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1.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 56(2): 63-80, mayo - ago. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1395868

ABSTRACT

En el paciente con diabetes mellitus (DM) y enfermedad renal crónica (ERC), las alteraciones electrolíticas y metabólicas constituyen un verdadero desafío. En noviembre de 2021, el Comité de Nefropatía de la Sociedad Argentina de Diabetes realizó una jornada científica con el objetivo de actualizar las alteraciones hidroelectrolíticas y del metabolismo óseo mineral, y las consideraciones dietarias en ERC y DM.


In patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), electrolyte and metabolic alterations constitute a real challenge. In November 2021, the Nephropathy Committee of the Argentine Diabetes Society held a scientific conference with the aim of updating hydroelectrolytic and mineral bone metabolism disorders, and dietary considerations in CKD and DM.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Electrolytes , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Kidney Diseases , Minerals
2.
Medwave ; 22(5): e8697, jun.-2022.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378546

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN Se ha planteado que el uso de dieta muy baja en proteínas suplementado con keto análogos en pacientes enfermos renales crónicos pre diálisis podría enlentecer el avance hacia una enfermedad terminal e inicio de diálisis sin riesgo de desnutrición. Sin embargo, su uso habitual aún no ha sido implementado dada la incertidumbre que existe frente a su efectividad y seguridad. MÉTODOS Realizamos una búsqueda en Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante el cribado de múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, analizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un metanálisis y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES Identificamos ocho revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron 14 estudios primarios, de los cuales, 12 corresponden a ensayos aleatorizados. Concluímos que una dieta muy baja en proteínas suplementada con keto análogos disminuye la progresión a enfermedad renal crónica terminal, probablemente disminuye la caída o deterioro de la función renal, podría disminuir mortalidad por cualquier causa y resultar en poca o nula diferencia en riesgo de desnutrición, siendo la certeza de la evidencia baja en estos dos últimos puntos.


INTRODUCTION It has been proposed that a very low protein diet supplemented with keto analogues in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients can slow the progression to a terminal disease and delay the start of renal replacement therapy, without a malnutrition risk. However, its common use has not yet been implemented due to the uncertainty of its efficacy and safety. METHODS We searched in Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS We identified eight systematic reviews including 14 studies overall, of which 12 were randomized trials. We concluded that a very low protein diet supplemented with keto analogues delays the progression to end-stage kidney disease, probably reduces the fall or deterioration of renal function, could reduce mortality by any cause y result in little or no difference in malnutrition risk, but the certainty of the evidence is low for these last two results.

3.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 366-371, May-June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377381

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The number of nephrologists has risen slowly, compared with the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Brazil. Data on patients referred to nephrology outpatient clinics remains scarce. OBJECTIVE: To determine the demographic and kidney function characteristics of patients at their first appointment with a nephrologist. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study conducted at three nephrology outpatient clinics (public and private services), in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: From December 2019 to February 2020, we collected patient data regarding demographics, kidney function parameters and comorbidities. We then analyzed data on 394 patients who met a nephrologist for their first appointment. RESULTS: The main comorbidities were hypertension (63.7%), diabetes (33.5%) and nephrolithiasis (22.3%). Regarding CKD stages, 24.1%, 9.1%, 13.7%, 15.2%, 15.2% and 2.3% of the patients were in stages 1, 2, 3a, 3b, 4 and 5, respectively. Proteinuria was absent or mild, moderate and high in 17.3%, 15.2% and 11.7%, respectively; and 16.2% had not undergone previous investigation of serum creatinine or proteinuria (55.8%). For 17.5%, referral to a nephrologist occurred late. Patients in public services were older than those in private services (59 years versus 51 years, respectively; P = 0.001), more frequently hypertensive (69.7% versus 57.5%; P = 0.01) and reached a nephrologist later (22.4% versus 12.4%; P = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Referrals to a nephrologist were not being made using any guidelines for CKD risk and many cases could have been managed within primary care. Late referral to a nephrologist happened in one-fifth of the cases and more frequently in the public service.


Subject(s)
Humans , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Nephrology , Proteinuria/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation , Brazil/epidemiology , Demography , Retrospective Studies , Nephrologists , Kidney
4.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 398-405, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377382

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The high number of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis makes it necessary to conduct studies aimed at improving their quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate brain compliance, using the Brain4care method for intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring, among patients with ESRD before and at the end of the hemodialysis session, and to correlate ICP with the dialysis quality index (Kt/V). DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted at a renal replacement therapy center in Brazil. METHODS: Sixty volunteers who were undergoing hemodialysis three times a week were included in this study. Brain compliance was assessed before and after hemodialysis using the noninvasive Brain4care method and intracranial pressure wave morphology was analyzed. RESULTS: Among these 60 ESRD volunteers, 17 (28%) presented altered brain compliance before hemodialysis. After hemodialysis, 12 (20%) exhibited normalization of brain compliance. Moreover, 10 (83%) of the 12 patients whose post-dialysis brain compliance became normalized were seen to present good-quality dialysis, as confirmed by Kt/V > 1.2. CONCLUSIONS: It can be suggested that changes to cerebral compliance in individuals with ESRD occur frequently and that a good-quality hemodialysis session (Kt/V > 1.2) may be effective for normalizing the patient's cerebral compliance.


