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1.
Cancer Research and Clinic ; (6): 233-237, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934663

ABSTRACT

In recent years, neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been increasingly applied to the treatment of locally advanced or early-stage breast cancer patients, and has improved the pathological state and stage of the disease to a certain extent, which makes the decision-making of postmastectomy radiotherapy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients more complex. Existing guidelines have pointed out that patients with positive axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy are recommend for postmastectomy radiotherapy. However, postmastectomy radiotherapy is still controversial in patients with pathological complete remission or pathologically lymph node-negative after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Radiotherapy can improve the local control rate and overall survival rate of patients, but some patients will have a series of adverse reactions after radiotherapy. Therefore, it is very important to find patients who can benefit from postmastectomy radiotherapy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. This article reviews the research progress of postmastectomy radiotherapy for breast cancer patients with pathological complete remission or pathologically lymph node-negative after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933626

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the prognosis of gastric neuroendocrine cancer.Methods:This study included 102 patients with gastric neuroendocrine cancer, the disease-free survival rate (DFS) and overall survival rate (OS) were compared between two groups according whether they were given neoadjuvant chemotherapy before radical resection.Results:Ninteen of the 102 patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with surgery, while the other 83 patients received upfront surgery . The 1-year survival rate of the direct operation group and the NAC group was 83.0% and 51.8%, respectively, and the 3-year survival rate was 63.0% and 33.3%, respectively ( χ2=9.182, P=0.002). The 1-year disease-free survival rate was 80.4% and 38.5%, respectively, and the 3-year disease-free survival rate was 59.8% and 25.7%, respectively ( χ2=11.142, P=0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that the difference between the two groups was mainly significant between MANEC patients ( χ2=10.742, P=0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that neoadjuvant therapy was an independent risk factor affecting the overall survival rate (all P<0.05). Univariate analysis shows that only adjuvant chemotherapy is the risk factor affecting disease-free survival ( P<0.05). When the neoadjuvant chemotherapy and the direct surgery were matched 1∶1, the OS and DFS of the direct surgery group were better than those of the NAC patients ( χ2=4.014, 3.954; P=0.045, 0.047). Conclusion:Neoadjuvant chemotherapy failed to improve the prognosis of patients with gastric neuroendocrine cancer/MANEC.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930113

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effect of self-made Yiqi Yangyin Decoction on immune function, serum tumor markers and toxic and side effects of chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer chemotherapy.Methods:A total of 88 patients with advanced gastric cancer who met the inclusion criteria in the hospital between December 2018 and December 2020 were divided into two groups according to the random number table method, with 44 in each group. The control group was treated with chemotherapy, and the observation group was given self-made Yiqi Yangyin Decoction on the basis of the control group. The two groups were treated for 4 consecutive cycles with 3 weeks as 1 cycle. The Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) symptoms were scored before and after treatment, and the levels of IgG, IgA and IgM were detected by immunoturbidimetry. The levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 125 (CA125) were detected by ELISA. The gastrointestinal reactions, thrombocytopenia, anemia, leukopenia and neurotoxicity were recorded and evaluated during treatment, and the clinical efficacy was assessed.Results:The total effective rate was 81.8% (36/44) in observation group and 61.4% (27/44) in control group (χ 2=4.53, P<0.05). After treatment, the scores of stomachache and gastric distension, poor appetite, shortness of breath, and drooping spirit in observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group ( t=17.28, 11.91, 5.02, 5.65, all Ps<0.001) while the levels of serum IgG [(9.39±0.46)g/L vs. (8.54±0.23) g/L, t=10.96], IgA [(1.35±0.42) g/L vs. (1.07±0.15) g/L, t=6.90] and IgM [(0.92±0.09) g/L vs. (0.78±0.10) g/L, t=4.17] were significantly higher than those in the control group ( P<0.01). The levels of serum CEA [(9.07±1.01) μg/L vs. (14.89±2.13) μg/L, t=16.38] and CA125 [(24.87± 4.68) kU/L vs. (30.75±5.33) kU/L, t=5.50] were significantly lower than those in the control group ( P<0.01). During treatment, the toxic and side effects of gastrointestinal reactions, thrombocytopenia, anemia, leukopenia and neurotoxicity were significantly lower in the observation group than those in the control group ( Z=18.52, 2.54, 3.12, 3.84, 2.34, P<0.05). Conclusion:Self-made Yiqi Yangyin Decoction can improve the TCM symptoms, enhance the immunity, reduce the levels of serum tumor markers, and relieve the toxic and side effects of chemotherapy of patients undergoing chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929880

ABSTRACT

There is a certain relationship between chemotherapy and stroke in cancer patients. Its mechanism may be associated with the increase of the prevalence of traditional vascular factors, the promotion of coagulation dysfunction, the induction of anemia, the impairment of cardiac function, and vascular inflammation. The pathophysiological mechanism of chemotherapy-associated stroke is still in the exploratory stage. This article reviews the pathophysiological mechanism, monitoring indicators, and diagnosis and treatment progress of stroke in cancer patients during chemotherapy.

