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3.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(1): e304, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1383645

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el síndrome de Hamman es la aparición de neumomediastino espontáneo asociado a enfisema, patología poco frecuente en pediatría. Sus síntomas principales son dolor torácico agudo, disnea y enfisema subcutáneo. Objetivo: describir una experiencia clínica en la que se sospechó este síndrome analizando el proceso diagnóstico, estudios complementarios y el tratamiento. Caso clínico: varón de 4 años, con antecedentes personales de laringitis a repetición. Presenta laringitis aguda severa, requirió ventilación no invasiva por 12 horas. A las 24 horas del ingreso instaló de forma brusca estridor inspiratorio, dificultad respiratoria, edema de cuello y cara con crepitación a nivel de cuello y cara anterior del tórax que se fue extendiendo a ambos brazos. Se realiza radiografía de tórax que evidencia enfisema subcutáneo extenso. Se realiza tomografía de cuello y tórax que descarta lesión en vía aérea. Con el planteo de síndrome de Hamman en un niño que presentaba como factor predisponente el episodio de laringitis aguda, se decidió no continuar con estudios complementarios. Se realizó tratamiento fisiopatológico con buena evolución clínica. Alta a la semana del ingreso. Conclusiones: el diagnóstico en la urgencia del neumomediastino espontáneo puede representar un desafío, con una variedad de diagnósticos diferenciales potencialmente mortales. La alta sospecha permitirá realizar una evaluación clínica e imagenológica adecuada que permitan confirmar su diagnóstico y evitar procedimientos invasivos innecesarios.


Introduction: Hamman's syndrome involves the appearance of spontaneous pneumomediastinum associated with emphysema, a rare pathology in pediatrics. Its main symptoms include acute chest pain, dyspnea and subcutaneous emphysema. Objective: to describe a clinical case of this suspected syndrome by analyzing the diagnostic process, supplementary studies, and treatment. Clinical case: 4-year-old male with personal history of repeated laryngitis. He presented severe acute laryngitis, requiring non-invasive ventilation for 12 hours. Twenty-four hours after admission he developed abrupt inspiratory stridency, respiratory distress, neck, and face edema with crepitation at neck level and front of thorax spreading to both arms. A chest X-ray shows extensive subcutaneous emphysema. A neck and chest CT scan rules out airway injury. With the suggestion of Hamman's syndrome in a child who presented acute laryngitis as a predisposing factor the episode, it was decided not to continue with additional studies. Physio-pathological treatment was carried out with good clinical evolution. He was discharged a week after admission. Conclusions: diagnosis of spontaneous pneumomediastinum can be challenging in an emergency setting and having a variety of potentially life-threatening differential diagnoses. High suspicion levels will enable an adequate clinical and imaging assessment to confirm its diagnosis and avoid unnecessary invasive procedures.


Introdução: síndrome de Hammam é o aparecimento de pneumomediastino espontâneo associado ao enfisema, uma patologia rara na pediatria. Seus principais sintomas são dor aguda no peito, dispneia e enfisema subcutâneo. Objetivo: descrever um caso clínico com suspeita dessa síndrome por meio da análise do processo diagnóstico, estudos complementares e tratamento. Caso clínico: menino de 4 anos com histórico pessoal de laringite recorrente. Teve laringite aguda grave, o que exigiu ventilação não invasiva por 12 horas. Dentro de 24 horas após a internação, instalou-se abruptamente estridor inspirador, dificuldade respiratória, edema do pescoço e rosto com estalos ao nível do pescoço e face anterior do peito, estendido para ambos braços. Raios-x do tórax mostram enfisema subcutâneo extenso. Tomografia do pescoço e tórax exclui lesões nas vias aéreas. Com a sugestão da síndrome de Hammam em uma criança que apresentou como fator predisponente o episódio de laringite aguda, decidiu-se não continuar com estudos complementares. O tratamento fisiopatológico mostrou boa evolução clínica. A alta teve lugar dentro de uma semana da data da internação. Conclusões: o diagnóstico na urgência do pneumomediastino espontâneo pode representar um desafio, além do mais quando existem uma variedade de diagnósticos diferenciais que ameaçam a vida. A alta suspeita permitirá uma avaliação clínica e de imagem adequada para confirmar o diagnóstico e evitar procedimentos invasivos desnecessários.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Hamman-Rich Syndrome/therapy , Hamman-Rich Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/therapy , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Chest Pain , Noninvasive Ventilation , Hamman-Rich Syndrome/complications
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(5): 894-902, maio 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374375