Subject(s)
Renal Dialysis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Quality of Life , Brain , Cross-Sectional Studies
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(3): e142-e146, junio 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1370735

ABSTRACT

La nefronoptisis es una enfermedad renal quística, de herencia autosómica recesiva, causada por mutaciones en genes que codifican proteínas involucradas en la función de cilios primarios, lo que resulta en enfermedad renal y manifestaciones extrarrenales como degeneración retiniana y fibrosis hepática. Según la edad de desarrollo de enfermedad renal crónica terminal, se describen tres formas clínicas de presentación: infantil, juvenil y adolescente. El diagnóstico se realiza por una prueba genética positiva o una biopsia de riñón que demuestre cambios tubulointersticiales crónicos con un engrosamiento de las membranas basales tubulares. No existe hasta la actualidad una terapia curativa, por lo que el trasplante renal oportuno es determinante en cuanto al pronóstico. Se presenta un paciente de 13 meses de edad con poliuria de 3 meses de evolución, insuficiencia renal, anemia y elevación de transaminasas. Con hallazgos histológicos compatibles en la biopsia renal, se arribó al diagnóstico de nefronoptisis infantil, con afectación hepática


Nephronophthisis is an autosomal recessive cystic kidney disease caused by mutations in genes that encode proteins involved in the primary cilia function, resulting in kidney disease and extrarenal manifestations such as retinal degeneration and liver fibrosis. According to the age of development of end-stage chronic kidney disease, three clinical forms of presentation are described: infantile, juvenile and adolescent. Diagnosis is made by a positive genetic test, or a kidney biopsy demonstrating chronic tubulointerstitial changes with thickening of the tubular basement membranes. At the moment there is no healing therapy, so early kidney transplant is a fundamental tool to improve prognosis.We present a 13-month old male patient with polyuria, kidney failure, anemia and elevated aminotransferases over three months. With compatible histological kidney biopsy, the diagnosis of infantile nephronophthisis with liver involvement was reached.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Kidney Diseases, Cystic/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases, Cystic/genetics , Kidney Diseases, Cystic/pathology , Kidney Diseases , Kidney Failure, Chronic/genetics , Proteins , Genetic Testing
6.
Poblac. salud mesoam ; 19(2)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386955

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: el objetivo del presente trabajo se centra en reconocer la importancia de las investigaciones que relacionan la biodisponibilidad de fósforo en diferentes grupos de alimentos de origen animal, vegetal e industrial y su efecto en la progresión de la enfermedad renal crónica (ERC). Metodología: la revisión se sustentó en la búsqueda literaria en páginas web como PUBMED, Redalyc, SciELO, SCIHUB y Google Academic. Se seleccionó cada estudio, descartando aquellos que no fueran cuantitativos u originales, estuvieran incompletos, sin metodología clara, realizados en mamíferos o si los resultados no se especificaban en porcentajes. La lectura puso especial énfasis en el índice de biodisponibilidad de fósforo derivado del consumo de distintos productos alimenticios. Se elaboraron tres matrices de acuerdo con el origen del comestible y la biodisponibilidad de fósforo que absorbe el organismo. Resultados: se encontró que los alimentos industrializados y los aditivos muestran una biodisponibilidad de fósforo del 90 % al 100 %, los de origen animal del 40 % al 80 % y los de origen vegetal del 30 %. Conclusiones: los aditivos de los alimentos industrializados promueven la hiperfosfatemia y, con ello, aceleran la progresión de la enfermedad renal crónica, a diferencia de los de origen animal y vegetal, menos perjudiciales para la salud. Esto da pauta a la formación del sector salud para ampliar su conocimiento sobre el tratamiento nutricional del paciente.


Abstract Introduction: to know the importance of the investigations that relate the bioavailability of phosphorus in different groups of foods of animal, vegetable and industrialized origin and its effect on the progression in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Methodology: the review is based on a literary search that was carried out on web pages such as: PUBMED, Redalyc, SciELO, SCIHUB and Google Academic. Each of the studies was selected discarding those that were not quantitative, original, complete, with clear methodology, carried out in mammals, and that in their results specified the bioavailability of phosphorus in percentages. All the studies were read, placing main emphasis and interest on the percentage of phosphorus bioavailability when consuming different food groups. Three matrices were made according to the origin of the food and the bioavailability of phosphorus that is absorbed in the body; grouping them into foods of animal, vegetable and industrialized origin and additives. Results: it was found that industrialized foods and additives show a phosphorus bioavailability of 90-100%, those of animal origin 40-80%, those of plant origin 30%. Conclusions: The additives used in industrialized foods promote hyperphosphatemia and thus accelerate the progression of chronic kidney disease, unlike foods of animal and vegetable origin that are less harmful to health. This guides the training of the health sector, expanding its knowledge in the nutritional treatment of the patient.

7.
Acta méd. colomb ; 47(1): 44-48, ene.-mar. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374103

ABSTRACT

Resumen La espondiloartropatía destructiva es una patología osteoarticular presente en algunos pacientes con enfermedad crónica que puede afectar varios niveles de la columna vertebral y puede ser asintomática, generar dolor o causar complicaciones que ponen en peligro la integridad de la médula espinal y/o la vida. Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 70 años con enfermedad renal crónica terminal en hemodiálisis quien consultó por dolor dorsal y paraplejia, en quien se diagnosticó espondiloartropatía destructiva no infecciosa por imágenes y estudio histopatológico. Este caso nos muestra la importancia de pensar en esta patología y la necesidad de un enfoque multidisciplinario en el diagnóstico y manejo. (Acta Med Colomb 2022; 47. DOI:https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2022.2193).


