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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253106, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345544

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to develop and evaluate data driven models for prediction of forest yield under different climate change scenarios in the Gallies forest division of district Abbottabad, Pakistan. The Random Forest (RF) and Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) models were developed and evaluated using yield data of two species (Blue pine and Silver fir) as an objective variable and climate data (temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed) as predictive variables. Prediction accuracy of both the models were assessed by means of root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), correlation coefficient (r), relative root mean squared error (RRMSE), Legates-McCabe's (LM), Willmott's index (WI) and Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE) metrics. Overall, the RF model outperformed the KRR model due to its higher accuracy in forecasting of forest yield. The study strongly recommends that RF model should be applied in other regions of the country for prediction of forest growth and yield, which may help in the management and future planning of forest productivity in Pakistan.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver e avaliar modelos baseados em dados para previsão da produção florestal em diferentes cenários de mudanças climáticas na divisão florestal Gallies do distrito de Abbottabad, Paquistão. Os modelos Random Forest (RF) e Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) foram desenvolvidos e avaliados usando dados de produção de duas espécies (pinheiro-azul e abeto-prateado) como uma variável objetiva e dados climáticos (temperatura, umidade, precipitação e velocidade do vento) como preditivos variáveis. A precisão da previsão de ambos os modelos foi avaliada por meio de erro quadrático médio (RMSE), erro absoluto médio (MAE), coeficiente de correlação (r), erro quadrático médio relativo (RRMSE), Legates-McCabe's (LM), índice de Willmott (WI) e métricas Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE). No geral, o modelo RF superou o modelo KRR devido à sua maior precisão na previsão do rendimento florestal. O estudo recomenda fortemente que o modelo RF seja aplicado em outras regiões do país para previsão do crescimento e produtividade florestal, o que pode ajudar no manejo e planejamento futuro da produtividade florestal no Paquistão.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Pakistan
2.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387710

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La naturaleza tropical está experimentando una amenaza sin precedentes que incluye comunidades de peces costeros que requieren un constante seguimiento de la presencia de especies. El uso simultáneo de varios métodos de monitoreo debería reducir el sesgo causado por la selectividad de cada método. Objetivo: Este estudio uso cuatro diferentes métodos de muestreo a lo largo de dos años para evaluar y comparar los ensamblajes de peces en el Área Marina de Manejo Bahía Santa Elena, Pacífico de Costa Rica. Métodos: Examinamos los cambios en la riqueza y composición de especies entre épocas de afloramiento y no afloramiento entre julio de 2019 y febrero de 2020. Aplicamos censos visuales, cámaras remotas submarinas; líneas de fondo; y pesca deportiva. Resultados: Identificamos 140 especies de peces (54 familias); las cámaras submarinas remotas detectaron el 83 %, seguido por los censos visuales submarinos (65 %), la pesca deportiva (16 %) y las líneas de fondo (14 %). Solo el método de pesca deportiva detectó diferencias en la riqueza y composición de especies entre temporadas. Conclusión: Las cámaras remotas parecen ser el mejor método para el conteo de especies y la pesca deportiva para detectar diferencias estacionales en las costas tropicales similares a la aquí estudiada.


Abstract Introduction: Tropical nature is experiencing an unprecedented threat that includes coastal fish communities that requires a close monitoring of species presence. The simultaneous use of several monitoring methods should reduce the bias caused by the selectivity of each method. Objective: This study used four different sampling methods over two years to assess and compare fish assemblages in the Santa Elena Bay Marine Management Area (AMM-BSE), North Pacific of Costa Rica. Methods: We examined changes in species richness and composition between upwelling and non-upwelling seasons from July 2019 and February 2020. We applied visual censuses, underwater remote cameras; bottom lines; and sport fishing. Results: We identified 140 species of fish (54 families); remote underwater cameras detected 83 %, followed by underwater visual censuses (65 %), sport-fishing (16 %) and bottom lines (14 %). Only the sport-fishing method detected differences in species richness and composition between seasons. Conclusion: Remote cameras appear to be the best method for species counts, and sport-fishing to detect seasonal differences in tropical coasts similar to the one studied here.


Subject(s)
Animals , Data Collection/methods , Fishes , Biological Monitoring/methods , Bays , Costa Rica
3.
RECIIS (Online) ; 16(3): 658-675, jul.-set. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1398924

ABSTRACT

O trabalho que fundamenta este artigo traçou dois caminhos metodológicos para analisar a divulgação científica sobre a relação entre desmatamento, mudanças climáticas e saúde em uma experiência selecionada. Foi realizada revisão de literatura para identificar como o tema emergia em artigos científicos publicados no Brasil entre 2020 e 2021. A partir do referencial temático identificado por meio de palavras-chave, foram analisados 42 vídeos publicados pelo canal Ciência com Certeza no YouTube. Considerando os conceitos de divulgação científica e comunicação científica segundo Bueno (2010), é possível afirmar que o projeto caracteriza-se como de comunicação científica extrapares por estar direcionado ao público especializado de diversas áreas do conhecimento. A disponibilização pública das gravações das palestras não o caracteriza como um projeto de divulgação científica, embora tenha potencial de ampliar seu direcionamento para públicos leigos. Também foi constatado que a relação entre meio ambiente e saúde não foi tema central das palestras no período analisado


