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1.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 27: e2548, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374474

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Verificar se o tratamento com os antivirais de ação direta para a hepatite C provocam efeitos adversos na audição. Métodos A casuística foi composta por 16 indivíduos portadores do vírus da hepatite C, de ambos os gêneros, com média de idade de 51 anos. Foram excluídos do grupo indivíduos com perda auditiva do tipo condutiva ou mista e que apresentassem fatores de risco para perda auditiva. A avaliação foi realizada em dois momentos: antes do uso dos antivirais de ação direta e após o término do tratamento de três meses. Incluiu os seguintes procedimentos: anamnese, inspeção do meato acústico externo, audiometria tonal liminar, limiar de recepção de fala, índice de reconhecimento de fala, medidas de imitância acústica e emissões otoacústicas evocadas por estímulo transiente e produto de distorção. Resultados: Houve baixa ocorrência de zumbido e vertigem. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os resultados da avaliação pré-tratamento e pós-tratamento. Conclusão O tratamento com antivirais de ação direta contra o vírus da hepatite C não provocou efeitos adversos na função auditiva.


ABSTRACT Purpose To verify whether treatment with hepatitis C direct-acting antivirals has adverse effects on hearing. Methods The sample consisted of 16 individuals with hepatitis C virus, of both sexes, with an average age of 51 years. Individuals with conductive or mixed hearing loss who presented risk factors for hearing loss were excluded from the group. The evaluation was carried out in two moments: before the use of direct-acting antivirals and after the three-month treatment. It included the following procedures: anamnesis, external auditory canal inspection, pure tone audiometry, speech reception threshold, speech recognition index, acoustic immittance measures and transient and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Results There was a low incidence of tinnitus and vertigo. There was no statistically significant difference between the results of the pre- and post-treatment assessment. Conclusion The treatment with direct-acting antivirals against the hepatitis C virus did not cause any adverse effects on hearing function.

2.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 27: e2541, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374475

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo avaliar o efeito da variação da intensidade de estimulação sobre as respostas das emissões otoacústicas produto de distorção em indivíduos com perda auditiva neurossensorial, utilizando um protocolo de gradiente de fase das emissões. Métodos estudo observacional transversal. Participaram 38 indivíduos com diagnóstico de perda auditiva neurossensorial de grau leve, moderado ou severo. Foram realizadas anamnese, meatoscopia, audiometria tonal liminar, logoaudiometria, imitanciometria, emissões otoacústicas produto de distorção e emissões otoacústicas residuais. As emissões otoacústicas residuais foram coletadas com o equipamento Echodia, modelo Elios®. O protocolo utilizado permite a variação dos parâmetros frequência e intensidade e as respostas são analisadas por meio do teste do Gradiente de Fase. As respostas registradas nas emissões residuais foram consideradas como "presente", "ausente" e "artefato", considerando a variação da fase em função de f1. Resultados Foram incluídas 72 orelhas. Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa nas frequências de 1300 Hz e 2000 Hz, ao comparar os resultados das emissões residuais. Ao correlacionar o resultado da audiometria e a intensidade de estimulação que evocou a emissão residual, houve correlação positiva para as frequências de 1000 Hz e 4000Hz. O "artefato" foi registrado, principalmente, nas frequências mais agudas: 56,2% em 3000 Hz e 58,2% em 4000 Hz. A emissão otoacústica residual presente foi registrada em 18,6% em 1000 Hz, 13,4% em 2000 Hz, 6,3% em 3000 Hz e 7,5% em 4000 Hz. Conclusão o aumento da intensidade de estimulação no exame de emissões pode auxiliar no estudo das células ciliadas residuais, desde que seja utilizado um protocolo capaz de diferenciar respostas fisiológicas de artefatos.


ABSTRACT Purpose To study the effect of stimulation intensity variation on the responses of distortion products in subjects with sensorineural hearing loss using a new protocol to register the otoacoustic emissions. Methods This is a cross-sectional observational study. The following procedures were performed: anamnesis, otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry, tympanometry, distortion product and residual otoacoustic emissions. The residual DPOAE were collected with the Echodia equipment, Elios®. The protocol that was developed allows the variation of frequency and intensity parameters and the responses are analyzed by phase gradient test. Responses recorded in residual otoacoustic emissions were considered "present", "absent" or "artifact". Results The total included ears was 72. On residual otoacoustic emissions test, at a frequency of 1300Hz and 2000Hz, there was statistically significant difference. By analyzing the average found in the audiometry and the results of residual emissions, only the frequency of 1300Hz showed a statistically significant association in all groups. By correlating the results of the audiometry and the stimulation intensity used to evoke the residual emission, there was positive correlation for the frequencies of 1000Hz and 4000Hz. The "artifact" was mostly recorded in the higher frequencies: 56.2% in 3000Hz and 58.2% in 4000 Hz. Residual EOAPD present was recorded as 18.6% at 1000Hz, 13.4% at 2000Hz, 6.3% at 3000Hz and 7.5% at 4000Hz. Conclusion The increased stimulation intensity in the otoacoustic emissions test can aid in the study of residual outer hair cells, as long as a protocol is used to check the correctness of the responses.