Abstract Destructive spondyloarthropathy is a bone and joint disease which presents in some patients with chronic illnesses and may affect various levels of the spinal column. It may be asymptomatic, cause pain, or produce spinal cord and/or life-endangering complications. We present the case of a 70-year-old man with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis who consulted due to back pain and paraplegia. He was diagnosed with destructive noninfectious spondyloarthropathy through imaging and histopathological studies. This case shows us the importance of considering this disease and the need for a multidisciplinary approach in its diagnosis and management. (Acta Med Colomb 2022; 47. DOI:https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2022.2193).

8.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 29(1): 36-40, ene.-feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376852

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las alteraciones secundarias a la enfermedad renal crónica (ERC), como inflamación sistémica, anemia y sobrecarga hídrica, son un sustrato importante para el desarrollo de hipertensión arterial pulmonar. Objetivo: Valorar la relación de la presión sistólica de la arteria pulmonar (PSAP) por ecocardiograma con el tiempo y el tipo de terapia de reemplazo renal (TRR) en pacientes con ERC. Método: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo, llevado a cabo en el Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico Nacional La Raza, en el que se analizaron medidas de tendencia central y medidas de dispersión. Para comparar porcentajes se utilizó la prueba de χ2 con el programa estadístico SPSS 25. Resultados: Se incluyeron 141 pacientes con ERC en TRR con diálisis peritoneal o hemodiálisis. Se clasificaron de acuerdo con la PSAP en normal (30 pacientes, 21.28%), leve (43 pacientes, 30.5%), moderada (16 pacientes, 12%) y grave (52 pacientes, 36.88%). El tiempo de TRR está relacionado con una PSAP mayor, con 3.53 años en caso de PSAP normal, 5.51 años en caso de PSAP leve, 6.00 años para la PSAP moderada y 6.38 años para la PSAP grave. La PSAP grave se presentó en 13 de 56 pacientes en diálisis peritoneal y en 39 de 85 en hemodiálisis (p = 0.034). Conclusiones: Se encontró que existe relación entre la PSAP con el tiempo y el tipo de sustitución renal en pacientes con ERC.


Abstract Introduction: The disorders secondary to chronic kidney disease (CKD), such as systemic inflammation, anemia, and fluid overload are an important substrate for the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Objective: To assess the relationship between pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) on echocardiogram and the duration and type of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in patients with CKD. Method: A retrospective observational study at Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico Nacional La Raza. The analysis was performed using measures of central tendency and dispersion. Chi square was used to compare percentages through the SPSS 25 statistical program. Results: A total of 141 patients with CKD on RRT with peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis were included. They were classified according to PASP as normal (30 patients, 21.28%), mild (43 patients, 30.5%), moderate (16 patients, 12%) and severe (52 patients, 36.88%). The duration of RRT is related to a higher PASP, with 3.53 years for a normal PASP, 5.51 years for mild PASP, 6.00 years for moderate PASP, and 6.38 for those with severe PASP. Severe PASP occurred in 13 of 56 patients on peritoneal dialysis and 39 of 85 patients on hemodialysis (p = 0.034). Conclusions: This study found a relationship between PASP and the duration and type of renal replacement in patients with CKD.

9.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(5): e00061521, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374829

ABSTRACT

The NEPHROS is a randomized controlled trial which applied a 16-week aerobic and resistance training to patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and high blood pressure. This report describes a long-term post-trial follow-up, comparing survival, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) change between the intervention and control groups according to in-trial cardiovascular risk factors. Three years after the original trial, NEPHROS participants were re-evaluated. Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare survival time and linear regression for changes in GFR and physical and mental HRQoL summary scores between intervention and control groups according to age, sex, and in-trial GFR, C-reactive protein, glucose, lipids, ankle-brachial index (ABI), functional capacity, and blood pressure. Of the 150 participants of NEPHROS, 128 were included in the long-term analysis. The previous exercise training had no effects on survival, GFR, or HRQoL. Baseline in-trial GFR (HR = 0.95, 95%CI: 0.92; 0.98) and ABI (HR = 0.03, 95%CI: 0.002; 0.43) were positive independent predictors for survival. Lower ABI (coefficient = 9.00, 95%CI: 0.43; 17.5) and higher systolic blood pressure (coefficient = -0.13, 95%CI: -0.24; -0.03) were independent predictors for GFR decline. A 16-week exercise program had no long-term effect on survival, quality of life, or glomerular filtration in patients with CKD stages 2 to 4. Lower GFR and ABI and higher systolic blood pressure were associated with poorer prognosis among CKD patients.