In the work on which this article is based, two methodological paths were used to analyze scientific dissemination about the relationship between deforestation, climate change and health in a selected project. A literature review was carried out to identify how the theme emerged in scientific articles published in Brazil between 2020 and 2021. Based on the thematic framework identified through keywords, 42 videos published by the Ciência com Certeza project on its YouTube channel were analyzed. Considering Bueno's (2010) concepts of scientific communication and scientific dissemination, it can be said that the project is characterized as a multidisciplinary scientific communication project as it is aimed at specialised audiences from different areas of knowledge. The public availability of recordings of lectures does not characterize it as a scientific dissemination project, although it has the potential to broaden its targeting to lay audiences. It was also found that the relationship between environment and health was not a central theme of the lectures during the analyzed period


En el trabajo que fundamenta este artículo se utilizaron dos caminos metodológicos para analizar la divulgación científica sobre la relación entre deforestación, cambio climático y salud en una experiencia seleccionada. Se realizó una revisión de literatura para identificar cómo surgía el tema en los artículos científicos publicados en Brasil entre 2020 y 2021. A partir del marco temático identificado a través de palabras clave, se analizaron 42 videos publicados por el proyecto Ciência com Certeza en su canal en el YouTube. Considerando los conceptos de comunicación científica y divulgación científica presentados por Bueno (2010), se puede decir que el proyecto se caracteriza como comunicación científica multidisciplinar, ya que está dirigido a públicos especializados de diferentes áreas del conocimiento. La disponibilidad pública de las grabaciones de conferencias no lo caracteriza como un proyecto de divulgación científica, aunque tiene el potencial de ampliar su focalización en el gran público. También se ha constatado que la relación entre medio ambiente y salud no fue el tema central de las conferencias durante el período analizado


Subject(s)
Humans , Health , Conservation of Natural Resources , Environment , Scientific Communication and Diffusion , Science , Communication , Environmental Pollution , Evaluation Studies as Topic
4.
Subj. procesos cogn ; 26(1): 152-184, ago. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1392733

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El cambio climático (CC) representa uno de los mayores problemas para la sociedad actual, cuyas consecuencias nocivas para la salud mental requieren del impulso de propuestas para un desarrollo sostenible. OBJETIVO: Explorar el estado del arte concerniente a las consecuencias del CC sobre la salud y salud mental, específicamente: a) describir los efectos nocivos del CC sobre la salud mental b) describir propuestas de instituciones dirigidas a su mitigación, c) identificar nuevos conceptos acuñados para describir el impacto del CC en la salud mental, d) describir el abordaje desde la psicología de las respuestas psicológicas frente al CC. METODOLOGÍA: Revisión literaria exploratoria, no sistemática. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron nuevos conceptos, tales como eco-ansiedad, acuñados para identificar la interrelación entre CC y salud mental. Se hallaron diversos aportes desde la psicología para comprender y mejorar las respuestas psicológicas frente al CC AU


INTRODUCTION: Climate change (CC) represents one of the major problems for today's society, whose harmful consequences for mental health require the development of proposals for sustainable development. OBJECTIVE: to explore the state of the art concerningthe consequences of CC on mental health specifically: a) to describe the harmful effects of CC on mental health, b) to describe proposals of institutions aimed at its mitigation, c) to identify new concepts coined to describe the impact of CC on mental health, d) to describe the approach from psychology of psychological responses to CC. METHODOLOGY: Exploratory, non-systematic literature review. RESULTS: New concepts were found, such as eco-anxiety, coined to identify the interrelation between CC and mental health. Several contributions from psychology to understand and improve psychological responses to CC were identified AU


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Mental Health , Environmental Psychology/methods , Sustainable Development , Surveys and Questionnaires , Environmental Management
5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(5): 2023-2034, maio 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374983

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar os possíveis impactos das mudanças climáticas na saúde respiratória nos municípios de Santo André e São Caetano do Sul. Foram analisados dados meteorológicos históricos (temperatura, precipitação, umidade relativa e pressão atmosférica), de qualidade do ar (concentrações de MP10 e O3) e de saúde respiratória (taxas de incidência de internações por doenças respiratórias - TIIDR), relacionados através de modelos estatísticos de Regressão Linear Múltipla (RLM). Dados meteorológicos de projeções climáticas futuras (2019-2099) de três modelos climáticos (um global e dois regionalizados) em dois cenários de emissão foram aplicados aos modelos de RLM. Os resultados das projeções mostraram um aumento de até 10% nas TIIDR em relação aos níveis atuais para São Caetano do Sul no período de 2070-2099. Em Santo André as projeções indicaram redução de até 26% nas TIIDR. A variável de maior peso nos modelos de RLM de Santo André foi a temperatura (-2,15x) indicando que o aquecimento é inversamente proporcional ao aumento nas TIIDR, enquanto em São Caetano do Sul a pressão atmosférica teve o maior peso (2,44x). Para próximos trabalhos recomenda-se a inclusão de projeções futuras de concentrações de poluentes atmosféricos.


