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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(2): 214-228, mar. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552134

ABSTRACT

Cancer cells modify lipid metabolism to proliferate, Passiflora edulis ( P. edulis ) fruit juice (ZuFru) has antitumor activity, but whether a mechanism is through modulation of cell lipids is unknown. T o establish if ZuFru modifies cholesterol and triglycerides in SW480 and SW620. ZuFru composition was studied by phytochemical march; antiproliferative activity by sulforhodamine B, cholesterol , and triglycerides by Folch method. Z ufru contains anthocyanins, flavonoids, alkaloids , and tannins. Cell lines showed differences in their growth rate ( p =0.049). At 39.6 µg/m L of ZuFru, cell viability was decreased: SW480 (45.6%) and SW620 (45.1%). In SW480, cholesterol (44.6%) and triglycerides (46.5%) decreased; In SW620, cholesterol decreased 14.8% and triglycerides increased 7%, with significant differences for both lines. A ntiproliferative activity of ZuFru could be associated with the inhibition of intracellular biosynthesis of cholesterol and triglycerides in SW480. Action mechanisms need to be further investigated.


Las células cancerosas modifican el metabolismo lipídico para proliferar; el zumo de fruta (ZuFru) de Passiflora edulis ( P. edulis ) tiene activida d antitumoral, sin embargo, se desconoce si se involucran los lípidos celulares. E stablecer si ZuFru modifica colesterol y triglicéridos en células SW480 y SW620. C omposición del ZuFru, actividad antiproliferativa, colesterol y triglicéridos. Se encontraro n antocianinas, flavonoides, alcaloides y taninos. Las líneas celulares mostraron diferencias en su tasa de crecimiento ( p =0 . 049); ZuFru 39,6 µg/ml se disminuyó la viabilidad celular; SW480 (45,6%) y SW620 (45,1%); en SW480 colesterol (44,6%) y triglicérid os (46,5%) en SW620, colesterol (14,8%) y los triglicéridos aumentaron 7%, con diferencias significativas para ambas líneas. La actividad antiproliferativa del ZuFru podría estar asociada a la inhibición de la biosíntesis intracelular de colesterol y de tr iglicéridos en SW480, pero no en SW620. Estos mecanismos de acción deben ser fuertemente investigados.


Subject(s)
Anticarcinogenic Agents , Passiflora , Passifloraceae/metabolism , Triglycerides/physiology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cholesterol/physiology , Fruit
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 121(1): e20230242, jan. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533726

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: As diretrizes da Sociedade Europeia de Cardiologia recomendam um nível de colesterol LDL (LDL-C) < 55 mg/dL para pacientes com doença cardiovascular estabelecida. Embora a fórmula de Friedewald ainda seja amplamente utilizada para estimar o LDL-C, a fórmula mais recente de Martin-Hopkins mostrou maior precisão. Objetivos: Nosso objetivo foi avaliar: A) a proporção de pacientes que atingiram a meta de LDL-C e as terapias utilizadas em um centro terciário; B) o impacto da utilização do método de Martin-Hopkins em vez do método de Friedewald na proporção de pacientes controlados. Métodos: Estudo transversal monocêntrico, incluindo pacientes consecutivos pós-infarto do miocárdio, acompanhados por 20 cardiologistas, em um hospital terciário. Os dados foram coletados retrospectivamente de consultas clínicas realizadas após abril de 2022. Para cada paciente, os níveis de LDL-C e o atingimento das metas foram estimados a partir de um perfil lipídico ambulatorial, utilizando as fórmulas de Friedewald e Martin-Hopkins. Um valor-p bicaudal < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo para todos os testes. Resultados: Foram incluídos 400 pacientes (com 67 ± 13 anos, 77% do sexo masculino). Utilizando a fórmula de Friedewald, a mediana de LDL-C sob terapia foi de 64 (50-81) mg/dL, e 31% tinham LDL-C dentro da meta. Estatinas de alta intensidade foram usadas em 64% dos pacientes, 37% estavam em uso de ezetimiba e 0,5% estavam em uso de inibidores de PCSK9. A terapia combinada de estatina de alta intensidade + ezetimiba foi utilizada em 102 pacientes (26%). A aplicação do método de Martin-Hopkins reclassificaria um total de 31 pacientes (7,8%). Entre aqueles considerados controlados pela fórmula de Friedewald, 27 (21,6%) teriam LDL-C estimado por Martin-Hopkins acima da meta. Conclusões: Menos de um terço dos pacientes pós-infarto do miocárdio apresentaram LDL-C dentro da meta. A aplicação da fórmula de Martin-Hopkins reclassificaria um quinto dos pacientes presumivelmente controlados no grupo de pacientes não controlados.


Abstract Background: The European Society of Cardiology guidelines recommend an LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) < 55 mg/dL for patients with established cardiovascular disease. While the Friedewald equation to estimate LDL-C is still widely used, the newer Martin-Hopkins equation has shown greater accuracy. Objectives: We aimed to assess: A) the proportion of patients reaching LDL-C goal and the therapies used in a tertiary center; B) the impact of using the Martin-Hopkins method instead of Friedewald's on the proportion of controlled patients. Methods: A single-center cross-sectional study including consecutive post-myocardial infarction patients followed by 20 cardiologists in a tertiary hospital. Data was collected retrospectively from clinical appointments that took place after April 2022. For each patient, the LDL-C levels and attainment of goals were estimated from an ambulatory lipid profile using both Friedewald and Martin-Hopkins equations. A two-tailed p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all tests. Results: Overall, 400 patients were included (aged 67 ± 13 years, 77% male). Using Friedewald's equation, the median LDL-C under therapy was 64 (50-81) mg/dL, and 31% had LDL-C within goals. High-intensity statins were used in 64% of patients, 37% were on ezetimibe, and 0.5% were under PCSK9 inhibitors. Combination therapy of high-intensity statin + ezetimibe was used in 102 patients (26%). Applying the Martin-Hopkins method would reclassify a total of 31 patients (7.8%). Among those deemed controlled by Friedewald's equation, 27 (21.6%) would have a Martin-Hopkins' LDL-C above goals. Conclusions: Less than one-third of post-myocardial infarction patients had LDL-C within the goal. Applying the Martin-Hopkins equation would reclassify one-fifth of presumably controlled patients into the non-controlled group.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469272