5.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(6)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385531

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El hepatoblastoma (HB), es una neoplasia maligna, que se origina en el hígado. La supervivencia (SV) depende de la extensión de avance de la enfermedad. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar diferencias en la SV actuarial global (SVAG) y libre de enfermedad (SVLE) en pacientes con HB, según la extensión de su enfermedad. Serie de casos con seguimiento. Se incluyeron pacientes de entre 4 y 160 meses de edad tratados en un centro oncológico de Los Andes ecuatorianos (2000-2019). Las variables resultado fueron: lóbulo afectado, metástasis pulmonar, infiltración vascular, estadio PRETEXT, riesgo, histología, niveles de alfafetoproteína (AFP), remisión completa (RC), SVAG y SVLE. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y analítica (Chi2, exacto de Fisher y corrección por continuidad). Se realizaron análisis de SV con curvas de Kaplan Meier y log-rank. Fueron estudiados 28 pacientes (53,6 % hombres), con una mediana de edad de 40 meses. Se verificaron metástasis pulmonares e infiltración vascular en el 25,0 % y 35,7 % de los casos respectivamente. La histología, estadio clínico y riesgo alto fueron mayoritariamente tipo epitelial (42,8 %), PRETEXT II (50,0 %) y riesgo alto (67,8 %) respectivamente. La media de AFP al diagnóstico fue 1055712ng/ml y 9 pacientes alcanzaron RC. La SVAG y SVLE general a 19 años fue 33,1 % y 26,0 % respectivamente. Según su extensión, la SVAG y la SVLE para los pacientes de riesgo estándar y alto fueron 50,0 % y 25,4 % (p=0,148); y 50,0 % y 14,7 % (p=0,037) respectivamente. La SVAG y SVLE verificadas son menores a las reportadas en otros estudios. La SVLE según su extensión, presentó diferencia significativa, sin embargo, este resultado debe ser tomado con cautela debido al número pequeño de pacientes.


SUMMARY: Hepatoblastoma (HB), is a malignant neoplasm, which originates in the liver. Survival (SV) depends on the extent of disease progression. The objective of this study was to determine differences in overall SV (OS) and disease-free (DFS) in patients with HB, according to the extent of their disease. Case series with follow-up. Patients between 4 and 160 months of age treated at an oncology center in the Ecuadorian Andes (2000-2019) were included. The result variables were affected lobe, lung metastasis, vascular infiltration, PRETEXT stage, risk, histology, alpha-fetoprotein levels (AFP), complete remission (RC), OS and DFS. Descriptive and analytical statistics (Chi2, Fisher's exact and continuity correction) were used. SV analyzes were performed with Kaplan Meier and log-rank curves. In this analysis 28 patients (53.6 % men), with a median age of 40 months, were studied. Lung metastases and vascular infiltration were verified in 25.0 % and 35.7 % of the cases, respectively. Histology, clinical stage, and high risk were mainly epithelial type (42.8 %), PRETEXT II (50.0 %), and high risk (67.8 %), respectively. The mean AFP at diagnosis was 1055712 ng / ml and 9 patients achieved CR. OS and DFS at 19 years were 33.1 % and 26.0 % respectively. According to their extension, the OS and DFS for standard and high risk patients were 50.0 % and 25.4 % (p = 0.148); and 50.0 % and 14.7 % (p = 0.037) respectively. The verified OS and DFS are lower than those reported in other studies. DFS according to its extension, presented a significant difference, however, this result should be considered with caution due to the small number of patients.

6.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 1291-1294, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911005

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of enteral nutrition on the incidence of treatment complications, results from nutritional indexes and proportions of immune cell subsets in elderly patients with esophageal carcinoma during concurrent chemoradiotherapy.Methods:From January 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020, 108 elderly patients(≥60 years)undergone concurrent chemoradiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma at Quanzhou First Hospital and eligible for inclusion were enrolled in the case-control study.They were randomly divided into the study group(enteral nutrition group)and the control group(normal diet group), with 54 cases in each group.The incidence of complications, results from nutritional indexes and immune cell subsets of the two groups were analyzed according to data type.Results:The incidence of bone marrow suppression(Grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ)in the study group(37.0%)was significantly lower than that in the control group(63.0%)( χ2=7.259, P<0.01). The incidence of bone marrow suppression(Grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ)in the study group(11.1%)was significantly lower than that in the control group(27.8%)( χ2=4.788, P<0.05). The levels of hemoglobin, total serum protein and albumin were(121.36±11.63)g/L, (73.78±7.79)g/L and(40.95±3.52)g/L in the study group and(106.45±10.85)g/L, (63.12±8.35)g/L and(35.54±4.12)g/L in the control group, respectively, after 4 weeks of radiotherapy and chemotherapy( P<0.05). The proportions of CD3+ and CD4+ were(64.15±5.84)% and(48.64±4.28)% in the study group and(59.25±6.27)% and(45.27±4.52)% in the control group, respectively, after 4 weeks of radiotherapy and chemotherapy( P<0.05). The proportion of CD8+ was(26.93±3.63)% in the study group and(30.35±3.36)% in the control group after 4 weeks of radiotherapy and chemotherapy( P<0.05). Conclusions:During concurrent chemoradiotherapy for elderly patients with esophageal carcinoma, enteral nutrition with adjustment based on patient's food intake can reduce patients' nutritional risk and modulate the proportion of immune cell subsets, thus reducing the occurrence of bone marrow suppression.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932722