O estudo NEPHROS é um ensaio controlado e randomizado que aplicou um programa de treinamento aeróbico e de força com duração de 16 semanas em pacientes com doença renal crônica e hipertensão arterial. O artigo descreve o seguimento pós-ensaio de longo prazo, comparando sobrevida, qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (HRQoL) e mudança na taxa de filtração glomerular estimada (TFGe) entre o grupo de intervenção e o grupo controle, e de acordo com fatores de risco cardiovascular registrados durante o ensaio. Os participantes do estudo NEPHROS foram reavaliados três anos depois do ensaio original. Foi usada a razão de riscos proporcionais de Cox para comparar o tempo de sobrevida, e a regressão linear para comparar a mudança na TFGe e as pontuações gerais de HRQoL física e mental, entre os grupos de intervenção e controle, de acordo com idade, sexo e níveis durante o ensaio original de TFGe, proteína C-reativa, glicose, lipídios, índice tornozelo-braquial (ITB), capacidade funcional e pressão arterial. Entre os 150 participantes do NEPHROS, 128 foram incluídos na análise de seguimento. Não foi observado nenhum efeito do treinamento na sobrevida, TFGe ou HRQoL. As medidas durante o ensaio original de TFGe (HR = 0,95; IC95%: 0,92; 0,98) e ITB (HR = 0,03; IC95%: 0,002; 0,43) foram preditores positivos independentes de sobrevida. ITB mais baixo (coeficiente = 9,00; IC95%: 0,43; 17,5) e pressão sistólica mais alta (coeficiente = -0,13; IC95% -0,24; -0.03) foram preditores independentes de declínio da TFGe. O programa de exercício de 16 semanas não teve efeito no longo prazo sobre sobrevida, qualidade de vida ou mudança na taxa de filtração glomerular em pacientes com doença renal crônica de estágios 2 a 4. Níveis mais baixos de TFGe e ITB e pressão arterial sistólica mais elevada estiveram associados a prior prognóstico entre pacientes com doença renal crônica.


NEPHROS es un ensayo controlado aleatorio que aplicó un entrenamiento de 16 semanas aeróbico y de resistencia a pacientes con enfermedad crónica de riñón y presión alta. El informe actual describe un seguimiento de largo plazo post ensayo, comparando supervivencia, calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (HRQoL) y el cambio de tasa estimada de filtración glomerular (eGFR) entre los grupos de intervención y control, y según factores de riesgo cardiovascular en el ensayo. Tras tres años del ensayo original, los participantes en NEPHROS fueron reevaluados. Se usó el modelo de Cox de riesgos proporcionales para comparar el tiempo de supervivencia y la regresión lineal para comparar el cambio en los marcadores resumen eGFR, físicos y mentales HRQoL, entre los grupos de intervención y grupos de control, y según edad, sexo, y eGFR en el ensayo, proteína C-reactiva, glucosa, lípidos, índice tobillo-brazo (ABI), capacidad funcional y presión sanguínea. De los 150 participantes de NEPHROS, 128 personas fueron incluidas en el análisis a largo plazo. No se observó un cambio en el efecto del entrenamiento físico previo en la supervivencia, eGFR o HRQoL. La base de referencia en el ensayo eGFR (HR = 0,95; 95%CI: 0,92; 0,98) y ABI (HR = 0,03; 95%CI: 0,002; 0,43) fueron predictores independientes positivos para la supervivencia. Un más bajo ABI (coeficiente = 9,00; 95%CI: 0,43; 17,5) y una presión sistólica sanguínea más alta (coeficiente = -0,13; 95%CI -0,24; -0,03) fueron predictores independientes para la disminución de la eGFR. El programa de ejercicio de dieciséis semanas no tuvo un efecto a largo plazo en la supervivencia, calidad de vida o cambio en la filtración glomerular en pacientes con etapas 2 a 4 enfermedad crónica de riñón. Una eGFR y ABI más bajos, y una presión más alta sistólica de sangre estuvieron asociadas con una prognosis más escasa entre pacientes enfermedad crónica de riñón.

10.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 158(spe): M1-M12, ene. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375541

ABSTRACT

Resumen La enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) del paciente diabético es frecuentemente una consecuencia directa de la diabetes mellitus (DM) de larga evolución y se la conoce como nefropatía diabética. En México cerca del 50% de los pacientes en terapia sustitutiva de la función renal tienen ERC por DM, y este porcentaje podría aumentar en los próximos años. Nuevas opciones terapéuticas, combinadas con cambios en el estilo de vida, han mejorado el control de la glucemia y pueden contribuir sustancialmente a retrasar la aparición o la progresión a estadios avanzados de la ERC. Las sociedades científicas internacionales han elaborado guías clínicas para el diagnóstico y manejo de la nefropatía diabética, sin embargo, en algunos puntos estas recomendaciones no se adaptan a la realidad mexicana. Se presentan las conclusiones de un consenso realizado por especialistas mexicanos sobre diabetes y ERC, con especial énfasis en el uso de los inhibidores del cotransportador de sodio-glucosa.


Abstract Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the diabetic patient is mainly a consequence of long-term diabetes mellitus itself. In Mexico approximately 50% of patients on dialysis are diabetics and this will could increase in the coming years. New therapeutic options available, combined with lifestyle changes, have improved glycemic control and may contribute to delay the onset as well as the progression of CKD. International scientific societies have developed clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of CKD in diabetics, although in some points, these recommendations are not adapted to the Mexican reality. We hereby present the conclusions of the consensus reached by Mexican specialists on diabetic nephropathy.

