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1.
Hig. Aliment. (Online) ; 38(298): e1145, jan.-jun. 2024. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1531447

ABSTRACT

A higienização é um procedimento importante na indústria de alimentos e sua realização deve ocorrer rotineiramente para evitar que os alimentos sejam contaminados. Além disso, todos os manipuladores de alimentos devem receber treinamentos de modo a entender como ocorrem as contaminações e como evitá-las, para que não ocorra deterioração antecipada dos alimentos e para que não exponham os consumidores ao risco de doenças transmitidas por alimentos em caso de contaminação. Esta pesquisa avaliou o processo de higienização e sua eficiência em superfícies presentes em uma agroindústria da agricultura familiar produtora de embutidos cárneos. Apesar de ter instalações adequadas a agroindústria apresentava inadequações quanto aos produtos utilizados e a frequência inadequada para uma higienização eficiente. Foi realizada análise microbiológica das superfícies dos equipamentos para contagem de aeróbios mesófilos e notou-se uma elevada carga microbiana que indicou uma baixa eficiência no processo de higienização. Sugeriu-se melhorias na higiene ambiental associado à instrução dos colaboradores, para contribuir na promoção da qualidade dos produtos, aumento dos lucros e salvaguardando a saúde do consumidor.


Hygiene is an important procedure in the food industry, and its performance must occur routinely to prevent food from being contaminated. In addition, all food handlers must receive training in order to understand how contamination occurs and how to avoid it, so that there is no anticipated deterioration of food and that consumers are not exposed to the risk of foodborne diseases. in case of contamination by pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, this research evaluated the cleaning process and its efficiency on surfaces present in a family farming agroindustry that produces meat products, which despite having adequate facilities, had some difficulties such as product use and inadequate frequency for eficiente cleaning. After performing a microbiological analysis to count surface mesophilic aerobes, a high level of contamination was noted, relating to low efficiency in the cleaning process. Improvements in environmental hygiene are suggested, associated with the instruction of employees for the implementation of the Standard Operating Hygiene Procedure, promoting improvements in product quality, increasing profits and safeguarding consumer health.


Subject(s)
Cattle , Food Hygiene , Meat Industry/standards , Foodborne Diseases/prevention & control , Brazil , Food Industry/standards , Meat Products
2.
São Paulo med. j ; 142(4): e2023177, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536907

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Contamination of the breathing circuit and medication preparation surface of an anesthesia machine can increase the risk of cross-infection. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contamination of the anesthetic medication preparation surface, respiratory circuits, and devices used in general anesthesia with assisted mechanical ventilation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional, quantitative study conducted at the surgical center of a philanthropic hospital, of medium complexity located in the municipality of Três Lagoas, in the eastern region of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. METHODS: Eighty-two microbiological samples were collected from the breathing circuits. After repeating the samples in different culture media, 328 analyses were performed. RESULTS: A higher occurrence of E. coli, Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (P < 0.001) were observed. Variations were observed depending on the culture medium and sample collection site. CONCLUSION: The study findings underscore the inadequate disinfection of the inspiratory and expiratory branches, highlighting the importance of stringent cleaning and disinfection of high-touch surfaces.

3.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 13(4): 216-222, out.-dez. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532318

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: inanimate surfaces and equipment in the hospital environment are considered reservoirs of resistant and pathogenic microorganisms. In Pediatric Intensive Care Units, the risk of infection is also related to the severity of pathologies associated with the immaturity of the immune system of this population. This study aimed to investigate microbiological environmental contamination in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Method: this is an exploratory cross-sectional study, carried out in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of a highly complex university hospital, located in southern Brazil. To assess environmental contamination, sterile swabs were rubbed on surfaces corresponding to the patient unit and in the common area. Results: twenty-eight surfaces were analyzed, 12 of which were located in units occupied by patients at the time of collection and 16 surfaces in the common use area. In the total number of surfaces analyzed by microbiological cultures, the patient unit showed 66.67% contamination by microorganisms, while surfaces in the common area showed 56.25%. Regarding the microbiological profile, all isolated microorganisms were Gram-positive and showed resistance, namely Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Conclusion: there was evidence of a high frequency of contamination on inanimate surfaces and equipment near and far from patients, essentially by pathogenic and multi-resistant microorganisms to antimicrobials.(AU)


Justificativa e objetivos: superfícies e equipamentos inanimados no ambiente hospitalar são considerados reservatórios de microrganismos resistentes e patogênicos. Nas Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos, o risco de infeção também está relacionado com a gravidade das patologias associadas à imaturidade do sistema imunitário desta população. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a contaminação microbiológica ambiental em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica. Método: trata-se de um estudo exploratório transversal, realizado em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica de um hospital universitário de alta complexidade, localizado no Sul do Brasil. Para avaliar a contaminação ambiental, foram esfregados swabs estéreis nas superfícies correspondentes à unidade do paciente e na área comum. Resultados: foram analisadas vinte e oito superfícies, sendo 12 localizadas em unidades ocupadas por pacientes no momento da coleta e 16 superfícies em área de uso comum. No total de superfícies analisadas por culturas microbiológicas, a unidade paciente apresentou 66,67% de contaminação por microrganismos, enquanto as superfícies da área comum apresentaram 56,25%. Quanto ao perfil microbiológico, todos os microrganismos isolados eram Gram-positivos e apresentavam resistência, nomeadamente Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus coagulase-negativa. Conclusão: houve evidência de elevada frequência de contaminação em superfícies inanimadas e equipamentos próximos e distantes dos pacientes, essencialmente por microrganismos patogênicos e multirresistentes aos antimicrobianos.(AU)