3.
CoDAS ; 34(3): e20210041, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356165

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo avaliar o perfil audiológico e a funcionalidade coclear em indivíduos com SW. Método estudo com 39 indivíduos, sendo 22 indivíduos com SW com idade entre 7 e 17 anos, sendo 15 do sexo masculino e 7 do sexo feminino e 17 indivíduos com desenvolvimento típico e normo-ouvintes. Todos os indivíduos foram avaliados por meio da audiometria tonal limiar, medidas de imitância acústica e análise das Emissões Otoacústicas Transientes (EOAT). Foi avaliado o perfil audiológico dos indivíduos com SW, e também foram comparadas as respostas das EOAT entre os indivíduos com SW sem perda auditiva e indivíduos controles. Resultados perda auditiva foi observada em 50% dos pacientes, sendo 78,95% neurossensorial e 21,05% mista. Esta perda foi predominantemente de grau leve a moderado, acometendo principalmente as frequências a partir de 3 kHz. Quanto às EOAT, observou-se maior incidência de ausência e de respostas de menor amplitude em indivíduos com SW. Conclusão indivíduos com SW apresentam disfunção das células ciliadas, principalmente da região basal da cóclea. Assim, a análise das EOAT é um recurso clínico importante a ser considerada na avaliação audiológica de rotina.


ABSTRACT Purpose to evaluate cochlear functionality in Williams syndrome (WS) individuals. Methods a study with 39 individuals, being 22 with WS aged between 7 and 17 years, 15 male and 7 female, and 17 individuals with typical development and normal hearing. All individuals were evaluated using pure tone audiometry, acoustic immittance measurements, and Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions (TEOAE). The audiological profile in individuals with WS was analyzed, and TEOAE responses were compared between WS individuals without hearing loss and typical developmental individuals. Results The hearing loss was observed in 50% of patients, being 78.95% sensorineural and 21.05% mixed. This hearing loss was predominantly mild to moderate, affecting mainly frequencies above 3 kHz. As for TEOAE, there was a higher incidence of absence and lower amplitude responses in individuals with WS. Conclusion WS individuals have hair cell dysfunction, mainly in the basal region of the cochlea. Thus, TEOAE analysis is an important clinical resource to be considered in the routine audiological evaluation.

4.
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 49(3): 184-188, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1292707

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el tinnitus tiene efectos deletéreos sobre la calidad de vida de un paciente. Cuando la lesión está a nivel coclear, se puede usar acondicionamiento acústico para su tratamiento. Objetivo: determinar el cambio en la percepción del tinnitus antes y después de la intervención terapéutica. Metodología: se planteó un estudio de serie de casos. Pacientes con tinnitus no pulsátil de moderado a catastrófico tratados con estimulador REVE 134™. Se incluyeron pacientes que no mejoraron luego de 3 meses con tratamiento médico. Se les practicó microaudiometría (67 frecuencias) para definir la región coclear afectada. Se excluyeron pacientes con umbrales audiométricos > 60 dB, aquellos con lesiones retrococleares y quienes no desearon participar. Las variables de desenlace fueron Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), escala visual análoga (EVA) y Tinnitus Reaction Questionnaire (TQR), que se midieron pretratamiento y a los 3 y 6 meses postratamiento. Resultados: se incluyeron 11 pacientes (hombres = 5, mujeres = 6). En 5 casos el tinnitus fue bilateral y en 6, unilateral. Los valores pretratamiento fueron THI = 61,4 ± 27,4, EVA = 6,9 ± 2,7 y TQR = 43,2 ± 31,9 (Kolmogorov-Smirnov, p > 0,05). Hubo mejoría estadísticamente significativa con el tratamiento, THI (3 meses = 30,6 ± 21,1; 6 meses = 19 ± 19,2), EVA (3 meses = 5,6 ± 2,3; 6 meses = 3,5 ± 2,0), TQR (3 meses = 25,6 ± 20,0; 6 meses = 14,3 ± 19,9); ANOVA de medidas repetidas (p = 0,007, p = 0,027, p = 0,037; respectivamente). Conclusión: el tratamiento con REVE 134™ fue efectivo en pacientes con tinnitus no pulsátil de moderado a catastrófico.