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A angiotomografia coronária (ATC) tem sido usada para avaliação de dor torácica principalmente em pacientes de baixo risco, e poucos dados existem com pacientes em risco intermediário. Objetivo Avaliar o desempenho de medidas seriadas de troponinas sensíveis e de ATC em pacientes de risco intermediário. Métodos Um total de 100 pacientes com dor torácica, TIMI score 3 ou 4 e troponina negativa foram prospectivamente incluídos. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à ATC, e aqueles com obstruções ≥ 50% foram encaminhados à cineangiocoronariografia. Pacientes com lesões < 50% recebiam alta hospitalar, receberam alta e foram contatados 30 dias depois por telefonema para avaliação dos desfechos clínicos. Os desfechos foram hospitalização, morte, e infarto agudo do miocárdio em 30 dias. A comparação entre os métodos foi realizada pelo teste de concordância kappa. O desempenho das medidas de troponina e da ATC na detecção de lesões coronárias significativas e desfechos clínicos foi calculado. Os resultados foram considerados estatisticamente significativos quando p <0,05. Resultados Estenose coronária ≥ 50% na ATC foi encontrada em 38% dos pacientes e lesões coronárias significativas na angiografia coronária foram encontradas em 31 pacientes. Dois eventos clínicos foram observados. A análise de concordância Kappa mostrou baixa concordância entre as medidas de troponina e ATC na detecção de lesões coronárias significativas (kappa = 0,022, p = 0,78). O desempenho da ATC para detectar lesões coronárias significativas na angiografia coronária ou para prever eventos clínicos em 30 dias foi melhor que as medidas de troponina sensível (acurácia de 91% versus 60%). Conclusão ATC teve melhor desempenho que as medidas seriadas de troponina na detecção de doença coronariana significativa em pacientes com dor torácica e risco intermediário para eventos cardiovasculares.


Abstract Background Coronary tomography angiography (CTA) has been mainly used for chest pain evaluation in low-risk patients, and few data exist regarding patients at intermediate risk. Objective To evaluate the performance of serial measures of sensitive troponin and CTA in intermediate-risk patients. Methods A total of 100 patients with chest pain, TIMI risk scores of 3 or 4, and negative troponin were prospectively included. All patients underwent CTA and those with coronary stenosis ≥ 50% were referred to invasive coronary angiography. Patients with coronary lesions <50% were discharged and contacted 30 days later by a telephone call to assess clinical outcomes. Outcomes were hospitalization, death, and myocardial infarction at 30 days. The comparison between methods was performed by Kappa agreement test. The performance of troponin measures and CTA for detecting significant coronary lesions and clinical outcomes was calculated. Results were considered statistically significant when p < 0.05. Results Coronary stenosis ≥ 50% on CTA was found in 38% of patients and significant coronary lesions on coronary angiography were found in 31 patients. Two clinical events were observed. Kappa agreement analysis showed low agreement between troponin measures and CTA in the detection of significant coronary lesions (kappa = 0.022, p = 0.78). The performance of CTA for detecting significant coronary lesions on coronary angiography or for predicting clinical events at 30 days was better than sensitive troponin measures (accuracy of 91% versus 60%). Conclusion CTA performed better than sensitive troponin measures in the detection of significant coronary disease in patients with chest pain and intermediate risk for cardiovascular events.

6.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(2): 273-276, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376525

ABSTRACT

Abstract Epicardial cysts are rarer benign tumors than pericardial cysts. There have been few reports on surgical management of epicardial cysts. A 17-year-old normotensive boy presented with chest pain and palpitations, which on evaluation was found to be a mediastinal mass (pericardial cyst). Surgical resection of the cyst via thoracotomy was planned. The cyst was diagnosed as an epicardial cyst intraoperatively. However, due to the epicardial origin of cyst and posterior adhesions, resection was done via midline approach. The base was formed by visceral pericardium and eroding into myocardium of left ventricle, so the resection was concluded with on-pump surgery. In case of erroneous diagnosis or undesirable finding, a safer midline approach with on-pump surgery, as an alternative to minimally invasive approach for complicated epicardial cysts (erosion into ventricle/lying in close proximity to important structures or near to coronary arteries) should be considered.