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM), an endocrine syndrome characterized by high blood glucose levels due to abrogated insulin activity. The existing treatments for DM have side effects and varying degrees of efficacy. Therefore, it is paramount that novel approaches be developed to enhance the management of DM. Therapeutic plants have been accredited as having comparatively high efficacy with fewer adverse effects. The current study aims to elucidate the phytochemical profile, anti-hyperlipidemic, and anti-diabetic effects of methanolic extract D. salicifolia (leaves) in Alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Alloxan was injected intraperitoneally (150 mg kg-1, b.w), to induced diabetes in mice. The mice were divided into three groups (n=10). Group 1 (normal control) received normal food and purified water, Group II (diabetic control) received regular feed and clean water and group III (diabetic treated) received a methanolic extract of the plant (300 mg kg-1) for 28 days with a typical diet and clean water throughout the experiment. Blood samples were collected to checked serum glucose and concentration of LDL, TC, TG. The extract demonstrated significant antihyperglycemic activity (P 0.05), whereas improvements in mice's body weight and lipid profiles were observed after treatment with the extract. This study establishes that the extract has high efficacy with comparatively less toxicity that can be used for DM management.


Resumo Diabetes mellitus (DM) é uma síndrome endócrina caracterizada por níveis elevados de glicose no sangue devido à atividade anulada da insulina. Os tratamentos existentes para o DM têm efeitos colaterais e vários graus de eficácia. Portanto, é fundamental que novas abordagens sejam desenvolvidas para aprimorar o manejo do DM. As plantas terapêuticas foram acreditadas como tendo eficácia comparativamente alta com menos efeitos adversos. O presente estudo visa elucidar o perfil fitoquímico, efeitos anti-hiperlipidêmicos e antidiabéticos do extrato metanólico de D. salicifolia (folhas) em camundongos diabéticos induzidos por aloxana. Alloxan foi injetado por via intraperitoneal (150 mg kg-1, b.w), para induzir diabetes em camundongos. Os camundongos foram divididos em três grupos (n = 10). Grupo 1 (controle normal) recebeu ração normal e água purificada, Grupo II (controle diabético) recebeu ração regular e água limpa, e o grupo III (tratamento diabético) recebeu extrato metanólico da planta (300 mg kg-1) por 28 dias com uma dieta típica e água limpa durante todo o experimento. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas para verificar a glicose sérica e a concentração de LDL, TC, TG. O extrato demonstrou atividade anti-hiperglicêmica significativa (P 0,05), enquanto melhorias no peso corporal e no perfil lipídico dos camundongos foram observadas após o tratamento com o extrato. Este estudo estabelece que o extrato tem alta eficácia com comparativamente menos toxicidade e pode ser usado para o controle do DM.

4.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 753-759, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016520

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the influence of triglyceride (TG)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio on the onset of primary liver cancer. MethodsA prospective cohort study was conducted. Physical examination data were collected from 99 750 cases of on-the-job and retired employees of Kailuan Group who participated health examination from July 2006 to December 2007, and they were followed up till December 31, 2021 to observe the onset of primary liver cancer. A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between multiple groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for comparison of continuous data with skewed distribution between multiple groups; the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. According to the tertiles of TG/HDL-C ratio, the subjects were divided into Q1, Q2, and Q3 groups, and the incidence density of primary liver cancer was calculated for each group. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the cumulative incidence rate of primary liver cancer in each group, and the log-rank test was used to compare the difference in cumulative incidence rate between groups. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze the influence of TG/HDL-C ratio on the onset of primary liver cancer. ResultsThere were significant differences between the three groups in age, proportion of male subjects, waist circumference, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, chronic liver diseases, hypertension, diabetes, the family history of malignant tumor, drinking, smoking, physical exercise, and educational level (P<0.05). During the mean follow-up time of 14.06±2.71 years, there were 484 cases of new-onset liver cancer, among whom there were 446 male subjects and 38 female subjects. The incidence density of primary liver cancer was 0.39/1 000 person-years in the Q1 group, 0.35/1 000 person-years in the Q2 group, and 0.30/1 000 person-years in the Q3 group, and the cumulative incidence rates of primary liver cancer in the three groups were 6.03‰, 5.28‰, and 4.49‰, respectively, with a significant difference between the three groups based on the long-rank test (χ2=6.06, P=0.048). After adjustment for the confounding factors considered, the Cox proportional hazards model showed that compared with the Q3 group, the Q1 group had a hazard ratio of 2.04 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.61‍ ‍—‍ ‍2.58, Pfor trend<0.05), and the Q2 group had a hazard ratio of 1.53 (95%CI: 1.21‍ ‍—‍ ‍1.92, Pfor trend<0.05). ConclusionThe reduction in TG/HDL-C ratio is associated with an increase in the rask of primary liver cancer, especially in people with chronic liver diseases.