Introduction: tinnitus can affect the quality of life of a patient. Acoustic stimulation can be used as treatment when the cause of tinnitus is located in the cochlea. Objective: To determine changes in tinnitus perception before and after therapeutic intervention. Methodology: We performed a case series study. Patients with nonpulsatile tinnitus, with no improvement with medical therapy, and moderate to catastrophic grade were treated with the REVE 134™ system. A microaudiometry (67 frequencies) was performed to determine the cochlear regions affected. Patients with auditory thresholds >60 dB, retrocochlear pathologies and who did not want to participate in the study were excluded. The variables studied were Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Tinnitus Reaction Questionnaire (TQR), that were measured before, three and six months after treatment. Results: 11 patients (male: 5, women: 6) were included. In 5 of them, tinnitus was bilateral and in 6, unilateral. Pretreatment values were: THI = 61.4 ± 27.4, VAS = 6.9 ± 2.7 and TQR = 43.2 ± 31.9 (Kolmogorov-Smirnov, p > 0.05). We found improvement in tinnitus perception with the therapy, and this values had statistical significance (THI: 3rd month = 30.6 ± 21.1; 6th month = 19 ± 19.2), VAS (3rd month = 5.6 ± 2.3; 6th month = 3.5 ± 2.0), TQR (3rd month = 25.6 ± 20.0; 6th month =14.3 ± 19.9); repetitive measures of ANOVA (p = 0.007, p = 0.027, p = 0.037; respectively). Conclusion: Treatment with REVE 134™ was effective in patients with moderate to catastrophic tinnitus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tinnitus , Cochlea , Hearing Loss
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922072

ABSTRACT

For cochlear implant training and robotic cochlear implant experiments, the design method of scalable scala tympani model was proposed. The mathematical model of the cochlea was used as the central curve of scala tympani channel. Referring to the clinical anatomy data, the contour of the scala tympani cross-section was approximated as an ellipse. The profile was placed along the central curve, and the angle was adjusted to determine the position and orientation of the profile in three dimensions such that the central curve passes through its center. The data was imported into Matlab to generate a three-dimensional mathematical model of scala tympani, which can be expanded by setting different scale factors. The virtual scala tympani model was generated in SolidWorks, and the 2:1 fully transparent scala tympani model were fabricated by 3D printing to replace the specimen for experiment.


Subject(s)
Cochlea/surgery , Cochlear Implantation , Cochlear Implants , Robotics , Scala Tympani/surgery
6.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(3): 288-298, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134141

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Over the last decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of cochlear implant recipients and, consequently, there is a recent increase of interest in the proper understanding of the anatomy of the round window (RW), which is the most important anatomical land mark during cochlear implant surgery. Objectives The present study was undertaken to assess the detailed surgical and radiological anatomy of the RW prechamber; its shape, directions, measurements, common anatomic variations, and its relationships with different surrounding structures as related to cochlear implantation. Methods A total of 20 cadaveric specimens of human temporal bone were microscopically dissected for the anatomical assessment of the measurements of the RW and its relation to surrounding structures in the tympanum. A total of 20 patients were subjected to cochlear implantation, and a radiological and surgical assessment of the anatomy of their RW prechambers was performed. Results The distances between the RW and the facial canal (FC), the jugular fossa (JF), the carotid canal (CC), and the oval window (OW) were measured. Among the cases subjected to cochlear implantation, the infracochlear tunnel was studied radiologically; the lengths of the anterior and posterior pillars were assessed, and the relation with the direction at which the RW faces was statistically analyzed. Conclusions Proper understanding of the topographic anatomy of the RW, including its direction of opening and the distances from different adjacent structures in the tympanum, is essential for a successful cochlear implantation surgery, since it can help decision-making before the surgery and is useful to avoid many complications, such as misplaced electrode and iatrogenic injury to the surrounding structures.

7.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 47-52, Jan.-Mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090559

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Cisplatin damages the auditory system and is related to the generation of free radicals. Glutathione peroxidase is an endogenous free radicals remover. Objective To investigate the mechanisms involved in otoprotection by N-acetylcys- teine through the expression of glutathione peroxidase in outer hair cells from rats treated with cisplatin. Methods Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin (8 mg/Kg) and/or received oral administration by gavage of N-acetylcysteine (300 mg/Kg) for 3 consecutive days. On the 4th day, the animals were euthanized and beheaded. The tympanic bullae were removed and prepared for scanning electron microscopy and Results Among the groups exposed to ototoxic doses of cisplatin, there was an increase in glutathione peroxidase immunostaining in two groups, the one exposed to cisplatin alone, and the group exposed to both cisplatin and N-acetylcysteine. Conclusion The expression of glutathione peroxidase in the outer hair cells of rats exposed to cisplatin showed the synthesis of this enzyme under cellular toxicity conditions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Free Radical Scavengers/therapeutic use , Cisplatin/toxicity , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity , Acetylcysteine/metabolism , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Cochlea/anatomy & histology , Cochlea/drug effects , Free Radicals , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/prevention & control
8.
Rev. CEFAC ; 22(2): e16319, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136465