ABSTRACT

Primary liver cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world, and it is also the main cause of cancer-related death. However, the recurrence rate after surgical resection is still high. These problems have led to the development of more neoadjuvant treatment strategies aimed at improving the prognosis and reducing the recurrence rate. Despite the lack of high-level evidence to guide treatment decisions, recent advances in local and systemic therapies, including radiotherapy and immunotherapy, raise the prospect of new approaches that may improve outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910151

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the prognostic factors of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by interval debulking surgery (IDS).Methods:The clinical and pathological data of patients with stage Ⅲc-Ⅳ EOC underwent surgical treatment in Sichuan Cancer Center from January 1st, 2014 to December 31th, 2018 were retrospectively analyzed, and the prognosis was followed up.Results:(1) A total of 216 EOC patients were included in the study, whose age was (52.1±8.7) years old, the median follow-up time was 44.6 months (17.2-80.1 months), the median progression free survival (PFS) was 11.1 months (8.5-13.8 months), and the median overall survival (OS) was 40.0 months (32.7-47.3 months). (2) Among 216 patients with advanced EOC, there were 75 cases in the primary debulking surgery (PDS) group and 141 cases in the NACT+IDS group. Compared with the PDS group, the serum CA 125 level before treatment (median: 859.4 vs 1 371.0 kU/L), proportion of stage Ⅳ patients [5.3% (4/75) vs 23.4% (33/144)] and no visible residual disease (R0) cytoreduction rate in the NACT+IDS group were significantly higher [(41.3% (31/75) vs 61.7% (87/144); all P<0.05]. The median PFS in the NACT+IDS group was significantly shorter than that of the PDS group (9.1 vs 15.2 months; χ2=7.014, P=0.008), but there was no significant difference in the median OS between the two groups (42.6 vs 38.0 months; χ2=1.325, P=0.250). (3) Univariate analysis showed that body mass index (BMI), preoperative serum CA 125 level, surgical-pathological stage, NACT effect, postoperative residual tumor size, time to initiation of postoperative chemotherapy and chemotherapy regimen were significantly correlated with PFS in the NACT+IDS group (all P<0.05); preoperative serum CA 125 level, surgical-pathological stage, NACT effect, postoperative residual tumor size, postoperative chemotherapy regimen were significantly related with OS in the NACT+IDS group (all P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that BMI, postoperative residual tumor size, time to initiation of postoperative chemotherapy were independent factors of PFS in the NACT+IDS group (all P<0.05); preoperative serum CA 125 level, surgical-pathological stage, postoperative residual tumor size were independent factors of OS in the NACT+IDS group (all P<0.05). The results showed that the PFS of patients with normal preoperative serum CA 125 level and (or) chemotherapy ≤7 days after IDS was longer, while no significant difference comparable with those in the PDS group ( P>0.05), and OS was also showing an prolonged trend, but the difference was also not statistically significant ( P>0.05). Conclusions:Normal CA 125 before IDS and time received chemotherapy no longer than 7 days after IDS are two related factors of prognosis benefit in advance EOC patients treated with NACT+IDS. Therefore, timely adjustment of the dose and regimen of NACT to reduce CA 125 level to normal range in about three cycles before IDS, and strengthen IDS perioperative management to promote postoperative recovery and perform chemotherapy as soon as possible might help to improve the prognosis of patients.

9.
Mastology (Online) ; 31: 1-7, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358952

ABSTRACT

Introduction: At present, more than half of patients diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer (BC) and express hormonal receptors will receive some adjuvant chemotherapy scheme, but only a few of them would benefit in terms of survival. Genomic platforms allow a better understanding of the heterogeneity of different types of hormonal receptor-positive and HER2-negative BC. They have proven their validity as tools to identify those patients who will obtain a clear benefit with the indication of chemotherapy treatment. The aim of this study is to analyze the use of the genomic platform, namely, Oncotype Dx® and its impact on the indication of adjuvant treatment, evaluated mainly as the change in treatment indication. Methods: Multicenter observational cohort study was performed in different Mastology units in Argentina. Patients underwent the Oncotype Dx to clarify the adjuvant treatment. Treatment decisions were settled before and after performing Oncotype Dx. Results: From January 2013 to December 2018, 211 patients with luminal A or B and HER2-negative breast carcinomas, who underwent the Oncotype Dx, were included. Based on our records, 40% of the patients change the indication of adjuvant treatment after the performance of the Oncotype Dx. Of these, 24% of patients who underwent initial endocrine therapy only adjusted their treatment with the addition of chemotherapy. Among patients with an initial CTH recommendation, 49% were able to receive endocrine therapy only when, due to traditional prognostic factors, they would have received chemotherapy. Conclusions: In our population, the use of the Recurrence Score was clinically significant in relation to the change of the established treatments. Consequently, it is a very important tool and a decisive factor in the adjuvant indication in patients with positive hormonal receptors and HER2neu-negative early BC.

