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1.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(8): 3181-3192, ago. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384485

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este estudo objetivou avaliar o contexto de trabalho e o custo humano no trabalho entre Agentes Comunitários de Saúde (ACS). Trata-se de estudo transversal, censitário, com aplicação de questionário socioeconômico, Escala de Avaliação do Contexto de Trabalho (EACT) e Escala de Custo Humano no Trabalho (ECHT), que compõem o Inventário sobre Trabalho e Risco de Adoecimento (ITRA). Foram realizadas análises descritivas das médias dos escores fatoriais, comparação de médias entre os itens e entre as características sociodemográficas do grupo, por meio dos testes de Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis e nível de significância de 5%. Participaram do estudo 675 ACS. Todos os fatores relativos às condições de trabalho e custo humano no trabalho apresentaram avaliação moderada/crítica. Idade, tempo de serviço e vínculo empregatício foram as variáveis associadas a todos os fatores da EACT, enquanto para a ECHT, apenas o tempo de serviço se mostrou associado a todos os fatores. Avaliações mais negativas do contexto de trabalho e do custo humano no trabalho foram mais evidentes entre ACS com maior tempo de atuação. Os resultados destacam a necessidade de melhoria das condições de trabalho e das relações profissionais relativas aos ACS.


Abstract The scope of this study was to evaluate the work context and the occupational health cost among Community Health Workers (CHWs). It is a cross-sectional, census study, using a socioeconomic questionnaire, the Work Context Assessment Scale (WCAS) and the Human Cost at Work Scale (HCWS), which make up the Inventory of Work and Illness Risk (IWIR). Descriptive analyses of mean factor scores were performed and comparison of means between items and sociodemographic characteristics of the group, through Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis's tests with a 5% significance level. A total of 675 CHWs participated in the study. All factors related to working conditions and human cost at work presented a moderate/critical evaluation. Age, length of service and employment ties were variables associated with all factors of WCAS, while only length of service was associated with all factors for CHWs. More negative assessments of the work context and the occupational health cost were more evident among CHWs with longer experience. The results highlight the need to improve working conditions and professional relationships related to CHW.

2.
Invest. educ. enferm ; 40(2): 193-206, 15 de junio 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1379797

ABSTRACT

Objective. To understand the health process, from the approach of the social determination of health in two neighborhoods in Medellín - Colombia, to contribute to the care of people, families, and collectives in their multidimensional reality. Methods. Qualitative research from the ethnographic perspective, approaching the general dimension with documentary analysis of social policies and community documents, the particular dimension through focal groups and interviews to community leaders, and the singular dimension with the family visit. Results. Families and collectives live within a sociocultural setting of resistance, overshadowed by moments of flight and displacement derived from violence, with scant participation in city plans and programs and with structural problems of economic and political exclusion. They constructed the territory as space and shelter in the weave that protects and violates them, with processes from uprooting to rooting. The families have maintained protective processes, like family participation in decision making, knowledge on health care, among others, and destructive processes, like informal labor and job instability, without spaces for recreation and with limitations in transportation, in access to health programs and in obtaining food. Conclusion. The health of the families has been determined by historical exclusion to work to obtain resources for a minimum vital subsistence, which is why they suffer social vulnerability due to few opportunities for development; they have lived a transformation process of the territory with resistance, solidarity, and construction of social networks.


Objective. To understand the health process, from the approach of the social determination of health in two neighborhoods in Medellín - Colombia, to contribute to the care of people, families, and collectives in their multidimensional reality. Methods. Qualitative research from the ethnographic perspective, approaching the general dimension with documentary analysis of social policies and community documents, the particular dimension through focal groups and interviews to community leaders, and the singular dimension with the family visit. Results. Families and collectives live within a sociocultural setting of resistance, overshadowed by moments of flight and displacement derived from violence, with scant participation in city plans and programs and with structural problems of economic and political exclusion. They constructed the territory as space and shelter in the weave that protects and violates them, with processes from uprooting to rooting. The families have maintained protective processes, like family participation in decision making, knowledge on health care, among others, and destructive processes, like informal labor and job instability, without spaces for recreation and with limitations in transportation, in access to health programs and in obtaining food. Conclusion. The health of the families has been determined by historical exclusion to work to obtain resources for a minimum vital subsistence, which is why they suffer social vulnerability due to few opportunities for development; they have lived a transformation process of the territory with resistance, solidarity, and construction of social networks.