Abstract The scope of this study was to analyze the possible impacts of climate change on respiratory health in the municipalities of Santo André and São Caetano do Sul. Historical meteorological data (temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and atmospheric pressure), air quality data (concentrations of PM10 and O3) and respiratory health data (incidence rates of hospitalizations for respiratory diseases - IRHRD) were related through statistical models of Multiple Linear Regression (MLR). Meteorological data from future climate projections (2019-2099) from three different climate models (one global and two regionalized) in two emission scenarios were applied to the MLR models. The results showed that the IRHRD will suffer an increase of up to 10% in relation to the current levels for São Caetano do Sul in the 2070-2099 period. In Santo André, projections indicated a reduction of up to 26% in IRHRD. The most important variable in the MLR models for Santo André was temperature (-2,15x), indicating an inverse relationship between global warming and an increase in IRHRD, while in São Caetano the atmospheric pressure had the greatest weight (2.44x). For future studies, the inclusion of future projections of PM10 concentrations is recommended.

6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(5): 2071-2086, maio 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374984

ABSTRACT

Abstract Increased frequency of heat waves (HWs) is one of the prominent consequences of climate change. Its impact on human health has been mostly reported in the northern hemisphere but has been poorly studied in the southern hemisphere. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the HWs waves occurred in the warm season 2013-14 on mortality in the center-north region of Argentina, where 22 million people live. It was carried out an observational study of ecological-type contrasting the mortality occurred during the HWs of the summer 2013-14 with the mortality in the summers 2010-11 to 2012-13, free from HWs. The mortality was analyzed according to the following variables: place of residence, age, sex and cause of death. During the HWs of the summer 2013-14, 1877 (RR=1.23, 95%CI 1.20-1.28) deaths in excess were registered. Moreover, the death risk significantly increased in 13 of the 18 provinces analyzed. The mortality rates by sex revealed heterogeneous behaviour regarding both the time and spatial scale. The death risk increased with age; it was particularly significant in four provinces for the 60-79 years group and in six provinces in people of 80 years and over. The death causes that showed significantly increments were respiratory, cardiovascular, renal diseases and diabetes.


Resumo O aumento da frequência das ondas de calor (OsC) é uma das consequências proeminentes das alterações climáticas. O seu impacto na saúde humana tem sido relatado principalmente no hemisfério norte, mas tem sido mal estudado no hemisfério sul. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os efeitos das OsC ocorridas no verão de 2013-14 sobre a mortalidade na região centro-norte da Argentina, onde 22 milhões de pessoas vivem. Foi realizado um estudo observacional de tipo ecológico que contrasta a mortalidade ocorrida durante as OsC do verão 2013-14 com a mortalidade nos verões 2010-11 a 2012-13. A mortalidade foi analisada de acordo com local de residência, idade, sexo e causa de morte. Durante as OsC do verão de 2013-14, registaram-se 1.877 (RR=1.23, 95%IC 1.20-1.28) mortes em excesso. O risco de morte (RM) aumentou significativamente em 13 das 18 províncias analisadas. As taxas de mortalidade por sexo revelaram um comportamento heterogêneo tanto no tempo como na escala espacial. O RM foi aumentado com a idade; este aumento foi particularmente significativo em quatro províncias para o grupo de 60-79 anos e em seis províncias em pessoas com mais de 80 anos. As causas de morte que mostraram significativamente incrementos foram: doenças respiratórias, cardiovasculares, renais e diabetes.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931605

ABSTRACT

Objective:To correlate climate change with epistaxis in Yueqing of Zhejiang province and to provide evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of epistaxis.Methods:A total of 1 800 patients with epistaxis, who received treatment in Yueqing People's Hospital between October 2018 and October 2019, were included in this study. The data of these patients were input into the Microsoft Excel software. They were summarized and sorted as per admission time. Climate change was correlated with epistaxis.Results:Daily average temperatures were negatively correlated with epistaxis ( r = -0.65, P = 0.003). A non-linear, inverted-U-shaped relationship was observed between daily relative humidity and epistaxis. When the daily relative humidity was < 65%, daily relative humidity was positively correlated with epistaxis ( r = -0.54, P = 0.007).When the daily relative humidity was > 65%, daily relative humidity was negatively correlated with epistaxis ( r = -0.68, P = 0.002). There was a nearly linear positive correlation between diurnal temperature range and epistaxis ( r = 0.52, P = 0.009). There was a linear and positive correlation between daily average atmospheric pressure and epistaxis ( r = 0.60, P = 0.004). The risk of epistaxis increased by 1.48% (95% CI: -2.15 to -0.81) when the temperature decreased by 1 ℃. When daily relative humidity was < 65%, the effects of humidity change on the risk of epistaxis were not statistically significant ( P > 0.05). When the relative humidity of the day was > 65%, the risk of epistaxis decreased by 1.82% (95% CI: -2.71 to -0.93) for every unit of humidity rise. The risk of epistaxis increased by 2.86% (95% CI: 0.54 - 5.18) for every 1 ℃ increase in temperature. The risk of epistaxis increased by 1.18% (95% CI: 0.50 - 1.87) for every 1 Pa increase in air pressure. Conclusion:Temperature change is negatively correlated with epistaxis. Atmospheric pressure and diurnal temperature range are positively correlated with epistaxis. Temperature change, atmospheric pressure, and diurnal temperature have temporary effects on epistaxis. High humidity has an obvious long-term protective effect against epistaxis.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928833