10.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 67(1): e-171188, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147737

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A enterocolite neutropênica (EN) consiste em ulceração ou necrose da mucosa do ceco, íleo terminal e cólon ascendente, sendo uma condição clínica ocasionada como evento adverso de medicamentos, principalmente em esquemas quimioterápicos. Por ser uma condição com alto índice de mortalidade, o presente relato tem como objetivo contribuir significativamente para discussões que envolvem a EN e a participação da equipe multiprofissional no desfecho clínico. Relato do caso: Paciente do sexo masculino, 75 anos, com diagnóstico de câncer de mama, evoluindo com EN após tratamento com quimioterapia adjuvante. A presença de comorbidades e a idade foram os principais fatores complicadores do quadro de tiflite. Por ser uma toxicidade importante e que pode levar à piora do quadro clínico do paciente com câncer, abordar esse tema é fundamental para um diagnóstico mais rápido, com possibilidade de medidas preventivas. Conclusão: Sendo assim, em virtude do notório aumento dos casos de EN, aponta-se como perspectiva a qualificação da equipe de saúde para a inserção de profissionais ainda mais especializados, capazes de contribuir e identificar os sinais e sintomas relacionados com toxicidades hematológicas, resultado de tratamentos quimioterápicos.


Introduction: Neutropenic enterocolitis (NE) consists of ulceration or necrosis of the mucosa of the cecum, terminal ileum, and ascending colon, being a clinical condition caused by an adverse drug event, mainly in chemotherapy regimens. As it is a high mortality rate condition, this report aims to contribute significantly to discussions involving NE and the participation of the multidisciplinary team in the clinical outcome. Case report: This is a 75-year-old male patient diagnosed with Breast Cancer, who developed EN after treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy. The presence of comorbidities and age were the main complicating factors in typhlitis. As it is an important toxicity and can lead to a worsening of the clinical condition of cancer patients, addressing this issue is essential for a faster diagnosis with the possibility of preventive measures. Conclusion: Therefore, in view of the notorious increase of cases of NE, the perspective of the qualification of the health team is pointed out, for the inclusion of even more specialized professionals capable of contributing and identifying the signs and symptoms related to hematological toxicities, result of chemotherapy treatments.


Introducción: La enterocolitis neutropénica (EN) consiste en la ulceración o necrosis de la mucosa del ciego, íleon terminal y colon ascendente, siendo una condición clínica causada por un evento adverso farmacológico, principalmente en regímenes de quimioterapia. Al tratarse de una afección con una alta tasa de mortalidad, este informe tiene como objetivo contribuir de manera significativa a las discusiones que involucran al EN y la participación del equipo multidisciplinario en el resultado clínico. Relato del caso: Paciente masculino, 75 años, diagnosticado de cáncer de mama, que desarrolló EN después del tratamiento con quimioterapia adyuvante. La presencia de comorbilidades y la edad fueron los principales factores de complicación en Tiflite. Como se trata de una toxicidad importante y puede conducir a un empeoramiento de la condición clínica de los pacientes con cáncer, abordar esta cuestión es fundamental para un diagnóstico más rápido con la posibilidad de medidas preventivas. Conclusión: Por tanto, ante el notable incremento de casos de EN, se apunta la perspectiva de la calificación del equipo de salud, para la inclusión de profesionales aún más especializados capaces de aportar e identificar los signos y síntomas relacionados con las toxicidades hematológicas, un resultado de los tratamientos de quimioterapia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Breast Neoplasms, Male , Enterocolitis, Neutropenic/drug therapy , Patient Care Team , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
11.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(3): e20200378, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154705

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) improves survival of patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the cisplatin-vinorelbine regimen has been associated with a significant risk of clinically relevant toxicity. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, and feasibility of AC for NSCLC patients in a real-world setting. Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study of patients with stage I-III NSCLC undergoing surgery with curative intent between 2009 and 2018. AC was administered at the discretion of physicians. The patients were divided into two groups: AC group and no AC (control) group. Study outcomes included overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS), as well as the safety profile and feasibility of the cisplatin-vinorelbine regimen in a real-world setting. Results: The study involved 231 patients, 80 of whom received AC. Of those, 55 patients received the cisplatin-vinorelbine regimen. Survival analyses stratified by tumor stage showed that patients with stage II NSCLC in the AC group had better RFS (p = 0.036) and OS (p = 0.017) than did those in the no AC group. Among patients with stage III NSCLC in the AC group, RFS was better (p < 0.001) and there was a trend toward improved OS (p = 0.060) in comparison with controls. Of those who received the cisplatin-vinorelbine regimen, 29% had grade 3-4 febrile neutropenia, and 9% died of toxicity. Conclusions: These results support the benefit of AC for NSCLC patients in a real-world setting. However, because the cisplatin-vinorelbine regimen was associated with alarming rates of toxicity, more effective and less toxic alternatives should be investigated.