Objetivo. Compreender o processo de saúde, a partir da abordagem da determinação social da saúde em dois bairros de Medellín, para contribuir com o cuidado de indivíduos, famílias e grupos em sua realidade multidimensional. Métodos. Pesquisa qualitativa na perspectiva etnográfica; abordou a dimensão geral com análise documental de políticas sociais e documentos comunitários, a dimensão particular por meio de grupos focais e entrevistas com lideranças comunitárias e a dimensão singular com a visita familiar. Resultados. Famílias e grupos vivem em um espaço sociocultural de resistência, matizado por momentos de fuga e deslocamento derivados da violência, com pouca participação nos planos e programas da cidade e com problemas estruturais de exclusão econômica e política. Construíram o território como espaço e refúgio na urdidura que os protege e os viola, com processos de desenraizamento ao enraizamento. As famílias têm mantido processos protetivos como a participação da família na tomada de decisões, o conhecimento dos cuidados de saúde, entre outros, e processos destrutivos como o trabalho informal e a precarização do emprego, sem espaços de lazer e com limitações no transporte, no acesso aos programas de saúde e na obtenção de alimentos. Conclusão. A saúde das famílias tem sido determinada pela exclusão histórica do trabalho para obtenção de recursos para um mínimo vital de subsistência, pelo qual sofrem vulnerabilidade social devido às escassas oportunidades de desenvolvimento; vivenciaram um processo de transformação do território com resistência, solidariedade e construção de redes sociais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health-Disease Process , Public Health , Community Health Nursing , Human Migration , Social Determination of Health
3.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 21(1): 79-84, maio 05,2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370714

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar as mudanças no processo de trabalho do Agente Comunitário de Saúde, entre os anos de 2019 e 2020, em meio ao cenário da pandemia da COVID-19. Metodologia: caracteriza-se por um estudo documental, quantitativo, do tipo ecológico, de série temporal. Os dados foram coletados na base de dados do Sistema de Informação em Saúde para a Atenção Básica. As variáveis do estudo tratam-se de dados referentes às atividades do Agente Comunitário de Saúde quanto às atividades coletivas, visitas domiciliares e os indicadores de desempenho elencados pelo sistema. Os dados foram analisados no SPSS versão 24.0, por meio de um cálculo do percentual de variação (%V) entre os anos coletados. Logo após, foi realizado o Teste T de Student para verificar diferenças estatisticamente relevantes entre os anos avaliados (p<0,05). Resultados: quanto às atividades coletivas, houve redução significativa (p<0,001) de 51,1% entre os anos. As visitas domiciliares também apresentaram uma diminuição do percentual de variação (18,6%); já os indicadores de desempenho não demonstraram significativas mudanças. Conclusões: diante do estudado, as ações de prevenção e promoção da saúde foram as mais prejudicadas nesse cenário, sendo necessário um maior empenho do Poder Público para a melhoria desses indicadores.


Objective: to analyze the changes in the work process of the Community Health Agent, of the Family Health Strategy, between 2019 and 2020, amid the COVID-19 pandemic scenario. Methods: characterized by a documentary, quantitative, ecological study, with a time series. Data were collected from the database of the Health Information System for Primary Care. The study variables are data referring to the activities of the Community Health Agent regarding collective activities, home visits, and the performance indicators listed by the system. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 24.0, by calculating the percentage of variation (%V) between the years collected. Soon after, the Student's T-test was performed to verify statistically relevant differences between the evaluated years (p<0.05). Results: regarding collective activities, there was a significant reduction (p<0.001) of 51.1% between the years. Home visits also showed a decrease in the percentage of variation (18.6%); performance indicators did not show significant changes. Conclusions:given the study, prevention, and health promotion actions were the most affected in this scenario, requiring greater efforts by the Government to improve these indicators.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Primary Health Care , Unified Health System , Community Health Workers , National Health Strategies , COVID-19 , Ecological Studies , Evaluation Studies as Topic
4.
Rev. APS ; 25(Supl 1): 198-207, 2022-05-06.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371071

