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1.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1507424

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the prevalence of developmental defects in dental enamel and its possible association with prenatal, neonatal and postnatal conditions in six-year-old schoolchildren in a southern Brazilian municipality. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 655 six-year-old schoolchildren. Sociodemographic and health data were collected through interviews with mothers and children's oral examinations at schools. Multivariate analyses were performed using Poisson regression with robust estimator. Results: The prevalence of developmental defects of enamel was 44.0%. Demarcated opacities were the most prevalent, followed by diffuse opacities. Late pregnancy, maternal schooling less than eight years, female gender and child's white skin color were independently associated with the prevalence of demarcated opacities. Conclusions: The prevalence of developmental defects in dental enamel was 44.0%. Late pregnancy, maternal schooling less than eight years, female gender and child's white skin color were associated with the prevalences.


RESUMO Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência de defeitos de desenvolvimento do esmalte dentário e sua possível associação com fatores pré-natais, neonatais e pós-natais em escolares de seis anos de idade em um município do sul do Brasil. Métodos: Foi conduzido um estudo transversal envolvendo 655 escolares de seis anos de idade. Os dados sociodemográficos e de saúde foram coletados por meio de entrevistas com as mães e exames bucais das crianças nas escolas. As análises multivariadas foram realizadas por meio de regressão de Poisson com estimador robusto. Resultados: A prevalência de defeitos de desenvolvimento do esmalte foi de 44,0%. As opacidades demarcadas foram as mais prevalentes, seguidas das difusas. Gravidez tardia, escolaridade materna inferior a oito anos, sexo feminino e cor da pele branca da criança foram independentemente associados à prevalência de opacidades demarcadas. Conclusões: A prevalência de defeitos de desenvolvimento do esmalte dentário foi de 44,0%. Gravidez tardia, escolaridade materna inferior a oito anos de estudo, sexo feminino e cor da pele branca da criança estiveram associados às prevalências.

2.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3941, ene.-dic. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1441981

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: caracterizar el perfil sociofamiliar de niños y adolescentes negros con problemas de salud mental y describir desde un enfoque interseccional quién es responsable de su cuidado. Método: estudio exploratorio descriptivo de enfoque cualitativo, llevado a cabo en un Centro de Atención Psicosocial Infantil y Juvenil de la región norte del municipio de São Paulo. La recolección de datos se realizó con 47 familiares de niños y adolescentes negros, con el soporte de un guion con variables predefinidas, sometidas a análisis estadístico. Resultados: se realizaron 49 entrevistas, 95,5% con mujeres, con edad promedio de 39 años, 88,6% madres, 85,7% negras. La renta familiar procede del salario para el 100% de los cuidadores hombres y el 59% de las mujeres. Entre las cuidadoras negras, 25% tienen casa propia y, entre las pardas, 46,2%. Del total de cuidadores, el 10% vive en casas ocupadas, el 20% vive en viviendas cedidas, el 35% tiene casa propia y el 35% alquila. La red de contención social es mayor entre los blancos (16,7%), seguidos por los pardos (3,8%) y está ausente entre los negros (0%). Conclusión: las responsables por el cuidado de niños y e adolescentes negros atendidos en el CAPSij, son, casi en su totalidad mujeres, "madres o abuelas" negras (o mulatas), con acceso desigual a educación, trabajo y vivienda, derechos sociales constitucionales en Brasil.


Objective: to characterize the sociofamily profile of black-skinned children and adolescents with mental health problems and to intersectionally describe who assumes responsibility for their care. Method: a descriptive and exploratory study with a quantitative approach, developed in the Psychosocial Care Center for Children and Adolescents from the North region of the municipality of São Paulo. The data were collected from 47 family members of black-skinned children and adolescents, using a script with predefined variables submitted to statistical analysis. Results: a total of 49 interviews were conducted: 95.5% women with a mean age of 39 years old, 88.6% mothers and 85.7% black-skinned. Family income comes from wages for all the male caregivers and for 59% of the women. Among the black-skinned female caregivers, 25% live in their own house, whereas this percentage is 46.2% among the brown-skinned ones. Of all the caregivers, 10% have a job, 20% live in transferred properties, 35% in houses of their own and 35% in rented places. The social support network is larger among white-skinned people (16.7%), followed by brown-skinned (3.8%), and absent among black-skinned individuals (0%). Conclusion: those responsible for the care of black-skinned children and adolescents monitored by the CAPS-IJ are almost entirely women, black-skinned (black or brown) "mothers or grandmothers", with unequal access to education, work and housing, constitutional social rights in Brazil.


Objetivo: caracterizar o perfil sociofamiliar de crianças e adolescentes negros com problemas de saúde mental e descrever interseccionalmente quem se responsabiliza por seus cuidados. Método: estudo descritivo exploratório de abordagem quantitativa, desenvolvido em um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infantojuvenil da região norte do município de São Paulo. Os dados foram coletados com 47 familiares de crianças e adolescentes negros, utilizando um roteiro com variáveis pré-definidas, submetidas à análise estatística. Resultados: foram realizadas 49 entrevistas, sendo 95,5% com mulheres, média de idade de 39 anos, 88,6% mães, 85,7% negras. A renda familiar é proveniente de salário, para 100% dos cuidadores homens e para 59% das mulheres. Dentre as cuidadoras pretas, 25% possuem casa própria, sendo que, dentre as pardas, 46,2%. Do total de cuidadores, 10% vivem em condições de ocupação, 20% habitam moradias cedidas, 35% casas próprias e 35% alugadas. A rede social de suporte é maior entre os brancos (16,7%), seguido pelos pardos (3,8%) e ausente entre os pretos (0%). Conclusão: as responsáveis pelo cuidado de crianças e adolescentes negros acompanhados pelo CAPSij, são na quase totalidade mulheres, "mães ou avós" negras (pretas ou pardas), com acesso desigual à educação, trabalho e moradia, direitos sociais constitucionais no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adult , Brazil , Mental Health , Educational Status , Grandparents , Gender Identity , Mothers
3.
Med. infant ; 30(3): 263-269, Septiembre 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1515961

ABSTRACT

Los estudios sobre la infección fúngica invasiva (IFI) por Mucor spp. en pacientes pediátricos con patología hematooncológica, son de baja solidez científica, lo que dificulta conocer en profundidad sus características y evolución. Con el objetivo de analizar la evolución fatal de esos pacientes, se llevó a cabo esta revisión sistemática (RS). Material y métodos: La búsqueda bibliográfica se realizó con fecha 23 de marzo de 2023, en las principales bases de datos (Medline (a través de Pubmed), Embase (a través de Embase-Elsevier), The Cochrane Library (a través de Wiley), Cinahl (a través de Ebsco HOST), SCI-EXPANDED, SciELO (a través de la WOS) y Scopus (a través de Scopus-Elsevier), libre (mediante el motor Google) y revisando las citas de los artículos incluidos. Resultados: Se rescataron 1393 artículos, de los cuales se descartaron 1386 por diversas razones. Mediante el análisis de los textos completos, finalmente se incluyeron 7 estudios. Todos los estudios eran series de casos (nivel 4). La mediana de la frecuencia de muerte observada fue de 36,6% (Q1 20% - Q347%). Conclusiones: Esta RS mostró en niños con patología hemato-oncológica, que la mortalidad por IFI por Mucor spp. alcanzó a casi un tercio de los pacientes (AU)