Fundamento y objetivos: las superficies y equipos inanimados del ambiente hospitalario son considerados reservorios de microorganismos resistentes y patógenos. En las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos el riesgo de infección también se relaciona con la gravedad de patologías asociadas a la inmadurez del sistema inmunológico de esta población. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la contaminación ambiental microbiológica en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos. Método: se trata de un estudio exploratorio transversal, realizado en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos de un hospital universitario de alta complejidad, ubicado en el sur de Brasil. Para evaluar la contaminación ambiental se frotaron hisopos estériles en las superficies correspondientes a la unidad de pacientes y en el área común. Resultados: se analizaron veintiocho superficies, 12 de las cuales estaban ubicadas en unidades ocupadas por los pacientes en el momento de la recogida y 16 superficies en el área de uso común. Del total de superficies analizadas por cultivos microbiológicos, la unidad de pacientes presentó un 66,67% de contaminación por microorganismos, mientras que las superficies del área común presentaron un 56,25%. En cuanto al perfil microbiológico, todos los microorganismos aislados fueron Gram positivos y presentaron resistencia, concretamente Staphylococcus aureus y Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo. Conclusión: se evidenció alta frecuencia de contaminación en superficies inanimadas y equipos cercanos y lejanos de los pacientes, esencialmente por microorganismos patógenos y multirresistentes a los antimicrobianos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Cross Infection , Equipment Contamination , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
4.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 463-466, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986052

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the occupational protective effect of different protective devices on the operators during manual cleaning and oiling of dental handpieces, and to provide a basis for the selection of appropriate protective methods. Methods: From November 2020 to December 2021, 20 high-speed dental handpieces of the same brand were selected and randomly divided into disposable protective bag group and small aerosol safety cabinet group by drawing lots, with 10 in each group. After recording the model, they were distributed to the clinical fixed consulting room for use, and were collected by specially-assigned personnel every day for manual cleaning under the protection of the two devices. By measuring the number of airborne colonies, the concentrations of particulate matter and the satisfaction of operators, the occupational protection effect of the two protective devices on operators was evaluated. Results: Under the protection of the two devices, the average number of airborne colonies after operation was less than 1 CFU/ml. When no protective device was used, the number concentration of particulate matter produced during operation was (21595.70±8164.26) pieces/cm(3). The number concentrations of particles produced by disposable protective bag group [ (6800.24±515.05) pieces/cm(3)] and small aerosol safety cabinet group [ (5797.15±790.50) pieces/cm(3)] were significantly lower than those without any protective device (P<0.001). The number concentration of particle matter of small aerosol safety cabinet group was significantly lower than that of disposable protective bag group (P<0.001). In the satisfaction evaluation of operators, small aerosol safety cabinet group [ (3.53±0.82) points] was significantly better than disposable protective bag group [ (2.23±1.10) points] (P<0.001) . Conclusion: The use of small aerosol safety cabinet during manual cleaning and oiling of dental handpieces has good protective effect, superior safety performance and strong clinical applicability, and has advantages in occupational protection of clinical operators.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Particulate Matter , Protective Devices
5.
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases ; (12): 494-500, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969303

ABSTRACT

Objective@# To compare the efficiency of four methods that remove calcium hydroxide in root canals and to guide clinical practice. @* Methods @# Sixty-five isolated mandibular single root canal premolars were collected. After crown cutting and root canal preparation, a tooth was randomly selected as the blank control group, and the remaining 64 teeth were equally divided into Groups A and B (n = 32). Group A was injected with water-soluble calcium hydroxide, and Group B was injected with oil-soluble calcium hydroxide. After 2 weeks of drug sealing, Groups A and B were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 8), including the lateral opening syringe group, sonic vibration group, ultrasonic group, and Er: YAG laser group. Before and after calcium hydroxide removal, the samples were scanned by cone-beam CT, and the data were imported into Mimics for 3D reconstruction. The root canal was divided into the following segments: superior root segment, middle and apical, and the calcium hydroxide volume of each segment of the root canal was calculated. The volumes of calcium hydroxide before and after removal were V1 and V2, respectively, with a clearance rate = (V1-V2)/V1×100%. Three-factor ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. After Groups A and B were reconstructed, the apical region with residual calcium hydroxide was selected, and the blank control was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). @*Results @# Two types of calcium hydroxide could not be completely removed by the four flushing methods. The clearance rate of water-soluble calcium hydroxide was higher than that of oil-soluble calcium hydroxide (P<0.001). Among the three segments of the root canal, the clearance rate of the apical segment was lower (P<0.05). The Er: YAG laser treatment group showed the highest removal efficiency of two kinds of calcium hydroxide, which was higher than that of the other groups, especially in apical of the root. Compared with the sonic wave washing group and the syringe washing group, the ultrasonic wave washing group exhibited significant advantages (P<0.05). The clearance rate of the sonic wave washing group was higher in the oily calcium hydroxide root middle group than in the syringe washing group (P<0.05). SEM showed that the two kinds of calcium hydroxide could not be completely removed, but the residual rate of oil-soluble calcium hydroxide was large.@*Conclusion @# Both types of calcium hydroxide could not be completely removed, and compared to water-soluble calcium hydroxide, oil-soluble calcium hydroxide was more difficult to remove. Among the four cleaning methods, Er:YAG laser swing washing showed the higher cleaning efficiency.