ABSTRACT

Tobacco intersects with the COVID-19 pandemic not only in terms of health consequences, but also environmental change and planetary health. Tobacco use exacerbates inequalities, causes catastrophic environmental degradation and climate change and adds burdens to COVID-19-related mortality, which are major challenges to recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the pandemic has provided a chance to combat tobacco use and accelerate efforts to alleviate these challenges in response. The MPOWER measures introduced by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) can play a crucial role in COVID-19 recovery to fight tobacco use and contribute to sustainable and equitable development. To accelerate recovery, it is critical to call for actions for governments and policy-makers to strengthen synergies and coordinate policy actions emphasising tobacco control and cessation across equity, public health, and climate actions as global authorities pledge to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and net zero emissions targets as part of the Climate Change Conference 2021 (COP26).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Tobacco , Tobacco Products , Tobacco Use
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928821

ABSTRACT

The Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games provided a significant opportunity to consider global warming as an issue to be seriously addressed to run the safe and fair games in the era of climate change. As the global temperature continuously rises and extreme hot-weather events increase in frequency and intensity, the future summer Olympic and Paralympic games will need to deal with the heat by applying thorough and appropriate countermeasures. In the recent decades, many mitigation measures to protect athletes from heat have been rapidly discussed by the sports community, including countermeasures to hold games at times and places with moderate temperature and climatic risk assessments with Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) during the games. However, the excessive heat conditions in the Tokyo 2020 Games affected not only athletes, but also all people concerned the events. While deliberate considerations by organizers had been given to mitigate extraordinary heat, the evaluations of these measures and epidemiological analyses of risk factors of patients must be further enhanced to develop efficient measures for the future. Therefore, we discussed the underlying climate-related problems of the summer Olympic and Paralympic Games in view of what we had experienced in the Tokyo 2020 Games. Facing with emerging global warming, future intervention against heat in the summer Olympic and Paralympic games will need to integrate systematic disease surveillance and evaluation of intervention with an effective combination with the approaches previously conducted. The Tokyo 2020 Games is a wake-up call to accelerate the public health measures towards the creeping global warming.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Global Warming , Humans , Sports , Temperature , Tokyo
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927979

ABSTRACT

Paeonia lactiflora is an important medicinal resource in China. It is of great significance for the protection and cultivation of P. lactiflora resources to find the suitable habitats. The study was based on the information of 98 distribution sites and the data of 20 current environmental factors of wild P. lactiflora in China. According to the correlation and importance of environmental factors, we selected the main environmental factors affecting the potential suitable habitats. Then, BCC-CSM2-MR model was employed to predict the distribution range and center change of potential suitable habitat of wild P. lactiflora in the climate scenarios of SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0, and SSP5-8.5 during 2021-2100. The ensemble model combined with GBM, GLM, MaxEnt, and RF showed improved prediction accuracy, with TSS=0.85 and AUC=0.95. Among the 20 environmental factors, annual mean temperature, monthly mean diurnal range of temperature, temperature seasonality, mean temperature of the warmest quarter, precipitation of the wettest month, precipitation seasonality, precipitation of the driest quarter, and elevation were the main factors that affected the suitable habitat distribution of P. lactiflora. At present, the potential suitable habitats of wild P. lactiflora is mainly distributed in Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei, Beijing, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Shandong, Gansu, Xinjiang, Tibet, and Ningxia, and concentrated in the northeastern Inner Mongolia, central Heilongjiang, and northern Jilin. Under future climate conditions, the highly sui-table area of wild P. lactiflora will shrink, and the potential suitable habitat will mainly be lost to different degrees. However, in the SSP5-8.5 scenario, the low suitable area of wild P. lactiflora will partially increase in the highlands and mountains in western China including Xinjiang, Tibet, and Qinghai during 2061-2100. The distribution center of wild P. lactiflora migrated first to the northeast and then to the southwest. The total suitable habitats were stable and kept in the high-latitude zones. The prediction of the potential geo-graphical distribution of P. lactiflora is of great significance to the habitat protection and standardized cultivation of this plant in the future.


