase invasiva em uma unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal. Métodos: estudo transversal que incluiu todos recém-nascidos com candidíase invasiva confirmada por hemocultura de abril de 2015 a junho de 2018. Foi analisado dados demográficos, clínicos e microbiológicos, comparando recém-nascidos de extremo baixo peso ao nascer (EBPN) com os recém-nascidos com peso ao nascer ≥1000g, considerando um valor de p<0,05 como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: houve 38 casos de candidíase invasiva, resultando em uma incidência global de 2,5%. Doze (32%) eram neonatos de EBPN e 26 (68%) neonatos com peso ao nascer ≥1000g, resultando em uma incidência de 4,4% e 2,0%, respectivamente. A realização de cirurgia abdominal foi mais frequente nos neonatos com peso ao nascer ≥1000g em comparação com os neonatos de EBPN (85% vs. 17%; p<0,01), assim como a mediana dos dias de uso de antibióticos (18 vs. 10,5; p =0,04). Já o a mediana dos dias de ventilação mecânica foi mais frequente entre recém-nascido de EBPN (10 vs. 5,5; p = 0,04). A maioria das espécies de Candida eram não-albicans (64%). A letalidade foi de 32%. Conclusões: a incidência de candidíase invasiva entre os recém-nascidos ≥1000g ao nascer foi superior ao encontrado na literatura. Este grupo tem uma maior proporção de malformações gastrointestinais que requerem cirurgia. Assim, a profilaxia com fluconazol pode ser necessária para um grupo mais amplo de recém-nascidos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Candidiasis, Invasive/prevention & control , Candidiasis, Invasive/therapy , Candidiasis, Invasive/epidemiology , Tertiary Healthcare , Birth Weight , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Demographic Data , Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight
17.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(3): 390-393, May-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288675

ABSTRACT

Abstract Spondylodiscitis is an uncommon but serious complication after spine surgeries, and its main etiologic agent is Staphylococcus aureus. Fungal infections are rare and mostly caused by Candida albicans. We report the clinical case of a 69-year-old male patient who underwent a L2-S1 arthrodesis for degenerative scoliosis correction. He presented an infection 2.5 months after the procedure, a spondylodiscitis at L5-S1 levels, caused by Candida parapsilosis. The treatment consisted of surgical material removal, tricortical iliac graft placement in an anterior approach (L5-S1), lumbopelvic fixation (from T10 to the pelvis) in a posterior approach, and drug treatment with anidulafungin and fluconazole. This last medication was administered for 12 months, with good clinical outcomes.


Resumo As espondilodiscites são complicações infrequentes, porém graves em pós-operatórios de cirurgias da coluna vertebral, tendo como principal agente etiológico o Staphylococcus aureus. As infecções fúngicas são raras, sendo a Candida albicans a principal representante desse grupo. Relatamos o caso clínico de um paciente do sexo masculino, 69 anos, operado com artrodese de L2 a S1 para correção de escoliose degenerativa. O paciente apresentou quadro clínico infeccioso 2 meses e meio após o procedimento, relacionado à espondilodiscite L5-S1, causada por Candida parapsilosis. O tratamento consistiu na remoção do material cirúrgico, colocação de enxerto tricortical de ilíaco pela via anterior (L5-S1) e fixação lombopélvica (de T10 à pelve) pela via posterior, além de iniciar o tratamento medicamentoso com anidulafungina e fluconazol, mantendo essa última medicação por 12 meses, com boa evolução clínica.


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus , Discitis , Fluconazole , Candida parapsilosis , Anidulafungin , Mycoses
18.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(2): 1-8, 2021-05-18. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363196

ABSTRACT

Background: "Dividivi" Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd fruits are traditionally used by the Wayuú community in La Guajira (Colombia) to treat oral and skin cavity diseases caused by bacteria and fungi. Streptococcus pyogenes is a gram-positive cocci of group A (beta-hemolytic) that is the cause of pharyngeal disease, scarlet fever, cellulitis, erysipelas, or toxic shock-like syndrome. Alternatively, Candida albicans is a yeast-like fungus that is a normal flora of the digestive tract, vagina, or skin folds; it has been known to be the root cause of opportunistic diseases such as diaper rash, oral and esophagus thrush, or vulvovaginitis. Objective: This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of C. coriaria (Jacq.) Willddry fruits on S. pyogenes ATCC 12384andC. albicans ATTC 14053. Method: C. coriaria extracts were obtained from the Soxhlet method using two solvents (methanol and ethanol 98%) prepared from pulverized fruits. A phytochemical test and an antimicrobial activity assay were performed using the obtained extracts and tested using S. pyogenes ATCC 12384 and C. albicans ATTC 14053 strains. Results: A phytochemical profile was performed, examining the presence of bioactive metabolites (tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, and anthraquinones) from each extract. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that the ethanolic extract inhibited S. pyogenes ATCC 12384,causing inhibition halos of 14.1 ± 0.1 mm and a Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 172 mg/ml, and C. albicans test shows inhibition halos of 16.1 ± 0.2 mm and MIC of 212 mg/ml. Additionally, the methanolic extract inhibited S. pyogenes with inhibition halos of 15.2 ± 0.2 mm and MIC of 152 mg/ml; no inhibitory effect was observed on C. albicans.Conclusion: This study revealed that C. coriaria has an antimicrobial effect on the tested species opening the field of its possible use as a therapeutic agent