7.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 75-79, mar. 2022. Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362712

ABSTRACT

Los aneurismas de las arterias coronarias (AAC) son poco comunes, con una incidencia de 0.3-5.3%. Se definen como una dilatación 1.5 veces mayor al diámetro interno de la arteria normal adyacente. La arteria coronaria derecha es la más comúnmente afectada. Su fisiopatología es poco clara, pero se cree que una de sus principales causas es la aterosclerosis. Los AAC son generalmente asintomáticos o pueden estar asociados a isquemia miocárdica. Su tratamiento aún no está bien establecido, debido al desconocimiento general sobre su historia natural, e incluye desde un manejo conservador hasta el tratamiento quirúrgico. A continuación, se reporta el caso de un paciente con infarto agudo de miocardio y elevación del segmento ST, llevado a coronariografía que evidenció aneurisma de la coronaria derecha, que requirió trombectomía, angioplastia y manejo médico vitalicio ambulatorio.


Coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) are a rare entity with an incidence of 0.3-5.3%. They are dilations of 1.5 times larger than normal adjacent artery, with the right coronary artery as the most affected vessel. Its pathophysiology is unclear but atherosclerosis is believed to be the main cause. CAA are generally asymptomatic but can cause coronary ischemia. Its treatment is yet to be established due to general ignorance about its nature. It ranges from conservative management to surgery. In the following text, we report a case of a patient with acute myocardial infarction presenting ST-segment elevation, who showed a right coronary artery aneurysm in coronary angiography. The patient required thrombectomy, angioplasty and subsequent lifetime outpatient medical management.


Os aneurismas das artérias coronárias (AAC) são pouco comuns, com uma incidência de 0.3-5.3%. Se definem como uma dilatação 1.5 vezes maior ao diâmetro interno da artéria normal adjacente. A artéria coronária direita é a mais comumente afetada. Sua fisiopatologia é pouco clara, mas se crê que uma das suas principais causas é a aterosclerose. Os AAC são geralmente assintomáticos ou podem estar associados a isquemia miocárdica. Seu tratamento ainda não está bem estabelecido, devido ao desconhecimento geral sobre sua história natural, e inclui desde um manejo conservador até o tratamento cirúrgico. A continuação, se reporta o caso de um paciente com infarto agudo de miocárdio e elevação do segmento ST, levado a coronariografia que evidenciou aneurisma da coronária direita, que requereu trombectomia, angioplastia e manejo médico vitalício ambulatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aneurysm , Coronary Angiography , Myocardial Ischemia , Angioplasty , Coronary Vessels , Myocardial Infarction
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931568

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical value of modified acute aortic dissection risk score in the early diagnosis of acute aortic dissection (AAD).Methods:The general, clinical, and imaging data of 162 patients who complained of chest and back pain who received treatment between January 2019 and January 2021 in the Department of Emergency, The Second Hospital of Jiaxing, China were collected for this study. The included patients were divided into control (non-AAD, n = 120) and observation (AAD, n = 42) groups according to whether they were diagnosed with AAD. The indexes with statistical significance between the two groups were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A score table was established according to the size of OR value. The modified AAD risk score was predicted using the receiver operating curve. Results:Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that male sex, family history, sudden severe chest and back pain, bilateral blood pressure asymmetry, hypertension, abnormal ultrasound, and D-dimer level were independent risk factors for the diagnosis of AAD (statistical values = 7.84, 6.96, 7.04, 11.38, 7.12, 8.15, 15.07, 9.11, all P < 0.05). Taking the total score of 5 as the prediction standard, the specificity and sensitivity in the prediction of the occurrence of AAD were 84.94% and 95.43%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating curve regarding the modified AAD risk score was 0.909. Conclusion:The modified AAD risk score can be used to conveniently and quickly predict the occurrence of AAD and has a high predictive value. This study is highly innovative and scientific.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931150

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the application value of evaluation and management of patients with acute chest pain in China (EMPACT) score in risk stratification for patients with acute chest pain.Methods:According to the methods of prospective cohort study, 548 patients with chest pain in the Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University from February to April 2021 were selected. The risk stratification was performed according to EMPACT score. The primary endpoint was the major adverse events (MAE) within 30 d, including death from all causes, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), emergency revascularization, cardiac arrest, cardiogenic shock and other life-threatening situations that need urgent attention. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the predictive value of EMPACT score for MAE.Results:Among the 548 patients, 75 cases had MAE within 30 d (MAE group), and the incidence of MAE was 13.7%; 473 cases did not occur MAE (non-MAE group). The EMPACT score in MAE group was significantly higher than that in non-MAE group: 8 (12, 18) scores vs. 5 (2, 8) scores, and there was statistical difference ( Z = 8.94, P<0.01). Spearman correlation analysis result showed that EMPACT score was positively correlated with MAE ( r = 0.38, P<0.01). ROC curve analysis result showed that the area under the curve of EMPACT score in prediction within 30 d MAE was 0.820 (95% CI 0.770 to 0.871), the cut-off value was 9.5 scores (since all the scoring systems were integers, the cut-off value was 10 scores), the sensitivity was 88.6%, and the specificity was 60.0%. Conclusions:The EMPACT score has a good risk stratification capability to achieve safe and effective triage of acute chest pain.