Subject(s)
China , Climate , Climate Change , Ecosystem , Paeonia
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913204

ABSTRACT

Both the frequency and severity of heat stress-related health problems have been increasing globally, probably due to global warming. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published a landmark climate report, the 6th Assessment Report, which shocked the world. It emphasized that anthropogenic activities, such as the combustion of fossil fuels, oil, gas, and coal, were responsible for climate change. The combination of population aging, and increased temperatures has meant that the number of people requiring emergency transport for heatstroke has been increasing in Japan from 2008 to 2020. The increase in ambient temperatures and the number of patients requiring emergency transport were strongly correlated (Spearman correlation coefficient: r=0.669 and P=0.008). Like many human activities, medical care is resource intensive and contributes significantly to climate change through the consumption of energy and water, as well as the emission of greenhouse gases. As healthcare professionals, we need to be cognizant of how our eco-friendly activities both on and off the job can contribute to saving both the patients and us.

12.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240219, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285585

ABSTRACT

Abstract Snow leopard (Panthera unica) is a felid which lives in the highly rugged areas of alpine regions in different mountain ranges of South and Central Asia. This solitary animal needs large spaces for its ranges but due to climate change and relatively faster rate of global warming in South Asian mountain ranges, its habitat is going to shrink and fragment by tree-line shifts and change in hydrology of the area. Vegetative modification of montane flora and competition with domestic goats will create its prey's population to decline along with a chance of a direct conflict and competition with the common leopard. Common leopard being more adaptable, grouped, and larger in size can be a significant stressor for a smaller and solitary snow leopard. Habitat would shrink, and snow leopard can possibly move upslope or northward to central Asian ranges and their predicted migratory patterns are unknown.


Resumo O leopardo-das-neves (Panthera uncia) é um felídeo que vive nas áreas altamente acidentadas das regiões alpinas, em diferentes cadeias de montanhas do sul e do centro da Ásia. A revisão atual tem o objetivo de abordar a questão da possível perda de hábitat do leopardo da neve em razão da interferência humana nas montanhas do sul e do centro da Ásia. Esse animal solitário precisa de grandes espaços para suas faixas, mas, devido às mudanças climáticas e à taxa relativamente mais rápida de aquecimento global nas cadeias montanhosas do sul da Ásia, seu hábitat vai encolher e fragmentar-se por mudanças nas linhas de árvores e na hidrologia da área. Este artigo teve o objetivo de rever vários estudos sobre os impactos das mudanças climáticas em um futuro próximo e distante sobre os hábitats do leopardo-da-neve. O estudo revelou que a modificação vegetativa da flora da montanha e a competição com cabras domésticas poderiam ocasionar na diminuição da população de suas presas, com a chance de um conflito direto e competição com leopardo comum. Leopardo comum sendo mais adaptável, agrupado e maior em tamanho pode ser um estressor significativo para um leopardo-da-neve menor e solitário. Conclusão: devido ao encolhimento do hábitat, o leopardo-da-neve pode, possivelmente, mover-se para cima ou para o norte, para faixas da Ásia Central com padrões migratórios não previstos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Felidae , Panthera , Asia , Climate Change , Ecosystem , Conservation of Natural Resources
13.
Biol. Res ; 552022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403566

ABSTRACT

Abstract Genetic modification of living organisms has been a prosperous activity for research and development of agricultural, industrial and biomedical applications. Three decades have passed since the first genetically modified products, obtained by transgenesis, become available to the market. The regulatory frameworks across the world have not been able to keep up to date with new technologies, monitoring and safety concerns. New genome editing techniques are opening new avenues to genetic modification development and uses, putting pressure on these frameworks. Here we discuss the implications of definitions of living/genetically modified organisms, the evolving genome editing tools to obtain them and how the regulatory frameworks around the world have taken these technologies into account, with a focus on agricultural crops. Finally, we expand this review beyond commercial crops to address living modified organism uses in food industry, biomedical applications and climate change-oriented solutions.

14.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(supl.1): 47-54, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375791

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To analyze the impacts of climate change on the development of immature respiratory and immune systems in children. Source of data: The authors of the present study performed a non-systematic review of English, Spanish, and Portuguese articles published in the last five years in databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, and SciELO. The terms used were air pollution OR climate changes OR smoke, AND children OR health. Synthesis of data: The increase in the prevalence of some diseases, such as allergic ones, is attributed to the interactions between genetic potential and the environment. However, disordered growth combined with inadequate waste management has caused problems for the planet, such as heatwaves, droughts, forest fires, increased storms and floods, interference in food crops and their nutritional values, changes in the infectious disease pattern, and air pollution resulting from the continuous use of fossil fuels. Children, beings still in the development stage with immature respiratory and immune systems, are the primary victims of the climate crisis. Conclusions: The authors documented that prenatal and postnatal exposure to ambient air pollutants will accelerate or worsen the morbidity and mortality of many health conditions, including allergic diseases. Ambient air pollutants change the microbiota, interfere with the immune response, and take direct action on the skin and respiratory epithelium, which facilitates the penetration of allergens. Understanding how the children and adolescent health and well-being are affected by climate change is an urgent matter.