Studies on invasive fungal infection (IFI) by Mucor spp. in pediatric patients with cancer have a low level of evidence, which makes it difficult to elucidate its characteristics and progression. To analyze the fatal outcome of these patients, this systematic review (SR) was conducted. Material and methods: A literature search was carried out on March 23, 2023, in the following main databases (Medline (via Pubmed), Embase (via Embase-Elsevier), The Cochrane Library (via Wiley), Cinahl (via Ebsco HOST), SCI-EXPANDED, SciELO (via the WOS) and Scopus (via Scopus-Elsevier). Additionally, a complementary search was carried out using free search engines (such as Google) and by reviewing the references of the included articles. Results: A total of 1393 articles were retrieved, of which 1386 were excluded for various reasons. After a thorough analysis of the full-text articles, 7 studies were ultimately included in the review. All studies were case series (level 4). The median observed death rate was 36.6% (IQR, 20% - 47%). Conclusions: This SR showed that in children with hematological-oncological disease, mortality due to IFI by Mucor spp. affected almost one third of the patients (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Immunocompromised Host , Mucor , Neutropenia
4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 28(9): 2689-2698, Sept. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505966

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é compreender a percepção de si de crianças/adolescentes que convivem com o irmão com deficiência. Pesquisa qualitativa, com abordagem hermenêutico-fenomenológica e participação de 20 crianças e adolescentes que convivem com o irmão com deficiência em um município do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Utilizou-se entrevista fenomenológica, diário de campo e interpretação hermenêutica. Evidenciaram-se lacunas de cuidado, necessidade de atenção, compreensão por parte da família, visto a atenção ser ao irmão com deficiência. O medo e a angústia da morte dos avós, da morte do irmão com deficiência, a saudade dos avós após sua morte. Percebe-se que essas crianças/adolescentes convivem e questionam o nascimento e a existência do irmão. Desvelou-se, ao dar luz ao mundo vivido da criança/adolescente, lacunas e fragilidades na relação com os pais, na atenção à saúde e nas situações de vulnerabilidades vivenciadas pela criança/adolescente e a família. Dessa forma, é necessário atenção a essa população, considerando que convivem com irmãos com deficiência e apresentam diversas vulnerabilidades que precisam ser discutidas, visando elaborações de estratégias de cuidado inclusivas e eficientes.


Abstract The scope of this article was to understand the self-perception of children/adolescents who live with siblings with disabilities. It involved qualitative research, with a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach, with 20 children and adolescents who live with a disabled sibling from a municipality in the state of Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil. Phenomenological interviews, field diaries and hermeneutic interpretations were used. There were gaps in care, need for attention and understanding on the part of the family, due to the attention given to the disabled sibling. Also, the fear and anguish of the death of the grandparents, the death of the disabled sibling, the nostalgia of the grandparents after their death. It was shown that these children/adolescents live together and question the birth and existence of the sibling. By shining a light on the child/adolescent's life experience, gaps and weaknesses in the relationship with parents, in health care, in situations of vulnerabilities experienced by the child/adolescent and family were revealed. Thus, attention needs to be devoted to this population, considering that they live with siblings with disabilities, and have several vulnerabilities that need to be discussed, aiming at developing inclusive and efficient care strategies.

5.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 27(3): 445-454, Jul.-Sept. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514246

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Despite the developing technology of cochlear implants (CIs), implanted prelingual hearing-impaired children exhibit variable speech processing outcomes. When these children match in personal and implant-related criteria, the CI outcome variability could be related to higher-order cognitive impairment. Objectives To evaluate different domains of cognitive function in good versus poor CI performers using a multidisciplinary approach and to find the relationship between these functions and different levels of speech processing. Methods This observational, cross-sectional study used the word recognition score (WRS) test to categorize 40 children with CIs into 20 good (WRS/65%) and 20 poor performers (WRS < 65%). All participants were examined for speech processing at different levels (auditory processing and spoken language) and cognitive functioning using (1) verbal tests (verbal component of Stanford-Binet intelligence [SBIS], auditory memory, auditory vigilance, and P300); and (2) performance tasks (performance components of SBIS, and trail making test). Results The outcomes of speech processing at different functional levels and both domains of cognitive function were analyzed and correlated. Speech processing was impaired significantly in poor CI performers. This group also showed a significant cognitive function deficit, in which the verbal abilities were more affected (in 93.5%) than in the good performers (in 69.5%). Moreover, cognitive function revealed a significant correlation and predictive effect on the CI speech outcomes. Conclusion Cognitive function impairment represented an important factor that underlies the variable speech proficiency in cochlear-implanted children. A multidisciplinary evaluation of cognitive function would provide a comprehensive overview to improve training strategies.

6.
Interaçao psicol ; 27(1): 12-21, jan.-abr. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512623

ABSTRACT

Ainda que não exista previsão legal, crianças e adolescentes vivenciam o processo de dissolução da adoção. Na literatura, a vivência subjetiva de crianças e adolescentes frente ao fenômeno tem sido pouco abordada. O presente estudo objetivou conhecer as vivências de crianças e adolescentes que retornaram ao acolhimento após a adoção, além de compreender sua percepção sobre família e as expectativas sobre o futuro. Realizou-se uma pesquisa qualitativa exploratória com três crianças e uma adolescente em uma instituição de acolhimento da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre/RS. Os dados obtidos em entrevistas semiestruturadas e hora do jogo foram examinados por meio de análise temática. Os resultados foram agrupados em quatro temáticas: 1) concepções de família; 2) experiência de adoção; 3) experiências de retorno ao acolhimento; 4) perspectivas de futuro. Identificou-se que as crianças idealizam a família nuclear, amorosa, e avaliam que a decisão de retorno para o acolhimento foi delas, embora suas perspectivas de futuro sejam centradas na expectativa de uma nova adoção. Constatou-se que a experiência de adoção e retorno para o acolhimento é permeada de sofrimento, o que demanda a criação de políticas públicas de atenção a crianças e adolescentes nesse contexto.