ABSTRACT

Este artigo é um relato de experiência que tem por objetivo apresentar as atividades e as experiências dos agentes comunitários de saúde (ACSs) decorrentes da realização da primeira fase de um estudo multicêntrico sobre prevenção e controle da Covid-19 em três Unidades de Saúde da Família de um município do estado da Bahia. A participação dos ACSs foi dividida em três etapas: I ­Convite e qualificação; II ­Coleta de dados; III ­Discussão sobre a pesquisa. Participaram 16 ACSs, destacando-se, nesse processo, a utilização das Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação (TICs) e os impactos observados pelos ACSs no seu processo de trabalho ao participar da coleta e discussão dos dados da pesquisa. Observou-se a importância do desenvolvimento do estudo no âmbito da Atenção Primária à Saúde como forma de qualificação do trabalho do ACS no uso das TICs e na vigilância em saúde no território bem como a importância da Prática Baseada em Evidências Científicas no trabalho em saúde.


This is an experience report that aims to present the activities and experiences of Community Health Agents (ACSs, in Portuguese) resulting from the first phase of a multicenter study on the Prevention and Control of Covid-19 in threeUnits of Family Health in a municipality in the state of Bahia. The participation of the ACSs was divided into three stages: I ­Invitation and qualification; II ­Data collection; III ­Research discussion. 16 ACSs participated and they emphasized the impacts of the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in their work process during the collection and discussion of research data. The importance of developing the study in the context of Primary Health Care was observed, as a way of qualifying the work of ACSs in the use of ICT and health surveillance in the territory, as well as the emphasis on Evidence-Based Practice in health practice.


Subject(s)
Community Health Workers , Primary Health Care , Family Health , Disease Prevention , COVID-19
5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(5): 1895-1909, maio 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374979

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivou-se analisar a regionalização dos serviços da Rede de Atenção Psicossocial (RAPS) em Minas Gerais (MG), Brasil, gerando indicadores que possam potencializar a gestão estratégica do SUS no fortalecimento da atenção psicossocial do estado. É um estudo transversal, realizado a partir de dados coletados em maio de 2019 em sites governamentais, tendo as Macrorregiões e Regiões de Saúde do estado como unidades de análise. Foram produzidos indicadores da cobertura de serviços em relação à população, de acordo com parâmetros normativos estipulados pelo Ministério da Saúde, para melhor compreensão da cobertura efetivada e validou-se um indicador geral (iRAPS) da oferta dos serviços dessa rede em MG. Os resultados encontrados possibilitam uma análise detalhada do aspecto estrutural da RAPS em MG e demonstram a implantação de uma rede robusta. Entretanto, percebem-se importantes heterogeneidades regionais e também uma carência de serviços voltados para populações específicas e com funcionamento 24 horas, o que fragiliza o adequado acesso à RAPS em diversos territórios do estado. Foram encontrados maiores valores do iRAPS nas regiões de saúde com baixo desenvolvimento socioeconômico e baixa oferta geral de serviços de saúde, fato que difere do cenário nacional.


Abstract The present study aims at analyzing the regionalization of the services carried out by the Psychosocial Care Network (RAPS in Portuguese) in the state of Minas Gerais (MG) in Brazil, yielding indicators that may enhance the SUS strategic management towards the strengthening of the psychosocial care provided by the state. It is a cross-sectional study, based on the data collected in May 2019 from government websites, considering the state's Macro-Regions and Health Regions as units of analysis. Indicators of service coverage in relation to the population in accordance to normative parameters determined by the Ministry of Health for a better understanding of the effective coverage were produced, and a general indicator (iRAPS) of the supply of services in this network in Minas Gerais state was validated. The outcomes allow a detailed analysis of the structural aspect of the RAPS in MG and unveil the development of a robust network. However, important regional heterogeneities were noticed and also a lack of services aiming at specific populations providing assistance 24 hours a day, which weakens the proper access to RAPS in several parts of the state. Higher values of iRAPS were found in health regions with low socioeconomic development and low general offer of health services, a fact that differs from the national scenario, which may imply state policy investments aiming at offering RAPS within the state hinterland areas.

6.
Serv. soc. soc ; (143): 140-161, jan.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357441

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Este artigo objetivou analisar a determinação social da saúde numa comunidade quilombola do agreste pernambucano. Trata-se de uma pesquisa-ação, na qual se realizaram dez entrevistas e seis encontros do Círculo de Cultura, sendo analisados por meio da Matriz de Processos Críticos. Os resultados mostram que ser saudável no quilombo passa pelo fortalecimento da integralidade em saúde e pelo viver dignamente. O artigo apresenta uma perspectiva analítica para a compreensão da determinação social nos quilombos.