5.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 573-580, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013139

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the association between the risk of increase in total cholesterol (TC) and the risk of cholelithiasis by using bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR). MethodsThe open gwas public database was used to obtain the single nucleotide polymorphism data associated with TC and cholelithiasis, and a secondary data analysis was performed for all summary data of genome-wide association studies. The genetic loci closely associated with TC or cholelithiasis were selected as exposure or outcome variables, and the bidirectional MR analysis was performed using the methods such as Egger regression, Weighted median, IVW random effects model, and IVW fixed effects model, with odds ratio (OR) values for evaluating the causal relationship between TC and cholelithiasis. ResultsWith TC as the exposure and cholelithiasis as the outcome, TC-cholelithiasis had an overall OR value of 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.85‍ ‍—‍ ‍0.97) before elimination of heterogeneity and 0.93 (95%CI: 0.89‍ ‍—‍ ‍0.97) after elimination of heterogeneity. With cholelithiasis as the exposure and TC as the outcome, TC-cholelithiasis had an overall OR value of 0.20 (95%CI: 0.06‍ ‍—‍ ‍0.65) before elimination of heterogeneity and 0.28 (95%CI: 0.10‍ ‍—‍ ‍0.83) after elimination of heterogeneity. There was a bidirectional causal relationship between genetically predicted TC and cholelithiasis. ConclusionThis study confirms the bidirectional causal relationship between TC and cholelithiasis. The risk of cholelithiasis decreases with the increase in alleles associated with the elevation of TC level; on the contrary, the risk of elevated TC level decreases with the increase in alleles associated with the onset of cholelithiasis.

6.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 5-5, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM@#Remnant cholesterol (remnant-C) mediates the progression of major adverse cardiovascular events. It is unclear whether remnant-C, and particularly cumulative exposure to remnant-C, is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to explore whether remnant-C, not only baseline but cumulative exposure, can be used to independently evaluate the risk of NAFLD.@*METHODS@#This study included 1 cohort totaling 21,958 subjects without NAFLD at baseline who underwent at least 2 repeated health checkups and 1 sub-cohort totaling 2,649 subjects restricted to those individuals with at least 4 examinations and no history of NAFLD until Exam 3. Cumulative remnant-C was calculated as a timeweighted model for each examination multiplied by the time between the 2 examinations divided the whole duration. Cox regression models were performed to estimate the association between baseline and cumulative exposure to remnant-C and incident NAFLD.@*RESULTS@#After multivariable adjustment, compared with the quintile 1 of baseline remnant-C, individuals with higher quintiles demonstrated significantly higher risks for NAFLD (hazard ratio [HR] 1.48, 95%CI 1.31-1.67 for quintile 2; HR 2.07, 95%CI 1.85-2.33 for quintile 3; HR 2.55, 95%CI 2.27-2.88 for quintile 4). Similarly, high cumulative remnant-C quintiles were significantly associated with higher risks for NAFLD (HR 3.43, 95%CI 1.95-6.05 for quintile 2; HR 4.25, 95%CI 2.44-7.40 for quintile 3; HR 6.29, 95%CI 3.59-10.99 for quintile 4), compared with the quintile 1.@*CONCLUSION@#Elevated levels of baseline and cumulative remnant-C were independently associated with incident NAFLD. Monitoring immediate levels and longitudinal trends of remnant-C may need to be emphasized in adults as part of NAFLD prevention strategy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Cohort Studies , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/etiology , Cholesterol , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors
7.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 111(3): 1111211, sept.-dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554315

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Identificar y determinar la prevalencia de cristales de colesterol (CRCo) en granulomas perirradiculares de origen endodóntico y el tipo de reacción que provocan en los tejidos circundantes. Material y métodos: Se estudiaron con microscopía óptica 75 preparados histológicos de archivo pertenecientes a lesiones perirradiculares humanas correspondientes a piezas dentarias que habían recibido un tratamiento endodóntico pre- vio y que, según los informes que acompañaban las muestras, habían sido obtenidas mediante una apicectomía. Del total, 68 muestras fueron diagnosticadas como granulomas, mientras que los 7 restantes se diagnosticaron como quistes inflamato- rios y fueron descartadas. Resultados: 39 granulomas pertenecían a pacientes de sexo femenino con presencia de CRCo en el 58,97% de los ca- sos. Los 29 granulomas restantes pertenecían al sexo mascu- lino y presentaron CRCo en un 41,37%. La mayor proporción de CRCo fue hallada en granulomas pertenecientes a pacien- tes mayores de 62 años. Los CRCo se observaron rodeados de macrófagos y células gigantes multinucleadas, provocando una reacción a cuerpo extraño. También se observaron células espumosas en áreas circundantes. Conclusiones: La presencia de CRCo en granulomas perirradiculares de origen endodóntico provoca una reacción a cuerpo extraño que puede interferir con el proceso de re- paración posendodóntico especialmente en pacientes de edad avanzada (AU)


Aim: Identify and determine the prevalence of cholester- ol crystals (CRCo) in periradicular granulomas of endodontic origin and the type of reaction they produce in the surround- ing tissues. Material and methods: 75 archival histological preparations were studied with optical microscopy. They be- longed to human periradicular lesions corresponding to teeth that had received a previous endodontic treatment and that, according to the reports accompanying the samples, had been obtained by an apicoectomy. Of the total, 68 samples were diagnosed as granulomas, while the remaining 7 were diag- nosed as inflammatory cysts and were discarded. Results: 39 granulomas corresponded to female patients in which the presence of CRCo was observed in 58.97% of the cases. The remaining 29 granulomas were from male patients and showed CRCo in 41.37% of the cases. The highest pro- portion of CRCo was found in patients over 62 years of age. The CRCo were surrounded by macrophages and multinucle- ated giant cells causing a foreign body reaction. Foam cells were also observed in the surrounding areas. Conclusions: The presence of CRCo in periradicular granulomas of endodontic origin could be a factor interfering with periapical healing after conventional endodontic thera- py, especially in elderly patients (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Periapical Granuloma/pathology , Root Canal Therapy/adverse effects , Foreign Bodies/etiology , Apicoectomy/methods , Biopsy/methods , Histological Techniques/methods , Age Factors
8.
Rev. argent. cardiol ; 91(5): 323-330, dic. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550695