10.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(6): 564-572, nov.-dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357231

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo Determinar si los niveles plasmáticos de factor de crecimiento de hepatocitos podrían ayudar a realizar el diagnóstico diferencial en pacientes con dolor torácico prolongado y elevación de la troponina cardiaca, y evaluar su valor pronóstico de mortalidad al año en estos pacientes. Método: Estudio prospectivo observacional. Se incluyeron pacientes mayores de 18 años que acudieron a urgencias con dolor torácico agudo de más de 20 minutos y elevación de la troponina cardiaca, con seguimiento al año. Resultados Se incluyeron 303 pacientes, 103 (34%) con infarto de miocardio y 200 (66%) con otras enfermedades. Los niveles plasmáticos del factor de crecimiento de hepatocitos fueron superiores en el grupo sin infarto de miocardio: 329 pg/ml (rango intercuartílico [IQR]: 66-558) vs. 476 pg/ml (IQR: 264-908; p < 0.001). La mortalidad al año fue del 30.7%, superior en el grupo sin infarto de miocardio (36.5% vs. 19.4%; p = 0.002). Se encontró una fuerte asociación entre la mortalidad y los niveles elevados de factor de crecimiento de hepatocitos (650 pg/ml [344-1159] vs. 339 pg/ml [205-607]; p < 0.001). En el análisis multivariado se halló que los niveles de factor de crecimiento de hepatocitos, la edad y la escala GRACE son factores independientes de mortalidad al año en estos pacientes. Conclusiones En los pacientes con dolor torácico agudo prolongado y elevación de la troponina cardiaca, la determinación de los niveles del factor de crecimiento de hepatocitos no permite confirmar ni descartar la presencia de infarto agudo de miocardio. No obstante, podría ser un marcador pronóstico de mortalidad en estos pacientes, junto con la edad y la escala GRACE.


Abstract Objective To determine if plasma levels of hepatocyte growth factor could help in the differential diagnosis of patients with prolonged chest pain and elevated cardiac troponin; and to evaluate its prognostic value for one-year mortality in these patients. Method A prospective observational study. Patients over the age of 18 who were seen in the emergency room for acute chest pain lasting longer than 20 minutes and elevated cardiac troponin were included, with follow up after one year. Results We included 303 patients, 103 (34%) with myocardial infarction and 200 (66%) with other diseases. Plasma levels of hepatocyte growth factor were higher in the group without myocardial infarction: 329 pg/ml (IQR: 166-558) vs. 476 pg/ml (IQR: 264-908; p < 0.001). One-year mortality was 30.7%, higher in the group without myocardial infarction (36.5% vs. 19.4%; p = 0.002). We found a strong association between mortality and elevated levels of hepatocyte growth factor (650 pg/ml [344-1,159] vs. 339 pg/ml [205-607]; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that levels of hepatocyte growth factor, age and the GRACE scale are independent factors for one-year mortality in these patients. Conclusions In patients with prolonged acute chest pain and elevated cardiac troponin, hepatocyte growth factor levels do not confirm or rule out acute myocardial infarction, although they may be a prognostic marker for mortality in these patients, along with age and the GRACE scale.

11.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(6): 630-633, nov.-dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357237

ABSTRACT

Resumen El síndrome de Dressler es una enfermedad infrecuente que fue descrita por primera vez en 1956 por el doctor William Dressler. Corresponde a un cuadro de pericarditis secundaria, en ocasiones asociada a efusión pericárdica de aparente etiología autoinmunitaria, que hace parte de los síndromes de lesión poscardiaca. Se presenta un caso de síndrome de Dressler en un paciente joven.


Abstract Dressler's syndrome is a rare entity which was first described in 1956 by Dr. William Dressler. It consists of secondary pericarditis, at times associated with pericardial effusion with an apparently autoimmune etiology, which is one of the post-cardiac injury syndromes. We present a case of Dressler's syndrome in a young patient.