6.
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 350-355, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981133

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the effect of oral microscope-assisted surface decontamination on implants in vitro.@*METHODS@#Twelve implants that fell off because of severe peri-implantitis were collected, and decontamination was carried out on the surfaces of implants through curetting, ultrasound, titanium brushing, and sandblasting at 1×, 8×, or 12.8× magnifications. The number and sizes of residues on the implants' surfaces after decontamination were determined, and the decontamination effect was analyzed according to the thread spacing in the different parts of the thread.@*RESULTS@#1) The 8× and 12.8× groups scored lower for implant surface residues than the 1× group (P<0.000 1), and the 12.8× group scored lower than the 8× group (P<0.001); 2) no difference in residue score was found between the wide and narrow thread pitch (P>0.05), and the 8× and 12.8× groups had lower scores than the 1× group (P<0.001); 3) the lowest number of contaminants was observed at the tip of the thread, whereas the highest was observed below the thread, and the difference was significant (P<0.001). However, the thread pitch had no effect on the number of contaminants in different areas (P>0.05); 4) the residue scores of the 8× and 12.8× groups were lower than those of the 1× group at the thread tip and above, sag, and below the thread of the implants (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Residues on the surfaces of contaminated implants can be effectively removed by using an oral microscope. After decontamination, the residues of pollutants were mainly concentrated below the thread of the implants, and the thread pitch of the implants had no significant effect on the residues.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Implants , Decontamination , Surface Properties , Peri-Implantitis , Titanium
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(6): 1566-1573, dic. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421817

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Traditional methods of bone retrieval from embalmed cadaver are not able to meet the demand of medical colleges as they are time consuming & tedious, thus there is need of evaluating an alternative approach that includes use of laundry detergent. The purpose of the study was to compare & establish the most effective method between laundry detergent and 10 % antiformin solution methods to procure clean bones. Thirty-two bones of the right side that were included in the inclusion criteria obtained from the four embalmed cadaver were cleaned by laundry detergent and of the left side by 10 % antiformin solution methods. Retrieved clean bones were evaluated for their cleanness using the scale from 0 to 5. The mean cleanness scores of the bones cleaned by laundry detergent method were not significantly different at 95 % confidence interval than the mean cleanness scores of the bones cleaned by 10 % antiformin solution method. The study found that though there is no significant difference in the mean cleanness score of the bones cleaned by two employed methods nevertheless, bones were found to be cleaner by using 10 % antiformin solution method and bones obtained by using laundry detergent method had smooth surface as well as more suitable for flat bones.


Los métodos tradicionales de recuperación de huesos de cadáveres embalsamados no pueden satisfacer la demanda de las facultades de medicina, ya que consumen mucho tiempo y son tediosos de realizar, por tanto es necesario evaluar un enfoque alternativo que incluya el uso de detergente de lavandería. El propósito del estudio fue comparar y establecer el método más eficaz entre el detergente para la ropa y los métodos de solución de antiformina al 10 % para obtener huesos limpios. Fueron utilizados 32 huesos del lado derecho que se incluyeron en los criterios de inclusión obtenidos de los cuatro cadáveres embalsamados. Los huesos se trataron con detergente de lavandería y los del lado izquierdo con métodos de solución de antiformina al 10 %. Los huesos tratados se evaluaron respecto a su limpieza utilizando una escala de 0 a 5. Las puntuaciones media de limpieza de los huesos tratados con el método de detergente no fueron significativamente diferentes en un intervalo de confianza del 95 % de las puntuaciones medias obtenidas respecto a la limpieza de los huesos tratados con antiformina al 10 %. El estudio determinó que, aunque no hay hubo diferencia significativa en la puntuación media de la limpieza de los huesos tratados por los dos métodos, se observó que utilizando el método de solución de antiformina al 10 %, la limpieza de los huesos era mejor, sin embargo, los huesos planos presentaban una superficie más lisa cuando se usó el método de detergente de lavandería.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Bone and Bones , Detergents/chemistry , Embalming , Cadaver , Cross-Sectional Studies
8.
Rev. bras. saúde ocup ; 47: e2, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360937

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: descrever as características do trabalho e investigar a prevalência e os fatores associados à dor em membros inferiores em trabalhadores da limpeza urbana. Métodos: estudo de corte transversal, realizado na Bahia. Dados coletados entre 2009 e 2010. A dor foi avaliada por meio do Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, enquanto as demandas psicossociais no trabalho foram medidas pelo Job Content Questionnaire. Também foram avaliadas as demandas físicas, incluindo posturas gerais e manuseio de carga. A análise de regressão logística múltipla foi utilizada para identificar fatores associados à dor em membros inferiores. Resultados: 624 trabalhadores participaram da pesquisa. Constatou-se alta prevalência de dor em membros inferiores nos últimos sete dias (23,7%) e nos últimos doze meses (42,1%), sendo maior entre agentes de limpeza e coletores. A dor em membros inferiores foi associada a: mais de três anos de trabalho na empresa (OR = 1,34); alta exposição ao manuseio de cargas (OR = 1,35); demanda psicológica no trabalho (OR = 1,87); e condicionamento físico insuficiente (OR = 1,67). O trabalho na limpeza urbana envolveu grande sobrecarga física, com pressão de tempo para sua execução. Conclusão: evidenciou-se a necessidade de medidas para redução do manuseio de cargas e de mudanças na organização do trabalho, incluindo pausas durante a jornada e adequação das tarefas ao tempo disponível, a fim de evitar sobrecargas física e psicológica dos trabalhadores.


Abstract Objective: to describe the characteristics of the urban cleaning workers' job and investigate the prevalence and factors associated with pain in their lower limbs. Methods: cross-sectional study carried out in Bahia, Brazil. Data collected between 2009 and 2010. Pain was assessed using the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, while psychosocial demands at work were measured using the Job Content Questionnaire. Physical demands were also evaluated, including general postures and cargo handling. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with lower limb pain. Results: 624 workers participated. There was a high prevalence of pain in the lower limbs in the last seven days (23.7%) and in the last twelve months (42.1%), being higher among cleaning workers and collectors. Lower limb pain was associated with the following: longer than three years working for the company (OR = 1.34); high exposure to cargo handling (OR = 1.35); psychological demand at work (OR = 1.87); and poor physical conditioning (OR = 1.67). Working at urban cleaning involved great physical overload, being produced under time pressure. Conclusion: The results evidenced the need for measures to reduce cargo handling and changes in work organization, including breaks during the day and adjusting tasks to the available time, in order to avoid workers' physical and psychological overload.