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: to verify whether the frequent musical exposure can impair peripheral and central auditory pathway responses in professional orchestral musicians. Methods: 45 male individuals from 19 to 40 years old participated in the study. They were divided into two groups: one comprising 30 orchestral musicians who played strings or wind instruments, and another with 15 nonmusicians. The two groups were submitted to both conventional and high-frequency pure-tone audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, and frequency-following response. The results were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis, using the one-way ANOVA unmatched samples parametric test, with a 5% significance level. Results: no significant differences were observed between the hearing thresholds in both conventional and high-frequency audiometry and frequency-following response. However, there were statistically significant differences between transient-evoked otoacoustic emission responses, with lower responses to musicians in comparison to the nonmusician group. Conclusion: the results suggest that frequent musical exposure experienced by orchestral musicians can impair the cochlear hair cells' function. Therefore, audiological monitoring is important to detect subclinical impairments.


RESUMO Objetivo: verificar se a frequente exposição musical é capaz de prejudicar as respostas das vias auditivas periférica e central em músicos profissionais de orquestra. Métodos: participaram 45 indivíduos do sexo masculino, entre 19 e 40 anos, divididos em Grupo de músicos formado por 30 músicos de orquestra que tocavam instrumentos de corda ou de sopro, e Grupo de não músicos formado por 15 indivíduos. Ambos os grupos foram submetidos à audiometria tonal nas frequências convencionais e em altas frequências, Emissões Otoacústicas Transientes e Frequency Following Response. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística descritiva e inferencial, por meio do teste ANOVA One-Way para amostras não pareadas, sendo o nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: não houve diferenças significantes entre os limiares auditivos, tanto nas frequências convencionais quanto nas altas frequências e no Frequency Following Response. No entanto, observou-se diferenças entre as respostas das Emissões Otoacústicas Transientes, sendo que os músicos apresentaram respostas diminuídas em relação ao grupo de não músicos. Conclusão: os resultados sugeriram que a frequente exposição musical que indivíduos que tocam em orquestra vivenciam é capaz de prejudicar a função das células ciliadas da cóclea. Sendo assim, o monitoramento audiológico é importante a fim de detectar alterações subclínicas.

9.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 30: e-3007, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117837

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A associação entre perda auditiva e Diabetes Mellitus tipo 1 (DM1) é ainda pouco estudada. A perda auditiva é uma das complicações crônicas relacionadas ao grau de controle glicêmico, que os pacientes podem apresentar com a progressão da doença. Objetivo: Investigar o comprometimento auditivo por meio das emissões otoacústicas transitórias (EOAT) por banda de frequência em adolescentes com DM1 e relação com o controle glicêmico. Métodos: Foram incluídos 80 adolescentes, 50% do gênero masculino, entre 10 e 19 anos de idade: 40 com DM1 e 40 controles saudáveis, pareados por gênero e idade. Os dados clínicos e laboratoriais foram pesquisados nos prontuários médicos. O controle glicêmico foi avaliado por meio dos exames de hemoglobina glicada e os pacientes com DM1 analisados de acordo com o controle glicêmico. A avaliação auditiva foi realizada por meio da imitanciometria, audiometria, e posteriormente EOAT, em sala tratada acusticamente, pelo protocolo "TE Test" de clique não-linear (1 KHz a 4 kHz) a 80 dB NPS de intensidade (AuDX - Biologic). Resultados: As respostas às EOAT foram ausentes em 5,12% em pacientes com DM1, com diferença significativa em relação aos controles (p=0,04). A análise das EOAT por bandas de frequência mostrou maior proporção de alteração nos adolescentes com DM1 mal controlados quando comparados aos bem controlados, nas frequências de 1000Hz, 2000Hz e 3000Hz (p<0,05). Conclusão: As EOAT por bandas de frequência permitiram a identificação precoce de comprometimento auditivo em adolescentes com DM1 e mostraram associação entre DM1 mal controlado e perda auditiva. (AU)