12.
Notas enferm. (Córdoba) ; 21(38): 54-62, nov. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1348588

ABSTRACT

El Síndrome coronario agudo (SCA) se define como la obstrucción brusca de una arteria que puede dar lugar a una isquemia miocárdica aguda que se acompaña de un síndrome clínico característico que puede ir desde una isquemia con elevación o sin elevación en el segmento ST, angina estable o inestable y muerte súbita. Dado que el SCA es considerado un problema mundial por su alta incidencia y una de las principales causas de muerte es que resulta indispensable la creación y aplicación de un protocolo de recepción del paciente con SCA donde el enfermero que recepciona al paciente con dolor torácico en un servicio de urgencia pueda realizar la valoración de forma oportuna y rápida teniendo en cuenta una secuencia de intervenciones y cuidados que se encuentren plasmados en una planilla el cual garantice la implementación de las medidas terapéuticas a tiempo, aumentando la eficacia de las mismas, reduciendo la morbimortalidad y disminuyendo los costos hospitalarios. El objetivo del protocolo es estandarizar las intervenciones y cuidados de enfermería en la atención inicial del paciente con SCA[AU]


Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is defined as a sudden obstruction of an artery that can lead to acute myocardial ischemia that is accompanied by a characteristic clinical syndrome that can range from elevation or without elevation ischemia in the ST segment, angina stable or unstable and sudden death. Ince ACS is considered a worldwide problem due to its high incidence and one of the main causes of death, it is essential to create and apply a protocol for receiving the patient with ACS, where the nurse who receives the patient with chest pain in a The emergency service can carry out the assessment in a timely and fast way, taking into account a sequence of interventions and care that are reflected in a schedule that guarantees the implementation of therapeutic measures in time, increasing their effectiveness, reducing morbidity and mortality. and lowering hospital costs. The objective of the protocol is to standardize nursing interventions and care in the initial care of the patient with ACS[AU]


A síndrome coronariana aguda (SCA) é definida como uma obstrução repentina de uma artéria que pode levar a isquemia miocárdica aguda, acompanhada por uma síndrome clínica característica que pode variar de elevação ou sem isquemia de elevação no segmento ST, angina morte estável ou instável e repentina.Como a SCA é considerada um problema mundial devido à sua alta incidência e uma das principais causas de morte, é essencial criar e aplicar um protocolo para receber o paciente com SCA, onde a enfermeira que recebe o paciente com dor no peito O serviço de emergência pode realizar a avaliação de maneira oportuna e rápida, levando em consideração uma sequência de intervenções e cuidados que se refletem em um cronograma que garante a implementação de medidas terapêuticas no tempo, aumentando sua efetividade, reduzindo a morbimortalidade. e redução de custos hospitalares. O objetivo do protocolo é padronizar intervenções e cuidados de enfermagem nos cuidados iniciais do paciente com SCA[AU]


Subject(s)
Humans , Chest Pain , Myocardial Ischemia , Guidelines as Topic , Acute Coronary Syndrome , Myocardial Infarction , Nursing Care , Emergencies
14.
Medicina UPB ; 40(2): 84-87, 13 oct. 2021. Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1342239

ABSTRACT

Se describe el caso de un paciente de 70 años que consultó por cefalea súbita, tipo trueno, sin alteración del estado de consciencia, acompañada de dolor torácico de una hora de evolución y de baja intensidad. A su ingreso fue enfocado como cefalea en trueno, que es clasificada, en cuanto a la atención, como bandera roja. La medición de troponina fue negativa y una tomografía de cráneo fue leída como normal. Desde el ingreso presentaba signos vitales normales, cuando iba a ser dado de alta se torna hipotenso (completamente asintomático) y por su síntoma cardinal (cefalea), que se asoció a dolor torácico leve y no anginoso, se solicitó angiotomografía toracoabdominal, con la que se demostró aneurisma disecante de la aorta. Con la presentación de este caso, se busca resaltar la importancia en el servicio de urgencias de la asociación de la cefalea tipo trueno, con condiciones vasculares como la disección aórtica.