9.
Braz. dent. sci ; 25(1): 1-11, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1352726

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the influence of immediate dentin sealing (IDS) and mechanical methods for removing the temporary cement on the bond strength between dentin and resin cements. Material and Methods: Bovine incisors were ground until dentin exposure and divided according to two factors: "dentin surface treatment"' - cleaning with manual dental excavator (DE), with Robinson bristle brush and pumice paste (PP) or IDS application with Single Bond 2 (IDS/SB+PP) or Single Bond Universal (IDS/SBU+PP) plus cleaning with PP; and "resin cement" - Self-adhesive (RelyX U200) or conventional cement with self-etching adhesive (Multilink Automix). Simulating provisional restoration, acrylic resin plates were cemented onto the dentin surface (with or without IDS) with a non-eugenol temporary cement, and stored in distilled water (37 ºC; 7 days). The acrylic plates were removed, the dentin surface was cleaned (PP or DE), and starch tubes were positioned on the dentin where the resin cements were applied. After 24 h, the specimens were submitted to a microshear test (wire-loop method). Results: Two-way analysis of variance showed statistically significant influence of dentine surface treatments (p< 0.001) and resin cement (p= 0.001) in the bond strength values. The IDS/SBU+PP/U200 (7.24 MPa) and IDS/SBU+PP/MULTI (6.40 MPa) groups presented higher values when compared to cleaning with DE (DE/U200= 4.60 MPa; DE/MULTI= 1.45 MPa) and PP (PP/U200= 3.74 MPa; PP/MULTI= 3.14 MPa). Statistical difference was also found between the cements when dental excavator treatment was used (RelyX U200 ˃ Multilink Automix). The IDS/SBU+PP protocol presented a higher percentage of cohesive failures. The micrographs showed differences in dentin surface characteristics among the groups. Conclusion: Immediate dentin sealing increased the bond strength of the resin cements to dentin compared to mechanical cleaning only, regardless the resin cement. (AU)


Objetivo: Avaliar a influência do selamento dentinário imediato (IDS) e dos métodos mecânicos de remoção do cimento provisório na resistência de união entre dentina e cimentos resinosos. Materiais e Métodos: Incisivos bovinos foram desgastados até a exposição da dentina e divididos de acordo com dois fatores: "tratamento da superfície dentinária" - limpeza com cureta dentária manual (DE), com escova de cerdas Robinson e pasta de pedra-pomes (PP) ou aplicação de IDS com Single Bond 2 (IDS/SB +PP) ou Single Bond Universal (IDS/SBU+PP) mais limpeza com PP; e "cimento resinoso" - autoadesivo (RelyX U200) ou cimento convencional com adesivo autocondicionante (Multilink Automix). Simulando a restauração provisória, placas de resina acrílica foram cimentadas na superfície dentinária (com ou sem IDS) com um cimento provisório sem eugenol e armazenadas em água destilada (37 ºC; 7 dias). As placas de acrílico foram removidas, a superfície dentinária foi limpa (PP ou DE) e tubos de amido foram posicionados na dentina onde os cimentos resinosos foram aplicados. Após 24 h, os corpos-de-prova foram submetidos ao ensaio de microcisalhamento (método wire-loop). Resultados: A análise de variância de dois fatores mostrou influência estatisticamente significativa dos tratamentos de superfície dentinária (p< 0,001) e cimento resinoso (p= 0,001) nos valores de resistência de união. Os grupos IDS/SBU+PP/U200 (7,24 MPa) e IDS/SBU+PP/MULTI (6,40 MPa) apresentaram valores maiores quando comparados à limpeza com DE (DE/U200= 4,60 MPa; DE/MULTI= 1,45 MPa) e PP (PP/U200= 3,74 MPa; PP/MULTI= 3,14 MPa). Uma diferença estatística também foi encontrada entre os cimentos quando o tratamento com cureta dentária foi usado (RelyX U200 ˃ Multilink Automix). O protocolo IDS/SBU+PP apresentou maior percentual de falhas coesivas. As micrografias mostraram diferenças nas características da superfície dentinária entre os grupos. Conclusão: O selamento dentinário imediato aumentou a resistência de união dos cimentos resinosos à dentina em comparação com a limpeza mecânica apenas, independentemente do cimento resinoso.(AU)


Subject(s)
Cattle , Resin Cements , Dental Cements , Dentin
10.
Arq. Inst. Biol. (Online) ; 89: e00022021, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1416873

ABSTRACT

Biosecurity, cleaning and disinfection of swine and poultry facilities are fundamental for the reduction of pathogenic microorganisms of importance for public and animal health. The objective of this work was to compare the levels of active ingredient described on the label and the real levels detected in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of two disinfectants., then evaluate the antimicrobial activity since, following the Germicidal Sanitizing Action and Disinfectant Detergent (Official Method AOAC 960.09) in four different dilutions with the presence of 3% organic matter during 15 min of contact, against Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST). The product "A" presents active levels of agreement according to the label. The content of quantified assets for product "B" was lower than that recorded on the label. The disinfectant "A" was effective in microbiological evaluation while the disinfectant "B" had microbiocidal activity compromised by the deficit of assets.


Subject(s)
Salmonella , Salmonella typhimurium , Benzalkonium Compounds/administration & dosage , Disinfection/methods , Glutaral/administration & dosage , Disinfectants/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
11.
Chinese Journal of Practical Nursing ; (36): 2673-2677, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-955067