Introduction: The association between hearing loss and type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) is still poorly studied. Hearing loss is one of the chronic complications related to the degree of glycemic control that patients may present with the progression of the disease. Objective: To investigate auditory impairment through transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) by frequency band in adolescents with DM1 and in relation to glycemic control. Methods: Were included 80 adolescents, 50% males, between 10 and 19 years of age: 40 with DM1 and 40 healthy controls, matched by gender and age. Clinical and laboratory data were taken from the medical records. Glycemic control was evalueted by glycated hemoglobin and the patients with DM1 were analyzed according to glycemic control. To the auditory evaluation were used the immittance and audiometry, and the TEOAE. The test was performed in the acoustically treated room, the non-linear TE test protocol (1 KHz to 4 kHz) at 80 dB SPL (AuDX - Biologic ). Results: TEOAE responses were absent in 5.12% of patients with DM1, with a significant difference in relation to controls (p = 0.04). The analysis of TEOAE by frequency bands showed a higher proportion of alteration in adolescents with DM1 poorly controlled when compared to well controlled ones, in the frequencies of 1000Hz, 2000Hz and 3000Hz (p <0.05). Conclusion: TEOAE by frequency bands allowed the early identification of auditory impairment in adolescents with DM1 and showed an association between poorly controlled DM1 and hearing loss. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Acoustic Stimulation/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cochlea , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Hearing Loss/etiology , Hearing Tests/methods
10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-209157

ABSTRACT

Background: Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent that is widely used to treat a variety of malignant tumors. Serious doselimiting side effects such as ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and neurotoxicity are likely to occur with its use.Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to do audiological evaluation of patients on cisplatin before and after chemotherapyfor squamous cell carcinomas of head and neck and analyze for hearing loss (HL).Materials and Methods: A total of 46 patients undergoing cisplatin administration were included in the study. History taking,preliminary ENT examination, and audiological evaluation with pure-tone audiometry were done. A pure-tone average (PTA) wascalculated using the speech frequencies (500, 1000, and 1500 kHz). High-frequency pure-tone audiometry was also done in allpatients to know the basal auditory threshold before starting cisplatin therapy. Baseline audiometry was done Prior to Chemotherapyor at least 24 h after administration of Cisplatin. Monitoring audiometry was done before each cycle of Cisplatin therapy. Follow-upaudiometry was done 1, 3, and 6 months after chemotherapy. Dosage of cisplatin ranged from 50 mg to 115 mg with cumulativedose ranging from 250 mg to 850 mg in all the patients. All the data were analyzed using standard statistical methods.Observations and Results: Among 46 patients, there were 33 males and 13 females (28.26%) with a male-to-female ratioof 2.53:1. Patients were aged between 45 years and 70 years and the mean age was 55.35 ± 2.70 years. 22/46 (47.82%)patients were in the range of 55–65 years age group followed by 15/46 (32.60%) patients who were in the 45–55 yearsage group. 9/46 (19.56%) patients were in the 65–75 years age group. Patients of all age groups showed high-frequency(3000 kHz–12,000 kHz) HL in the study group. The thresholds were found to be increasing from 35 dB to 59 dB with increasingfrequencies from 3000 kHz to 12,000 kHz.Conclusions: In this study, all the patients showed significant evidence of severe mixed type of HL. The HL was significant inall the age groups and in both the genders. Six months follow-up showed no recovery of HL presumable resulting in permanentHL. Very few patients showed vestibular involvement. Audiometric monitoring may help to provide early evidence of decreasedhearing ability, leading to the possible limitation of the severity of ototoxicity.

11.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(3): 282-289, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011624

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: In daily life biological systems are usually exposed to magnetic field forces at different intensities and frequencies, either directly or indirectly. Despite negative results, the therapeutic use of the low dose magnetic field has been found in recent studies. The effect of magnetic field forces on cochlear cells is not clear in the literature. Objective: In our study, we first applied in vivo pulsed magnetic fields to laboratory rats to investigate the effects on cochlea with distortion product otoacoustic emission test followed by histopathological examinations. Methods: Twelve rats were included in this study, separated into two groups as study group and control group. The rats in the study group were exposed to 40 Hz pulsed magnetic field for 1 h/day for 30 days; the hearing of the rats was controlled by otoacoustic emission test. Also, their cochleas were removed and histochemical examination was performed by Caspase-3, Caspase-9, and TUNEL methods. Results: A statistically significant difference was determined (p < 0.05) when the hearing thresholds of the groups obtained by using 5714 Hz and 8000 Hz stimuli were compared by Kruskal-Wallis test. A significant reaction was observed in the study group, especially in the outer ciliated cells during immunohistochemical examinations by using Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 methods. A significantly positive difference was determined in the study group, especially at the outer ciliated cells and the support cells of the corti organ, when compared to the control group (p < 0.05) by the TUNEL method. Conclusion: According to the results of our study, the very low dose magnetic field, which is considered to be used for therapeutic purposes recently, can cause both auditory function defects and histopathologic damage in cochlear cells.