Although there is no legal provision, children and adolescents experience the process of adoption dissolution. In the literature, little is discussed about the subjective experience of children and adolescents who face this experience. The present study aimed at investigating the experiences of children and adolescents who returned to the foster care system after being adopted and understanding their perceptions about family and future expectations. An exploratory qualitative study was carried out with three children and one teenager in a foster care institution located in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre/RS. The data obtained from semi-structured interviews and play were examined through thematic analysis. The results were grouped into four themes: 1) conceptions of family; 2) adoption experience; 3) experiences of returning to the foster system; 4) expectations for the future. It was identified that the children idealize the nuclear and loving family, and thought of their return to the system as their own decision, although their future expectations revolve around being adopted again. It was found that the experience of adoption and subsequent return to the foster system is marked by suffering, which demands the implementation of public policies for the care of children and adolescents in this context.

7.
Pediatr. (Asunción) ; 50(2)ago. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1507007

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El pie Bot es la deformidad del pie más frecuente en pediatría. El pie se caracteriza por tener el tobillo equino, varo el retropié, aducto el antepié, y cavo el medio pie. Objetivos: describir la frecuencia y los motivos de abandono del tratamiento del pie Bot en una población pediátrica hospitalaria durante la pandemia (2020-2021). Materiales y Métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo ambispectivo. Fueron incluidos por muestreo de casos consecutivos, niños de 0 a 6 años que se encontraban en seguimiento de pie Bot en el servicio de traumatología pediátrica y abandonaron el tratamiento. Los datos fueron recogidos de las historias clínicas y por entrevista telefónica con los padres. Variables demográficas, características de la deformidad, edad y escolaridad de la madre, antecedentes familiares de pie Bot y otras malformaciones, la recurrencia, causas del abandono de tratamiento. Los datos fueron analizados en SPSS v21.Se solicitó el consentimiento informado de los padres. Resultados : El 25% (101/404) de los pacientes en seguimiento en el hospital, en el periodo de 2020-2021 abandonaron el tratamiento. Ingresaron al estudio 62 pacientes. El 95% presentaron recurrencia y recibieron tratamiento quirúrgico. La causa más frecuente de abandono del tratamiento de acuerdo con los padres fueron las dificultades derivadas de la pandemia. Conclusiones: La frecuencia de abandono de tratamiento fue del 25,2%, con predominio del sexo masculino. El 95% presentaron recaída y recibieron tratamiento quirúrgico (Tenotomía de Aquiles). La causa más frecuente de abandono de tratamiento fue la pandemia.


Introduction: Clubfoot is the most frequent foot deformity in pediatrics. The foot is characterized by having an equine ankle, a varus hindfoot, an adducted forefoot, and a dig in the midfoot. Objectives: to describe the frequency and reasons for abandoning Clubfoot treatment in a pediatric hospital population in the pandemic (2020-2021). Materials and Methods: This was an ambispective, descriptive and observational study. Consecutive case sampling included children from 0 to 6 years of age who were undergoing Clubfoot follow-up in the pediatric trauma service and abandoned treatment. Data were collected from medical records and by telephone interview with parents. The variables were: demographics, characteristics of the deformity, age and education of the mother, family history of Clubfoot and other malformations, recurrence and causes of treatment abandonment. Data were analyzed in SPSS v21. Parental informed consent was requested. Results: During the 2020-2021 period, 25% (101/404) of the patients being monitored at the hospital abandoned treatment. 62 patients were enrolled in the study. 95% presented recurrence and received surgical treatment. The most frequent cause of treatment abandonment, according to the parents, was the difficulties caused by the pandemic. Conclusions: The frequency of treatment abandonment was 25.2%, with a predominance of males. 95% presented relapse and received surgical treatment (Achilles Tenotomy). The most frequent cause of treatment abandonment was the pandemic.

8.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 50(4)ago. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515191

ABSTRACT

La desnutrición como enfermedad de origen social es la expresión última de la situación de inseguridad alimentaria y nutricional de una población, al afectar principalmente a los niños. El objetivo fue analizar la prevalencia y factores relacionados con la desnutrición en la primera infancia en Colombia durante los años 2018 a 2020, mediante un estudio cuantitativo descriptivo de tipo ecológico - exploratorio, con recolección de datos retrospectivos a partir de reportes obtenidos del Sistema Integrado de Información de la Protección Social. El total de casos corresponde a 43.823 reportes, la prevalencia para los tres años fue de 1,13% principalmente en los departamentos de Guajira (n: 3.488; 3,17%) y Boyacá (n: 1.277; 1,39%), mayor número de casos presentados en el sexo masculino (n: 23.804; 54,3%), en edad entre 0 y 1 año (n: 17.099; 39,0%), pertenecientes al régimen subsidiado (n: 28.814; 65,75%) y ubicados en la cabecera municipal (n: 28.114; 64,15%). Con relación a la pertenencia étnica la mayor frecuencia se evidencia en "otras etnias" (n: 33.050; 75,42%), seguido de la etnia indígena (n: 8.348; 19,05%) y el estrato socioeconómico más representativo es el "bajo-bajo" (n: 17.620; 40,21%). Además, existe relación entre el sexo masculino y la desnutrición, comportándose como un factor de riesgo, y el vivir en centro poblado disminuye la probabilidad de presentar desnutrición. Se evidenció una frecuencia significativa de características asociadas a los determinantes sociales en salud y variables específicas relacionadas con la desnutrición.


Malnutrition as a disease of social origin is the ultimate expression of the situation of food and nutritional insecurity of a population, mainly affecting children. The objective was to analyze the prevalence and factors related to malnutrition in early childhood in Colombia during the years 2018 to 2020, through a descriptive quantitative study of an ecological-exploratory type, with retrospective data collection from reports obtained from the Integrated System of Social Protection Information. The total number of cases corresponds to 43,823 reports, the prevalence for the three years was 1.13%, mainly in the departments of Guajira (n: 3,488; 3.17%) and Boyacá (n: 1,277; 1.39%). greater number of cases presented in males (n: 23,804; 54.3%), aged between 0 and 1 year (n: 17,099; 39.0%), belonging to the subsidized regime (n: 28,814; 65.75%) and located in the municipal seat (n: 28,114; 64.15%). In relation to ethnicity, the highest frequency is evidenced in "other ethnic groups" (n: 33,050; 75.42%), followed by the indigenous ethnic group (n: 8,348; 19.05%), and the most representative socioeconomic stratum is the "low-low" (n: 17,620; 40.21%). In addition, there is a relationship between the male sex and malnutrition, behaving as a risk factor, and living in a populated center decreases the probability of presenting malnutrition. A significant frequency of characteristics associated with the social determinants of health and specific variables related to malnutrition was evidenced.