Abstract: This article aimed to analyze the social determination of health in a quilombola community in the rural region of Pernambuco. It is an action-research, where ten interviews and six meetings of the Culture Circle were carried out, being analyzed through the Critical Processes Matrix. The results show that being healthy in the quilombo involves strengthening integrality in health and living with dignity. The article presents an analytical perspective for understanding the social determination in quilombos.

7.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 15(2): e10604, abr./jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371406

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se a cobertura da Atenção Básica, em seus diferentes modelos de atenção, interferiu no número de casos notificados por tuberculose pulmonar, óbitos e cura da doença, no estado de São Paulo, no período de 2008 a 2016. Estudo do tipo ecológico, com dados secundários, analisados estatisticamente por Regressão de Poisson. Percebeu-se maior prevalência da doença em municípios com maior população, maior taxa de pobreza e menor cobertura de Estratégia de Saúde da Família. Verificou-se mais óbitos em municípios com maior população, melhores indicadores econômicos, menor cobertura de agentes comunitários e que possuem Atenção Básica do tipo tradicional. Maiores taxas de cura foram observadas nos municípios com piores indicadores econômicos e de desenvolvimento humano, com maiores coberturas de agentes comunitários e de Atenção Básica. Conclui-se que a cobertura de Atenção Básica, principalmente nos modelos de atenção que possuem Agentes Comunitários de Saúde, está associada a melhores indicadores de tuberculose pulmonar.


The objective of this study was to assess whether the Primary Health Care coverage, in different models, interfered with the number of reported cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, deaths and cure of the disease, in the state of São Paulo, from 2008 to 2016. This was an ecological study, with secondary data, statistically analyzed by Poisson regression. A higher prevalence of the disease was found in municipalities with a larger population, higher poverty rate and lower coverage of the Family Health Strategy. There were more deaths in municipalities with a larger population, better economic indicators, lower coverage of community health agents and with traditional Primary Health Care. Higher cure rates were observed in municipalities with worse economic and human development indicators, with higher coverage of community health agents and the Primary Health Care. The coverage of Primary Health Care, especially in models composed with community health agents, is associated with better indicators of pulmonary tuberculosis.

8.
Saúde debate ; 46(133): 551-570, jan.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1390359

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a produção científica sobre a continuidade do cuidado e a integralidade da atenção, identificando dispositivos utilizados para essa construção a partir do hospital. A presente investigação é uma revisão integrativa realizada nos meses de junho e julho de 2021. Assim, para a seleção dos artigos, utilizou-se das bases de dados PubMed/Medline, Lilacs, BDENF e Lis. Foram analisados 36 artigos. Da análise, emergiram três categorias: Cuidado em saúde e integralidade dentro do hospital; O enlace e as conexões na continuidade do cuidado; Redes de atenção à saúde no Sistema Único de Saúde e a continuidade do cuidado. A análise permitiu identificar estratégias/ferramentas sobre a organização do trabalho na dimensão micropolítica da produção do cuidado em saúde. Os principais dispositivos encontrados foram: alta segura, corridas de leitos, gestão da clínica, discussão de casos, linhas de cuidado, enfermeira de enlace, complexos reguladores, educação permanente e multidisciplinaridade. Concluiu-se que, embora alguns estudos se refiram a uma prática na rede de atenção à saúde ainda fragmentada, os dispositivos mencionados constituem-se em avanços em direção a um modelo de atenção baseado em linhas de cuidado dentro do hospital e para fora, buscando articulação com a rede de atenção à saúde.


ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to analyze the scientific production on the continuity and comprehensiveness of care, identifying devices used for this construction starting from the hospital. This research is an integrative review carried out in June and July 2021. Thus, PubMed/Medline, Lilacs, BDENF, and Lis databases were used for the selection of articles. Thirty-six articles were analyzed. Three categories emerged from the analysis: Health care and comprehensiveness within the hospital; The linkage and connections in the continuity of care; Health care networks in the Unified Health System and continuity of care. The analysis allowed identifying strategies/tools on the organization of work in the micropolitical dimension of health care production. The main devices found were: safe discharge, bed races, clinic management, case discussion, care lines, liaison nurses, regulatory complexes, continuing education, and multidisciplinarity. It was concluded that, although some studies are related to a practice in the still fragmented health care network, the mentioned devices constitute advances towards a model of care based on lines of care within and outside the hospital seeking articulation with the health care network.