Resumo Introdução: Os sistemas biológicos são geralmente expostos a forças de campo magnético em diferentes intensidades e frequências, direta ou indiretamente, na vida diária. Apesar dos resultados negativos, o uso terapêutico do campo magnético de baixa dose tem sido encontrado em estudos recentes. O efeito das forças do campo magnético sobre as células cocleares não está claro na literatura. Objetivo: Em nosso estudo, aplicamos pela primeira vez campos magnéticos pulsados in vivo em ratos de laboratório para investigar os efeitos na cóclea através do teste de emissão otoacústica por produto de distorção e análises histopatológicas. Método: Doze ratos foram incluídos neste estudo, os quais foram separados em dois grupos, grupo de estudo e grupo controle. Os ratos do grupo de estudo foram expostos a campo magnético pulsado de 40 Hz por 1 hora/dia por 30 dias, e a audição dos ratos foi controlada por testes de emissão otoacústica. Além disso, suas cócleas foram colhidas e o exame histoquímico foi feito pelos métodos caspase-3, caspase-9 e TUNEL. Resultados: Foi determinada uma diferença estatisticamente significante (p < 0,05) quando os limiares auditivos dos grupos obtidos por meio dos estímulos de 5714 Hz e 8000 Hz foram comparados pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis. Uma reação significante foi observada no grupo de estudo, especialmente nas células ciliadas externas nas análises imuno-histoquímicas, com os métodos caspase-3 e caspase-9. Uma diferença significantemente positiva foi determinada no grupo de estudo, especialmente nas células ciliadas externas e nas células de suporte do órgão de Corti, quando comparadas com o grupo controle (p < 0,05) pelo método TUNEL. Conclusão: De acordo com os resultados do nosso estudo, o campo magnético de dose baixa, que tem sido considerado para uso terapêutico recentemente, pode causar defeitos na função auditiva e danos histopatológicos nas células cocleares.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cochlea/pathology , Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer/pathology , Electromagnetic Fields/adverse effects , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous , Statistics, Nonparametric
12.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(2): 184-190, 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015202

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The cochlear anatomy varies in each individual, and that has an impact on decisions regarding the insertion of electrodes. The measurement of the cochlear size is the routine examination required to choose the proper cochlear implant (CI) electrodes. Objective: To acquire normative data on the size of the cochlea (length, width, height, scala timpani [ST] height, cochlear duct length [CDL]) of CI candidates in Medan, Indonesia. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted based on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) temporal bone data and on HRCT temporal data manipulated to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) multiplanar images with OsiriX MD DICOM Viewer version 9.5.1 (Pixmeo SARL, Bernex, Geneva, Switzerland) viewer of 18 patients (36 ears) who were CI candidates in Medan, Indonesia, in order to determine cochlear length (A), cochlear width, cochlear height, ST height and CDL, calculated through a simple mathematical function. Results: The average cochlear length (A) was 8.75 mm (standard deviation [SD] = 0.31 mm); the average cochlear width was 6.53 mm (SD = 0.35 mm); the average cochlear height was 3.26 mm (SD = 0.24 mm) and the average ST height at the basal cochlea was 1.00 mm (SD = 0.1mm); and 0.71 mm (SD = 0.1 mm) at the half turn of cochlea. The average total CDL was 32.45 mm (SD = 1.31 mm; range: 30.01-34.83 mm). Conclusion: The cochlear size varies in each individual; therefore, the temporal bone measurement of CI candidates using HRCT is essential: for the selection of suitable implant electrodes; to minimize cochlear damages at the insertion of the electrode arrays; and to maximize the hearing improvements (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cochlea/anatomy & histology , Cochlear Duct/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Cochlear Implantation , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-797902

ABSTRACT

Acid-sensing ion channels are a class of extracellular H+ activated cation channels, belonging to the amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channel/degenerin (ENaC/DEG) superfamily. During extracellular acidification, the channels are activated and produce corresponding action potential. Acid-sensing ion channels are extensively expressed in the peripheral and central nervous system. It plays an important in synaptic plasticity, mechanical sensation, injury sensation related to acidosis of local tissues, acid reception and retinal regulation. This article reviews the expression, biological characteristics and functions of acid-sensing ion channels in cochlea, vestibular tissue and auditory center, so as to improve the understanding of physiology and pathophysiology of auditory system.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796886

