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Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 42(1): 48-52, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409361


RESUMEN La colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica (CPRE) es considerado actualmente un procedimiento diagnóstico y terapéutico en lesiones obstructivas del tracto biliar sobretodo coledocolitiasis y estenosis, así como en enfermedades pancreáticas en general. Sin embargo, es conocido el desarrollo de ciertas complicaciones tales como pancreatitis aguda, colangitis aguda, colecistitis entre otras de menor incidencia dentro de las cuales el hematoma subcapsular hepático toma relevancia por su elevada mortalidad. Presentamos el caso de un paciente varón de 52 años que luego de tres horas de ser sometido a CPRE desarrolla dolor abdominal de inicio repentino con reducción importante del hematocrito, y mediante estudio de imágenes se evidencia un hematoma subcapsular hepático. Es manejado inicialmente de forma conservadora y luego se procede a un drenaje percutáneo, evidenciándose posteriormente contenidos residuales en descenso mediante seguimiento radiológico.

ABSTRACT Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is currently considered a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in obstructive lesions of the biliary tract, especially choledocholithiasis and stenosis, as well as in pancreatic diseases in general. However, it is known the development of certain complications such as acute pancreatitis, acute cholangitis, cholecystitis among others of lower incidence within which the hepatic subcapsular hematoma takes relevance due to its high mortality. We present the case of a 52-year-old male patient who three hours after undergoing ERCP develops abdominal pain of sudden onset with significant reduction of hematocrit, and imaging study shows a hepatic subcapsular hematoma. He was initially managed conservatively and then proceeded to a percutaneous drainage, subsequently showing residual descending contents by radiological follow-up.

ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 35: e1685, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1402870


ABSTRACT - BACKGROUND: Biliary fistulas typically occur as surgical complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, liver transplantation, or partial liver resection. AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the endoscopic treatment of biliary fistulae secondary to liver transplantation compared to that of other etiologies. METHODS: A retrospective study of 25 patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for biliary fistula from 2015 to 2021 was conducted at the Endoscospy Unit of Walter Cantídio University Hospital. Clinical characteristics and endoscopic success rates of the post-liver transplantation group were analyzed in comparison with those of other etiologies. RESULTS: The main causes of biliary fistula were liver transplantation (44%) and cholecystectomy complications (44%). The post-liver transplantation group had a significantly higher proportion of male sex (liver transplantation=81.8%, others=28.6%) and older age (liver transplantation=54.1 years, others=42.0 years) and a higher incidence of biliary stenosis (liver transplantation=90.9%, others=14.3%) than those of the group with other etiologies (p<0.05). The two groups received similar treatment types, among which sphincterotomy associated with biliary stent placement was most commonly used. Endoscopic therapeutic success rates showed no significant difference between the post-liver transplantation group (63.6%) and the group with other etiologies (71.4%). CONCLUSIONS: The endoscopic treatment of biliary fistulae secondary to liver transplantation presented a recovery rate similar to that of other etiologies despite the patients older age and the presence of biliary stenosis

RESUMO - RACIONAL: As fístulas biliares geralmente ocorrem como complicações cirúrgicas, especialmente após colecistectomia laparoscópica, transplante hepático ou ressecção hepática parcial. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a eficácia do tratamento endoscópico das fístulas biliares secundária ao transplante hepático em comparação com outras etiologias. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de 25 pacientes submetidos a Colangiopancreatografia Retrógada Endoscópica por fístula biliar entre 2015 e 2021 no Serviço de Endoscopia do Hospital Universitário Walter Cantídeo. As características clínicas e as taxas de sucesso endoscópico do grupo pós-transplante hepático foram analisadas em comparação com as de outras etiologias. RESULTADOS: As principais causas de fístula biliar foram pós-transplante hepático (44%) e complicações da pós-colecistectomia (44%). O grupo pós-transplante hepático apresentou proporção significativamente maior de sexo masculino (pós-transplante hepático=81,8%, outros=28,6%) e idade mais avançada (pós-transplante hepático=54,1 anos, outros=42,0 anos) e maior incidência de estenose biliar (pós-transplante hepático=90,9%, outros=14,3%) do que o grupo com outras etiologias (p<0,05). Os dois grupos receberam tipos de tratamento semelhantes, dentre os quais a esfincterotomia associada à aposição de prótese biliar foi a mais utilizada. As taxas de sucesso terapêutico endoscópico não mostraram diferença significativa entre o grupo pós-transplante hepático (63,6%) e o grupo com outras etiologias (71,4%). CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento endoscópico das fístulas biliares secundária ao transplante hepático apresentou taxa de recuperação semelhante à de outras etiologias, apesar da idade avançada dos pacientes e da presença de estenose biliar.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934098


Objective:To systematically evaluate the efficacy of epinephrine in preventing post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP).Methods:Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on epinephrine for preventing PEP from inception to October 10, 2020 were searched in databases including PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, VIP Information Network, China National Knowledge Infrastructure,WanFang Data,and clinical trial registration platforms including,WHO International Clinical Trial Registration Platform. Literature was screened independently by two reviewers, data were extracted and the risk of bias of included studies were assessed. The meta-analysis was performed by RevMan 5.3.Results:A total of 410 papers were retrieved and 8 RCTs involving 4 208 patients were included. The results of meta-analysis showed that compared with the saline group, the epinephrine could reduce the incidence of PEP ( RR=0.29,95% CI:0.16-0.50, P<0.001). There were no significant differences in the therapeutic effect between group epinephrine and group indomethacin ( RR=0.17,95% CI:0.02-1.39, P=0.100) or group indomethacin combined with epinephrine and group indomethacin ( RR=1.15,95% CI:0.61-2.16, P=0.670). Conclusion:Local spraying of epinephrine on the duodenal papilla can reduce the incidence of PEP compared with normal saline. But the epinephrine or combination of indomethacin and epinephrine fails to reveal any benefit over indomethacin alone in preventing PEP.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934094