9.
Vive (El Alto) ; 6(17)ago. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515621

ABSTRACT

A nivel mundial, la cardiopatía congénita en los niños es la malformación más común que puede tener un bebé al nacer. Objetivo. Analizar el comportamiento del desarrollo psicomotor de los niños menores a 5 años con cardiopatía congénita en la región de Madre de Dios, Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se consideró un enfoque cuantitativo, de tipo observacional analítica con diseño de cohorte prospectivo, con muestreo no probabilístico y una muestra de 6 infantes a quienes se aplicó el instrumento de recolección de información "observación del desarrollo psicomotor en niños con cardiopatía congénita". Resultados. El género del paciente varón en promedio es de 33.33%, la edad en promedio de los pacientes con cardiopatía congénita es de 2 años; el tipo de cardiopatía congénita de los pacientes es atresia pulmonar y estenosis aortica, mostrando un desarrollo psicomotor promedio de nivel medio; el tipo de cirugía desarrollado en el paciente en promedio es de tipo definitivo; alcanzando de esta manera una estancia hospitalaria de 16 a 30 días en promedio y alcanzando un estado nutricional promedio de desnutrición severa. Además, la relación entre el tipo de cardiopatía congénita con el desarrollo psicomotor es positiva, toda vez que, ante un incremento del desarrollo psicomotor de los pacientes, entonces los casos de cardiopatía congénita incrementan (ρ de Pearson =0.6919). Conclusiones. Se determinó que, en los pacientes estudiados el desarrollo psicomotor es de nivel medio; la misma que está relacionado por el tipo de cardiopatía congénita que tiene, donde el 33.33% de los pacientes presentan atresia pulmonar y el 16.67% tiene estenosis aortica; lo que demuestra que la relación entre el tipo de cardiopatía congénita con el desarrollo psicomotor es positiva o directa.


Worldwide, congenital heart disease in children is the most common malformation that an infant may have at birth. Objective. To analyze the behavior of psychomotor development in children under 5 years of age with congenital heart disease in the region of Madre de Dios, Peru. Materials and methods. A quantitative, analytical observational approach with prospective cohort design was considered, with non-probabilistic sampling and a sample of 6 infants to whom the data collection instrument "observation of psychomotor development in children with congenital heart disease" was applied. Results. The average gender of the male patient is 33.33%; the average age of the patients with congenital heart disease is 2 years; the type of congenital heart disease of the patients is pulmonary atresia and aortic stenosis, showing an average psychomotor development of medium level; the type of surgery developed in the patient on average is of definitive type; thus reaching a hospital stay of 16 to 30 days on average and reaching an average nutritional status of severe malnutrition. In addition, the relationship between the type of congenital heart disease and psychomotor development is positive, since, with an increase in the psychomotor development of the patients, the cases of congenital heart disease increase (Pearson's ρ =0.6919). Conclusions. It was determined that, in the patients studied, psychomotor development is of medium level; the same is related to the type of congenital heart disease they have, where 33.33% of the patients present pulmonary atresia and 16.67% have aortic stenosis; which shows that the relationship between the type of congenital heart disease and psychomotor development is positive or direct.


Em todo o mundo, a doença cardíaca congênita em crianças é a malformação mais comum que um bebê pode ter ao nascer. Objetivo. Analisar o comportamento do desenvolvimento psicomotor em crianças com menos de 5 anos de idade com cardiopatia congênita na região de Madre de Dios, no Peru. Materiais e métodos. Foi considerada uma abordagem observacional quantitativa e analítica, com um projeto de coorte prospectivo, amostragem não probabilística e uma amostra de 6 bebês aos quais foi aplicado o instrumento de coleta de dados "observação do desenvolvimento psicomotor em crianças com cardiopatia congênita". Resultados. O sexo médio do paciente masculino é de 33,33%, a idade média dos pacientes com cardiopatia congênita é de 2 anos; o tipo de cardiopatia congênita dos pacientes é atresia pulmonar e estenose aórtica, apresentando um desenvolvimento psicomotor médio de nível médio; o tipo de cirurgia desenvolvida no paciente é, em média, do tipo definitiva; atingindo, assim, uma permanência hospitalar de 16 a 30 dias, em média, e atingindo um estado nutricional médio de desnutrição grave. Além disso, a relação entre o tipo de cardiopatia congênita e o desenvolvimento psicomotor é positiva, pois, com o aumento do desenvolvimento psicomotor dos pacientes, aumentam os casos de cardiopatia congênita (ρ de Pearson = 0,6919). Conclusões. Foi determinado que, nos pacientes estudados, o desenvolvimento psicomotor é de nível médio; isso está relacionado com o tipo de cardiopatia congênita que eles têm, onde 33,33% dos pacientes têm atresia pulmonar e 16,67% têm estenose aórtica; o que mostra que a relação entre o tipo de cardiopatia congênita e o desenvolvimento psicomotor é positiva ou direta.

10.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444473

ABSTRACT

Introduction: whilst recent years have witnessed considerable research into infant categorisation, its development during the pre-school period has garnered far less interest and innovation. Objective: this paper documents the development of a valid and reliable new toolkit for measuring categorisation in children, designed to allow fine-grained differentiation through four short tasks. Methods: the paper outlines how a pilot study with 55 children reduced confounding variables, ruled out several explanations for performance variations and enabled procedural refinements. It then documents a study conducted with 190 children aged 30-60 months. Results: this more sophisticated testing mechanism challenges previously accepted developmental norms and suggests both sex and socio-economic status (and their interaction) influence categorisational abilities in pre-schoolers. Conclusion: the results indicate that preschool children's ability to categorise varies markedly, with implications for their capacity to access formal education.


Introdução: embora nos últimos anos tenha havido pesquisas consideráveis sobre a categorização infantil, seu desenvolvimento durante o período pré-escolar atraiu muito menos interesse e inovação. Objetivo: este artigo documenta o desenvolvimento de um novo kit de ferramentas válido e confiável para medir a categorização em crianças, projetado para permitir diferenciação refinada por meio de quatro tarefas curtas. Método: o artigo descreve como um estudo piloto com 55 crianças reduziu variáveis de confusão, descartou várias explicações para variações de desempenho e permitiu refinamentos de procedimentos. Em seguida, documenta um estudo realizado com 190 crianças de 30 a 60 meses. Resultados: este mecanismo de teste mais sofisticado desafia as normas de desenvolvimento previamente aceitas e sugere que o sexo e o status socioeconômico (e sua interação) influenciam as habilidades de categorização em pré-escolares. Conclusão: os resultados indicam que a capacidade de categorização dos pré-escolares varia acentuadamente, com implicações na sua capacidade de acesso à educação forma

11.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2023 Aug; 90(8): 754–760
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223763

ABSTRACT

Objectives To study the course of West syndrome (WS) and coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in children with WS who contracted SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods This ambispective study was conducted at a tertiary-care center in North India between December 2020 and August 2021 after approval from the Institute Ethics Committee. Five children with WS, positive for COVID-19 based on RT-PCR, fulflled the inclusion criteria. Results One child with COVID-19 during the frst wave was retrospectively included while four children (of the 70 children screened) were prospectively enrolled. The median age at onset of epileptic spasms was 7 mo (2 boys), and that at presentation with COVID-19 was 18.5 mo. Three had underlying acquired structural etiology. Three were in remission following standard therapy, while two had ongoing spasms at the time of COVID-19 illness. During the illness, two of those in remission continued to be in remission while one child had a relapse. The children with ongoing epileptic spasms had variable course [one had persistent spasms and other had transient cessation lasting 3 wk from day 2 of COVID-19 illness, but electroencephalography (on day 8 of COVID-19 illness) continued to show hypsarrhythmia]. Fever was the most typical symptom (and sometimes the only symptom) of COVID-19, with a duration ranging from 1–8 d. Two children had moderate COVID-19 illness requiring hospitalization, while the rest had a mild illness. All the afected children had complete recovery from COVID-19. Conclusion The severity of COVID-19 illness in children with WS is often mild, while the subsequent course of WS is variable.