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To determine the extent of transfection and expression of adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 9 (AAV9) in the cochleae of mice at different ages.@*Methods@#AAV9-green fluorescent protein (GFP) was inoculated into the cochlea of mice via the round window membrane (RWM) or through cochleostomy at different ages. Four groups were divided according to ages and injection sites: P1SM group, AAV9-GFP was delivered to the scala media by cochleostomy at postnatal day 1; P1RW group, AAV9-GFP was delivered to the scala tympani via RWM at postnatal day 1; P9RW group: AAV9-GFP was injected through RWM at postnatal day 9; and P30RW group, adult mice (P30) were injected through RWM. GFP expression in cochlear whole mount was analyzed and auditory brainstem response (ABR) tests were conducted one month after virus injection (for each animal, only left cochlea was injected and the right side was used as a control). GraphPad Prism 5 statistical software was used for data analysis.@*Results@#All of inner hair cells (IHCs) and most of outer hair cells (OHCs) were transfected via two approaches at P1 injection. There was no significant difference in ABR threshold between injected ears and untreated ears (P>0.05). All of the IHCs and parts of OHCs (69% in apical turn) were transfected via RWM at P9. The strongest GFP expression was observed near the apical turn. Cochlear inoculation via RWM at P30 led to transgene expression in only IHCs. The ABR threshold of injected ears in P9RW group and P30RW group was significantly higher than that of contralateral ears (P<0.01).@*Conclusions@#AAV9 can be highly expressed in the inner and outer hair cells of the cochlea and hearing sensitivity can be preserved if virus injections are performed in neonatal mice. After AAV9 is transfected into the inner ear of adult mice, it is only expressed in the inner hair cells, which leads to the increase of the ABR response threshold of mice. Transfection efficiency is significant higher in neonate mice than in P9 and adult mice.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-847059

ABSTRACT

More than 80% of all cases of deafness are related to the death or degeneration of cochlear hair cells and the associated spiral ganglion neurons, and a lack of regeneration of these cells leads to permanent hearing loss. Therefore, the regeneration of lost hair cells is an important goal for the treatment of deafness. Atoh1 is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that is critical in both the development and regeneration of cochlear hair cells. Atoh1 is transcriptionally regulated by several signaling pathways, including Notch and Wnt signalings. At the post-translational level, it is regulated through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In vitro and in vivo studies have revealed that manipulation of these signaling pathways not only controls development, but also leads to the regeneration of cochlear hair cells after damage. Recent progress toward understanding the signaling networks involved in hair cell development and regeneration has led to the development of new strategies to replace lost hair cells. This review focuses on our current understanding of the signaling pathways that regulate Atoh1 in the cochlea.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805768

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To observe the position of the electrode in the cochlea following cochlear implantation by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).@*Methods@#Twenty-five children who received cochlear implantation and CBCT examinations in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery from the Second Hospital of Shandong University between January 2016 and December 2017 were selected. There were 15 males (17 ears) and 10 females (10 ears). The age ranged from 0.5 to 7.0 years old, with a median age of 1.6 years. 23 patients with unilateral implantation and two patients with bilateral implantation. The implants were all Med-El standard 12-electrode contact arrays. The CBCT was used to determine the position of the electrode in the cochlea, the distance between the electrode contacts and modiolus, and intracochlear insertion length of the electrode arrays. SPSS Statistics, version 22.0 was used for data processing and statistical analysis.@*Results@#CBCT images could clearly demonstrate the structure of round window, oval window, modiolus, osseous cochlear duct, osseous spiral lamina, and electrodes. The electrode arrays of all the children were fully implanted into the cochlea. 26 of the electrode arrays were located in the scala tympani and one of them was inserted into the scala vestibular. The mean intracochlear insertion length of the electrode arrays was 30.23 (95%CI, 30.04-30.71) mm. The distance between the electrode contacts and modiolus gradually increased at the 1-4th electrode contacts and reached the maximum at the 4th electrode contacts with an average of 1.10 mm (95%CI, 1.02 to 1.18 mm), and then gradually decreased from the 5th electrode contacts.@*Conclusions@#CBCT can clearly show cochlear fine structures and therefore accurately assess the electrode position following cochlear implantation.

17.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 22(3): 260-265, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975582

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The literature shows that there are anatomical changes on the temporal bone anatomy during the first four years of life in children. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the temporal bone anatomy regarding the cochlear implant surgery in stillbirths between 32 and 40 weeks of gestational age using computed tomography to simulate the trajectory of the drill to the scala timpani avoiding vital structures. Objectives To measure the distances of the simulated trajectory to the facial recess, cochlea, ossicular chain and tympanic membrane, while performing the minimally invasive cochlear implant technique, using the Improvise imaging software (Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, US). Methods An experimental study with 9 stillbirth specimens, with gestational ages ranging between 32 and 40 weeks, undergoing tomographic evaluation with individualization and reconstruction of the labyrinth, facial nerve, ossicular chain, tympanic membrane and cochlea followed by drill path definition to the scala tympani. Improvise was used for the computed tomography (CT) evaluation and for the reconstruction of the structures and trajectory of the drill. Results Range of the distance of the trajectory to the facial nerve: 0.58 to 1.71mm. to the ossicular chain: 0.38 to 1.49 mm; to the tympanic membrane: 0.85 to 1.96 mm; total range of the distance of the trajectory: 5.92 to 12.65 mm. Conclusion The measurements of the relationship between the drill and the anatomical structures of the middle ear and the simulation of the trajectory showed that the middle ear cavity at 32 weeks was big enough for surgical procedures such as cochlear implants. Although cochlear implantation at birth is not an indication yet, this study shows that the technique may be an option in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/surgery , Cochlea/surgery , Cochlear Implantation/methods , Tympanic Membrane/surgery , Cadaver , Pregnancy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Intervention Studies , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Ear, Middle/anatomy & histology , Ear Ossicles/surgery , Stillbirth , Facial Nerve/surgery , Ear, Inner/surgery
19.
CoDAS ; 30(5): e20170267, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952874