11.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 26(1): 101701, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364542

ABSTRACT

Abstract Severe lactic acidosis, a mitochondrial toxicity caused by the recommended standard dosage of linezolid (LZD), may occur in patients with impaired renal function. We describe an adult male who underwent kidney transplantation with stably impaired renal function, severe dyspnea, and abdominal discomfort. He received a standard oral dose of LZD (600 mg twice daily) and azithromycin for three weeks with a reduced immunosuppressant dose due to pulmonary non-tuberculosis mycobacterial infection. He was alert and afebrile, with a blood pressure of 140/60 mmHg. Pertinent laboratory data showed: pH 7.12, PaCO2 13.6 mmHg; HCO3- 4.3 mmol/L and serum lactate 18.4 mmol/L. His trough serum LZD concentration reached toxic levels (21.4 μg/mL). With hemodialysis, his clinical symptoms improved, with a decline in serum LZD (9.8μg/mL) and lactate (3.2 mmol/L). Chronic standard dose LZD in patients with impaired renal function can lead to life-threatening lactic acidosis, especially in coexisting conditions that reduce LZD metabolism.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928078

ABSTRACT

Based on Guidelines for the Management of Clinical Comprehensive Evaluation of Drugs(trial version 2021), this study aims to sort out the clinical evidence of Huangkui Capsules(HC) in the treatment of chronic kidney diseases in aspects of safety, effectiveness, economy, innovation, suitability, accessibility, and characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine( "6+1" dimensions) from real-world data, secondary literature evaluations, questionnaires, and public data, with the methods in evidence-based medicine, epidemiology, pharmacoeconomics, and health technology. Furthermore, with multi-criteria decision analysis(MCDA) model and CSC v2.0, the clinical value of the medicine is comprehensively assessed. All the above are to highlight the advantages and characteristics of HC and lay a basis for scientific decision-making by the medical management department. The dimensions are graded A, B, C, or D. According to the conclusions from phase Ⅳ clinical trial, spontaneous reporting system(SRS), systematic review and Meta-analysis, acute toxicity and long-term toxicity tests, it mainly results in the adverse reactions of nausea, abdominal distension, vomiting, pruritus, rash, and good prognosis in patients. According to the available research, the safety evidence is sufficient and the risk is controllable, so the safety of this medicine is grade B. According to Meta-analysis, HC in combination with conventional drugs in the treatment of chronic kidney disease is superior to conventional drugs alone in reducing urinary protein, serum creatinine concentration, and blood urea nitrogen. In addition, HC combined angiotensin receptor blocker(ARB) or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor(ACEI) is outstanding in improving total clinical effective rate, reducing 24 h urinary protein quantity, urinary albumin excretion rate, serum creatinine concentration, triglyceride, and total cholesterol in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy as compared with ARB or ACEI alone. As for chronic nephritis, the application together with ARB or ACEI can raise the total effective rate, reduce 24 h urinary protein content, serum creatinine concentration, and blood urea nitrogen, and delay the progress of the disease. HC boasts high-quality evidence in treating chronic kidney disease, diabetic nephropathy, and chronic nephritis. It has obvious clinical significance in treating chronic kidney disease and thus its efficacy in this aspect is grade B. It has outstanding clinical significance for diabetic nephropathy and chronic nephritis and corresponding and the effectiveness is grade A. As for the pharmacoeconomic value, HC combined with ARB or ACEI is more economical in the treatment of chronic kidney disease than Bailing Capsules combined with ARB or ACEI, with high-quality evidence, and thus the economy of the formula is grade B. HC is a key solution to the high urinary protein in patients with hypotension and chronic kidney disease. The innovation is evidenced by the methods to ensuring drug supply, community-level supply, drug safety, effectiveness, and reasonable price, as wells as the aspects of enterprise philosophy, equipment management, research and development in process and technology, enterprise management and marketing. Thus, the prescription is grade A in innovation. The suitability, as evidenced in drug administration, technical management, drug storage, information service, and medication, is grade B. The course of the medicine is affordable, and it is accessible in a wide range of areas and hospitals. Thus, the accessibility is grade A. HC was developed from an in-hospital preparation, with application in numerous patients and thus large-scale real-world data. As a result, HC is grade B in terms of characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine. After comprehensive evaluation, the clinical value of HC in treating chronic kidney disease is class B, and that for diabetic nephropathy and chronic nephritis is class A. The result is of great reference value for the basic clinical medication management.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Capsules , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Humans , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy
13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 364-374, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922921

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research is to study the effect of small molecule compound piceatannol (PIC) on host inflammation in adenine induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) mice, and then to explore its mechanism based on the regulation of gut microbiota. All procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine. The level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); UPLC-TQ/MS technology was used to monitor the level of proinflammatory uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresol sulfate (PCS); the expression of occludin was tested by Western blot; in vitro anaerobic culture of gut bacteria was used to produce indole; the abundance of gut microbiota was evaluated by 16S rDNA sequencing. The results showed that PIC had no effect on inflammatory infiltration in kidney tissue of CKD mice, but could decrease IL-6 level in blood and IL-6/TNF-α level in colon tissue. PIC did not improve intestinal occludin protein expression in CKD mice; while it could significantly reduce the levels of IS and PCS in blood and liver of CKD mice. Further mechanism studies showed that PIC could inhibit the synthesis of IS precursor indole in gut bacteria. Moreover, PIC could decrease the abundance of gut bacteria which producing uremic toxin, such as reducing the abundance of indole and p-cresol producing gut bacteria. In conclusion, PIC could regulate gut microbiota and inhibit the synthesis of uremic toxin precursor, thereafter reducing the accumulation of IS and PCS in vivo, ultimately relieving the inflammation of CKD mice.