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el modelo SMART-REACH predice el riesgo de eventos cardiovasculares recurrentes. Objetivos: los objetivos de este estudio fueron: a) evaluar el riesgo residual en una población en prevención secundaria y niveles de colesterol asociado a lipoproteínas de baja densidad (C-LDL) fuera de meta; b) mediante un modelo de simulación, determinar el impacto de optimizar las terapias hipolipemiantes en términos de reducción del riesgo residual. Material y métodos: estudio transversal, descriptivo y multicéntrico. Se incluyeron consecutivamente pacientes con antecedentes cardiovasculares y un C-LDL mayor o igual que 55 mg/dL. El riesgo de eventos recurrentes (infarto agudo de miocardio, accidente cerebrovascular o muerte vascular) a 10 años y a lo largo de la vida se estimó utilizando el modelo SMART-REACH. Mediante una simulación, se optimizó el tratamiento hipolipemiante de cada paciente (utilizando estatinas, ezetimibe o inhibidores de proproteína convertasa subtilisina kexina tipo 9 [iPCSK9]), se estimó el descenso del C-LDL, se verificó el alcance del objetivo lipídico y se calculó la reducción del riesgo cardiovascular y el número necesario a tratar (NNT) correspondiente. Resultados: se incluyeron 187 pacientes (edad media 67,9 ± 9,3 años, 72,7% hombres). Los riesgos residuales calculados a 10 años y a lo largo de la vida fueron 37,1 ± 14,7% y 60,3 ± 10,7%, respectivamente. Globalmente, se pudo optimizar una sola estrategia farmacológica con estatinas, ezetimibe o un iPCSK9 en el 38,5%, el 11,5% y el 5,5% de la población, respectivamente. La optimización basada en dos tratamientos se realizó en el 27,5% (estatinas + ezetimibe), el 7,7% (estatinas + iPCSK9) y el 1,1% (ezetimibe + iPCSK9) de los casos. En 15 pacientes se optimizó el tratamiento considerando los tres fármacos. El 53,9% y el 62,9% de las acciones para optimizar el tratamiento mostraron un NNT menor que 30 para evitar un evento a 10 años o a lo largo de la vida, respectivamente. Conclusión: en este estudio, los pacientes con antecedentes cardiovasculares que no alcanzan la meta de C-LDL mostraron un riesgo residual considerable. La simulación mostró un importante margen para optimizar el tratamiento, con un impacto notable en el riesgo residual.


ABSTRACT Background: The SMART-REACH model predicts the risk or recurrent cardiovascular events. Objectives: The objectives of this study were: a) to evaluate the residual cardiovascular risk in a secondary prevention population with LDL-C levels above the recommended goal, using a simulation model; and b) to determine the impact of optimizing lipid-lowering therapies in terms of residual cardiovascular risk reduction. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive and multicenter study. Patient with a history of cardiovascular disease and a LDL-C ≥55 mg/dL were consecutively included. The 10-year and lifetime risk of recurrent events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or vascular death) were estimated using the SMART-REACH model. By means of a simulation, lipid-lowering treatment was optimized for each patient [using statins, ezetimibe and/or PCSK9 (PCSK9) inhibitors], with estimation of LDL-C reduction, checking if lipid-lowering goal was achieved and calculating the reduction in cardiovascular risk and the corresponding number needed to treat (NNT). Results: The cohort was made up of 187 patients; mean age was 67.9 ± 9.3 years and 72.7% were men. The calculated 10-year and lifetime residual risks were 37.1 ± 14.7% and 60.3 ± 10.7%, respectively. Overall, treatment was optimized with a single pharmacological strategy with statins, ezetimibe or PCSK9 inhibitor in 38.5%, 11.5% and 5.5% of the population, respectively. Optimization based on two treatments was performed in 27.5% (statins + ezetimibe), 7.7% (statins + PCSK9 inhibitor) and 1.1% (ezetimibe + PCSK9 inhibitor) of the cases. In 15 patients, treatment was optimized when the three drugs (statins + ezetimibe + PCSK9 inhibitor) were considered. Overall, 53.9% and 62.9% of the actions implemented to optimize treatment showed a 10-year or lifetime NNT < 30 to prevent an event, respectively. Conclusion: In this study, patients with a history of cardiovascular disease who do not reach LDL-C goal showed significant residual cardiovascular risk. The simulation model showed a significant margin for optimizing treatment, with a marked reduction in residual cardiovascular risk.