RESUMO Objetivo: A quimioterapia adjuvante melhora a sobrevida de pacientes com câncer pulmonar de células não pequenas (CPCNP) ressecado. No entanto, o esquema cisplatina-vinorelbina está relacionado com risco significativo de toxicidade clinicamente relevante. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar a eficácia, segurança e viabilidade da quimioterapia adjuvante para pacientes com CPCNP em um cenário de mundo real. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de coorte realizado em um único centro com pacientes com CPCNP em estágio I-III submetidos a cirurgia com intuito curativo entre 2009 e 2018. A quimioterapia adjuvante foi administrada a critério dos médicos. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: quimioterapia adjuvante e sem quimioterapia adjuvante (grupo controle). Os desfechos estudados foram sobrevida global (SG) e sobrevida livre de recidiva (SLR), bem como o perfil de segurança e viabilidade do esquema cisplatina-vinorelbina em um cenário de mundo real. Resultados: O estudo envolveu 231 pacientes, 80 dos quais receberam quimioterapia adjuvante. Destes, 55 receberam o esquema cisplatina-vinorelbina. As análises de sobrevida estratificadas pelo estágio do tumor mostraram que os pacientes com CPCNP em estágio II que receberam quimioterapia adjuvante apresentaram melhor SLR (p = 0,036) e SG (p = 0,017) do que os do grupo controle. Entre os pacientes com CPCNP em estágio III que receberam quimioterapia adjuvante, a SLR foi melhor (p < 0,001) e houve uma tendência a melhor SG do que no grupo controle (p = 0,060). Dos que receberam o esquema cisplatina-vinorelbina, 29% apresentaram neutropenia febril de grau 3-4, e 9% morreram em virtude de toxicidade. Conclusões: Os resultados confirmam o efeito benéfico da quimioterapia adjuvante em pacientes com CPCNP em um contexto real. No entanto, o esquema cisplatina-vinorelbina relacionou-se com taxas alarmantes de toxicidade e alternativas mais eficazes e menos tóxicas devem ser investigadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Cisplatin/adverse effects , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Vinorelbine/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Staging
12.
Oncol. (Guayaquil) ; 30(3): 237-249, Diciembre 30, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145729

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El tratamiento neodyuvante del cáncer de mama HER2 positivo ha ido evolucionando a través del tiempo, con la implementación de nuevas estrategias de manejo terapéutico. Es de esta manera como el trastuzumab, un anticuerpo monoclonal anti-HER2sigue siendo el tratamiento estándar en este subtipo de cáncer, los primeros estudios en los que se evidencia su eficacia son el realizado por el Dr. Buzdar y el estudio NOAH en los cuales las pacientes alcanzaron mayores tasas de respuesta patológica completa en comparación con quimioterapia sola, así como también un mayor número de cirugías conservadoras de mama en lugar de mastectomía.Con el paso de los años se han ido desarrollando nuevas estrategias de manejo terapéutico, así tenemos el doble bloqueo anti-HER2 con los anticuerpos monoclonales trastuzumab y pertuzumab que han mejorado las tasas de respuesta patológica completa. Además se ha incluido al lapatinib un inhibidor de tirosina quinasa como parte de las terapias dirigidas. Se ha dilucidado si las antraciclinas confieren un beneficio adicional al tratamiento neoadyuvante y los estudios demuestran que el beneficio es el mismo queotros esquemas de quimioterapia. Es en realidad la quimioterapia indispensable en la neoadyuvancia, el estudio PHERGain demuestra que existen pacientes que pueden alcanzar respuesta patológica completa solo con el doble bloqueo anti-her2 (trastuzumab y pertuzumab) lo que evitaría la toxicidad innecesaria por quimioterapia, y se podrían desarrollar estrategias para el manejo de aquellas pacientes que no alcanzaron una respuestapatológica completa posterior al doble bloqueo. Aún queda un campo amplio por explorar y con estudios en curso al momento. Palabras claves:DsCS:Receptor ErbB-2, Trastuzumab, Neoplasias de la Mama, Quimioterapia Adyuvante, Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansina


Introduction:The neodyuvanttreatment of HER2 positive breast cancer has evolved over time, with the implementation of new therapeutic management strategies. It is in this way that trastuzumab, an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody continues to be the standard treatment in this subtype of cancer, the first studies in which its efficacy is evidenced are the one carried out by Dr. Buzdar and the NOAH study in which patients achieved higher rates of complete pathological response compared to chemotherapy alone, as well as a higher number of breast-conserving surgeries rather than mastectomy.Over the years, new therapeutic management strategies have been developed, thus we have the double anti-HER2 blockade with the monoclonal antibodies trastuzumab and pertuzumab that have improved the ratesof complete pathological response. In addition, lapatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been included as part of targeted therapies. It has been elucidated whether anthracyclines confer an additional benefit to neoadjuvant treatment and studies show that the benefit is the same as other chemotherapy regimens.It is actually the essential chemotherapy in neoadjuvant therapy, the PHERGain study shows that there are patients who can achieve a complete pathological response only with the double anti-her2 blockade (trastuzumab and pertuzumab), which would avoid unnecessary toxicity due to chemotherapy, and strategies could be developed for the management of those patients who did not achieve a complete pathological response after double blockade. There is still a wide field to explore and with studies underway at the moment. Keywords:MESH:Receptor, ErbB-2;Trastuzumab; Breast Neoplasms; Chemotherapy, Adjuvant; Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Trastuzumab , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine
13.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(4): e-15956, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1140895