14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 26(3): 102371, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384131

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) are more vulnerable to blood-borne viral infections due to frequent invasive procedures. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in this cohort of patients has been a matter of concern worldwide. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the frequency of serological markers for hepatitis B, and the occurrence of overt and occult HBV infection (OBI) and its molecular characterization in serum samples from 644 CKD patients in HD units located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2013 to 2017. HBV DNA was investigated in HBsAg reactive and "anti-HBc alone" samples to determine infecting genotypes and genetic relatedness between sequences. The prevalence of serological markers HBsAg+, anti-HBc alone, anti-HBc+/anti-HBs+, anti-HBs+, anti-HBc/anti-HBs/HBsAg were 5.9%, 2.8%, 30.7%, 26.6%, 34.0%, respectively. HBV DNA was detected in 39.5% (15/38) of the HBsAg+ and in 5/18 (27.8%) of the "anti-HBc alone" individuals, indicating a high prevalence of OBI within this group. We found a higher prevalence of HBV/A1 (65%), followed by HBV/D3 (20%), and HBV/A2 (15%). Bayesian MCC tree with a highly supported clade, genetic distance comparison, and identical nucleotide sequences suggested a nosocomial spread of HBV in some units. The high prevalence of HBV infection and low number of individuals immune to infection reinforces the need for vaccination in this group. The presence of closely related strains in the same HD unit reinforces the importance of continuous improvement of safety control measures and laboratory surveillance of serological markers to prevent the risk of infection and transmission of HBV.

16.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 55(3): 90-108, sept. - dic. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1395659

ABSTRACT

La prevalencia de obesidad y diabetes mellitus se asocia al desarrollo de enfermedad renal crónica y estadios terminales de la misma. En individuos con obesidad se produce un mecanismo de hiperfiltración, probablemente compensatorio para satisfacer la alta demanda metabólica asociada al aumento del peso corporal, con la presencia de proteinuria en individuos sin enfermedad renal. La histopatología muestra una glomeruloesclerosis focal y segmentaria relacionada con la obesidad en un marco de glomerulomegalia. La cirugía metabólica es el medio más efectivo para obtener una pérdida de peso sustancial y persistente. Se ha demostrado la superioridad de la cirugía sobre el tratamiento médico no solo para lograr un mejor control glucémico, sino también para la reducción de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Los mecanismos parecen extenderse más allá de la magnitud de la pérdida de peso e incluyen mejoras tanto en los perfiles de incretinas como en la secreción y la sensibilidad a la insulina. El Comité de Nefropatía de la Sociedad Argentina de Diabetes realizó esta revisión sobre los mecanismos involucrados en la obesidad como causa de enfermedad renal o empeoramiento de la misma por diabetes, y los mecanismos a través de los cuales la cirugía bariátrica beneficiaría a los pacientes con diabetes y enfermedad renal crónica en todos los estadios de la misma, así como los controles pre y posquirúrgicos en este tipo de cirugías.


The prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus are associated with the development of chronic kidney disease and its terminal stages. In individuals affected by obesity, a probably compensatory hyperfiltration mechanism occurs to satisfy the high metabolic demand associated with increased body weight; it is also associated with the presence and development of proteinuria in individuals without kidney disease. Histopathology shows obesity-related focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis in a setting of glomerulomegaly. Metabolic surgery is the most effective means of obtaining substantial and lasting weight loss. The superiority of surgery over medical treatment has been demonstrated only to achieve better glycemic control, as well as a reduction in cardiovascular risk factors. The mechanisms appear to extend beyond the magnitude of weight loss and include improvements in incretin profiles, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity. The Nephropathy Committee of the Argentine Diabetes Society carried out this review on mechanisms involved in obesity as a cause of kidney disease or worsening of kidney disease due to diabetes, the mechanisms by which bariatric surgery would benefit patients with diabetes and kidney disease chronic and its terminal stages, the pre and post-surgical controls that should be performed by patients undergoing this type of surgery


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , Diabetes Mellitus , Kidney Diseases , Obesity
17.
Rev. nefrol. diál. traspl ; 41(4): 31-40, dic. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377153

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background : Albuminuria predicts progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) but lacks specificity and sensitivity for the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and progressive decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We evaluated the decline in renal function in patients with DN and analyzed the prognosis of renal function according to the level of albuminuria and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cerebrovascular diseases, and peripheral artery disease (PAD) according to the level of albuminuria. Methods: This retrospective study included 331 patients with eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and urinary albumin/creatinine (Cr) ratio (ACR) >30 mg/g Cr who were treated at the Chungnam National University Hospital between January 2012 and December 2018. Patients were divided into mildly increased albuminuria, moderately increased albuminuria, and severely increased albuminuria groups according to their urine ACRs of 30-300, 300 900, and >900 mg/g Cr, respectively. Renal outcomes and incidence of CVD, cerebrovascular disease, and PAD were compared among the three groups. Results: More severe albuminuria was associated with higher rates of progression to CKD (p< 0.001) and >50% reduction in eGFR from baseline (p< 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in the rate of PCI with angina or myocardial infarction (p=0.030). However, cerebrovascular disease and PAD did not significantly differ among the three groups. Conclusión: Among patients with DN who maintained a relatively preserved renal function with an eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m2, the rates of renal deterioration and progression to CKD were significantly more frequent in those with more severe albuminuria.