ABSTRACT

Objective:A foot cleaning device for bedridden patients in ICU was made, and its application effects in foot cleaning for bedridden patients in ICU was discussed.Methods:A total of 200 inpatients in the department of ICU from April 2021 to October 2021 were selected as the research objects.According to the random number table, the patients were divided into two groups, including 100 patients in the control group and 100 patients in the experimental group.The patients in the control group used an ordinary foot basin and dipped warm water by a towel for foot wiping and cleaning. The patients in the experimental group used a foot cleaning device for bedridden patients developed and designed by our hospital. Both groups received warm water foot bath for 20 minutes after cleaning. The incidence of adverse events, average foot washing time, total foot washing time, the subjective comfort and satisfaction of the patients and the satisfaction of the operator were observed.Results:The incidence of adverse events during foot cleaning in the experimental group was 2.00%(28/1 400) lower than 4.36%(61/1 400) in the control group, the difference was statistically significant ( χ2=11.88, P<0.05). The foot washing time in the observation group [(27.77 ± 1.34) min] was longer than that in the control group [(24.63 ± 2.36) min], the difference was statistically significant ( t=9.30, P<0.05). The total foot washing time in the observation group [(27.77 ± 1.34) min] was shorter than that in the control group [(49.26 ± 4.71)min], the difference was statistically significant ( t=42.51, P<0.05). The subjective comfort of foot cleaning, the satisfaction of foot cleaning of patients and the satisfaction of foot cleaning operators in the experimental group were 91.00 (91/100) , 97.00% (97/100) , 91.67% (55/60) , while the control group were 75.00% (75/100) 、85.00% (85/100) , 75.00% (45/60) , and the differences between the two groups were statistically significant ( Z=-3.04, -4.82, -2.71, all P<0.05). Conclusions:The self made foot cleaning device for bedridden patients in this study can be used in ICU patients. It can effectively reduce the incidence of adverse events in the process of foot washing and shorten the time of foot washing. It can also improve the comfort and satisfaction of patients, and improve the satisfaction of operators.

12.
Chinese Journal of Practical Nursing ; (36): 2028-2032, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-954966

ABSTRACT

Objective:To improve the loading technology of precision micro instruments, so as to ensure not only the quality of cleaning and sterilization, but also the safe use of instruments.Methods:From January to March, 2021, 80 sets of precision micro instruments from Sterilization Supply Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine Affiliated Ruijin Hospital were randomly divided into silica gel pad loading group (group A) and silica gel stent loading group (group B), 40 sets in each group. The cleaning effect, drying effect, loading effectiveness and sterilization wet bag of the instruments in the two groups were compared, and the staff of the disinfection supply center were satisfied with the operation of the loading technology of the instruments in the two groups.Results:The qualified cleaning numbers of the instruments in group A and B were 37 and 39 respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two groups ( χ2 = 1.05, P>0.05). The qualified drying numbers in the group A and B were 29 and 38 respectively, the difference between the two groups was significant ( χ2 = 7.44, P<0.05). The effective number of loading in the group A and B were 30 cases and 39 cases respectively, the difference was significant between the two groups ( χ2 = 8.54, P<0.05). The number of sterilized wet bags in the group A and B were 6 cases and 0 cases respectively, the difference was significant between the two groups ( χ2 = 6.49, P<0.05). The satisfaction of 44 personnel in the disinfection supply center with the operation of loading technology were 36 and 43 respectively, the difference was statistically significant between the two groups ( χ2 = 6.07, P<0.05). Conclusion:Loading precision micro instruments with silica gel stent can not only ensure the cleaning and sterilization quality of instruments, but also make the loading of instruments more safe and stable, greatly improve the working efficiency of instrument treatment and accelerate the turnover efficiency of instruments.

13.
Mongolian Pharmacy and Pharmacology ; : 27-34, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-974996

ABSTRACT

Abstract@#In pharmaceutical industry there are some possibilities of contamination and cross contamination because of improper cleaning of equipment, apparatus, processing area or the starting material, this can lead to severe hazards, therefore in pharmaceutical industry we could not afford any contamination as well as cross contamination. This can be minimized by proper cleaning of equipment, apparatus as well as the processing area. Prevention of cross contamination is one of the most significant conditions of Good Manufacturing Practices for drugs. This is especially topical for a multipurpose (shared) manufacture where several medicinal products, including drugs of different pharmacotherapeutic groups, are produced using the same facilities (manufacturing areas, workrooms, and equipment). The industry is able to achieve these key goals with the help of implementation of GMP. Therefore, a perfect cleaning method is required for avoiding the possibilities of contamination and cross contamination, for this a validated program is required, this program is known as cleaning validation. “Cleaning validation is documented evidence which assure that cleaning of equipment, piece of equipment or system will obtain pre-determined and acceptable limits”.

14.
Mongolian Pharmacy and Pharmacology ; : 10-16, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-974993

ABSTRACT

Introduction@#In pharmaceutical industry there are some possibilities of contamination and cross contamination because of improper cleaning of equipment, apparatus, processing area or the starting material, this can lead to severe hazards, therefore in pharmaceutical industry could not afford any contamination as well as cross contamination. This can be minimized by proper cleaning of equipment, apparatus as well as the processing area. The cleaning validation is a documented process that proves the effectiveness and quality prospective. Manufacturing of Diclofenac sodium (DICLOMON) retard tablets and utilizing common facility, where diclofenac sodium could be possible cross contaminant. The present study was carried out to validate the cleaning activity from both regulatory and quality prospective.@*Methods@#All chemicals and reagents used for cleaning validation were analytical grade and used LC-20AT Shimadzu HPLC. Traditional methods were used for microbiological analysis. The instruments in the common facility were cleaned with purified water after production of Diclofenac sodium retard tablets 100mg. Validation of cleaning activity was carried out by visual inspection, swab sampling for chemical residue and similarly swab sampling for Microbiological analysis.@*Conclusion@#The cleaning validation studies of Diclofenac sodium retard tablets 100mg was observed by visual inspection, swab sampling for chemical residue and similarly swab sampling for microbiological analysis. The result revealed that (1) There were no visual residues on the equipment (2) Chemical residues were below acceptance criteria (3) Total aerobic microbial count(TAMC) were below acceptance criteria (4) Total combined molds and yeast count was Nil and (5) Pathogens were absent Upon the compiled data, it was concluded that the train of equipment in tablet manufacturing block is completed, and the results were found to be satisfactory and there is no cross contamination of Diclofenac sodium to next product.