12.
Interdisciplinaria ; 40(2): 355-371, ago. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448499

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los modelos neurocognitivos actuales definen a la atención como un sistema de control cognitivo responsable de la activación y organización jerárquica de los procesos encargados de elaborar la información. La atención juega un rol clave en el desempeño cognitivo infantil y en el aprendizaje escolar. Por ello, resulta importante disponer de instrumentos de evaluación, válidos y confiables, que permitan valorar con mayor precisión el desempeño atencional en niños y niñas. El propósito de este trabajo es analizar las propiedades psicométricas del Test de Anillos (TA), un nuevo instrumento diseñado para evaluar atención visual en niños. El TA se ha construido utilizando el optotipo C de Landolt y sigue la estructura triestímulo propuesta por la prueba de percepción de similitudes y diferencias (CARAS). Es una prueba de papel y lápiz que se compone de 60 bloques de estímulos. La muestra estuvo conformada por 86 escolares entre 8 y 10 años de edad. Para el estudio de las propiedades psicométricas se analizó la validez convergente entre el TA y el Test CARAS y se examinó la estabilidad temporal para analizar la confiabilidad del TA. Los resultados indicaron que el TA es un instrumento válido y confiable para la medición de la atención visual en niños y niñas. Presentó adecuados valores en validez convergente y una satisfactoria estabilidad temporal entre la primera y la segunda evaluación. Se concluye que el TA constituye un aporte a los instrumentos neuropsicológicos existentes para la evaluación de la atención visual en población infantil.


Abstract Current neurocognitive models define attention as a cognitive control system responsible for activation and hierarchical organization of the processes to elaborate information. It plays a key role in child cognitive performance and in school learning. It has been documented that children with greater attention capabilities show better performance in tasks that require cognitive control and better school performance. Therefore, it is important to have valid and reliable assessment instruments, which allow evaluating attentional performance in children with greater precision, and that are adapted to the sociocultural context of the target population. In line with these postulates, this paper presents a new instrument designed to evaluate visual attention in children called the Ring Test. The Ring Test is a visual discrimination test that has been constructed using Landolt's C optotype and following the tristimulus structure proposed by the Perception of Similarities and Differences (FACES) Test. Ring Test is a pencil and paper test that is made up of 60 blocks of stimuli each with triads of optotypes, where two optotypes are the same and one different. Subject's task is to find the different optotype in each stimulus triad and cross it out. This instrument brings into play focused and sustained attention and makes it possible to assess attentional effectiveness (AE), attentional efficiency (AF) and attentional performance (AP). Also, the Ring Test measures impulsivity (ICI) and net correct answers (NCA). The purpose of the study is to analyze psychometric properties for the Ring Test. Study's specific objectives were: (1) analyze the convergent validity between the Ring Test and the FACES Test, and (2) analyze the reliability of the Ring Test through the temporal stability. This study is framed in an instrumental design. The sample was composed of 86 schoolchildren, between 8 to 10 years. The results indicated that the Ring Test presented accurate values of convergent validity with the FACES test. The indicators of the Ring Test (AE, AF, AP, ICI and NCA) weighted for the complete execution of the test, showed the highest convergent validity indexes with the FACES Test (rho: from .55 to .62). AR and NCA for the complete execution of the test were the indicators that presented the highest validity (rho > .58), within the analyzed indicators. Also, the Ring Test presented a satisfactory temporal stability between the first and second measurement. It was observed that the most stable indicators are those that are calculated for the complete performance of the test (rho: from .56 to .76), and not for the partial times. AR and NCA calculated for the complete execution of the test were the indicators that denoted the greatest temporal stability (rho > .65). Another interesting aspect to highlight is that the Ring Test proved to be a valid and reliable instrument to measure attentional efficacy and impulsivity. AE evaluates the accuracy with which a child discriminates targeted stimuli within a set of similar stimuli and, consequently, can be considered a good indicator of attentional control. The ICI assesses the reflexivity or impulsiveness with which a subject performs a visual discrimination task. In sum, the results indicated that the Ring Test is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring visual attention in children. It is recommended to apply the complete test, not in time fractions, because the indicators calculated for the complete execution of the test showed greater convergent validity with the FACES test and greater temporal stability than the part-time indicators. It is concluded that the Ring Test is a contribution to the neuropsychological instruments available for the proper evaluation of visual attention in children.

13.
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 47(2): 249-263, 20230808.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451850

ABSTRACT

A pandemia de covid-19 transformou o cotidiano da população mundial. Com as crianças e os adolescentes não foi diferente, o fechamento de escolas, centros esportivos, praças e locais de lazer propiciaram o isolamento social, afastando-os do convívio social e favorecendo a consolidação desse afastamento. Tais mudanças podem suscitar transtornos e representar prejuízos futuros na idade adulta, haja vista que a necessidade de medidas restritivas ao domicílio gera prejuízos na saúde mental da população, desencadeando ansiedade e sofrimento psicológico. Esta revisão visa analisar os efeitos do isolamento social causado pela covid-19 na inatividade física e na saúde mental de crianças e adolescentes. Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática da literatura baseada nas recomendações PRISMA e registrada no PROSPERO. Foram incluídos ensaios clínicos randomizados e estudos observacionais, publicados entre 2020 e 2021 e que envolveram crianças e adolescentes que estiveram em isolamento social. Após a análise dos estudos incluídos, verificou-se redução na prática de atividade física, aumento no tempo de tela e impactos psicossociais com a incidência de depressão leve e moderada, ansiedade e sintomas depressivos. Tais resultados sugerem a importância da criação de políticas públicas com o objetivo de minimizar os efeitos na ansiedade, na qualidade do sono, no tempo de tela e nos sintomas depressivos causados pelo isolamento social, considerando os aspectos biopsicossociais e com foco na promoção da qualidade de vida de crianças e adolescentes.