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Identificar por meio de uma revisão sistemática da literatura quais são as características da avaliação audiológica clínica de indivíduos com síndrome de Williams. Estratégia de pesquisa Inicialmente foi determinada a seguinte pergunta de pesquisa: "Quais são as características da avaliação auditiva clínica em indivíduos com síndrome de Williams?". A partir desta, foi realizado um levantamento bibliográfico em 4 bases de dados, utilizando-se dos seguintes descritores: síndrome de Williams (Williams syndrome), perda auditiva (hearing loss) e audiologia (audiology). Critérios de seleção Foram selecionados artigos com nível de evidência 1 ou 2, publicados na íntegra nos idiomas português brasileiro ou inglês. Análise dos dados Foram analisados os resultados obtidos nos testes auditivos utilizados na rotina clínica, incluindo: imitanciometria, audiometria tonal, emissões otoacústicas e potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico. Resultados 209 estudos foram encontrados, porém apenas 12 contemplaram os critérios de inclusão para o estudo. Foi possível observar prevalência de curva timpanométrica do tipo A, que pode ocorrer juntamente com ausência de reflexos acústicos, perda auditiva neurossensorial de grau leve a moderado acometendo principalmente as frequências altas, emissões otoacústicas ausentes ou de menor amplitude e potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico sem alteração retrococlear. Conclusão O comprometimento coclear é comum em indivíduos com síndrome de Williams e as principais alterações na avaliação auditiva nesta população são a ausência das emissões otoacústicas e dos reflexos acústicos bem como a presença de perda auditiva neurossensorial de grau leve a moderado principalmente nas frequências altas na audiometria tonal.


ABSTRACT Purpose Identify the characteristics of the clinical audiological evaluation of individuals with Williams syndrome by means of a systematic literature review. Research strategies The following research question was initially determined: "What are the characteristics of clinical auditory assessment in individuals with Williams syndrome?". From this, a bibliographic search was conducted in four databases using the descriptors: Williams syndrome, Hearing loss, and Audiology. Selection criteria Only full articles with evidence levels 1 or 2, published in Brazilian Portuguese or English, were selected. Data analysis Results obtained in the auditory tests used in the clinical routine, namely: immittance test, pure-tone audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, and brainstem auditory evoked potential were analyzed. Results Two hundred nine studies were found, but only 12 met the inclusion criteria for the study. It was possible to observe prevalence of type A tympanometry curve, which may occur with absence of acoustic reflexes, mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss, affecting mainly the high frequencies, absent or less amplified otoacoustic emissions, and brainstem auditory evoked potential without retrocochlear alteration. Conclusion Cochlear impairment is common in individuals with Williams syndrome and the main disorders found in the hearing assessment in this population are absence of otoacoustic emissions and acoustic reflexes, as well as presence of mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss, mainly in the high-frequency range, observed by audiometry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem/physiology , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous/physiology , Williams Syndrome/physiopathology , Hearing Loss/diagnosis , Acoustic Impedance Tests , Brazil/epidemiology , Audiology , Hearing Loss/epidemiology
20.
Rev. colomb. radiol ; 29(3): 4970-4974, 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-982173

ABSTRACT

Existe una gran variedad de malformaciones congénitas que pueden afectar al oído interno, con distintas fisiopatologías, diferentes estructuras alteradas y edad de aparición de los síntomas. Por lo anterior, es necesario conocer e identificar dichas alteraciones, con el fin de actuar oportunamente y reducir el riesgo de las complicaciones, entre otras ­de gran importancia­ las alteraciones en el área del lenguaje y en el ámbito social.


There are a great variety of congenital malformations that can affect the inner ear, with a diversity of physiopathologies, involved altered structures and age of symptom onset. Therefore, it is important to know and identify these alterations opportunely to lower the risks of all the complications, being of great importance, among others, the alterations in language development and social interactions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ear, Inner , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Vestibule, Labyrinth , Hearing Loss
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