15.
Chinese Journal of Digestive Endoscopy ; (12): 572-574, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-958297

ABSTRACT

In order to clean the endoscopic tube more effectively, a new double-headed endoscopic cleaning brush was used in this study. A total of 130 colonoscopies were selected from the Digestive Endoscopy Center of Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine from June 2019 to August 2020. The colonoscopy cleaning sequence was marked with odd and even number. Colonoscopies marked with the odd number were assigned to the conventional group ( n=65) which received back and forth cleaning with the single-headed endoscope cleaning brush. Colonoscopies marked with the even number were assigned to the experimental group ( n=65) which received one-way cleaning with a nylon brush at the head and a dense non-woven brush at the tail. The cleaning methods for endoscopes were in accordance with Flexible Endoscopic Cleaning and Disinfection Technical Specification WS507—2016. ATP bioluminescence tests and bacterial quantitative cultures were applied to evaluate the cleaning effects of the two methods. The results showed that ATP relative light unit (RLU) decreased in both the experimental group and the conventional group [530.63 RLU (26-3 559 RLU) VS 270.87 RLU (20-1 415 RLU)] before and after cleaning the endoscope tube, showing significant difference between the two groups ( Z=-2.894, P<0.05). After scrubbing, the positive rate of bacterial culture on the brush head was 86.2% (56/65) for the double-headed non-woven brush head, 46.2% (30/65) for the double-headed nylon brush head and 32.3% (21/65) for the single-headed nylon brush head with significant differences among the three groups ( χ 2=41.046, P<0.05). The cleaning effect of the new double-headed endoscopic cleaning brush is better than that of the conventional single-headed endoscopic cleaning brush for soft endoscope cleaning. Non-woven brush is better than nylon brush in eliminating bacteria.

16.
Ribeirão Preto; s.n; 2022. 92 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1524348

ABSTRACT

No Brasil, o setor hospitalar vem utilizando de forma progressiva a terceirização dos seus serviços, ou seja, a contratação de agentes terceiros para suprir a sua força de trabalho, visando redução de custos e melhora da competitividade no mercado. Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar a autoestima de trabalhadores terceirizados de serviços de higiene e limpeza em instituições hospitalares privadas. Trata-se de pesquisa do tipo exploratória, descritiva, de abordagem qualitativa dos dados, tendo como cenário duas instituições hospitalares privadas que possuem serviços de conservação de limpeza e higiene de uma cidade no interior de Minas Gerais, classificadas como pertencentes ao grupo III segundo a Portaria nº. 82/2014 do Ministério da Saúde. Os participantes foram trabalhadores terceirizados dos serviços de higiene e limpeza que atuam nas instituições hospitalares selecionadas. Para a coleta de dados foram utilizados dois roteiros: questionário de identificação de dados sociodemográficos elaborado pela pesquisadora, apresentando tempo de preenchimento de no máximo cinco minutos; entrevista semiestruturada individual com questões sobre a sua autoestima, com duração aproximada de 20 a 30 minutos. As entrevistas ocorreram em local arejado, limpo e seco; foram gravadas, posteriormente transcritas e feita análise temática indutiva dos dados. Em virtude da Pandemia COVID19, a pesquisadora realizou a coleta de dados individualmente, seguindo protocolo das instituições. A amostra do estudo constitui-se de 15 trabalhadores. Observou-se a prevalência do sexo feminino e a idade média foi de 41 anos, variando entre 24 e 60 anos de idade. Quanto à escolaridade, duas pessoas (13,3%) dos trabalhadores afirmaram ter ensino fundamental completo, sete pessoas (46,7%) têm ensino fundamental incompleto. Quanto ao tempo de serviço, foi constatado que seis trabalhadores (40%) atuam há mais de cinco anos na função, o que evidencia uma população experiente. No que se refere ao tempo de atuação no local de trabalho, três (20%) trabalhadores tem menos de um ano e nove (60%), está entre um a cinco anos no trabalho, demonstrando elevado índice de rotatividade no serviço. A análise dos dados permitiu identificar aspectos positivos do trabalho relacionados a autoestima como satisfação pessoal e profissional, horários flexíveis, benefícios, ambiente de trabalho e relacionamento com colegas e chefia. Os dados também revelaram aspectos limitantes podendo afetar de forma negativa a autoestima do trabalhador e levando a insatisfação, tais como o acúmulo de funções assistenciais pelo número reduzido de trabalhadores. A pesquisa auxilia para o avanço da ciência e conhecimento, uma vez que agrega aspectos relacionados a autoestima de trabalhadores terceirizados de serviços de higiene e limpeza em instituições hospitalares privadas. O estudo contribui para provocar a reflexão de gestores do serviço de limpeza de hospitais quanto à importância de garantir condições que favoreçam a diminuição da exposição dos trabalhadores às cargas de trabalho referentes a mudanças que aconteçam, internas e externas, bem como promover ações educativas e coletivas relacionadas à adequação do ambiente laboral e das práticas de trabalho realizadas neste contexto