Objective:To report pediatric endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) intubation techniques and to analyze the influencing factors of pediatric ERCP in China.Methods:Retrospective analysis was performed on 90 cases of pediatric and adult ERCP operations respectively at Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine from January 2016 to June 2020. The anatomic data, intubation time, and endoscopic intubation measures were reviewed. The anatomic differences in duodenal papilla between the children and adults were analyzed to find the factors affecting ERCP intubation time in children.Results:There were 88 cases of successful infantile intubation with the success rate of 97.8%, and 90 cases of successful adult intubation with the success rate of 100.0%. The intubation time in the pediatric group was 187±67 s, and that in the adult group was 247±86 s with significant difference ( t=5.220, P<0.001). The duodenal diameter of pediatric patients was 3.38±1.57 cm, and that of adult patients was 5.94±1.87 cm with significant difference ( t=9.832, P<0.001). The horizontal distance from the duodenal bulb to the papilla in pediatric patients was 2.44±1.15 cm, which was significantly shorter than 4.22±1.43 cm in adult patients ( t=9.077, P<0.001). Most duodenal papillae in children were hemispherical [flat 26.1% (23/88), hemispherical 51.1% (45/88), cylindrical 22.7% (20/88)], while most of those in the adult patients were cylindrical [flat 9.1% (8/88), hemispherical 23.9% (21/88), cylindrical 67.0% (59/88)]. The factors influencing the intubation time of ERCP in children by univariate analysis included the shape of duodenal papilla, duodenal papilla hardness, visual region, distance from junction of duodenal bulb and descending part to duodenal papilla, distance from duodenal papilla to endoscope, and degree of incising. Conclusion:Shorter and stiffer duodenal papillae in children with normal papilla orientation are associated with shorter intubation time. These indicators are favorable factors for intubation.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934092


Objective:To compare the fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMS) and multiple plastic stents (MPS) in the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness for benign bile duct strictures.Methods:A single-center retrospective study was conducted to analyze the clinical data of 107 patients with benign biliary strictures who underwent FCSEMS or MPS implantation through endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in Hangzhou First People's Hospital from January 2013 to June 2019.There were 54 cases in group FCSEMS and 53 cases in group MPS. Benign biliary stricture was confirmed by computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and endoscopic ultrasonography. The primary index was the rate of stricture remission, and the secondary indices were the incidence of stricture recurrence, ERCP-related complications, the rate of stent migration, hospital stay and charges.Results:The median follow-up times were 10.0 (6.5, 18.0) months and 12.0 (9.0, 20.0) months in group FCSEMS and in group MPS respectively ( P>0.05). The rates of stricture remission in the two groups were 87.0% (47/54) and 83.0% (44/53), the incidences of stricture recurrence were 14.6% (6/41) and 23.5% (8/34), and the incidences of ERCP-related complications were 14.8% (8/54) and 11.9% (13/109), respectively. And the differences were not statistically significant (all P>0.05). But the stent migration rates of the two groups were 22.9% (11/54) and 2.8% (3/109) with significant difference ( P<0.001). Cost-effectiveness analysis showed that the median numbers of ERCP intervention in the two groups were 2 (2,2) times and 3 (2,4) times ( P<0.001), and the median hospital stays were 6.0 (4.0,11.0) days and 9.0 (6.5,16.0) days respectively ( P=0.009). The median hospitalization expenses of the two groups were 44 646 yuan and 51 355 yuan without significant difference ( P>0.05). Conclusion:The effectiveness, safety and cost of FCSEMS for benign bile duct stenosis are similar to those of MPS, but it reduces ERCP intervention and treatment cycles. Even with a certain migration rate, it can still be a first-line treatment approach.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934091


Objective:To investigate the efficacy and safety of a new China-made direct visualization system of peroral cholangiopancreatography in the diagnosis and treatment of biliopancreatic diseases.Methods:Clinical data of 37 patients who underwent endoscopic examination through the direct visualization system of peroral cholangiopancreatography at Digestive Endoscopy Center of Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital from April 2020 to June 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. Technical success rate and complications were analyzed.Results:The examination was completed in 37 patients through the system. The technical success rate was 100.0%. The nature of biliary stricture was confirmed in 24 cases, presenece or absence of bleeding or residual stones in the bile duct was confirmed in 6 cases, neoplasm or residual stones in the pancreatic duct was determined in 2 cases, biliary stricture was passed assisted with visualized guidewire in 2 cases, and lithotripsy was performed assisted with biliary laser in 3 cases. Nine patients were pathologically diagnosed as having malignant biliary stricture, and 8 of them were confirmed malignant by the system. Drainage was performed in 34 cases after the examination. There were 3 cases of cholangitis, 4 cases of bacteremia and 2 cases of postoperative pancreatitis after the operation, which were relieved in a short time after conservative treatment. Bleeding occurred in 1 case which was improved after two times of endoscopic hemostasis.Conclusion:The new direct visualization system of peroral cholangiopancreatography is safe and effective in the diagnosis and treatment of biliopancreatic diseases.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934090