We describe the case of a 70-year-old patient, who seeks medical advice due to sudden, thunder headache, without alteration of the state of consciousness, accompanied by chest pain of 1 hour of evolution and of low intensity. Upon his admission, the patient was treated as a thunderclap headache, which is considered a red flag. His troponin was negative, and his head tomography was interpreted as normal. From admission he had normal vital signs, but when he was going to be discharged, he became hypotensive (completely asymptomatic) and due to his cardinal symptom (headache) that was asso-ciated with mild non-anginal chest pain, a thoracoabdominal angioCT was requested, with which dissecting aneurysm of the aorta was evidenced. With the presentation of this case, we seek to highlight the importance of the association of thunder-type headache with possible vascular conditions such as aortic dissection in the emergency department.


Descrevemos o caso de uma paciente de 70 anos que consultou por quadro de cefaleia súbita, tipo trovão, sem alteração do estado de consciência, acompanhada de dor torácica de uma hora de evolução e de baixa intensidade. Na admissão, foi tratado como cefaleia em trovoada, que é classificada, em termos de atenção, como bandeira vermelha. A me-dição da troponina foi negativa e uma tomografia de crânio foi lida como normal. Desde a admissão apresentava sinais vitais normais, quando ia receber alta ficou hipotenso (totalmente assintomático) e devido ao seu sintoma cardinal (cefaleia), que se associou a dores torácicas ligeiras e não anginosas, foi solicitada angiografia toracoabdominal, com cujo aneurisma dissecante da aorta foi demonstrado. Com a apresentação deste caso, o objetivo é destacar a importância no pronto-socorro da associação da cefaleia do tipo trovão com afecções vasculares como a dissecção da aorta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aneurysm, Dissecting , Aorta , Chest Pain , Angiography , Headache
15.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(5): 557-565, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340051

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Treatment time in the emergency room for acute myocardial infarction is very important and can be life-saving if one understands the importance of a patient's chest pain. Objetice: The aim of this study is to evaluate how much patients entering the emergency room due to acute myocardial infection (AMI) know about chest pain and thrombolytic therapy. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty patients (126 males,14 females) from three different institutes with complaints of chest pain were randomly chosen to participate in this study. The mean age of the patients was 55.4 ± 11.2 years (71+33). Patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire consisting of 70 questions within the first seven days. All differences in categorical variables were computed using the χ2-test and Fisher Exact test. A two-tailed hypothesis was used in all statistical evaluations, and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: It was observed that 17% of the patients came to the hospital within the first 30 minutes; 18.3% of them came to the hospital between 30 minutes and 1 hour; 27.5% of them came to the hospital between 1 hour and 3 hours; and 21.4% of them came to the hospital more than 6 hours after symptoms began. It was also observed that 68% of the patients were not aware of the AMI, and 96% of them had no prior knowledge of antithrombolytic therapy. Conclusion: Because the majority of the patients did not have enough information about AMI, a training program should be implemented to ensure that people to come to the hospital earlier. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2021; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Chest Pain , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Myocardial Infarction , Coronary Artery Disease , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hypothesis-Testing , Emergency Service, Hospital
16.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(4): 324-333, jul.-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1351929

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las unidades de dolor torácico disminuyen la morbimortalidad de los pacientes con síndrome coronario agudo. No obstante, se desconoce su efectividad en el primer nivel de atención con el apoyo de la telecardiología. Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad de las unidades de dolor torácico sobre los tiempos de atención, la concordancia diagnóstica y la frecuencia de reconsultas a urgencias y hospitalización. Método: Estudio cuasiexperimental de series de tiempo interrumpidas, robusto, que incluyó 20,412 pacientes que consultaron al servicio de urgencias por dolor torácico, antes y después de implementar una unidad de dolor torácico. Se analizaron los cambios en la pendiente, el nivel, la autocorrelación y la varianza de los desenlaces estudiados entre ambos periodos (previo y posterior a las unidades de dolor torácico) a 30 días. Resultados: El promedio de edad fue de 44.9 ± 17.6 años y el 45.8% fueron hombres. La proporción global de pacientes remitidos para hospitalización fue del 9.0%. La pendiente de las tasas de reconsultas a urgencias disminuyó (diferencia: −1.23; intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: −2.46 a −0.01; p = 0.049) al comparar los dos periodos de observación. Igualmente, la proporción de pacientes remitidos sin síndrome coronario agudo y que finalmente tuvieron este diagnóstico en el tercer nivel de atención disminuyó en el periodo posterior a las unidades de dolor torácico con relación al previo (diferencia: −8.31; IC95%: −15.52 a −1.11; p = 0.020). Conclusiones: Las unidades de dolor torácico incrementaron los egresos de forma segura, con disminución de las reconsultas a urgencias en los siguientes 30 días por la misma causa. Además, mejoró la concordancia diagnóstica del síndrome coronario agudo, sin modificar los tiempos de atención ni la frecuencia de rehospitalización por enfermedad cardiovascular en el seguimiento.