The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed the daily lives of the world's population. It was no different with children and adolescents, the closure of schools, sports centers, squares, and leisure facilities led to social isolation, keeping them away from social life and favoring the consolidation of this isolation. Such changes can cause disorders and represent future losses in their adulthood, given that the need for restrictive measures at home generates damage to the mental health of the population, triggering anxiety and psychological distress. This review aims to analyze the effects of social isolation caused by COVID-19 on the physical inactivity and the mental health of children and adolescents. This is a systematic review of the literature based on PRISMA recommendations and registered on PROSPERO. Randomized clinical trials and observational studies, published between 2020 and 2021 and involving children and adolescents who were in social isolation, were included. After analyzing the included studies, there was a reduction in the physical activity practice, an increase in screen time, and psychosocial impacts with the incidence of mild and moderate depression, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. These results suggest the importance of creating public policies aimed at minimizing the effects on anxiety, on sleep quality, on screen time, and on depressive symptoms caused by social isolation, considering biopsychosocial aspects and focusing on promoting the quality of life of children and adolescents.


La pandemia del covid-19 ha transformado la vida cotidiana de la población mundial. Con los niños y adolescentes no fue distinto, el cierre de escuelas, polideportivos, plazas y lugares de ocio llevó al aislamiento social, alejándolos de la vida social y favoreciendo la consolidación del aislamiento. Estos cambios pueden derivar en trastornos y representar pérdidas futuras en su edad adulta, dado que la necesidad de medidas restrictivas en el hogar genera daños en la salud mental de la población, desencadenando ansiedad y malestar psicológico. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo analizar los efectos del aislamiento social provocado por el covid-19 en la inactividad física y en la salud mental de niños y adolescentes. Se trata de una revisión sistemática de la literatura basada en las recomendaciones PRISMA y registro PROSPERO. Se incluyeron ensayos clínicos aleatorizados y estudios observacionales, publicados entre 2020 y 2021, que tuvieron como participantes niños y adolescentes que se encontraban en aislamiento social. Del análisis de los estudios incluidos, se observó una reducción en la práctica de actividad física, un aumento en el tiempo de pantalla e impactos psicosociales con la incidencia de depresión leve y moderada, ansiedad y síntomas depresivos. Estos resultados apuntan a la importancia de crear políticas públicas dirigidas a minimizar los efectos sobre la ansiedad, la calidad del sueño, el tiempo de pantalla y los síntomas depresivos causados por el aislamiento social, teniendo en cuenta los aspectos biopsicosociales y enfocándose en la promoción de la calidad de vida de niños y adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent
14.
Psicol. teor. prát ; 25(3): 15116, 10 jul. 2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451195

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to describe the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) of perpetrators of sexual violence of children and adolescents and their relationship with the abusers' personal and situational factors (n = 30). Hence, a database composed of the transcripts of interviews was analyzed using content analysis, from which thematic categories emerged as proposed by the Adverse Childhood Experiences International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ). Physical abuse was the most frequently reported (70%). Sexual abuse was reported by almost half of the sample, which presented an increased risk in the face of the death and/or divorce of parents (RR = 4.21) and emotional neglect (RR = 3.2). In addition, the participants with higher ACE-Scores abused children more recurrently and less frequently consumed alcohol or other drugs. The interpretation of the results in light of the literature reinforces the hypothesis that the consequences of adversities during childhood are associated with a higher likelihood of becoming a victim throughout life and manifesting risky behaviors, such as aggressive sexual behavior. Future studies are suggested to apply the ACE-IQ to larger samples and implement a post-test to contribute to more effective interventions to treat this population.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar las Experiencias Adversas en la Infancia por parte de los perpetradores de agresión de niños y niñas y la asociación con factores personales y situacionales identificados. (n = 30). Para ello, se utilizó el instrumento de cribado del Cuestionario Internacional de Experiencias Adversas en la Infancia (ACE-IQ) para el análisis de los datos. El maltrato físico fue reportado con mayor frecuencia (70%) y el abuso sexual fue mencionado por casi la mitad de la muestra, con su riesgo aumentado ante la muerte y/o divorcio de los padres (RR = 4,21) y negligencia emocional (RR = 3.2). Participantes con ACE-Scores más altos han agredido repetidamente a sus víctimas y con menos necesidad de consumir alcohol y/o otras drogas. Los resultados muestran que las consecuencias de la exposición a la adversidad en la infancia están asociadas no solo a la probabilidad de convertirse en víctima a lo largo de la vida, sino también a caminos de transitar permeados por conductas de riesgo y criminalidad. Se sugiere que más estudios puedan aplicar el ACE-IQ a muestras más grandes, con la realización de una prueba posterior, lo que puede contribuir a intervenciones más efectivas al servicio de esta población.


Este estudo objetivou descrever Experiências Adversas na Infância (EAI) relatadas por autores de agressão sexual de crianças e adolescentes e sua relação com fatores pessoais e situacionais identificados (n = 30). Para tanto, utilizou-se um banco de dados formado por transcrições de entrevistas previamente realizadas, cuja análise de conteúdo considerou categorias temáticas retiradas do Adverse Childhood Experiences International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ). O abuso físico foi o mais relatado (70%) e o abuso sexual mencionado por quase metade da amostra, tendo seu risco aumentado diante da morte e/ou separação dos pais (RR = 4.21) e negligência emocional (RR = 3.2). Participantes com maiores ACE-Scores agrediram de forma mais recorrente e com menor uso de álcool e/ou outras drogas. A interpretação dos resultados à luz da literatura da área reforça a hipótese de que as consequências da exposição à adversidade na infância estão relacionadas tanto à probabilidade de tornar-se vítima ao longo da vida quanto de vir a manifestar comportamentos de risco, como a conduta sexual agressiva. Estudos posteriores poderão aplicar o ACE-IQ diretamente e em amostras maiores, com a realização de pós-teste, o que favorecerá a promoção de intervenções mais eficazes no atendimento a essa população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Child Abuse, Sexual/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Criminals/psychology , Adverse Childhood Experiences , Retrospective Studies , Physical Abuse/psychology
15.
Psicol. teor. prát ; 25(3): 14855, 10 jul. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451194

ABSTRACT

The correlation between inattention and hyperactivity symptoms/behavior manifestations and screen time was evaluated among Brazilian children and adolescents (7-18 years old) who were socially isolated due to the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 517 legal guardians completed questionnaires about electronic media use (MAF-P) and emotional/behavioral problems (CBCL/6-18). The results showed that texting was correlated to less inattention/hyperactivity symptoms; listening to music, the use of social media and electronics for school purposes were negatively correlated to attention problems and inattention/hyperactivity symptoms and playing videos games and online videos were associated to more attention problems and inattention/hyperactivity symptoms. The results contribute to the understanding of the relationship between inattention/hyperactivity symptoms and screen time in a sample of Brazilian children and adolescents during the pandemic.