Introducción: Los frutos del "Dividivi" Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd son usados tradicionalmente por la comunidad indígena Wayuú en La Guajira (Colombia) para el tratamiento de enfermedades de la cavidad bucal y cutáneas ocasionadas por bacterias y hongos. Streptococcuspyogenes es un coco grampositivo del grupo A (beta-hemolítico) que es la causa de enfermedad faríngea, escarlatina, celulitis, erisipela o síndrome tipo shock tóxico. Candida albicans es un hongo levaduriforme que es flora normal del tracto digestivo, la vagina o los pliegues de la piel; se sabe que es la causa principal de enfermedades oportunistas como la dermatitis del pañal, aftas bucales y esofágicas, o vulvovaginitis. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana de extractos metanólicos y etanólicos de frutos secos sobre microorganismos patógenos específicamente S. pyogenes ATCC 12384yC. albicansATTC 14053. Método: A partir de frutos polverizados de C. coriaria, usando el método Soxlet, se evaluaron dos solventes (metanol y etanol al 98%), los cuales, fueron usados para estudiar su actividad antimicrobiana evaluando su efecto en cepas de S. pyogenes ATCC 12384 y C. albicans ATTC 14053. Resultados: Mediante un perfil fitoquímico se determinó la presencia de grupos de metabolitos secundarios con compuestos bioactivos (taninos, alcaloides, glucósidos, saponinas, y antraquinonas). Las pruebas de sensibilidad antimicrobiana mostraron que el extracto etanólico tuvo un efecto inhibidor sobre S. pyogenesATCC 12384 con halos de inhibición de 14.1 ± 0.1 mm y una concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI) de 172 mg/mL, y sobre C. albicans se presentaron halos de inhibición de 16.1 ± 0.2 mm y CMI de 212 mg/mL, mientras que el extracto metanólico tuvo un efecto inhibidor sobre S. pyogenes con halos de inhibición de 15.2 ± 0.2 mm y CMI de 152 mg/mL no se observó efecto inhibidor sobre C. albicans. Conclusión: Este estudio demostró que C. coriaria tiene efecto antimicrobiano en las especies evaluadas, abriendo un campo de investigación en la evaluación de su uso como agente terapéutico


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Infective Agents , Skin Diseases , Streptococcus pyogenes , Candida albicans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mouth Diseases
19.
Odontol. sanmarquina (Impr.) ; 24(1): 85-88, Ene-Mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150874

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de esta revisión es presentar el estado del conocimiento respecto a la capacidad que tiene Candida albicans de producir nitrosaminas y de cómo estas se relacionan con la posible malignización de lesiones de la cavidad bucal. La candidiasis oral (CO) es una infección frecuente de la mucosa bucal provocada por hongos de la familia Candida spp. Estos hongos son integrantes de la flora bucal habitual, pero, por diferentes factores locales y sistémicos, pueden producir micosis superficiales. Entre las distintas especies, albicans, es la más frecuente en la cavidad bucal.Posee gran variedad de factores de virulencia, uno de ellos la capacidad de nitrosación de nitratos y nitritos presentes en saliva que últimamente se ha considerado relacionada a la malignización de lesiones mucosas de la cavidad bucal y otras como el estómago.


This literature review was carried out to approach the state of knowledge regarding the capacity of Candida Albicans to produce nitrosamines and how these are related to the possible malignancy of lesions in the oral cavity. Oral candidiasis (CO) is a frequent infection of the oral mucosa caused by fungi of the family Candida spp. These fungi are part of the usual oral flora but, due to different local and systemic factors, can produce superficial mycosis. Among the different species, Albicans is the most frequent in the oral cavity. It has a great variety of virulence factors, one of them the nitrosation capacity of nitrates and nitrites present in saliva that lately has been considered related to the malignization of mucosal lesions of the oral cavity and others such as the stomach.

20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(1): 101041, jan., 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249290

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: Candida spp. has been reported as one of the common agents of nosocomial bloodstream infections and is associated with a high mortality. Therefore, this study evaluated the clinical findings, local epidemiology, and microbiological aspects of candidemia in eight tertiary medical centers in the state of Parana, South of Brazil. Methods: In this study, we reported 100 episodes of candidemia in patients admitted to eight different hospitals in five cities of the state of Parana, Brazil, using data collected locally (2016 and 2017) and tabulated online. Results: The incidence was found to be 2.7 / 1000 patients / day and 1.2 / 1000 admissions. C. albicans was responsible for 49% of all candidemia episodes. Cancer and surgery were the two most common underlying conditions associated with candidemia. The mortality rate within 30 days was 48%, and removal of the central venous catheter (p = 0.029) as well as empirical or prophylactic exposure to antifungals were both related to improved survival (p = 0.033). Conclusions: This study highlights the high burden and mortality rates of candidemia in hospitals from Parana as well as the need to enhance antifungal stewardship program in the enrolled medical centers.

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