Abstract Introduction: Chest pain units (CPU) decrease morbi-mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Nevertheless, its effectiveness at primary level of health care with telecardiology support is unknown. Objective: To evaluate effectiveness of CPU on times of observation, diagnostic agreement and emergency department re-admission and hospitalizations. Method: Quasi-experimental study of robust interrupted time series, which included 20,412 patients admitted to the emergency department for chest pain, before and after the implementation of a CPU. Changes in slope, level, autocorrelation and, variance between both periods (before-CPU and after-CPU) in outcomes at 30 day follow-up were analyzed. Results: Subjects had a mean age of 44.9 ± 17.6 years-old and 45.8% were men. The overall rate of hospital admission was 9.0%. The slope of emergency re-consultation rates decreased (difference: −1.23; 95% CI: −2.46 to −0.01; p = 0.049), when comparing the two observation periods. Also, the level of proportion of patients admitted without ACS who finally had an inpatient diagnosis of ACS decreased after-CPU implementation (difference: −8.31; 95% CI: −15,52 to −1.11; p = 0.020). Conclusions: The CPU increased patient discharge safely with a reduction of 30-day re-admissions. In addition, an improvement in the ACS diagnostic agreement without affecting the time of observation or the frequency of re-hospitalization for cardiovascular disease was obtained during the follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Chest Pain , Acute Coronary Syndrome , Telecardiology , Primary Health Care , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Hospitalization
17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(1): 15-25, July. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285243

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A intervenção coronária percutânea primária é considerada o "padrão-ouro" para reperfusão coronária. Entretanto, quando não disponível, a estratégia fármaco-invasiva é método alternativo, e o eletrocardiograma (ECG) tem sido utilizado para identificar sucesso na reperfusão. Objetivos Nosso estudo teve como objetivo examinar alterações no segmento-ST pós-lise e seu poder de prever a recanalização, usando os escores angiográficos TIMI e blush miocárdio (MBG) como critério de reperfusão ideal. Métodos Foram estudados 2.215 pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio com supra-ST submetidos à fibrinólise [(Tenecteplase)-TNK] e encaminhados para angiografia coronária em até 24 h pós-fibrinólise ou imediatamente encaminhados à terapia de resgate. O ECG foi realizado pré-TNK e 60 min-pós. Os pacientes foram categorizados em dois grupos: aqueles com reperfusão ideal (TIMI-3 e MBG-3) e aqueles com reperfusão inadequada (fluxo TIMI <3). Foi definido o critério de reperfusão do ECG pela redução do segmento ST >50%. Consideramos p-valor <0,05 para as análises, com testes bicaudais. Resultados O critério de reperfusão pelo ECG apresentou valor preditivo positivo de 56%; valor preditivo negativo de 66%; sensibilidade de 79%; e especificidade de 40%. Houve fraca correlação positiva entre a redução do segmento-ST e os dados angiográficos de reperfusão ideal (r = 0,21; p <0,001) e baixa precisão diagnóstica, com AUC de 0,60 (IC-95%; 0,57-0,62). Conclusão Em nossos resultados, a redução do segmento-ST não conseguiu identificar com precisão os pacientes com reperfusão angiográfica apropriada. Portanto, mesmo pacientes com reperfusão aparentemente bem-sucedida devem ser encaminhados à angiografia brevemente, a fim de garantir fluxo coronário macro e microvascular adequados.


Abstract Background Primary percutaneous coronary intervention is considered the "gold standard" for coronary reperfusion. However, when not available, the drug-invasive strategy is an alternative method and the electrocardiogram (ECG) has been used to identify reperfusion success. Objectives Our study aimed to assess ST-Segment changes in post-thrombolysis and their power to predict recanalization and using the angiographic scores TIMI-flow and Myocardial Blush Grade (MBG) as an ideal reperfusion criterion. Methods 2,215 patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) undergoing fibrinolysis [(Tenecteplase)-TNK] and referred to coronary angiography within 24 h post-fibrinolysis or immediately referred to rescue therapy were studied. The ECG was performed pre- and 60 min-post-TNK. The patients were categorized into 2 groups: those with ideal reperfusion (TIMI-3 and MBG-3) and those with inadequate reperfusion (TIMI and MBG <3). The ECG reperfusion criterion was defined by the reduction of the ST-Segment >50%. A p-value <0.05 was considered for the analyses, with bicaudal tests. Results The ECG reperfusion criterion showed a positive predictive value of 56%; negative predictive value of 66%; sensitivity of 79%; and specificity of 40%. There was a weak positive correlation between ST-Segment reduction and ideal reperfusion angiographic data (r = 0.21; p <0.001) and low diagnostic accuracy, with an AUC of 0.60 (95%CI: 0.57-0.62). Conclusion The ST-Segment reduction was not able to accurately identify patients with adequate angiographic reperfusion. Therefore, even patients with apparently successful reperfusion should be referred to angiography soon, to ensure adequate macro and microvascular coronary flow.