Se evaluó la correlación entre síntomas/manifestaciones conductuales de inatención e hiperactividad y tiempo de uso de medios electrónicos entre niños y adolescentes brasileños (7-18 años) en aislamiento social por la pandemia de COVID-19. Los participantes fueron 517 tutores que completaron inventarios de uso de medios (MAF-P) y problemas emocionales/conductuales (CBCL/6-18), entre junio y agosto de 2020. Los resultados indican que más tiempo dedicado a la comunicación de mensajes se correlacionó con menos informes de síntomas de inatención/hiperactividad; Escuchar música durante más tiempo, usar redes sociales y dispositivos electrónicos para la escuela/el trabajo se asoció con menos síntomas inatención/hiperactividad y problemas de atención. Finalmente, jugar más videojuegos y ver videos en línea se asoció con más síntomas de falta de atención/hiperactividad y problemas de atención. Los resultados contribuyen a comprender que existen asociaciones entre la frecuencia de síntomas de inatención/hiperactividad y el tiempo de uso de medios electrónicos en una muestra de niños y adolescentes brasileños durante la pandemia.


Avaliou-se a correlação entre sintomas/manifestações comportamentais de desatenção e hiperatividade e tempo de uso de mídias eletrônicas entre crianças e adolescentes (7-18 anos) brasileiras em isolamento social devido a pandemia da COVID-19. Participaram 517 responsáveis que preencheram inventários de uso de mídias (MAF-P) e de problemas emocionais/comportamentais (CBCL/6-18), entre junho-agosto de 2020. Resultados indicam que mais tempo em comunicação por mensagens correlacionou-se a menos relatos de sintomas de desatenção/hiperatividade; já mais tempo ouvindo música, usando redes sociais e eletrônicos para escola/trabalho associaram-se com menor número de sintomas de desatenção/hiperatividade e de problemas atencionais. Por fim, maior em videogames e assistindo vídeos online associaram-se a mais sintomas de desatenção/hiperatividade e problemas atencionais. Os resultados contribuem para entender que existem associações entre frequência de sintomas de desatenção/hiperatividade e tempo de uso de mídias eletrônicas em uma amostra de crianças e adolescentes brasileiros durante a pandemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Child Behavior/psychology , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Social Media , COVID-19 , Time Factors , Checklist
16.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-219681

ABSTRACT

Aim: Malnutrition remains a public health problem in children aged under five years in Burkina Faso. Research to find indigenous vegetables with high content of minerals can contribute to fight against children malnutrition. The aim of this study was to assess minerals composition of Solanum aethiopicum L. and Amaranthus hybridus L. leaves grown in Burkina Faso. Methodes: The leaves have been collected in three markets of Ouagadougou. For the two plants, the dry leaves have been analysed for the following minerals content: Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Sodium (Na), Phosphor (P), Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn). The analyses have been done using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer and flame photometer methodes. Results: The results showed high mean concentration in K, Ca and Mg in the leaves of the two plants. For Solanum aethiopicum leaves, the concentration in K, Ca and Mg was respectively 3064; 1048 and 666 mg/100 g. The trace elements content were also high: Fe (12 mg/100 g) and Zn (20 mg/100 g). For Amaranthus hybridus leaves, the concentration in K, Ca and Mg was respectively 3573; 606 and 475 mg/100 g. The leaves of Solanum aethiopicum had the highest content of following minerals: Ca, Mg, Na, P, Fe and Zn compared to Amaranthus hybridus leaves. Conclusion: This study showed that both plants are good sources of important minerals. They are essential to be included in the diet of children to promote growth and contribute to fight against malnutrition.

17.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1430296

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As famílias de crianças com Síndrome Congênita do Zika (SCZ) convivem com dificuldades para suprir suas necessidades de saúde, portanto acionam o poder judiciário para gozar do seu direito à saúde. Objetivo: Apreender as principais motivações das impetrações judiciais requeridas por mães de crianças com SCZ e seus desfechos. Metodologia: Estudo exploratório documental com abordagem qualitativa, realizado no sítio eletrônico JusBrasil e coleta procedida em março de 2020. Foram incluídas 15 impetrações judiciais publicadas entre janeiro de 2016 e junho de 2019. A análise lexical através do software IRaMuTeQ e a análise de conteúdo temática foram realizadas. Resultados: O acesso às tecnologias assistivas é a principal motivação para impetrações judiciais, com vistas a assegurar melhora no desenvolvimento da criança e consequente independência da criança. As decisões judiciais beneficiaram as crianças com SCZ, fundamentadas no direito à saúde, direito à vida e proteção, e o direito de ir e vir. Conclusão: Para mitigar os impactos da judicialização da saúde as autoridades sanitárias e judiciárias podem investir em melhor vigilância e monitoramento dos fatores de risco e morbidades; rigor nos protocolos sanitários que envolvem migração de pessoas em zonas fronteiriças; ofertas de condições ambientais e de moradia dignas; realização de cuidados preventivos com destaque para a eficiência da imunização; além da organização e funcionamento de uma rede de atenção à saúde eficaz com abordagem interdisciplinar.


Introducción: Las familias de personas menores con síndrome de zika congénito (SZC) viven con dificultades para satisfacer sus necesidades de salud, por lo que hacen un llamado al Poder Judicial para gozar de este derecho. Objetivo: Conocer las principales motivaciones de las demandas presentadas por madres de niños y niñas con SZC y sus desenlaces. Metodología: Estudio documental exploratorio con enfoque cualitativo, realizado en el sitio web de JusBrasil y recogido en marzo de 2020. Se incluyeron 15 juicios publicados entre enero de 2016 y junio de 2019 en JusBrasil. Se realizó el análisis léxico a través del software IRaMuTeQ y el análisis de contenido temático. Resultados: El acceso a las tecnologías asistenciales es la principal motivación de las demandas, con el fin de asegurar la mejora en el desarrollo de la persona menor y su consecuente independencia. Las decisiones judiciales beneficiaron a niñas y niños con SZC, basadas en los derechos a la salud, a la vida y protección y a ir y venir. Conclusiones: Para mitigar los impactos de la judicialización en salud, las autoridades sanitarias y judiciales pueden invertir en una mejor vigilancia y seguimiento de los factores de riesgo y morbilidades, rigor en los protocolos sanitarios que implican la migración de personas en zonas fronterizas, ofrecer condiciones ambientales y habitacionales dignas, realizar cuidados preventivos, con énfasis en la eficiencia de la inmunización, además de la organización y operación de una red de atención de salud efectiva con enfoque interdisciplinario.