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O câncer de mama é a neoplasia que mais acomete o sexo feminino, sendo a primeira causa de morte por câncer em mulheres.O carcinoma mamário representa um grupo heterogêneo de doenças. Casos individuais diferem uns dos outros na morfologia, fenótipo e prognóstico. As patologias malignas das mamas podem se manifestar como tumores unifocais, multifocais e/ou multicêntricos. A incidência de tumores multifocais e multicêntricos no câncer de mama varia de 13% a 70%. Relato do caso: Paciente L.C., sexo feminino, 65 anos, com relato de nódulo palpável em mama direita em setembro de 2015. O estudo anatomopatológicodo nódulo mostrou carcinoma intraductal. Realizada quadrantectomia, com anatomopatológico que identificou carcinoma papilífero bem diferenciado intracístico e invasivo damama, associado a componente intraductal cribriforme e papilar, com margens e linfonodo sentinela livres e imuno-histoquímica compatível com perfil triplo-negativo. Em fevereiro de 2019, apresentou duas novas lesões em mama contralateral, identificadas como carcinoma ductal invasivo multifocal com papiloma intraductal associado, e carcinoma ductal invasivo associado a componente intraductal in situ dos tipos papilar, sólido e cribriforme, com imuno-histoquímica com perfis moleculares distintos entre si, sendo uma lesão do tipo luminal A e a outra, luminal híbrido. Conclusão: Este estudo relata um caso de uma paciente que apresentou lesões neoplásicas em ambas as mamas, em tempos distintos e com perfis histológicos e imuno-histoquímicos diferentes. Dessa forma, destacam-se a raridade do caso e a relevância da terapia dirigida a alvos específicos, uma vez que a paciente apresentava lesões com perfis moleculares distintos.


Introduction: Breast cancer is the neoplasm that most affects females, being the first cause of death by cancer in women. Breast carcinoma is a heterogeneous group of diseases. Individual cases differ from each other in morphology, phenotype and prognosis. Malignant breast pathologies can manifest as single, multifocal and/or multicentric tumors. The incidence of multifocal and multicentric tumors in breast cancer varies from 13% to 70%. Case report: Patient L.C., female, 65 years old, with a palpable nodule in the right breast in September 2015. The anatomopathological study of the nodule showed intraductal carcinoma. She underwent quadrantectomy, with anatomopathological examination that identified well-differentiated intracystic and invasive papillary carcinoma of the breast, associated with a cribriform and papillary intraductal component, with free sentinel lymph node and margins and immunohistochemistry compatible with triple negative profile. In February 2019, she presented two new lesions in contralateral breast, identified as invasive multifocal ductal carcinoma, with associated intraductal papilloma, and invasive ductal carcinoma, associated with an in situ intraductal component of the papillary, solid and cribriform types, with immunohistochemistry with different molecular profiles, being one lesion classified as luminal A and the other, hybrid luminal. Conclusion: This study reports a case of a patient who had neoplastic lesions in both breasts, at different times and with distinctive histological and immunohistochemical profiles. Thus, the rarity of the case and the relevance of the therapy aimed at specific targets are highlighted, since the patient presented lesions with different molecular profiles.


Introducción: El cáncer de mama es la neoplasia que más afecta a las mujeres, siendo la primera causa de muerte por cáncer en las mujeres. El carcinoma de mama representa un grupo heterogéneo de enfermedades. Los casos individuales difieren entre sí en morfología, fenotipo y pronóstico. Las patologías mamarias malignas pueden manifestarse como tumores únicos, multifocales y/o multicéntricos. La incidencia de tumores multifocales y multicéntricos en el cáncer de mama varía del 13% al 70%. Relato del caso: Paciente L.C., mujer, 65 años, con un nódulo palpable en el seno derecho en septiembre de 2015. El estudio anatomopatológico de la lesión mostró carcinoma intraductal. La paciente se sometió a una cuadrantectomía, con un examen anatomopatológico que identificó un carcinoma papilar invasivo e intraquístico bien diferenciado de mama, asociado con un componente intraductal cribiforme y papilar, con ganglio linfático y márgens libres y inmunohistoquímica compatible con perfil triple negativo. En febrero de 2019, presentó dos nuevas lesiones en el seno contralateral, identificadas como carcinoma ductal multifocal invasivo, con papiloma intraductal asociado y carcinoma ductal invasivo, asociado con un componente intraductal in situ de los tipos papilar, sólido y cribiforme, con inmunohistoquímica con diferentes perfiles moleculares, siendo una lesión del tipo luminal A y la otra, luminal híbrida. Conclusión: Este estudio reporta un caso de una paciente que tenía lesiones neoplásicas en ambos senos, en diferentes momentos y con diferentes perfiles histológicos e inmunohistoquímicos. Por lo tanto, se destaca la rareza del caso y la relevancia de la terapia dirigida a objetivos específicos, una vez que la paciente presentó lesiones con diferentes perfiles moleculares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast , Mastectomy, Segmental , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant
14.
Acta méd. peru ; 36(3): 195-201, jul.-set. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141945