Subject(s)
Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardial Reperfusion , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Angiography , Electrocardiography , Fibrinolysis
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(6): 1039-1045, Jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278326

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento De acordo com o pensamento diagnóstico tradicional, indivíduos muito idosos estão mais predispostos a desenvolver sintomas atípicos em síndromes coronarianas agudas. Objetivo Testar a hipótese de que indivíduos muito idosos estão mais predispostos a manifestações de dor torácica atípica devido à doença arterial coronariana obstrutiva (DAC). Métodos O Registro de dor torácica inclui pacientes internados com dor torácica aguda. Primeiramente, foi construído o índice de tipicidade dessa manifestação clínica: a soma de 12 características de sintomas (8 sintomas típicos e 4 sintomas atípicos). No subgrupo de pacientes com etiologia coronariana, o índice de tipicidade foi comparado entre octogenários e não octogenários. A significância estatística foi definida por p<0,05. Resultados 958 pacientes foram incluídos no registro, sendo que 486 (51%) tinham etiologia supostamente coronariana. Nesse grupo, 59 (12%) octogenários (idade 84±3,5; 50% homens) foram comparados a 427 pacientes com idade <80 (60±12 anos; 71% homens). O índice de tipicidade em octogenários foi 3,42±1,92, que é semelhante ao de não octogenários (3,44±1,74; p=0,092 na análise univariada e p=0,80 após ajuste para sexo pela análise de variância — ANOVA). Também não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa quando a amostra foi dividida em idade mediana (62 anos; 3,41±1,77 vs. 3,49 ± 1,77; p=0,61). Não houve associação linear estatisticamente significativa entre idade e índice de tipicidade (r=- 0,05; p=0,24). A análise de regressão logística para predição de DAC na amostra geral de 958 pacientes não mostrou interação do índice de tipicidade com a idade numérica (p=0,94), octogenários (p=0,22) ou idade acima da mediana (p=0,74). Conclusão Em pacientes com dor torácica aguda de etiologia coronariana, a idade avançada não influencia o quadro clínico típico.


Abstract Background According to traditional diagnosis thinking, very elderly individuals are more predisposed to develop atypical symptoms in acute coronary syndromes. Objective To test the hypothesis that very elderly individuals are more predisposed to atypical chest pain manifestations due to obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods The Registry of Thoracic Pain includes patients admitted with acute chest pain. Firstly, the typicality index of this clinical manifestation was constructed: the sum of 12 symptom characteristics (8 typical and 4 atypical symptoms). In the subgroup of patients with coronary etiology, the typicality index was compared between octogenarian and non-octogenarian individuals. Statistical significance was defined by p<0.05. Results 958 patients were included in the registry, and 486 (51%) had a supposedly coronary etiology. In this group, 59 (12%) octogenarians (age 84±3.5, 50% men) were compared to 427 patients aged <80 (60±12 years, 71% men). The typicality index in octogenarians was 3.42±1.92, which is similar to that of non-octogenarians (3.44±1.74; p=0.92 in univariate analysis and p=0.80 after adjustment for sex by analysis of variance — ANOVA). There was also no statistically significant difference when the sample was divided into median age (62 years; 3.41±1.77 vs. 3.49 ± 1.77; p=0.61). There was no statistically significant linear association between age and typicality index (r=- 0.05; p=0.24). Logistic regression analysis for prediction of CAD in the general sample of 958 patients showed no interaction of typicality index with numeric age (p=0.94), octogenarians (p=0.22) or age above median (p=0.74). Conclusion In patients with acute chest pain of coronary etiology, advanced age does not influence the typical clinical presentation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coronary Artery Disease , Acute Coronary Syndrome , Chest Pain , Registries , Coronary Angiography , Middle Aged
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