9.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 60(3): 287-299, July-Sept. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513707

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Approximately 71 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. A significant number of these individuals will develop liver cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. Beyond the liver, there is a sizeable body of scientific evidence linking cardiovascular disease and chronic hepatitis C (CHC); however, the biological mechanisms behind the concurrence of these conditions have not been completely clarified yet. Objective: To evaluate associations between hepatic histology, clinical comorbidities and lipid profile in patients with CHC. To investigate associations between liver histology and demographic, nutritional, biochemical and virological parameters. Methods: Eight-five patients with CHC prospectively underwent hepatic biopsy. Liver fragments were obtained from each patient by percutaneous route using a Menghini needle. Fibrosis was evaluated according to the METAVIR scoring system, as follows: F0, no fibrosis; F1, fibrous portal expansion; F2, fibrous portal widening with few septa; F3, bridging fibrosis with architectural distortion; and F4, liver cirrhosis. The activity was classified based on the degree of lymphocyte infiltration and hepatocyte necrosis, from A0 to A3. The diagnosis of liver disease was based on clinical, biochemical, histological, and radiological methods. The data were analyzed by logistic regression models. Results: This cross-sectional study included 85 outpatients followed at the tertiary care ambulatory centre with a mean age of 57.2±10.7 years and 45 (52.9%) were females. There were 10 patients with cirrhosis. Patients with a METAVIR F3-F4 were significantly older (P=0.02) and had higher levels of ALT (P=0.0006), AST (P<0.0001), γ-GT (P=0.03) and bilirubin (P=0.001) and higher prothrombin time than patients with F0-F2 score. Albumin levels (P=0.01) were significantly lower in METAVIR F3-F4. Age (OR=1.09; 95%CI=1.02-1.16; P=0.02), steatosis (OR=4.03; 95%CI=1.05-15.45; P=0.04) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) <60 mg/dL (OR=7.67; 95%CI=1.71-34.49; P=0.008) were independently associated with fibrosis. Hypertension (OR=6.36; 95%CI=1.31-30.85; P=0.02) and HDL-C <60 mg/dL (OR=9.85; 95%CI=2.35-41.39; P=0.002) were independently associated with necroinflammatory activity. Hypertension (OR=6.94; 95%CI=1.92-25.05; P=0.003) and HDL-C <60 mg/dL (OR=3.94; 95%CI=1.27-12.3; P=0.02) were associated with interface inflammatory activity. Triglycerides (TG ≥150 mg/dL) remained associated with lobular inflammatory activity. Conclusion: cholesterol levels <60 mg/dL were independently associated with necroinflammatory activity in chronic hepatitis C. Patients with hypertension are at an increased risk of developing necroinflammatory activity.


RESUMO Contexto: Aproximadamente 71 milhões de pessoas estão infectadas pelo vírus da hepatite C em todo o mundo. Um número significativo desses indivíduos desenvolverá cirrose hepática e/ou carcinoma hepatocelular. Além do fígado, há evidências científicas que associam doenças cardiovasculares e hepatite C crônica; no entanto, os mecanismos biológicos implicados na ocorrência dessas condições ainda não foram completamente esclarecidos. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre histologia hepática, comorbidades clínicas e perfil lipídico em pacientes com hepatite C crônica. Investigar associações entre histologia hepática e parâmetros demográficos, nutricionais, bioquímicos e virológicos. Métodos: Oitenta e cinco pacientes com hepatite C crônica foram prospectivamente submetidos à biópsia hepática. Biópsias hepáticas foram obtidas de cada paciente por via percutânea com agulha de Menghini. A fibrose foi avaliada de acordo com o sistema de pontuação METAVIR, como segue: F0, sem fibrose; F1, expansão portal fibrosa; F2, alargamento portal fibroso com poucos septos; F3, fibrose em ponte com distorção arquitetônica; e F4, cirrose hepática. A atividade foi classificada com base no grau de infiltração de linfócitos e necrose de hepatócitos, de A0 a A3. O diagnóstico da doença hepática foi baseado em métodos clínicos, bioquímicos, histológicos e radiológicos. Os dados foram analisados por modelos de regressão logística. Resultados: Neste estudo transversal, realizado em um ambulatório do hospital universitário, foram incluídos 85 pacientes que tinham média de idade de 57,2±10,7 anos, sendo 45 (52,9%) do sexo feminino. Havia 10 pacientes com cirrose. Os pacientes com METAVIR F3-F4 eram significativamente mais velhos (P=0,02) e tinham níveis mais elevados de ALT (P=0,0006), AST (P<0,0001), γ-GT (P=0,03) e bilirrubina (P=0,001) e, maior tempo de protrombina do que pacientes com escore F0-F2. Os níveis de albumina (P=0,01) foram significativamente mais baixos naqueles classificados como METAVIR F3-F4. Idade (OR=1,09; IC95%=1,02-1,16; P=0,02), esteatose (OR=4,03; IC95%=1,05-15,45; P=0,04) e HDL-C <60 mg/dL (OR=7,67; 95%IC=1,71-34,49; P=0,008) foram independentemente associados à fibrose. Hipertensão (OR=6,36; IC95%=1,31-30,85; P=0,02) e HDL-C <60 mg/dL (OR=9,85; IC95%=2,35-41,39; P=0,002) foram independentemente associados à atividade necroinflamatória. Hipertensão (OR=6,94; IC 95%=1,92-25,05; P=0,003) e HDL-C <60 mg/dL (OR=3,94; IC95%=1,27-12,3; P=0,02) foram associados à atividade inflamatória de interface. Os triglicerídeos (TG >150 mg/dL) permaneceram associados à atividade inflamatória lobular. Conclusão: Níveis de coleterol HDL <60 mg/dL foram independentemente associados à atividade necroinflamatória na hepatite C crônica. Pacientes com hipertensão têm risco aumentado de desenvolver atividade necroinflamatória.