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Evaluar la supervivencia global del cáncer colorrectal metastásico en Lima Metropolitana de acuerdo a la terapia empleada (independientemente del estado mutacional del gen K-ras) y comparar los resultados con los obtenidos en otros estudios similares en el mundo. Materiales y métodos: Estudio multicéntrico retrospectivo. Se analizaron las historias clínicas de pacientes con cáncer colorrectal metastásico, entre enero del 2010 y diciembre del 2014, en pacientes que fueron tratados en hospitales especializados de Lima Metropolitana. De los 419 casos con diagnóstico de cáncer colorrectal metastásico, 320 cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión correspondientes (76,4%), por lo cual fueron considerados en este estudio. Resultados: La mediana de la edad del total de participantes fue 63 años (rango: 15 a 90 años). El porcentaje de supervivencia a 2 y 5 años fue: 87,3% y 12,9% para aquellos que fueron sometidos a resección de metástasis y fue de 39,6% y 9,1% para aquellos pacientes con tratamiento quimioterápico (con o sin terapia biológica), la diferencia en estos dos grupos fue estadísticamente significativa en favor de la resección de las metástasis (p<0,001). La mediana de supervivencia global fue de 18,1 meses (IC 95%: 16,5-19,7) para el grupo que recibió quimioterapia versus 24,2 meses (IC 95%: 18,1-30,3) para los pacientes que recibieron anticuerpos monoclonales más quimioterapia; aunque, no hubo diferencias significativas. Conclusiones: La supervivencia evaluada en los diferentes grupos del estudio, independientemente del estado mutacional del exón 2 del gen K-ras, estuvo encuadrada dentro de lo que usualmente se puede encontrar reportado en la literatura médica actual.


Objectives: To assess overall survival rates of metastatic colorectal cancer in Lima, according to the therapy schedule used (independently of the K-ras gene mutational status), and to compare these results with those obtained in other similar studies elsewhere. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective multicenter study. Clinical records of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated in specialized Lima hospitals within a time frame between January 2010 and December 2014 were analyzed. Out of 419 cases with a diagnosis of metastatic colorectal cancer, 320 (76.4%) complied with inclusion criteria and were considered for this study. Results: Mean age for participants was 63 years (range: 15 to 90 years). Survival 2-year and 5-year rates were 87.3% and 12.9% for those who underwent metastatic disease resection, and 39.6% and 9.1% for those patients who received chemotherapy (with or without biologics). Differences were statistically significant, favoring metastatic disease resection (p<0.001). Median overall survival rates were 18.1 months (95% CI: 16.5-19.7) for patients treated with chemotherapy and 24.2 months (95% CI: 18.1-30.3) for those who received monoclonal antibodies plus chemotherapy, but there were no significant differences between these groups. Conclusions: Survival rates found in the different groups included in this study, independently of the mutational status of the exon 2 of the K-ras gene, were well within the ranges that have been usually reported in the literature.

15.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(2): 218-220, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001152

ABSTRACT

Abstract Toxic epidermal necrolysis is a condition with massive keratinocyte apoptosis, and it is associated with high mortality rates. Fulvestrant, an estrogen receptor antagonist, is indicated in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of toxic epidermal necrolysis due to fulvestrant. A 56-year-old woman received 500 mg of intramuscular fulvestrant monthly for metastatic ductal carcinoma of the breast. Five days after the first dose, the patient presented with a maculopapular rash that evolved to blisters, and a detachment of the epidermis in over 30% of the total body surface area. Histological analysis was compatible with toxic epidermal necrolysis. Fulvestrant was discontinued, topical management and supportive care were initiated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Skin/pathology , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/etiology , Estrogen Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , /adverse effects , Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , Brain Neoplasms/secondary , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/pathology , Estrogen Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , /therapeutic use , Necrosis
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740195

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the survival outcomes of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in women with uterine-confined endometrial cancer with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) or clear cell carcinoma (CCC). METHODS: Medical records of 80 women who underwent surgical staging for endometrial cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Stage I UPSC and CCC were pathologically confirmed after surgery. Survival outcomes were compared between the adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy groups. RESULTS: Fifty-four (67.5%) and 26 (32.5%) women had UPSC and CCC, respectively. Adjuvant therapy was administered to 59/80 (73.8%) women (25 radiotherapy and 34 chemotherapy). High preoperative serum cancer antigen-125 level (25.1±20.2 vs. 11.5±6.5 IU/mL, p 0.999) and overall survival (77.5% vs. 87.8%, p=0.373) rates were similar between the groups. Neither radiotherapy (hazard ratio [HR]=1.810; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.297–11.027; p=0.520) nor chemotherapy (HR=1.638; 95% CI=0.288–9.321; p=0.578) after surgery was independently associated with disease recurrence. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed similar survival outcomes for adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in stage I UPSC and CCC of the endometrium. Further large study with analysis stratified by MI or LVSI is required.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell , Adenocarcinoma, Papillary , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Endometrial Neoplasms , Endometrium , Female , Humans , Medical Records , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-751679

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the relationship between texture features based on CT and radiochemotherapy sensitivity in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).Methods A total of 92 ESCC patients treated at Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University between January 2014 and December 2017 were retrospectively collected.All patients were divided into responders (complete response + partial response) and nonresponders (stable disease + progression disease) according to therapeutic sensitivity.The texture features were extracted from CT images for positioning.And the patients were divided into training set (46 patients) and test set (46 patients) using train-test-split,training set for establishing predictive model and test set for model validation.Results There were 31 responders and 15 nonresponders in the training set,and the portion of responders was 67.4%.Univariate analyses showed that the histogram matrix (HISTO)-sknewess was significantly different between the two groups (Z =2.097,P =0.036) and the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.692 with 95% CI of 0.539-0.820.Sknewess ≤-2.58 intended to be responders.Binary logistic regression of sknewess (Z =2.097,P =0.036) in HISTO,high gray level zone emphasis (HGZE) (Z =1.722,P =0.085) and small zone high gray level emphasis (SZHGE) (Z =1.640,P =0.101) in gray level zone-length matrix (GLZLM) showed that sknewess was the independent influence factor of sensitivity (OR =0.558,95 % CI:0.338-0.923,P =0.023),and the AUC of logistic regression model was 0.718 with 95% CI of 0.550-0.886,which indicted that the model had the ability to predict treatment response of ESCC patients.The model was validated by using test set and the AUC was 0.706,and the sensitivity of the model was 70.6% while the specificity was 69.0%.It showed that the model had certain ability in predicting treatment response.Conclusion CT texture analysis can predict the radio-chemotherapy sensitivity in patients with ESCC to some extent.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-755845