15.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 29(4): 734-742, out.-dez. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365506

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo discute os conceitos de Antropoceno e de Gaia, apontados por Bruno Latour como categorias para entender o regime climático que estamos vivendo e servir de base teórica para buscar respostas apropriadas para a crise do clima. Os conceitos buscam superar dois pressupostos da racionalidade moderna: a oposição entre natureza e cultura - questionando o princípio de que os humanos são os únicos atores da realidade e introduzindo todos os seres vivos como agentes conformadores do ambiente - e a visão globalizante do planeta Terra, que impede de ver a terra como solo localizado onde acontecem os ciclos biogeoquímicos de transformação da energia que possibilitam a vida. Conclui-se que a reflexão de Latour fornece bases ontológicas para a discussão sobre a mudança climática e pressupostos para a bioética ambiental.


Abstract This article discusses the concepts of Anthropocene and Gaia, raised by Bruno Latour, as categories to understand the climate regime we are experiencing and serve as a theoretical basis to seek appropriate responses to the climate crisis. These concepts seek to overcome two assumptions of modern rationality: the opposition between nature and culture - questioning the principle that humans are the only actors in reality and introducing all living beings as agents shaping the environment - and the globalizing vision of planet Earth that prevents us from seeing it as localized soil where biogeochemical cycles of energy transformation that make life possible take place. It is concluded that Latour's reflection provides ontological bases for the discussion on climate change and assumptions for environmental bioethics.


Resumen Este artículo discute los conceptos de Antropoceno y Gaia, señalados por Bruno Latour como categorías para entender el régimen climático que estamos viviendo y para servir de base teórica para buscar respuestas adecuadas a la crisis climática. Los conceptos buscan superar dos supuestos de la racionalidad moderna: la oposición entre naturaleza y cultura -cuestionando el principio de que los humanos son los únicos actores de la realidad e introduciendo a todos los seres vivos como agentes conformadores del medio ambiente- y la visión globalizante del planeta Tierra, que impide ver la tierra como un suelo localizado en el que tienen lugar los ciclos biogeoquímicos de transformación de la energía que hacen posible la vida. Se concluye que la reflexión de Latour proporciona bases ontológicas para la discusión sobre el cambio climático y supuestos para la bioética ambiental.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Bioethics , Ecosystem , Ecology , Biosphere , Geology
16.
Rev. biol. trop ; 69(4)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387687

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La familia Scolopacidae (Orden: Charadriiformes) es una de las familias más abundantes en los humedales costeros. El Humedal Costero Poza de la Arenilla cuenta con un registro histórico de 20 especies de escolopácidos; los eventos climáticos podrían afectar la distribución y migración de varias especies de esta familia taxonómica, reduciendo su riqueza y abundancia. Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre la riqueza y la abundancia de las especies pertenecientes a la familia Scolopacidae y la temperatura superficial del mar (TSM) y el índice costero El Niño (ICEN) en el Humedal Costero Poza de la Arenilla. Métodos: Se realizaron muestreos dos veces por mes entre enero 2013 y enero 2019 utilizando el método del conteo total para determinar la abundancia de las especies (N = 292). Se realizó un análisis de correlación de Spearman entre la abundancia, riqueza, TSM e ICEN, y se procedió a calcular la diversidad beta a través del índice de Whittaker, tanto para analizar el recambio anual para cada estación como el recambio estacional dentro de cada año. Resultados: Se obtuvieron dos correlaciones significativas: entre TSM y abundancia y entre ICEN y riqueza. Por otro lado, la prueba ANOSIM arrojó diferencias estacionales en las abundancias de las especies, y la prueba SIMPER arrojó que la mayor diferencia en las abundancias entre estaciones fue entre otoño y primavera (disimilitud de Bray-Curtis = 81.57 %), y la mínima entre invierno y primavera (disimilitud de Bray-Curtis = 49.86 %). Conclusiones: Las dinámicas ecológicas de las comunidades de escolopácidos en La Arenilla se ven modificadas de manera importante en función a las variaciones de los parámetros térmicos ambientales relacionados al cambio climático.


Abstract Introduction: Scolopacidae family (Order: Charadriiformes) is one of the most abundant families found in coastal wetlands. La Arenilla coastal wetland has a historical record of 20 scolopacid species; climatic events could affect the distribution and migration of the several species of this taxonomic family, reducing their species richness and abundance. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between richness and abundance of the species belonging to the Scolopacidae family and both Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and the coastal El Niño index (ICEN) in La Arenilla Coastal Wetland, La Punta, Callao. Methods: Sampling were carried out twice a month, between January 2013 and January 2019 using the Total Count Method in order to determine species abundance (N = 292). A Spearman correlation analysis between abundance, species richness, SST and ICEN was performed, and beta diversity was calculated through the Whittaker index (βw) to analyze both the annual turnover for each season and the seasonal turnover within each year. Results: Two significant correlations were obtained: between SST and abundance and between ICEN and species richness. On the other hand, the ANOSIM test showed seasonal differences in abundance, and the SIMPER test showed that the greatest difference in abundance between seasons was between autumn and spring (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity = 81.57 %), and the minimum difference between winter and spring (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity = 49.86 %). Conclusions: The ecological dynamics of scolopacid communities in La Arenilla coastal wetland face important changes according to the variations in the environmental thermal parameters related to climate change.