10.
Rev. invest. clín ; 75(4): 187-192, Jul.-Aug. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515322

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Monocyte to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (MHR) is a novel inflammatory biomarker which has been associated with cardiovascular diseases. Objective: To study MHR in patients with psoriasis treated with biological agents. Methods: Between April 2019 and August 2022, MHR was retrospectively evaluated in patients with psoriasis before and 3 months after treatment with infliximab, adalimumab, etanercept, ixekizumab, secukinumab, and ustekinumab in a university hospital in Ankara, Turkey. Results: This study included 128 patients, 53 females and 75 males. 39 (30.5%) patients were treated with infliximab, 26 (20.3%) with adalimumab, 8 (6.3%) with etanercept, 18 (14.1%) with ixekizumab, 12 (9.4%) with secukinumab, and 25 (19.5%) with ustekinumab. The median MHR was 0.0127 (0.0086-0.0165) in females and 0.0146 (0.0119-0.0200) in males (p = 0.011). The median MHR decreased after treatment with adalimumab, ixekizumab, secukinumab, and ustekinumab, whereas it increased after treatment with infliximab and etanercept (p = 0.790, p = 0.015, p = 0.754, p = 0.221, p = 0.276, p = 0.889, respectively). Conclusion: MHR significantly decreased in patients with psoriasis after treatment with ixekizumab. Since high MHR levels have been associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular diseases, ixekizumab might have a positive impact in the treatment of psoriasis patients who had cardiovascular diseases. We suggest that MHR may be useful both in establishing appropriate biological agent treatment and in the follow-up of patients with psoriasis treated with biological agents.

11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223140

ABSTRACT

Background: Alopecia areata is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of this condition. Aim: To evaluate the serum oxidative stress markers and antioxidant capacity in patients with alopecia areata. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 40 patients with alopecia areata and 40 healthy controls. The fasting blood sugar, C-reactive protein, lipid profile, and serum oxidative markers, including advanced glycation end products and advanced oxidation protein products, were measured in this study. Also, antioxidant enzymes, including paraoxonase-1, lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase and serum ferric-reducing antioxidant power, were determined. Results: The serum levels of advanced glycation end products and advanced oxidation protein products were significantly higher in patients with alopecia areata, compared to the controls (P < 0.001), whereas the levels of ferric-reducing antioxidant power, paraoxonase-1 and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase were significantly lower in patients with alopecia areata, compared to the controls (P < 0.001). The mean fasting blood sugar level was significantly higher in patients with alopecia areata, compared to the controls. The ferric reducing antioxidant power level was significantly associated with the percentage of hair loss (P = 0.01, r = 0.4) and the serum C-reactive protein level (P = 0.03, r = –0.3) in patients with alopecia areata. Limitations: Since the current study had a cross-sectional design, no cause-effect relationship was established between alopecia areata and oxidative stress. The sample size of our study was also small. Conclusion: Based on the present results, the oxidant-antioxidant enzymatic system is impaired in alopecia areata due to the increased oxidative products and decreased antioxidant activity

12.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-220330

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with high-risk patients requiring effective management to reduce their risk of cardiovascular events. Bempedoic acid is a novel therapeutic agent recently approved as an add-on therapy to statins in patients with uncontrolled LDL-c. Bempedoic acid inhibits cholesterol synthesis in the liver, which ultimately reduces the risk of cardiovascular events. Therefore, the present study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of bempedoic acid in patients with uncontrolled LDL-c (Previously on moderate or high-intensity statins) with a high risk of CVD in real-world settings. Methods: This is a multicenter, retrospective, observational study on the data of high-risk-CVD patients collected from Bempedoic Acid on Efficacy and Safety in patients (BEST) Registry. The clinical data of 140 patients who were already on statin therapy and were receiving Bempedoic acid at a dose of 180 mg, along with measurements of the level of LDL-c, HbA1c, HDL, TG, TC, PPPG, FPG, AST, ALT, serum creatinine was taken into consideration. The primary outcome includes a change in LDL-c level, and secondary outcomes involve a change in the level of HbA1c, HDL, TG, TC, PPPG, FPG, AST, ALT, and serum creatinine at week 12 and 24. Adverse events were reported at both time points. Results: A total of 140 patients were included in the present study with a mean age of 51.8 ± 9.2 years and had primary confirmed diagnosis of dyslipidemia with uncontrolled LDL-c. The mean levels of LDL-c decreased from the mean baseline value of 142.67 ± 46.49 mg/dL, to 106.78 ±33.92 mg/d; a statistically significant reduction by 23.23% (p < 0.01) at week 12. Similarly, at week 24, the mean LDL-c value reduced to 90.39 ± 38.89 mg/dL. A 33.38 % decrease was observed (p < 0.01). Other parameters such as non-HDL, FPG, PPPG, AST and serum creatinine also showed statistically significant reduction at week 12 and week 24. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that bempedoic acid is an effective add-on medication in lowering LDL-c levels in high-risk CVD patients with uncontrolled LDL-c.

13.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-218128

ABSTRACT

Background: Thyroid diseases are among the most common endocrine disorders worldwide. Thyroid hormones play a key role in regulating the synthesis, metabolism, and mobilization of lipids. Levels of circulating lipids may alter in thyroid dysfunction. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to find out the alterations of lipid levels in thyroid dysfunction. Materials and Methods: The study was designed as cross-sectional observational study and analysis of values was done by significant tests difference in means. 20 patients with hypothyroidism, 20 patients with hyperthyroidism, and 20 normal were participated in the study. Levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), LDL-C, and LDL/HDL ratio were estimated and compared. Results: In patients with hypothyroidism, there was an increase in total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglyceride levels and decrease in HDL-C levels. In hyperthyroidism, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and LDL/HDL ratio were found to be significantly decreased. Conclusion: Altered thyroid function can lead to significant changes in the lipid profile. Hypothyroidism is an important risk factor for heart diseases. Hence, routine screening of thyroid hormones may be of considerable help for early intervention and treatment of thyroid dysfunction-related cardiac disease.