Objective:To investigate the therapeutic value of modified multipoint drainage for biliary complications after liver transplantation.Methods:A total of 125 patients treated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for biliary complications after liver transplantation in Shuguang Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from May 2018 to May 2020 were enrolled. Patients were divided into endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD) group ( n=67, treated with multiple drainage of bile duct stent) and modified multipoint drainage group [ n=58, treated with ERBD combined with endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD)] by random number table. Modified multipoint drainage group were further randomly divided into two groups, modification group 1, 31 cases, where nasobiliary ducts were cut proximal to duodenal papilla after one week under endoscopy and modification group 2, 27 cases, where they were cut proximal to duodenal papilla after two weeks under endoscopy. The changes of serological indexes in 2 weeks after the operation in three groups were compared, and the incidence of short-term and long-term complications were analyzed. Results:The serological indexes were improved in patients at 1 d, 7 d and 14 d after ERCP, especially in modified multipoint drainage groups. Two weeks after the operation, the improvement of serological indexes in modification group 2 was better than that in modification group 1. Incidence of recent complications including cholangitis, hyperamylasinemia, and pancreatitis in the ERBD group were higher than those in modification group 1 [32.84% (22/67) VS 12.90% (4/31), 46.27% (31/67) VS 19.35% (6/31), 20.90% (14/67) VS 3.23% (1/31), all P<0.05] and modification group 2 [32.84% (22/67) VS 11.11% (3/27), 46.27% (31/67) VS 22.22% (6/27), 20.90% (14/67) VS 3.70% (1/27), all P<0.05]. ERBD group had a higher incidence of long-term complications including recurrent biliary infection and jaundice than modification group 1 [ 58.21% (39/67) VS 35.48% (11/31), P=0.036; 49.25% (33/67) VS 25.81% (8/31), P=0.027] and modification group 2 [58.21% (39/67) VS 11.11% (3/27), P<0.001; 49.25% (33/67) VS 25.93% (7/27), P=0.038]. The incidence of recurrent biliary infection in modification group 1 was higher than that in modification group 2 [35.48% (11/31) VS 11.11% (3/27), P=0.030]. Conclusion:Multiple drainage with indwelling nasal bile duct by ERCP can effectively reduce the short-term and long-term complications and improve the recovery of serological indexes for patients with biliary complications after liver transplantation. It is suggested that the nasobiliary duct should be retained for 2 weeks and then transformed into a built-in tube to continue drainage.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932788


Objective:To evaluate the effect of different options of preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) on perioperative complications of patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD).Methods:The clinical data of patients undergoing PD for periampullary carcinoma from January 2016 to November 2021 at Third Affiliated Hospital of Naval Medical University (Shanghai Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital) were retrospectively analyzed. The 303 patients including 199 males and 104 females, aged (64.2±8.8) years. According to PBD, the patients were divided into two groups: percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) group ( n=228) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) group ( n=75). PBD operation-related complications (including bleeding, biliary leakage, etc.), postoperative complications of PD (including pancreatic fistula, biliary leakage, surgical site infection, etc.) and perioperative complications (PBD operation-related complications + postoperative complications of PD) were compared between the two groups. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to analyze factors influencing perioperative complications of PD. Results:The incidence of PBD operation-related complications in PTBD group was 10.1% (23/228), lower than that in ERCP group 25.3%(19/228), and the difference was statistically significant (χ 2=10.99, P=0.001). The incidence of postoperative complications of PD in PTBD group was 38.2%(87/228), lower than that in ERCP group 69.3%(52/75), the difference was statistically significant (χ 2=22.09, P<0.001). The incidence of total perioperative complications in PTBD group was 44.3% (101/228), lower than that in ERCP group 73.3%(55/75), the difference was statistically significant (χ 2=19.05, P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that patients with periampullary carcinoma undergoing ERCP biliary drainage and PD had increased risk of surgical site infection ( OR=2.86, 95% CI: 1.59-5.16, P<0.001) and pancreatic fistula ( OR=3.06, 95% CI: 1.21-7.74, P=0.018). Conclusion:ERCP biliary drainage is a risk factor for postoperative pancreatic fistula and surgical site infection in patients with periampullary carcinoma undergoing PD. PTBD should be recommended as the first choice for the patients underwent PD.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929963