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds , Charadriiformes/classification , Peru , Animal Migration
17.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 47(4)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409256

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El cambio climático se atribuye directa o indirectamente a la actividad humana, pues esta altera la composición de la atmósfera, de conjunto con la variabilidad natural del clima. De ahí que las instituciones hospitalarias, requieran de control y manejo de residuos y sustancias peligrosas durante la prestación de sus servicios. Objetivo: Valorar la implementación de buenas prácticas en el uso sostenible de los recursos hídrico, la energía eléctrica, la administración segura de sustancias peligrosas y el manejo razonable de los residuos que producen los servicios en el Hospital Pediátrico Provincial de Holguín para la gestión ambiental y de enfrentamiento al cambio climático. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio longitudinal a todos los procesos hospitalarios, mediante técnica de la investigación cualitativa y explicativa. Se empleó el estudio de caso como estrategia de investigación para desarrollar las fases de preparación y diagnóstico, seguido de una etapa de proyección de la implementación. Por último, se realizó la evaluación y mejora del problema identificado, con criterios de sostenibilidad desde la gestión organizacional según niveles de actividad hospitalarios. Resultados: Se obtuvo un considerable ahorro de agua (64 877 m3) y una disminución significativa en gastos al presupuesto (348 miles de pesos), así como un factor de potencia entre 0,92 y 1,0 que muestra la conversión de energía consumida en trabajo. Se obtuvo una reducción significativa de líquido fijador en estudios radiográficos y se mejoró el manejo de las sustancias peligrosas (líquido fijador de Rx). Conclusiones: Para dar respuesta a las necesidades de cambio en la forma de gestión de los procesos hospitalarios se precisa recurrir a herramientas de control de consumo, análisis, normas y procedimientos que permitan alcanzar su mejora, según los niveles de actividad en los servicios.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Climate change is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity, as this alters the composition of the atmosphere, in conjunction with the natural variability of the climate. Hence, hospital institutions require control and management of wastes and hazardous substances during the provision of their services. Objective: Assess the implementation of good practices in the sustainable use of water resources, electrical energy, the safe administration of hazardous substances and the reasonable management of waste produced by the services at the Provincial Pediatric Hospital of Holguín for environmental management and the fight against climate change. Methods: A longitudinal study was carried out on all hospital processes, using qualitative and explanatory research technique. The case study was used as a research strategy to develop the preparation and diagnosis phases, followed by a projection stage of implementation. Finally, the evaluation and improvement of the identified problem was carried out, with sustainability criteria from the organizational management according to hospital activity levels. Results: Considerable water savings were obtained (64 877 m3) and a significant decrease in budget expenses (348 000 pesos), as well as a power factor between 0.92 and 1.0 that shows the conversion into work of they energy consumed. A significant reduction in fixer fluid was obtained in radiographic studies and the handling of hazardous substances (Rx fixer liquid) was improved. Conclusions: To respond to the needs of change in the way hospital processes are managed, it is necessary to resort to consumption control tools, analysis, standards and procedures that allow them to be improved, according to the levels of activity in the services.

18.
Rev. colomb. biotecnol ; 23(2): 47-66, jul.-dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360964

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El neotrópico es sitio de origen de gran variedad de plantas que actualmente son cultivadas con éxito en diferentes regiones del mundo. Sin embargo, condiciones climáticas adversas, que se pueden ver acrecentadas por efectos del cambio climático antropogénico, pueden afectar su rendimiento y productividad debido a las situaciones de estrés abiótico que se pueden generar. Como alternativa para contrarrestar estos efectos, se ha experimentado con modificaciones genéticas, particularmente en genes relacionados con la producción de osmolitos y factores de transcripción que han llevado a que estas plantas, a nivel experimental, tengan mayor tolerancia a estrés oxidativo, altas y bajas temperaturas y fotoinhibición, sequía y salinidad, mediante la acumulación de osmoprotectores, la regulación en la expresión de genes y cambios en el fenotipo. En este trabajo se presentan y describen las estrategias metodológicas planteadas con estos fines y se complementan con ejemplos de trabajos realizados en cultivos de origen neotropical de importancia económica, como maíz, algodón, papa y tomate. Además, y debido a la novedad y potencial que ofrece la edición génica por medio del sistema CRISPR/Cas9, también se mencionan trabajos realizados en plantas con origen neotropical, enfocados en comprender e implementar mecanismos de tolerancia a sequía. Las metodologías aquí descritas podrían constituirse en opciones prácticas para mejorar la seguridad alimentaria con miras a contrarrestar las consecuencias negativas del cambio climático antropogénico.