14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-218093

ABSTRACT

Background: Dyslipidemia is defined as the high-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein A (apo A) levels <10th percentile and/or total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), apolipoprotein B, or Lipoprotein (a) levels more than the 90th percentile. Aim and Objectives: This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of the fixed-dose combination of Atorvastatin and Ezetimibe with Atorvastatin monotherapy among patients with dyslipidemia. Materials and Methods: The present study was a randomized, double-blinded, prospective, and parallel-group study. Ninety-two outpatients of age in between 18 and 70 years from the Department of General Medicine who attended the hospital for the treatment of dyslipidemia were selected as study participants. Among 92 patients, 12 patients did not meet the study criteria. The remaining 80 patients were divided into two treatment groups at random and under double-blind conditions (39 in Group A and 41 in Group B). Each patient in both groups was followed for a period of 4 weeks after initiation of therapy. Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were recorded at day 1, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks of therapy. Results: In this study, by the end of the study period (4 weeks), tablet Atorvastatin + tablet Ezetimibe combination therapy showed statistical significance difference in reducing mean total cholesterol and mean serum LDL levels in dyslipidemia cases than the group receiving Atorvastatin monotherapy. Conclusion: Atorvastatin in combination with Ezetimibe was more efficacious than Atorvastatin monotherapy in reducing total blood cholesterol and serum LDL levels. Atorvastatin plus Ezetimibe is equally safer as Atorvastatin monotherapy and well tolerated with fewer adverse effects.

15.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2023 May; 71(5): 1948-1952
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225007

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To determine the association between serum lipid levels and primary open?angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods: In this case?control study, 50 patients with POAG documented by clinical tests using standard ophthalmologic equipment and 50 age?matched controls were investigated. Twelve?hour fasting serum lipid profiles, including total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, low?density lipoproteins (LDLs), and high?density lipoproteins (HDLs), were compared between the cases and controls. Results: The mean age of cases and controls was 62.84 ± 9.68 and 60.12 ± 8.65, respectively (P = 0.65). High total cholesterol levels (>200 mg/dl) were found in 23 cases (46%) and 8 controls (16%); high serum triglyceride levels (>150 mg/dl) were found in 24 cases (48%) and 7 controls (14%); high LDL levels (130 mg/dl) were found in 28 cases (56%) and 9 controls (18%); and low HDL levels (<40 mg/dl) were found in 38 cases (76%) and 30 controls (60%). The mean total cholesterol levels were 205.24 ± 36.90 mg/dl in cases and 177.68 ± 22.56 mg/dl in controls (P < 0.001); the mean serum triglyceride levels were 150.42 ± 49.55 mg/dl and 130.84 ± 23.16 mg/dl, respectively (P = 0.013); and the mean LDL levels were 139.50 ± 31.03 mg/dl and 114.96 ± 17.73 mg/dl, respectively (P < 0.001). The mean cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL levels were significantly higher in cases than in controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The present study shows that higher proportion of POAG patients have dyslipidemia compared to age?matched controls. Though these findings need to be replicated by others. This study opens new vistas for further studies, such as lowering dyslipidemia, lowering the intra?ocular pressure and incidence of POAG, and whether the use of statins to reduce dyslipidemia affects the progression of POAG.

16.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-218067

ABSTRACT

Background: High cholesterol is the sixth-highest risk factor for death in the globe. Herbal medications regularly complement modern medical care, especially by providing safe, well-tolerated therapies for chronic conditions. Aims and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the cholesterol-lowering effects of Terminalia arjuna bark and Bacopa monnieri leaves (Brahmi) extract in human blood samples diagnosed with hyperlipidemia. Materials and Methods: Herbal extract of arjuna (T. arjuna) and Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [WS]) in distilled water (d/w) and cow’s urine (c/u) [A1, A2, D1, and D2] was taken and added to the pooled serum samples collected aseptically and a kinetic study was performed with it. Cholesterol standard was obtained from Erba Chem Transasia kit (Trinder’s method, endpoint) with a standard cutoff value of 200 mg/dL. Results: Baseline reading of total cholesterol in all samples was 189 mg/dL. After 2 h, the total cholesterol reading in A1 was 159 mg/dL, 157, 162, and 160 mg/dL in A2, D1, and D2, respectively. After 4 h, the total cholesterol reading in A1 was 149 mg/dL, 148, 151, and 149 mg/dL in A2, D1, and D2, respectively. After 6 h, the total cholesterol reading in A1 was 109 mg/dL, 104, 112, and 110 mg/dL in A2, D1, and D2, respectively. Conclusion: From the findings of the present study, it was found that aqueous extract of Ashwagandha (WS) and Arjuna (T. arjuna) was effective in reducing total cholesterol levels. It can be considered a potential therapeutic alternative in patients with hyperlipidemia but warrants further clinical studies.