Objective:This study was conducted to further investigate the clinical value of ERCP plus EST and pancreatic duct (PD) stent placement in treatment of ABP.Methods:The data of 115 patients with ABP in People′s Hospital of Chongqing Banan District between February 2018 to October 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Of the patients, 46 cases received ERCP plus EST and PD stent placement(PD stent group), and other 69 cases only received ERCP plus EST(control group), all patients received surgery within 72 h. Outcome measures: preoperative complications, APACHE II score, Glasgow score, preoperative and postoperative laboratory indicators (white blood cell, C-reactive protein, serum amylase, total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase), postoperative complications, hospitalization time, hospitalization cost. All patients received outpatient or telephone follow-up after discharge, patients were followed up for recurrence of pancreatitis and complications, follow-up ended in June 2021. Continuous data were represented as ( ± s), and comparisons between the two groups were performed using Student′s t tests for normally distributed data with homogeneity of variance. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for nonnormally distributed data. Categorical data are expressed as rates values and were analyzed with the chi-square test or Fisher′s exact test. Results:There were no significant differences between two groups in age, complications, APACHEII score, Glasgow score, preoperative laboratory examination, postoperative CRP, total bilirubin and ALT ( P>0.05). Postoperative WBC[8.5(7.6, 10.3)]×10 9/L, serum amylase [197.5(143.0, 256.0) U/L] in the PD stent group were significantly lower than control group[9.9(8.2, 12.8) 10 9/L, 270.0(168.0, 419.0) U/L]( P<0.05). The overall incidence of complications in the PD stent group (6.5%) was significantly lower than the control group (20.3%), there were statistical differences between groups( P<0.05). Hospitalization time and hospitalization cost were not significantly different between the two groups ( P> 0.05). All patients were followed up, with an average follow-up of 16 months, all recovered well postoperatively in patients with stent group, but a patient who suffered from peripancreatic abscess with severe infection needed hospitalization again in control group, another two patients with pancreatic pseudocyst, 1 case were followed up for 3 months to gradually absorbed, and 1 case underwent another surgical treatment. Conclusion:The placement of temporary pancreatic duct stent provided adequate drainage of pancreatic fluid to reverse the course of ABP, and the complication rate was significantly lower than that of the control group, with superior clinical outcome to ABP patients treated with ERCP+ EST alone.

International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 10-15,F3, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929961


Objective:To investigate the risk factor analysis and model prediction of bleeding after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice (MOJ).Methods:A retrospective analysis was performed on 302 patients with MOJ treated with ERCP who were treated in the No. 363 Hospital Affiliated to Southwest Medical University from January 2015 to June 2021. The general clinical data of the patients were collected, and the biochemical indicators of the pancreatic and bile ducts were detected. The patients were followed up after discharge, and the patients were divided into a bleeding group ( n=47) and a control group ( n=255) according to whether the follow-up patients were bleeding after ERCP. Compared the general and clinical data of the two groups of patients, including age, gender, platelet count, presence of bile duct stones, acute cholangitis, acute pancreatitis, number of stones, intraoperative bleeding, pancreatic cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, large stone diameter, stone incarceration, duodenal papillary diverticulum, and pre-surgical incision. The measurement data that obey the normal distribution were represented by the mean±standard deviation ( ± s), and the two independent sample t test was used for the comparison between groups; the data that do not conform to the normal distribution were represented by M ( Q1, Q3), and the comparison between groups was used Mann-Whitney U test. The comparison of enumeration data between groups adopted chi-square test. Logistic multivariate regression was used to analyze the independent risk factors of postoperative bleeding after ERCP, and a nomogram prediction model was established and verified according to the independent risk factors of postoperative bleeding. Results:The two groups of patients were compared in age, gender, platelet count, bile duct stones, acute cholangitis, acute pancreatitis, the number of stones, intraoperative bleeding and other aspects, the difference was not statistically significant ( P>0.05). The percentages of pancreatic cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, large stone diameter, stone incarceration, duodenal papillary diverticulum, and surgical pre-incision in the bleeding group were 12.77%, 17.02%, 19.15%, 51.06%, 59.57%, and 14.89%, respectively. , the percentages of the control group were 3.92%, 5.10%, 9.02%, 19.22%, 17.65%, and 5.88%, and the difference was statistically significant between the two groups ( P<0.05). Taking postoperative bleeding as the dependent variable, and using the indicators with statistical differences in univariate analysis as independent variables, multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that the patient had pancreatic cancer ( OR=1.838, 95% CI: 1.524-4.613, P=0.041), cholangiocarcinoma ( OR=2.548, 95% CI: 1.870-5.116, P=0.015), stone incarceration ( OR=3.078, 95% CI: 2.374-6.012, P<0.001), duodenum Intestinal papillary diverticula ( OR=1.140, 95% CI: 1.045-1.628, P<0.001), surgical pre-incision ( OR=1.640, 95% CI: 1.321-1.928, P<0.001) were associated with postoperative bleeding in MOJ patients after ERCP independent risk factors. The predictive ability of duodenal papillary diverticulum was the highest; the predictive ability of stone incarceration and cholangiocarcinoma was the second, and there was no significant difference between them; the predictive ability of pancreatic cancer, stone diameter, and pre-incision on bleeding after ERCP in MOJ patients smaller. Pancreatic cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, large stone diameter, stone incarceration, duodenal papillary diverticulum, and pre-incision scores were 42, 63, 28, 65, 76, and 34 points respectively, and the total score was 308 points corresponding to the nomogram model. The predictive power of the nomogram was 61.6%, and overall, the nomogram had good predictive performance. Harrell concordance index analysis and ROC curve were used to evaluate the model discrimination, the C-index calculation result was 0.826 (95% CI: 0.771-0.847), the ROC curve AUC was 0.843 (95% CI: 0.801-0.884), and the ROC prediction The value and the calculation result of C-index are relatively close. The model discrimination is applied in this study and has a certain prediction effect. The nomogram model in the Calibration curve predicted the probability of postoperative bleeding after ERCP in MOJ patients with high consistency with the actual probability. Conclusion:ERCP is safe and feasible for most patients with MOJ, but for patients with pancreatic cancer, bile duct cancer, large stone diameter, stone incarceration, and duodenal papillary diverticulum, it should be performed with caution, and preoperative incision should be avoided, to reduce the risk of postoperative bleeding. In addition, the nomogram model has a strong predictive ability in predicting bleeding after ERCP in patients with MOJ, which is worthy of reference in clinical research.

Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1854-1858, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941549


Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)+SpyGlass system versus percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGD)+ERCP in the treatment of acute cholecystitis secondary to choledocholithiasis. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of the patients with acute cholecystitis secondary to choledocholithiasis who were treated in Department of Gastroenterology, Jilin City People's Hospital, from December 2019 to September 2021, among whom there were 23 patients in the ERCP+SpyGlass group and 19 patients in the PTGD+ERCP group. The two groups were compared in terms of the indicators such as surgical technical success, surgical operation time, surgical clinical success, postoperative recovery, length of hospital stay, and complications. The two-independent-samples t test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between groups, and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between groups; the chi- square test or the Fisher's exact test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Results Compared with the PTGD+ERCP group, the ERCP+SpyGlass group had a significant reduction in C-reactive protein after surgery ( Z =2.999, P =0.003). There were no significant differences between the two groups in technical success rate ( χ 2 =1.735, P =0.188), clinical success rate ( χ 2 =0.846, P =0.358), total time of operation ( t =1.667, P = 0.113), white blood cell count on day 1 after surgery ( t =1.075, P = 0.289), length of postoperative hospital stay ( t =1.560, P =0.127), and incidence rate of complications (all P > 0.05). Conclusion In the treatment of acute cholecystitis secondary to choledocholithiasis, the ERCP+SpyGlass system has a comparable clinical effect to PTGD+ERCP and is safe and effective, without increasing surgery-related adverse events and risks, and it can also solve the problems of the biliary tract and the gallbladder at one time through natural orifices, with no scars on body surface and convenient postoperative nursing. Therefore, it holds promise for clinical application.

Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2687-2692, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-948206


Pancreatic diseases in children mainly include chronic pancreatitis caused by congenital abnormal development and pancreatic duct rupture due to trauma. In recent years, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has gradually become the most important method for the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic diseases in children. With reference to the author's own experience, this article reviews the advances in the clinical application of ERCP and related techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic diseases in children.

Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2558-2564, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-944186


Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), laparoscopy, and laparotomy in the treatment of pancreatic duct stones (PDS) by collecting related clinical data, to summarize the experience in selecting treatment regimens for PDS, and to further explore feasible treatment regimens that could maximize and optimize the benefits of PDS patients. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 131 PDS patients who were treated in Gongli Hospital Affiliated to Naval Medical University from June 2014 to December 2018, and according to the surgical procedure, they were divided into ERCP group with 69 patients, laparoscopy group with 32 patients, and laparotomy group with 30 patients. Related indices were monitored before and after treatment, and surgical outcome was compared between the laparoscopy group and the laparotomy group. The independent samples t -test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between two groups; a one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison between multiple groups, and the least significant difference t -test or the SNK- q test was used for further comparison between two groups. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of continuous data with skewed distribution between two groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for comparison between multiple groups. An repeated measures analysis of variance and the Friedman test were used for comparison of related indices before and after surgery, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Results Among the 131 PDS patients, there were 40 patients with type Ⅰ PDS, 76 with type Ⅱ PDS, and 15 with type Ⅲ PDS. There was no significant difference in the distribution of main surgical methods between the laparoscopy group and the laparotomy group ( χ 2 =1.93, P > 0.05). There were significant differences between the laparoscopy group and the laparotomy group in the dynamic changes of white blood cell count, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance after surgery ( F =24.68, χ 2 =227.66, F =45.37, F =106.71, all P < 0.05). Compared with the laparotomy group, the laparoscopy group had significantly shorter time of operation, significantly lower intraoperative blood loss, significantly shorter time to first flatus after surgery, a significantly lower frequency of use of pain-relieving drugs, shorter time to extraction of abdominal drainage tube, lower incidence rates of short-term postoperative complications, and a significantly shorter length of postoperative hospital stay ( t =-4.80, t =-9.43, Z =-6.78, t =-11.59, Z =-6.77, χ 2 =9.24, t =-3.60, all P < 0.05). The incidence rate of short-term postoperative complications was 24.64% in the ERCP group, 28.13% in the laparoscopy group, and 66.67% in the laparotomy group, with a significant difference between groups ( χ 2 =17.12, P < 0.05), and the ERCP group and the laparoscopy group had a significantly lower incidence rate of short-term postoperative complications than the laparotomy group ( χ 2 =15.78 and 9.24, P < 0.05 and P =0.02). The treatment response rate was 91.30% in the ERCP group, 93.75% in the laparoscopy group, and 73.33% in the laparotomy group, with a significant difference between the three groups ( χ 2 =7.70, P =0.02), and the ERCP group and the laparoscopy group had a significantly better response rate than the laparotomy group ( χ 2 =5.56 and 4.77, P =0.02 and 0.03). Conclusion ERCP is the preferred method for minimally invasive treatment of some patients with type Ⅰ/Ⅱ PDS and is safe and effective with few serious complications. Surgical operation is an important method for the treatment of complex PDS, but with complicated techniques and difficult operation. Compared with laparotomy, laparoscopy has the advantages of small trauma, few serious complications, and high abdominal pain remission rate and can significantly shorten the time of operation, reduce intraoperative blood loss, and shorten the length of postoperative hospital stay. Therefore, laparoscopy should be the preferred regimen for the treatment of complex PDS.

Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 41(3): 169-175, jul.-sep. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357342


RESUMEN Introducción : La canulación difícil en casos de colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica (CPRE) podría asociarse a diversos factores incluyendo el tipo de papila mayor, sin embargo, existen datos limitados con respecto a esta posible asociación. Objetivos : Determinar la asociación entre el tipo de papila y la canulación biliar difícil. Materiales y métodos : Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo transversal analítico en pacientes mayores de 18 años en quienes se realizó CPRE en papila virgen, de julio 2019 a abril 2021, en una institución privada. Se excluyeron las canulaciones frustras. La papila fue clasificada en base a la clasificación de Haraldsson. Se evaluó la asociación cruda y ajustada a posibles confusores entre el tipo de papila y canulación difícil. Se calcularon los riesgos relativo (RR) e intervalos de confianza al 95%. Resultados : Se incluyeron 188 pacientes. La edad media fue 55 años, el 66% de sexo femenino. La indicación más frecuente fue coledocolitiasis con 88,5%. El tipo de papila duodenal mayor más frecuente fue el tipo 1 (32%), seguido de tipo 3 (27%), tipo 2 (25%) y tipo 4 (16%). Las papilas tipo 2, 3, 4 presentaron una relación significativa con canulación difícil comparadas con la tipo 1 (p<0,001, p<0,001 y p=0,008 respectivamente). La indicación diferente a coledocolitiasis también mostró una relación significativa con canulación difícil (p<0,001). En el análisis ajustado, El RR para canulación difícil en comparación con la papila tipo 1 fue: de 2,51 (IC 95% 1,23-5,94) para la papila tipo 2, 3,72 (IC 95% 1,79-7,71) para la papila tipo 3 y 3,41 (IC 95% 1,54-7,71) para la tipo 4. La indicación distinta a la coledocolitiasis también se asoció a un mayor riesgo de canulación difícil con un RR de 2.36 (IC95% 1,57-3,56). El precorte tipo fistulotomía fue usado con mayor frecuencia en la papila tipo 3 (46%) mientras que el uso de canulótomo fue más frecuente en la papila tipo 4 (29,6%). Conclusiones : Los tipos de papila 2, 3 y 4, están asociados a mayor riesgo de canulación difícil. Ello debe ser considerado al momento de realizar la CPRE a fin de reducir el riesgo de complicaciones.

ABSTRACT Introduction : Difficult cannulation in cases of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) could be associated with several factors, including: type of major papilla, however, there are limited data regarding this possible association. Objectives : To determine the association between the type of papilla and difficult biliary cannulation. Materials and methods : A retrospective cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in patients over 18 years old who underwent ERCP on papilla naive, from July 2019 to April 2021, in a private institution. Unsuccessful cannulations were excluded. The papilla was classified based on Haraldsson classification. The crude association and adjusted for possible confounders between the type of papilla and difficult cannulation was evaluated. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results : 188 patients were included. The mean age was 55 years, 66% female. The most frequent indication was choledocholithiasis with 88.5%. The most frequent type of major duodenal papilla was type 1 (32%), followed by type 3 (27%), type 2 (25%) and type 4 (16%). Type 2, 3, 4 papillae showed a significant relationship with difficult cannulation compared to type 1 (p<0.001, p<0.001 and p=0.008 respectively). The indication other than choledocholithiasis also showed a significant relationship with difficult cannulation (p<0.001). In the adjusted analysis, the RR for difficult cannulation compared to type 1 papilla was: 2.51 (95% CI 1.23-5.94) for type 2 papilla, 3.72 (95% CI 1.79-7.71) for papilla type 3 and 3.41 (95% CI 1.54-7.71) for type 4. The indication other than choledocholithiasis was also associated with a higher risk of difficult cannulation with a RR of 2.36 (95% CI 1.57-3.56). The fistulotomy type precut was used more frequently in the type 3 papilla (46%), while the use of cannula was more frequent in the type 4 papilla (29.6%). Conclusions : Papilla types 2, 3 and 4 are associated with a higher risk of difficult cannulation. This should be considered when performing ERCP in order to reduce the risk of complications.

Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 41(3): 176-183, jul.-sep. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357343


RESUMEN Introducción: La evidencia de simulación en colangiopancreatografía retrograda endoscópica es limitada. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio es revisar la efectividad de la simulación en entrenamiento de endoscopistas en colangiopancreatografía retrograda endoscópica con énfasis en la canulación exitosa de la vía biliar, así como en el tiempo de canulación y evaluación del desempeño. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una revisión sistemática en MEDLINE, EMBASE y Web of Science, desde 1970 hasta junio 2021. Se incluyeron estudios clínicos aleatorizados que compararan el entrenamiento simulado de colangiopancreatografía retrograda endoscópica versus el entrenamiento tradicional. Resultados: Se incluyeron 4 estudios, con un total de 80 participantes y 1 475 procedimientos. El odds ratio (OR) para canulación exitosa de la vía biliar con el uso de simulación fue de 2,12 (95% IC, 1,60-2,81) y el tiempo medio de canulación fue menor con respecto al entrenamiento tradicional (p<0,001). Dos estudios encontraron mejor calificación en el desempeño global de los endoscopistas con el entrenamiento simulado (OR: 1,86 (95% IC 1,29-2,7)) y (OR 2,98 (95% IC, 1,38-6,43). Conclusiones: La simulación en colangiopancreatografía retrograda endoscópica puede mejorar el desempeño de los endoscopistas en cuanto al tiempo y la canulación exitosa de la vía biliar.