In Brazil, the hospital sector has been progressively using the outsourcing of its services, i.e., hiring third-party agents to supply its workforce, aiming to reduce costs and improve market competitiveness. This study aims to analyze the self-esteem of outsourced workers of hygiene and cleaning services in private hospital institutions. This is descriptive exploratory research with a qualitative approach to data, having as scenario two private hospital institutions that have cleaning and hygiene conservation services of a city in the interior of Minas Gerais, classified as belonging to group III according to Ordinance No. 82/2014 of the Ministry of Health. Participants were outsourced workers of hygiene and cleaning services who work in the selected hospital institutions. For data collection, two scripts were used: a questionnaire to identify social demographic data prepared by the researcher, with a maximum of five minutes to be filled out; and an individual semi-structured interview with questions about self-esteem, lasting approximately 20 to 30 minutes. The interviews took place in a ventilated, clean, and dry place; they were recorded, later transcribed, and an inductive thematic analysis was made of the data. Because of the COVID19 pandemic, the researcher collected the data individually, following the protocol of the institutions. The study sample consisted of fifteen workers from the hygiene and cleaning service of the selected hospital institutions. It was observed the prevalence of the female gender and the average age was 41, ranging from 24 to 60 years old. As for education, 02 people (13.3%) of workers said they had completed elementary school and 07 people (46.7%) had incomplete elementary school. As for the length of service, it was found that six workers (40%) have been working for more than five years, which shows an experienced population. With regard to working time in the workplace, three (20%) workers have less than one year and nine (60%) have been working for one to five years, demonstrating a high rate of turnover in the service. Data analysis allowed us to identify positive aspects of work related to self-esteem such as personal and professional satisfaction, flexible hours, benefits, work environment and relationship with colleagues and management.The data also revealed limiting aspects that can negatively affect the worker's self-esteem and lead to dissatisfaction, such as the accumulation of care functions by the reduced number of workers.The research helps to advance science and knowledge, as it adds aspects related to the self-esteem of outsourced workers in hygiene and cleaning services in private hospitals. The study contributes to provoking the reflection of hospital cleaning service managers regarding the importance of ensuring conditions that favor the reduction of workers' exposure to workloads related to changes that happen, internal and external, as well as promoting educational and collective actions. related to the adequacy of the work environment and work practices carried out in this context


Subject(s)
Humans , Self Concept , Occupational Health , Outsourced Services , Housekeeping, Hospital
17.
RFO UPF ; 26(2): 206-212, 20210808. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1443776

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: avaliar a sujidade de limas rotatórias e reciprocantes após instrumentação e procedimentos de limpeza pré-esterilização. Materiais e métodos: 24 limas rotatórias e as 24 limas reciprocantes foram divididas, aleatoriamente, em dois grandes grupos. No primeiro grupo, as 12 limas rotatórias e as 12 limas reciprocantes foram divididas, aleatoriamente, em seis subgrupos (SG): SG1 (controle negativo 1/n=1) ­ 1 lima rotatória não submetida à instrumentação; SG2 (controle negativo 2/n=1) ­ 1 lima reciprocante não submetida à instrumentação; SG3 (controle positivo 1/n=1) ­ 1 lima rotatória submetida à instrumentação e não submetida a qualquer protocolo de limpeza; SG4 (controle positivo 2/n=1) ­ 1 lima reciprocante submetida à instrumentação e não submetida a qualquer protocolo de limpeza; SG5 (grupo teste/n=10) ­ 10 limas rotatórias submetidas à instrumentação e submetidas ao protocolo de lavagem manual; SG6 (grupo teste/ n=10) ­ 10 limas reciprocantes submetidas à instrumentação e submetidas ao protocolo de lavagem manual. No segundo grupo, as 12 limas rotatórias e as 12 limas reciprocantes foram divididas, aleatoriamente, nos mesmos subgrupos, substituindo, nos subgrupos 5 e 6, a lavagem manual pela lavagem em cuba ultrassônica. A análise do nível de sujidade foi realizada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV), sendo os dados submetidos ao teste de Kruskal-Wallis, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: a menor média de sujidade entre os grupos experimentais foi encontrada no SG5 do G1, sem diferença significante em relação aos demais grupos testados (p>0,05). Conclusão: conclui-se que os protocolos de limpeza testados não foram completamente efetivos para a remoção de sujidade das limas endodônticas.(AU)


Objective: to evaluate the dirt of rotary and reciprocating files after instrumentation and pre- -sterilization cleaning procedures. Materials and Methods: 24 rotary files and the 24 reciprocating files were randomly divided into two groups. In the 1st group, 12 rotary files and 12 reciprocating files were randomly divided into six subgroups (SG): SG1 (negative control 1/n=1) ­ 1 rotary file not subjected to instrumentation; SG2 (negative control 2/n=1) ­ 1 reciprocating file not subjected to instrumentation; SG3 (positive control 1/n=1) ­ 1 rotary file submitted to instrumentation and not submitted to any cleaning protocol; SG4 (positive control 2/n=1) ­ 1 reciprocating file submitted to instrumentation and not submitted to any cleaning protocol; SG5 (test group/n=10) ­ 10 rotary files submitted to instrumentation and submitted to the manual cleaning protocol; SG6 (test group/n=10) ­ 10 reciprocating files submitted to instrumentation and submitted to the manual cleaning protocol. In the 2nd group, the 12 rotary files and the 12 reciprocating files were randomly divided into the same subgroups, substituting, in subgroups 5 and 6, manual with ultrasonic bath cleaning. The analysis of dirt levels was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), being the data submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis test, with a significance level of 5%. Results: the lowest average of dirt between the experimental groups was found in SG5 of G1, with no significant difference when compared to the other groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: it could be concluded that the cleaning protocols were not completely effective in removing dirt from endodontic files.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Sterilization/methods , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Dental Instruments , Reference Values , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Random Allocation , Equipment Contamination , Statistics, Nonparametric , Root Canal Preparation/methods
18.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 28-39, May. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343460

ABSTRACT

Science has greatly contributed to the advancement of technology and to the innovation of production processes and their applications. Cleaning products have become indispensable in today's world, as personal and environmental hygiene is important to all societies worldwide. Such products are used in the home, in most work environments and in the industrial sectors. Most of the detergents on the market are synthesised from petrochemical products. However, the interest in reducing the use of products harmful to human health and the environment has led to the search for detergents formulated with natural, biodegradable surfactant components of biological (plant or microbiological) origin or chemically synthesised from natural raw materials usually referred to as green surfactants. This review addresses the different types, properties, and uses of surfactants, with a focus on green surfactants, and describes the current scenario as well as the projections for the future market economy related to the production of the different types of green surfactants marketed in the world.