17.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-220121

ABSTRACT

Background: Obesity and overweight is a disorder of unusually increased body fat generally resulting from increased energy intake relative to energy expenditure and is a primary sustenance-related disorder globally. The extensive increase in its prevalence in current years and its association with reduced life expectancy has made obesity one of the most vital public health problems. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between serum lipid profile and blood pressure with body mass index (BMI). Material & Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Rangpur Medical College, Rangpur from January 2013 to December 2013. A purposive sampling technique was followed. A total number of 90 people from 18 to 45 years old were included in the study, categorized into three groups, such as Group-A:(Control 30): Healthy subject of normal weight, Group-B:(Experimental 30): Healthy subject of overweight & Group-C(Experimental-30): Healthy subjects of obese. Verbal consent was taken before recruiting the study population. Completed data forms were reviewed, edited, and processed for computer data entry. The data analysis was performed using the “t” test, “r” test & Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 25.0. Results: In group A, the mean BMI of patients was 18.5-22.9, in group B mean BMI of patients was 23.0-24.9, and in group C, the mean BMI of people was 25.0 or greater. The mean ± SD serum LDL-C levels were 107.77 ± 26.720 mg/dl in group A and 134.70 ± 41.787 mg/dl in group B. There was a significant difference (p<0.001) between the two groups. The mean ± SD pulse pressure levels were 38 ± 6.644 mmHg in group A and 41.67 ± 11.167 mmHg in group B. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the two groups. Serum total cholesterol levels were positively correlated in groups A & B but the relationship of serum total cholesterol levels was statistically significant in groups A and B. Blood pressure levels were positively correlated in groups A &C but the relationship was statistically non-significant. Conclusion: In this current content, it is difficult to define the specific mechanism involved for significantly higher serum total cholesterol, serum triglyceride, and serum LDL-C levels and non-significantly lesser serum HDL-C levels in overweight & obese people and also non-significantly higher blood pressure in overweight people but significantly higher blood pressure in obese subjects.

18.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-218338

ABSTRACT

Objective: Reliable and disaggregated population-based data for cholesterol trends are needed to evaluate overall cardiovascular health, assess the effects of nutritional policies and pharmacological interventions, and guide priority setting. This study aimed to examine the trends and differences in serum total cholesterol-to-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio among U.S. residents by race/ethnicity. Study Design and Setting: Blood lipid measurements, taken from 53,964 noninstitutionalized participants, aged 6 to 80, were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) study. We described the distributions of TC/HDL-C ratio across the life span in four distinct cross-sectional surveys during 2005-2008, 2009-2012, 2013-2016, and 2017-2020, and compared the ratio levels by race/ethnicity. Results: Between 2005 and 2020, favorable trends in lipid ratio levels were observed. In youth aged < 20 years, mean TC/HDL-C ratios were 3.17, 3.15, 3.02, and 3.06 in males; and 3.12, 3.13, 3.03, and 3.02 in females from 2005 to 2020. In adults 20 years old and older, mean TC/HDL ratios declined from 4.30 in 2005-2008, to 4.27 in 2009-2012, 4.17 in 2013-2016, to 3.96 in 2017-2020 in males; while mean TC/HDL-C ratios declined from 3.67 in 2005-2008, to 3.66 in 2009-2012, to 3.54 in 2013-2016, to 3.46 in 2017-2020 in females. Overall, non-Hispanic black individuals tended to have lower mean TC/HDL ratio levels than other groups, while Mexican American individuals tended to have higher TC/HDL ratio levels on average. Conclusion: Further research is needed to determine how racial/ethnic differences in cholesterol ratio affect racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease rates.

19.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217973

ABSTRACT

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) rise first among the causes of death occurring due to non-communicable diseases in the world. The majority of cardiovascular deaths are due to ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Among the major risk factors, dyslipidemia is an important risk factor. Hence, the prevention of dyslipidemia results in the prevention of ischemic heart disease. Dyslipidemia can be corrected by drugs but more importantly, it can be prevented by lifestyle modification. Aim and Objectives: Our aim is to observe the impact of yoga on lipid parameters in different age groups. Materials and Methods: We included 54 subjects between the age group of 30 and 60 years for this study. They were categorized into two groups: Group I having ages between 30 and 45 years (n = 23) and Group II having ages between more than 45 years and <60 years (n = 31). The lipid parameters were measured afore of yoga training, at the end of 2 months and after 6 months of yogic practices. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS version of 20.0. A P value of less than 0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Results: Our study revealed that yoga induces a decrease in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very LDL cholesterol and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in both Group I and Group II subjects which were statistically significant. Conclusion: Yoga tends to improve dyslipidemia, a major risk factor for CVDs. A yoga lifestyle can be considered a preventive measure for CVDs.

20.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 27(1): 24-31, Jan.-Mar. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421697

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The associations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) with reduced saliva flow rates have not been previously reported. Objective The present study aimed to assess the association of cholesterolemia with reduced saliva flow rates in community-dwelling elderly subjects. Methods The present study analyzed 342 participants (170 males and 172 females aged between 78 and 79 years old). Unstimulated salivary flow rate (USFR) was assessed using a cotton roll method. Low-USFR was defined as 0.10 g/30 seconds. Stimulated salivary flow rate (SSFR) was assessed by having the participants chew tasteless gum for 3minutes. Low-SSFR was defined as 1.0 mL/minute. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of LDL-C, HDL-C, rheumatoid factor, hemoglobin A1c, and creatinine. To assess depression, the General Health Questionnaire 30 was used. A standardized questionnaire was completed, covering the current and previous medications of the participants and smoking status. We stratified the serum LDL-C levels of the participants as normal, moderate or severe hyper-LDL cholesterolemia and serum HDL-C levels as normal or hypo-HDL cholesterolemia. Multivariate logistic regression models were established and low-USFR or low-SSFR were set as dependent variables in the aforementioned models. Results After controlling for the effects of the other variables, the odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for low-USFR were 2.25 (1.10-4.61) for moderate and 5.69 (1.55-20.8) for severe hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, while that of hypo-HDL cholesterolemia was 3.40 (1.33-8.69). Severe hyper-LDL cholesterolemia was also associated with low-SSFR with an OR of 3.89 (1.39-10.88). Conclusion Elderly patients with cholesterolemia have a risk of reduced salivary flow rate.

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