RESUMEN Antecedentes: La albuminuria predice la progresión de la nefropatía diabética (ND) pero carece de especificidad y sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de la enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) y la disminución progresiva en la tasa de filtración glomerular estimada (eGFR). Evaluamos la disminución de la función renal en pacientes con ND y analizamos el pronóstico de la función renal de acuerdo con el nivel de albuminuria y la incidencia de enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV), enfermedades cerebrovasculares y enfermedad de las arterias periféricas (EAP) de acuerdo con el nivel de albuminuria. Material y métodos: Este estudio retrospectivo incluyó a 331 pacientes con eGFR >60 ml/min/1,73 m2 y de albúmina urinaria/creatinina (CR) (ACR) >30 mg/g CR que fueron tratados en el Hospital Universitario Nacional de Chungnam entre enero de 2012 y diciembre de 2018. Los pacientes se dividieron en tres grupos: albuminuria ligeramente aumentada, aumento moderado de albuminuria y aumento severo de albuminuria de acuerdo con sus ACRs de orina de 30-300, 300-900 y >900 mg/g Cr, respectivamente. Los resultados renales e incidencia de ECV, enfermedad cerebrovascular y EAP se compararon entre los tres grupos. Resultados: La albuminuria más severa se asoció con tasas más altas de progresión a ERC (P <0,001) y una reducción >50% en eGFR desde la línea de base (P <0,001). Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en la tasa de PCI con la angina o el infarto de miocardio (P =0,030). Sin embargo, la enfermedad cerebrovascular y la EAP no difirieron significativamente entre los tres grupos. Conclusión: entre los pacientes con ND que mantuvieron una función renal relativamente conservada con un eGFR >60 ml/ min/1,73 m2, las tasas de deterioro renal y la progresión a la ERC fueron significativamente más frecuentes en aquellos con albuminuria más severa.

18.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(4): 539-550, Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350905

ABSTRACT

Abstract Patients on hemodialysis are exposed to calcium via the dialysate at least three times a week. Changes in serum calcium vary according to calcium mass transfer during dialysis, which is dependent on the gradient between serum and dialysate calcium concentration (d[Ca]) and the skeleton turnover status that alters the ability of bone to incorporate calcium. Although underappreciated, the d[Ca] can potentially cause positive calcium balance that leads to systemic organ damage, including associations with mortality, myocardial dysfunction, hemodynamic tolerability, vascular calcification, and arrhythmias. The pathophysiology of these adverse effects includes serum calcium changes, parathyroid hormone suppression, and vascular calcification through indirect and direct effects. Some organs are more susceptible to alterations in calcium homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the existing data and potential mechanisms linking the d[Ca] to calcium balance with consequent dysfunction of the skeleton, myocardium, and arteries.


Resumo Pacientes em hemodiálise são expostos ao cálcio, por meio do dialisato, pelo menos três vezes por semana. As alterações no cálcio sérico variam de acordo com a transferência de massa de cálcio durante a diálise, que é dependente do gradiente entre a concentração de cálcio no plasma e no dialisato (d [Ca]) e o estado de renovação do esqueleto que altera a capacidade do osso de incorporar cálcio. Embora subestimado, o d [Ca] pode potencialmente causar balanço positivo de cálcio que leva a danos em órgãos sistêmicos, incluindo associações com mortalidade, disfunção miocárdica, tolerabilidade hemodinâmica, calcificação vascular e arritmias. A fisiopatologia desses efeitos adversos inclui alterações do cálcio sérico, supressão do hormônio da paratireóide e calcificação vascular por meio de efeitos diretos e indiretos. Alguns órgãos são mais suscetíveis a alterações na homeostase do cálcio. Nesta revisão, discutimos os dados existentes e os mecanismos potenciais que ligam o d [Ca] ao equilíbrio do cálcio com a consequente disfunção no esqueleto, miocárdio e artérias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular System , Calcium , Parathyroid Hormone , Bone and Bones , Renal Dialysis
19.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(4): 502-509, Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350899

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Progressive structural changes in the peritoneal membrane occur over the course of treatment in peritoneal dialysis (PD), resulting in an increase in cytokines such as CCL2 and structural changes in peritoneal membrane triggering an increase in CA-125 in dialysate, which reflects a probable local inflammatory process, with possible loss of mesothelial cells. Thus, the current study aimed to evaluate the association between plasma and CCL2 and CA-125 dialysate levels in patients undergoing PD. Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted with 41 patients undergoing PD. The assessments of CA-125 and CCL2 levels were performed using a capture ELISA. Correlations were estimated using Spearman's correlation and the investigation of the association between the explanatory variables (CCL2) and response variable (CA-125) was done for crude ratio of arithmetic means and adjusted utilizing generalized linear models. Results: A moderate positive correlation was observed between the levels of CA-125 and CCL2 in the dialysate (rho = 0.696). A statistically significant association was found between the levels in the CCL2 and CA-125 dialysate (RoM=1.31; CI = 1.20-1.43), which remained after adjustment for age (RoM = 1.31; CI=1.19-1.44) and for time in months of PD (RoM=1.34, CI=1.22-1.48). Conclusion: The association of CA-125 levels with CCL2 in the dialysate may indicate that the local inflammatory process leads to temporary or definitive changes in peritoneal membrane. A better understanding of this pathogenesis could contribute to the discovery of new inflammatory biomarkers.