Subject(s)
Surface-Active Agents , Industry , Biological Products , Detergents
19.
Cogit. Enferm. (Online) ; 26: e74774, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1345900

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: descrever o perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos de microrganismos presentes em superfícies inanimadas. Método: estudo descritivo, realizado entre fevereiro e junho de 2018. Coletou-se 40 amostras microbiológicas de superfícies da Clínica Médica e Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Adulto em um hospital de Mato Grosso, Brasil. A identificação e sensibilidade microbiana foram realizadas através do VITEK-2. A análise dos resultados de resistência foi avaliada conforme as diretrizes do Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Resultados: foram isolados 32 microrganismos das 22 amostras contaminadas, dentre eles 14 (43,8%) Staphylococcus coagulase negativa, sete (21,9%) Acinetobacter baumanni complex, três (9,4%) Enterobacter aerogenes. Dentre os Staphylococcus coagulase negativa, 11 (78,6%) apresentaram multirresistência a antimicrobianos e três (42,9%) dos isolados de Acinetobacter baumanni complex foram extremamente resistentes. Conclusão: evidenciou-se a necessidade de educação com ênfase na desinfecção correta e frequente de superfícies e na higienização das mãos após tocar o paciente e as superfícies próximas a ele.


RESUMEN Objetivo: describir el perfil de resistencia de microrganismos presentes en superficies inanimadas a agentes antimicrobianos. Método: estudio descriptivo realizado entre febrero y junio de 2018. Se recolectaron 40 muestras microbiológicas de superficies de la Clínica Médica y de la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos para Adultos de un hospital de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Los procesos de identificación y sensibilidad microbiana se realizaron a través del dispositivo VITEK 2. El análisis de los resultados de resistencia se evaluó conforme a las directrices del Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Resultados: se aislaron 32 microrganismos de las 22 muestras contaminadas; entre ellos, hubo 14 (43,8%) Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa, siete (21,9%) Acinetobacter baumanni complex y tres (9,4%) Enterobacter aerogenes. Entre los Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa, 11 (78,6%) presentaron multi-resistencia a agentes antimicrobianos y tres (42,9%) de los aislados bacterianos de Acinetobacter baumanni complex fueron extremamente resistentes. Conclusión: se hizo evidente la necesidad de instrucción con énfasis en la correcta y frecuente desinfección de superficies y en el lavado de manos después de entrar en contacto con el paciente y con las superficies próximas al paciente.


ABSTRACT Objective: to describe the antimicrobial resistance profile of microorganisms present on inanimate surfaces. Method: a descriptive study, conducted between February and June 2018. Forty microbiological samples were collected from surfaces of the Medical Clinic and Intensive Care Unit for Adults in a hospital located in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Microbial identification and sensitivity were performed by means of VITEK 2. The analysis of the resistance results was assessed according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: a total of 32 microorganisms were isolated from the 22 contaminated samples, the following among them: 14 (43.8%) Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus, seven (21.9%) Acinetobacter baumanni complex, and three (9.4%) Enterobacter aerogenes. Of the Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus, 11 (78.6%) presented multi-drug resistance to antimicrobial agents, and three (42.9%) of the Acinetobacter baumanni complex isolates were extremely resistant. Conclusion: this study evidenced the need for education with emphasis on proper and frequent disinfection of surfaces and on hand hygiene after touching patients and surfaces close to them.

20.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 74(3): 20201263, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | BDENF, LILACS | ID: biblio-1279909

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: to evaluate different monitoring methods for detecting the presence of organic or biological matter before and after the cleaning and disinfection processes of the operating room. Methods: this is a cross-sectional study based on visual inspection, adenosine triphosphate levels and microbiological culture for the assessment of cleaning and disinfection. Results: 93.3% of the surfaces inspected visually for this study purpose were considered clean, even when high levels of adenosine triphosphate and microbiological analysis detected presence of microorganisms relevant to biofilm formation. Conclusions: the cleaning and disinfection processes reduced the microbial load and organic matter of the inspected surfaces, demonstrated by the values obtained by the adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence assay and microbiological analysis, but the visual inspection as a unique tool to assess the surfaces' cleanliness may give a false impression of clean environment.


RESUMO Objetivos: avaliar diferentes métodos de monitoramento da presença de matéria orgânica ou biológica entre a limpeza e a desinfecção da sala cirúrgica. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo transversal utilizando a inspeção visual, amostras de trifosfato de adenosina e cultura microbiológica como indicadores para avaliação da limpeza e a desinfecção. Resultados: 93,3% das áreas avaliadas visualmente neste estudo apresentavam-se visualmente limpas, mesmo na presença de altos níveis de bioluminescência no resultado de trifosfato de adenosina e análises microbiológicas detectando a presença de microrganismos relevantes para a formação de biofilmes. Conclusões: o processo de limpeza e desinfecção reduziu a carga microbiana e matéria orgânica das superfícies avaliadas, demonstrada pelos resultados obtidos pelo trifosfato de adenosina e avaliação microbiológica, mas a inspeção visual como ferramenta única para avaliar a eficácia da limpeza das superfícies, pode gerar uma falsa impressão de ambiente limpo.


RESUMEN Objetivos: evaluar diferentes métodos de monitoreo de la presencia de materia orgánica o biológica entre la limpieza y desinfección de la sala quirúrgica. Métodos: estudio transversal utilizando la inspección visual, muestras de adenosina trifosfato y cultura microbiológica como indicadores para evaluación de la limpieza y desinfección. Resultados: 93,3% de las áreas evaluadas visualmente en este estudio se presentaban visualmente limpias, mismo en la presencia de altos niveles de bioluminiscencia en el resultado de adenosina trifosfato y análisis microbiológicos detectando la presencia de microorganismos relevantes para la formación de biofilms. Conclusiones: el proceso de limpieza y desinfección redujo la carga microbiana y materia orgánica de las superficies evaluadas, demostrada por los resultados obtenidos por el adenosina trifosfato y evaluación microbiológica, pero la inspección visual como herramienta única para evaluar la eficacia de la limpieza de las superficies, puede generar una falsa impresión de ambiente limpio.

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