Introduction: Families of children with Congenital Zika Syndrome (CSZ) live with difficulties to meet their health needs; therefore, they resort to the law system in order claim their right to health. Objective: To apprehend the main motivations and outcomes of the lawsuits filed by mothers of children with CSZ. Methodology: Exploratory documentary study with a qualitative approach carried out on the JusBrasil website and collected in March 2020. The study included 15 lawsuits published between January 2016 and June 2019 in JusBrasil. A lexical analysis through the IRaMuTeQ software and a thematic content analysis were performed. Results: The access to assistive technologies is the main motivation for the lawsuits; these are issued with the objective to ensure improvement in the child's development and further independence of the child. Court decisions benefited children with CSZ based on the right to health, the right to life and protection, and the right to come and go. Conclusion: To mitigate the impacts of health judicialization, health and judicial authorities can invest in better surveillance and monitoring of the risk factors and morbidities, strictness in the health protocols that involve migration of people in border areas, offering of decent environmental and housing conditions, execution of preventive care with emphasis on the efficiency of immunization, as well as the organization and execution of an effective health care network with an interdisciplinary approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Zika Virus Infection , Right to Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Brazil , Disabled Children , Judicial Decisions , Health's Judicialization
18.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 43(2): 56-63, jun. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1510551

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la utilización de pantallas durante la niñez y la preocupación por su potencial daño aumentaron en los últimos años. La recomendación de no superar dos horas diarias de uso resultó controvertida durante la pandemia por COVID-19. El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue explorar las opiniones y actitudes de los profesionales con respecto al uso de pantallas y comprender cómo se modificaron durante dicha pandemia. Materiales y métodos: estudio exploratorio con enfoque cualitativo y estrategia de teoría fundamentada, realizado entre 2020 y 2021.Participaron 23 profesionales (pediatras y generalistas) en cuatro grupos focales. Se realizaron lecturas del material desgrabado para interpretación del contenido. El análisis incluyó la generación de códigos que fueron agrupados en cinco ejes temáticos. Resultados: los ejes resultantes fueron: 1) temática de las pantallas en la consulta ambulatoria de niños sanos, 2) percepción sobre daños, 3) percepción sobre beneficios, 4) pantallas en épocas de ASPO (Aislamiento Social Preventivo y Obligatorio) y 5) pensamientos y acciones contradictorios sobre el uso de pantallas. Discusión: a la hora de recomendar sobre exposición a pantallas, en nuestros entrevistados predominó la intuición personal por sobre la evidencia científica disponible. Reconocieron que el contexto de ASPO visibilizó algunos beneficios asociados a la conectividad que brindan estos dispositivos. Conclusión: nuestros resultados muestran que la percepción sobre las pantallas se está volviendo cada vez más neutral en términos del balance entre sus riesgos y beneficios, conduciendo a que los profesionales sean más flexibles en sus recomendaciones al respecto. (AU)


Introduction: screen use during childhood and potential harm concerns have increased in recent years. Advice not to allow more than two hours of screen use per day was contested during the COVID-19 pandemic. The primary purpose of this research was to probe the opinions and attitudes of professionals regarding the use of screens and to understand how these changed during the pandemic. Materials and methods: this exploratory study, with a qualitative approach and theory-based strategy, was made between 2020 and 2021, and involved the participation of 23 professionals (pediatricians and general practitioners) in four focus groups. The recorded material was analyzed for content interpretation. The analysis included generating codes that were grouped into five thematic areas. Results: the resulting axes were: 1) the issue of screens in the outpatient practice of healthy children; 2) perception of harm; 3) perception of benefits; 4) screens in times of Preventive and Compulsory Social Isolation (ASPO, for its acronym in Spanish); and 5) contradictory thoughts and actions on the use of screens. Discussion: when making recommendations regarding screen exposure, the interviewees' intuition predominated over available scientific evidence. They recognized that the ASPO context highlighted some of the benefits associated with the connectivity provided by these devices. Conclusion: our results show that awareness of screen displays is becoming increasingly neutral concerning the trade-off between their risks and benefits, prompting practitioners to become more flexible in their recommendations. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Child Health , Health Personnel/trends , Screen Time , Perception , Social Isolation , Focus Groups , Cell Phone/trends , Computers, Handheld/trends , COVID-19/psychology
19.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 36: e20230101, jun.2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514279

ABSTRACT

Abstract Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing at epidemic proportions worldwide. MetS and its components are frequent among Brazilian women (41.8%). Women are affected by changes in adipose tissue distribution, lipid profile, insulin resistance (IR), and vascular remodeling during their lives. These changes result from the lack of estrogen after menopause. There have been various attempts to propose a uniform origin for the clustering of the MetS components, including genetics, IR, obesity, lifestyle, sleep disturbances, inflammation, fetal and neonatal programming, and disturbed circadian rhythm of the body functions. The proinflammatory and prothrombotic state in MetS is well-defined. Socioeconomic and lifestyle-related factors are also essential triggers of MetS, which is associated with a higher risk for coronary artery diseases (CAD) and stroke in women. Population measures in health and community medicine, such as continuing education on the importance of lifestyle change to reduce cardiovascular risks from early childhood, are fundamental strategies. Statins reduce high-sensitivity C-reactive protein blood levels and treat high cholesterol. According to the patient, hypoglycemic agents, such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1a), and sodium-glucose transport protein 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, in addition to metformin, have their indication due to their beneficial cardiometabolic and vascular effects. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB) should be the first choice to treat hypertension in postmenopausal womem. The recognition of the different gender- and age-specific risk factors, allowing for specific and targeted interventions, is fundamental, especially for women.

20.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 28(6): 1703-1715, jun. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439837

ABSTRACT

Resumo A violência infantil é um problema que afeta crianças no mundo todo. O presente estudo objetiva identificar e analisar os principais resultados apresentados em artigos publicados no Brasil sobre as práticas profissionais desenvolvidas em situações de maus-tratos infantis. Para tanto, realizou-se uma revisão integrativa da literatura, com buscas nas bases de dados Google Acadêmico, no SciELO Brasil, nos Periódicos da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior do Ministério da Educação (CAPES/MEC), no MEDLARS ONLINE (Medline), na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS Saúde) e nos Periódicos Eletrônicos em Psicologia (Pepsic), abrangendo publicações de 2017 a 2022. Após a leitura dos títulos e resumos, 24 artigos foram selecionados para a análise. Os resultados apontam a dificuldade na proteção integral da criança devido à deficiência na formação do profissional, que influencia na identificação e notificação do abuso infantil. O presente estudo revela o lugar que os maus-tratos infantis ocupam na formação dos profissionais e subsidia pesquisas futuras sobre práticas profissionais para o enfrentamento da violência infantil.


Abstract Child abuse is a problem that affects children all over the world. The present study therefore aimed to identify and analyze the main findings relating to professional practices for dealing with situations of child maltreatment in articles published in Brazil. To this end, we conducted an integrative literature review of articles published between 2017 and 2022 based on searches of the following databases: Google Scholar, SciELO Brasil, the periodicals database of the Agency for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), MEDLINE, the Virtual Health Library, and Electronic Journals in Psychology (PePSIC). A total of 24 publications were selected for the review after screening the titles and abstracts. The findings reveal several challenges to ensuring the protection of children caused by shortcomings in professional training, which have a negative influence on the identification and reporting of child maltreatment. The present study reveals the lack of priority given to the issue of child maltreatment in professional training and provides important inputs to inform future research on professional practices for dealing with child violence.

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