ABSTRACT The neotropics are the site of origin of a large variety of plants that are currently successfully cultivated in different regions of the world. However, adverse climatic conditions, which can be exacerbated by the effects of anthropogenic climate change, can affect their yield and productivity due to the abiotic stresses that can be generated. As an alternative to counteract these effects, genetic modifications have been experimentally implemented, particularly in genes related to osmolyte production and transcription factors, which have ultimately led to increased tolerance of these plants to oxidative stress, high and low temperatures and photoinhibition, drought and salinity, through the accumulation of osmoprotectants, regulation of gene expression and changes in phenotype. In this work, the methodological strategies proposed to these aims are presented and described, and they are complemented with examples of studies carried out in economically important crops of neotropical origin, such as corn, cotton, potato and tomato. In addition, and due to the novelty and potential that gene editing offers through the CRISPR/Cas9 system, works conducted in plants with neotropical origin, focused on understanding and implementing drought tolerance mechanisms, are also mentioned. The methodologies described here could become practical options to achieve food security in the frame of the adverse effects caused by anthropogenic climate change.


Subject(s)
Gossypium/microbiology , Climate Change , Zea mays
19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(supl.3): 5315-5328, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345736

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo caracteriza a produção científica divulgada em periódicos nacionais sobre as interações que se estabelecem entre os conceitos de mudanças climáticas, mudanças produtivas (incluídas as mudanças no uso do solo) e saúde humana, nos últimos dez anos (de 2008 a 2017), com destaque para as tendências teórico-metodológicas dessa produção. Para tanto, realizou-se uma revisão da literatura a partir de publicações disponibilizadas nas bases Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) e Portal de Periódicos CAPES. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram os avanços experimentados nos últimos dez anos pelas equipes interdisciplinares que se debruçaram sobre o tema ao longo do período analisado, bem como permitem identificar lacunas de pesquisa que podem ser exploradas em investigações futuras. Adicionalmente, foi identificada uma positiva sofisticação e refinamento das ferramentas e instrumentos analíticos que se mostram capazes de reunir informações consistentes sobre uma realidade ampla e complexa, caracterizada pela diversidade dos biomas, cenários climáticos e sistemas produtivos.


Abstract This article reviews the scientific output published in national journals on the interactions that are established between the concepts of climate change, productive changes (including changes in land use) and human health in the last ten years (from 2008 to 2017), highlighting the theoretical-methodological trends of this output. To achieve this, a review of the literature was made from publications made available in the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and the CAPES Journals Portal. The results obtained demonstrate the advances made in the last ten years by the interdisciplinary teams that dealt with the subject over the period analyzed. At the same time, this article identifies the research gaps that can be exploited in future research. In addition, a positive sophistication and refinement of analytical tools and instruments have been identified that are able to gather consistent information about a broad and complex reality characterized by the diversity of biomes, climatic scenarios and productive systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Climate Change , Ecosystem
20.
Rev. peru. biol. (Impr.) ; 28(4): e19290, Oct.-Dec 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361077

ABSTRACT

Resumen Eulychnia ritteri es una especie endémica del Perú, restringida a la costa norte del departamento de Arequipa. El poco conocimiento sobre esta especie, sumado a las amenazas por actividades antrópicas y cambio climático ponen en riesgo a sus poblaciones. En esta investigación se da a conocer la distribución geográfica y estado de conservación de E. ritteri en la zona costera de la provincia de Caravelí. Además, se evaluó la estructura poblacional y fenología en la población de Quebrada Vizcachani mediante parcelas de 10x100 m. Asimismo, se obtuvieron datos sobre la flora acompañante y fauna local. Eulychnia ritteri presentó cinco poblaciones distribuidas entre los 15°43' a 15°47'S, con una superficie total de 63.62 ha (0.63 km2). La población de Quebrada Vizcachani fue la de mayor extensión (24.5 ha) y la población de Cementerio la más pequeña (0.018 ha). La densidad de la población evaluada es de 0.06 ind/m2, donde las plántulas, juveniles, adultos y plantas muertas, representaron el 3.61, 24.09, 56.63 y 15.67% respectivamente. La fenología es asincrónica, los botones florales, flores y frutos se presentan en el mismo periodo. Las flores y frutos sirven de alimento para insectos y roedores respectivamente, y se han registrado 18 especies acompañantes. Por último, E. ritteri es categorizada como en peligro (EN), debido a su distribución geográfica y amenazas identificadas.


Abstract Eulychnia ritteri is endemic to Peru, restricted to the northern coast of the department of Arequipa. The lack of knowledge of this species, and threats such as human activities and climate change, put the populations at risk. In this research, we examined the geographical distribution and conservation status of E. ritteri in the coastal area of the Caravelí province. In addition, the population structure and phenology in the Quebrada Vizcachani population were evaluated using plots of 10x100 m. Data on the accompanying flora and local fauna were also obtained. Eulychnia ritteri showed five populations distributed from 15°43' to 15°47'S, with a total area of 63.62 ha (0.63 km2). The Quebrada Vizcachani population is the largest (24.5 ha) and the Cementerio population the smallest (0.018 ha). The population density evaluated is 0.06 ind/m2, where seedlings, juveniles, adults, and dead plants were 3.61, 24.09, 56.63 and 15.67% respectively. The phenology was asynchronous, the flower buds, flowers and fruits appear in the same period. The flowers and fruits were food for insects and rodents respectively, and 18 accompanying species have been recorded. Finally, E. ritteri is categorised as endangered (EN), given its geographical distribution and identified threats.

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