ABSTRACT Introduction: The evidence for simulation in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is limited. Objective: The objective of this study is to review the effectiveness of simulation in endoscopist training in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with emphasis on the successful cannulation of the bile duct, as well as on the cannulation time and performance evaluation. Materials and methods: A systematic review was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science, from 1970 to June 2021. Randomized clinical studies comparing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography simulated training versus traditional training were included. Results: 4 studies were included, with a total of 80 participants and 1,475 procedures. The odds ratio (OR) for successful bile duct cannulation with the use of simulation was 2.12 (95% CI, 1.60-2.81) and the mean time to cannulation was shorter compared to traditional training (p<0.001). Two studies found a better score in the global performance of endoscopists with simulated training (OR: 1.86 (95% CI 1.29-2.7)) and (OR 2.98 (95% CI, 1.38-6.43). Conclusions: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography simulation can improve the performance of endoscopists in terms of time and successful bile duct cannulation.

Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(2): 301-311, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223994


Introducción. La coledocolitiasis es la presencia de cálculos en las vías biliares. En la mayoría de los casos se trata mediante la colangio pancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica y menos comúnmente por intervención quirúrgica laparoscópica. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir una cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes sometidos a exploración laparoscópica de la vía biliar. Métodos. Se incluyeron pacientes intervenidos entre los años 2014 y 2018, en dos instituciones de nivel III en Cali, Colombia, referidos para valoración por cirugía hepatobiliar, por dificultad para la extracción de los cálculos por colangio pancreatografia retrograda endoscópica, debido al tamaño, la cantidad, o la dificultad para identificar o canular la papila duodenal. Resultados. De los 100 pacientes incluidos, se encontró que el 72 % fueron mujeres, con rango de edad entre 14 y 92 años. Al 39 % de los pacientes se les extrajo un solo cálculo y al 16 % 10 cálculos. Un 12 % presentaron cálculos gigantes (mayores de 2,5 cm de ancho) y un 44 % presentaron litiasis múltiple. Al 69 % de los pacientes se les realizó colecistectomía. El porcentaje de éxito de limpieza de la vía biliar por laparoscopia fue del 95 %.Discusión. La exploración laparoscópica de la vía biliar es una técnica posible, reproducible, segura y con excelentes resultados para el manejo de la coledocolitiasis

Introduction. Choledocholithiasis is the presence of stones in the bile ducts. In most cases it is treated by endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography and less commonly by laparoscopic surgery. The objective of this study was to describe a retrospective cohort of patients who underwent laparoscopic exploration of the bile duct.Methods. The study included patients operated between 2014 and 2018, in two level III institutions in Cali, Colombia, referred for evaluation for hepato-biliary surgery, due to difficulty in removing stones by endoscopic retrograde pancreatography cholangiography, due to the size, quantity, or difficulty of identifying or cannulating the duodenal papilla. Results. Out of the 100 patients included, it was found that 72% were women, with an age range between 14 and 92 years. A single stone was removed from 39% of patients and 10 stones from 16%; 12% had giant stones (greater than 2.5 cm wide), and 44% had multiple stones; 69% of the patients underwent cholecystectomy. Laparoscopic bile duct cleaning success rate was 95%. Discussion. Laparoscopic exploration of the bile duct is a possible, reproducible, and a safe technique with excellent results for the management of choledocholithiasis

Humans , Common Bile Duct , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Laparoscopy , Choledocholithiasis
Hepatología ; 2(2): 325-340, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396503


La colangitis esclerosante primaria (CEP) se define por la inflamación, fibrosis y estenosis de los conductos biliares intra o extrahepáticos que no pueden ser explicadas por otras causas. La prevalencia de CEP está estimada entre 0 a 16,2 por 100.000 habitantes, mientras que la incidencia está entre 0 y 1,3 casos por cada 100.000 personas por año. Las causas siguen siendo difíciles de dilucidar y en muchos casos se establece como de origen idiopático. Sin embargo, se han propuesto factores genéticos, ambientales e isquémicos asociados, además de un componente autoinmune. Existe además una fuerte asociación entre la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal y la CEP. Los síntomas suelen ser inespecíficos, 50% de los pacientes son asintomáticos, presentando únicamente alteración en el perfil hepático de patrón colestásico, con predominio de elevación de la fosfatasa alcalina. La ictericia es un signo de mal pronóstico que con frecuencia se asocia a colangiocarcinoma. La confirmación diagnóstica se hace por colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica (CPRE) e imágenes por resonancia magnética. Aún no existe un tratamiento establecido, y en la mayoría de los casos coexiste con otras patologías. El tratamiento es multimodal con fármacos, terapia endoscópica y trasplante hepático.