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the feasibility and clinical significance of sentinel lymph node biopsy(SLNB) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for axillary lymph node-positive breast cancer.Methods Enrolled for a prospective cohort study were 167 patients from Jan 2016 to Jan 2018 with axillary lymph node-positive breast cancer admitted to the Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.SLNB was performed after NAC by lymphatic dual mapping,followed by axillary lymph node dissection.The primary end point was sentinel lymph node identification rate (IR) and false negative rate (FNR).Results 62 patients (37.1%) had complete pathological response of axillary lymph nodes.There was a significant difference of NAC response in patients with different subtypes (P <0.001).The IR of SLNB after NAC was 94.6%,the FNR was 6.7%,the sensitivity was 93.3%,the specificity was 100%,and the accuracy was 95.8%.Univariate analysis showed that there was no significant difference between tumor stage,hormone receptor status,HER2 expression,and pathological remission in SLN detection group and the SLN undetected group (P > 0.05).The proportion of patients who received breast conserving surgery in the undetected group was significantly higher than that in the test group (P =0.006).Conclusions Sentinel lymph node biopsy after breast neoadjuvant chemotherapy by lymphatic dual mapping is highly accurate with a high identification rate and a low false negative rate.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-754891

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the efficacy and side effect of paclitaxel liposome for neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods This study were included 265 cervical cancer patients staging Ⅰb2 and Ⅱa2 who underwent paclitaxel-platinum NACT followed by radical surgery from June 2008 to December 2016 in the Cancer Hospital , Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. All patients were classified into two groups with 106 patients in paclitaxel liposome group and 159 patients in traditional paclitaxel group. The difference in clinicopathologic characteristics, efficacy and side effect were analyzed retrospectively between the two groups.Results (1)Clinicopathologic characteristics: there were no significant difference in clinicopathologic characteristics between the two groups, including age, body mass index, clinical stage, pathological histology, cycles of NACT, combined platinum regimen, lymph-vascular space invasion, lymph node metastasis, deep stromal invasion, and postoperative adjuvant therapy (all P>0.05). (2) Efficacy: after NACT, the overall response occurred in 90 (15 complete response plus 75 partial response) of 106 cases in the paclitaxel liposome group versus 131 (21 complete response plus 110 partial response) of 159 cases in the traditional paclitaxel group without statistical significance (84.9% vs 82.4%; χ2=0.291, P=0.590). A total of 248 patients received surgery after NACT and were evaluable in survival. The 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate and 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of these patients was 85.1% and 88.2%. The 5-year RFS rate in the paclitaxel liposome group was 85.9% compared with 85.2% in the traditional paclitaxel group, while the corresponding 5-year OS rate was 88.5% and 88.7%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in efficacy between the two groups (P=0.968, P=0.797). (3) Side effect: the incidence of allergic reaction between the paclitaxel liposome group and the traditional paclitaxel group was 0 versus 1.9% (3/159) without statistical significance (P=0.277). But the incidence of neurotoxicity in the paclitaxel liposome group significantly decreased compared with the traditional paclitaxel group (6.6% vs 15.7%, P<0.05), as well as the incidence of alopecia (67.9% vs 79.2%, P<0.05) and myalgia (17.9% vs 28.9%, P<0.05). However, significant differences were not found in terms of hematological toxicity, gastrointestinal reaction, and hepatic function damage (P>0.05). Conclusion In paclitaxel-platinum NACT of local advanced cervical cancer, paclitaxel liposome can achieve similar efficacy compared with traditional paclitaxel, but paclitaxel liposome is helpful in decreasing the toxicity of neurotoxicity, alopecia and myalgia.

20.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 72-77, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-804603

ABSTRACT

Because of the high malignancy of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, the cancer-related mortality of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is increasing year by year. Despite advance in surgical techniques, the 5-year survival rate of patients after resection is still less than 30%. Recent studies have found that pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a systemic disease, which may not be cured completely by up-front resection, but requires perioperative multidisciplinary therapy. With the concept of "potentially curable pancreatic cancer" , clinicians need to evaluate the resectability of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma accurately before operation, and use the innovative multidisciplinary therapy including neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy,surgery and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy to improve the R0 resection rate and reduce the risk of early metastasis. Therefore, the therapeutic goal of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is no longer "simple resection" , but long survival through perioperative multidisciplinary treatment. In this article, we briefly introduce the progress of resectability assessment, surgical techniques and perioperative adjuvant therapy of "potentially curable pancreatic cancer" .

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