Resumo Introdução: Alterações estruturais progressivas na membrana peritoneal ocorrem no decorrer do tratamento em diálise peritoneal (DP), resultando em um aumento de citocinas como CCL2 e alterações estruturais na membrana peritoneal desencadeando um aumento de CA-125 no dialisato, o que reflete um provável processo inflamatório local, com possível perda de células mesoteliais. Assim, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a associação entre CCL2 e CA-125 no plasma e no dialisato de pacientes submetidos à DP. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal com 41 pacientes submetidos à DP. As avaliações dos níveis de CA-125 e CCL2 foram realizadas utilizando ELISA de captura. As correlações foram estimadas usando a correlação de Spearman, e a investigação da associação entre as variáveis explicativas (CCL2) e a variável resposta (CA-125) foi feita pela razão bruta das médias aritméticas e ajustada utilizando modelos lineares generalizados. Resultados: Foi observada uma correlação positiva moderada entre os níveis de CA-125 e CCL2 no dialisato (rho = 0,696). Foi encontrada uma associação estatisticamente significativa entre os níveis no dialisato de CCL2 e CA-125 (RoM=1,31; IC = 1,20-1,43), que permaneceu após ajuste por idade (RoM = 1,31; IC=1,19-1,44) e pelo tempo de DP em meses (RoM=1,34, IC=1,22-1,48). Conclusão: A associação dos níveis de CA-125 com CCL2 no dialisato pode indicar que o processo inflamatório local leva a alterações temporárias ou definitivas na membrana peritoneal. Uma melhor compreensão desta patogênese pode contribuir para a descoberta de novos biomarcadores inflamatórios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Peritoneal Dialysis , CA-125 Antigen/blood , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Peritoneum , Dialysis Solutions , Cross-Sectional Studies , Inflammation , Membrane Proteins
20.
Pediatr. (Asunción) ; 48(3)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386685

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: en los últimos años se ha reportado un incremento en la prevalencia de obesidad infantil, siendo este un factor de riesgo para enfermedades crónico-degenerativas como la Enfermedad Renal Crónica; por ende, se requieren de biomarcadores endógenos para detectar las alteraciones en el filtrado glomerular, siendo la Cistatina C uno de ellos. Objetivo: Identificar la frecuencia de Cistatina C elevada en pacientes con sobrepeso y Obesidad del noroeste de México. Material y Métodos: se estudió un grupo de infantes de 6 a 12 años, a los cuales según antropometría se clasificó en normopeso, sobrepeso u obesidad. Se obtuvo la somatometria y los niveles de Cistatina C de cada uno de ellos para el cálculo del filtrado glomerular y clasificar la función renal y se buscó asociación entre estas dos condiciones mediante prueba de chi cuadrado. Resultados: de un grupo de 80 pacientes el 51.3% presentó sobrepeso/obesidad; de estos en el 46.3% se reportaron niveles altos de Cistatina C, de acuerdo con el rango de referencia propuesto por Filler 2003. La media para Tasa de Filtración Glomerular (TFG) en el grupo con sobrepeso/obesidad fue de 103.1 ml/min/1.73 m2, comparada con el grupo normopeso de 121.2 ml/min/1.73 m2. La frecuencia de niveles altos de Cistatina C en población con sobrepeso/obesidad fue de 62.9% comparado con un 26.6% en normopeso. Conclusiones: Los Niños de 6 a 12 años con exceso de peso presentan mayor frecuencia de nivel elevado de Cistatina C.


ABSTRACT Introduction: in recent years an increase has been reported in the prevalence of childhood obesity, which is a risk factor for chronic degenerative diseases such as Chronic Kidney Disease; therefore, endogenous biomarkers are needed to detect alterations in glomerular filtration, Cystatin C being one of them. Objective: To identify the frequency of elevated Cystatin C in overweight and obese patients in northwestern Mexico. Materials and Methods: a group of infants aged 6 to 12 years was studied, who according to anthropometry were classified as normal weight, overweight or obesity. Somatometry and Cystatin C levels were obtained from each of them to calculate glomerular filtration rate and classify renal function, and an association between these two conditions was sought using the chi-square test. Results: of a group of 80 patients, 51.3% were overweight / obese; Of these, 46.3% had high levels of Cystatin C, according to the reference range proposed by Filler 2003. The mean Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) in the overweight / obese group was 103.1 ml / min / 1.73 m2, compared to the normal weight group of 121.2 ml / min / 1.73 m2. The frequency of high levels of Cystatin C in the overweight / obese population was 62.9% compared to 26.6% in normal weight. Conclusions: Children from 6 to 12 years of age with excess weight have a higher frequency of high levels of Cystatin C.

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