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is defined by inflammation, fibrosis, and stenosis of the intra or extrahepatic bile ducts that cannot be explained by other causes. The prevalence of PSC is estimated between 0 to 16.2 per 100,000 inhabitants, while the incidence is between 0 and 1.3 cases per 100,000 persons-year. The causes remain elusive and, in many cases, it is established as idiopathic in origin. However, genetic, environmental and ischemic factors have been proposed in addition to an autoimmune component. There is also a strong association between inflammatory bowel disease and PSC. Symptoms are usually nonspecific, 50% of the patients are asymptomatic, presenting only an alteration in the liver profile with a cholestatic pattern, and predominance of elevated alkaline phosphatase. Jaundice is a poor prognostic sign and is frequently associated with cholangiocarcinoma. Diagnostic confirmation is made by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and magnetic resonance imaging. There is still no established treatment, and in most cases, the disease coexists with other pathologies. Treatment is multimodal with drugs, endoscopic therapy and liver transplantation.

Humans , Cholangitis, Sclerosing , Ursodeoxycholic Acid , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cholangiocarcinoma , Jaundice
Cancer Research and Clinic ; (6): 844-847, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912979


Objective:To explore the efficacy of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) biliary stent implantation in patients with unresectable malignant biliary stricture (MBS) and the influencing factors of overall survival.Methods:The clinical data of 346 patients who underwent ERCP biliary stent implantation due to MBS from May 2013 to October 2016 in Xijing Digestive Disease Hospital of Air Force Military Medical University, Shanxi Bethune Hospital and Mengchao Hepatobiliary Hospital of Fujian Medical University were retrospectively analyzed, and the efficacy, complications and risk factors affecting overall survival were also analyzed.Results:After ERCP biliary stent implantation, the levels of total bilirubin, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase were lower than those before surgery (all P < 0.01). The incidence of infection after operation was 14.7% (51/346), and the incidence of biliary infection was 13.0% (45/346). The incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) was 4.6% (16/346). The median survival time after ERCP was 131.0 d (70.3 d, 246.5 d). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the independent risk factors affecting the overall survival patients included the hilar bile duct stenosis ( HR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.44-2.38, P < 0.01), preoperative bilirubin level exceeding the upper limit of normal level by 5 times ( HR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.30-2.36, P < 0.01), carbohydrate antigen 199 level exceeding the upper limit of normal level by 10 times ( HR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.00-1.61, P = 0.050), vascular and organ metastasis ( HR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.04-1.69, P = 0.023), and the poor jaundice decreasing level ( HR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.02-1.85, P = 0.037) . Conclusions:The ERCP biliary stent implantation is a safe and effective therapy for MBS. ERCP biliary stent implantation MBS patients with hilar bile duct stenosis, preoperative bilirubin levels more than 5 times of the upper limit of normal level, carbohydrate antigen 199 levels more than 10 times of the upper limit of normal level, vascular and organ metastasis, and poor jaundice decreasing level may have poor overall survival.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912195


To evaluate the value of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography(ERCP)and SpyGlass in the diagnosis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct (IPMN-B). Data of patients who underwent ERCP and SpyGlass in Hangzhou First People′s Hospital from January 2016 to December 2019 were analyzed. ERCP and SpyGlass features, complications, clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis were retrospectively analyzed.A total of 9 patients (5 benign lesions and 4 malignant lesions) were included.ERCP was successfully performed in 9 cases, while SpyGlass was technically successful in 8 cases. Endoscopy showed mucus outflow from the papilla in 5 cases, and the mucus was removed by the balloon of ERCP in 8 cases.ERCP showed bile duct diffuse dilatation and filling defects in all patients. SpyGlass found the mucus in the bile duct in all patients. SpyGlass showed lesion mucosa were fish-egg like without vascular images (Ⅱtype, 3 cases), fish-egg like with vascular images (Ⅲ type, 1 case), villous (Ⅳtype, 4 cases). SpyGlass defined extent of the lesion in 8 cases. SpyGlass found that the lesion involved the intra and extrahepatic bile ducts in one case. Therefore, liver transplantation was recommended to avoid surgical exploration. One type Ⅲ lesion underwent a direct biopsy. The pathology showed moderate dysplasia, which was consistent with the postoperative pathology. No complication occurred. ERCP combined with SpyGlass could clarify the scope of IPMN-B and provide basis for surgical options, which is safe and effective in IPMN-B diagnosis.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912192


To investigate the feasibility and safety of endoscopic trans-gastric cholecystolithotomy(ETGC) combined with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for cholecystolithiasis and choledocholithiasis. Data of patients with cholecystolithiasis and choledocholithiasis who underwent ETGC after ERCP in Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University from November 2018 to April 2019 were analyzed. Six patients with cholecystolithiasis and choledocholithiasis, 4 males and 2 females, were included in this study.The interval between ERCP and ETGC ranged from 1 to 77 days (median 5 days). All the 6 patients successfully completed ETGC after ERCP, with a surgical success rate of 100%. All the patients had multiple cholecystolithiasis and one patient was complicated with gallbladder polyps.The ETGC operation time was 22-100 min (median 65 min), and the length of hospital stay was 3-9 d (median 6.5 d). Two patients had dull pain in the upper abdomen and increased body temperature after surgery. Abdominal ultrasound in one patient suggested local effusion in the right upper abdomen.Both patients improved after conservative treatment.None of the patients had cholecystitis and cholangitis related symptoms such as right upper abdominal pain or fever during postoperative follow-up, and the follow-up rate was 100%with median follow-up time of 18 month.All the 6 patients underwent abdominal ultrasound examination after surgery. No recurrence occurred in 5 patients. One of the patients showed cholesterol crystals in the gallbladder wall and bile mud deposition.ETGC combined with ERCP is safe and feasible for cholecystolithiasis and choledocholithiasis.