9.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 17(44): 2755, 20220304.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379809

ABSTRACT

Introdução: No final da década de 1990, iniciou-se as atividades de prevenção das infecções sexualmente transmissíveis para a atenção primária à saúde. Nas duas últimas décadas, vem ocorrendo uma ampliação da assistência de enfermeiros no tratamento dessas infecções. A Lei do Exercício Profissional da Enfermagem nº 7.498./86, garante aos enfermeiros na consulta de enfermagem o direito de realizar a prescrição de medicamentos aprovados por protocolos institucionais. Objetivo: Verificar se os enfermeiros que atuam na Atenção Primária à Saúde de Florianópolis se sentem aptos para a execução do diagnóstico e do tratamento medicamentoso das infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST) com base nos Protocolos de Enfermagem do município. Métodos: Pesquisa exploratório-descritiva de abordagem qualitativa realizada por meio de entrevista semiestruturada com perguntas disparadoras. Foram entrevistados dez enfermeiros assistenciais da Atenção Primária à Saúde do município. Os dados foram analisados segundo a técnica de Bardin. Resultados: Identificaram-se duas categorias analíticas: "O enfermeiro e a (re)construção de sua prática profissional" e "O enfermeiro e a sua contribuição na qualidade de serviço na Atenção Primária à Saúde". Conclusões: Os enfermeiros da rede assistencial da Atenção Primária à Saúde de Florianópolis mostram-se altamente qualificados e sentem-se capazes de responder adequadamente às necessidades de sua prática profissional.


Introduction: In the 1990s, sexually transmitted infections prevention activities for primary health care began. In the last two decades, there has been an increase in the assistance provided by nurses in the treatment of these infections. The Nusing Professional Practice Law No. 7.498/86 guarantees nurses in consultations the right to prescribe medication approved by institutional protocols. Objective: Identify whether nurses from the Primary Health Care Network in Florianopolis feel able to diagnose and prescribe medications for the treatment of sexually transmitted infections, based on the municipality's nursing protocols. Methods: exploratory-descriptive research with a qualitative approach, conducted through semi-structured interviews with trigger questions. 10 nurses with experience in primary care in the municipality were interviewed. The data were analyzed using the Bardin technique. Results: two analytical categories were identified: The nurse and the (re)construction of their professional practice and the nurse and their contribution to the quality of service in Primary Health Care. Conclusions: The Primary Health Care Network in Florianopolis is highly qualified, and nurses feel capable of adequately responding to the needs of their professional practices


Introducción: A fines de la década de 1990 se iniciaron las actividades de prevención de infecciones de transmisión sexual para la atención primaria de salud. En las últimas dos décadas se ha incrementado la asistencia brindada por enfermeras en el tratamiento de estas infecciones. La Ley de Práctica Profesional de Enfermería nº 7.498/86 le garantiza al enfermero en las consultas de enfermera el derecho a prescribir medicamentos aprobados por protocolos institucionales. Objetivo: Identificar si los enfermeros de la Red de Atención Primaria de Salud de Florianópolis se sienten capaces de diagnosticar y recetar medicamentos para el tratamiento de infecciones de transmisión sexual, con base en los protocolos de enfermería del municipio. Métodos: investigación exploratoria-descriptiva con enfoque cualitativo, realizada a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas con preguntas gatillo. Se entrevistó a 10 enfermeras con experiencia en atención primaria en el municipio. Los datos se analizaron mediante la técnica de Bardin. Resultados: se identificaron dos categorías analíticas: El enfermero y la (re) construcción de su práctica profesional y el enfermero y su contribución a la calidad del servicio en Atención Primaria de Salud. Conclusiones: La Red de Atención Primaria de Salud de Florianópolis, está altamente calificada y el enfermero se siente capaz de responder adecuadamente a las necesidades de práctica profesional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Family Nursing , Education, Nursing , Primary Health Care , Public Health
10.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(2): 305-309, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366034

ABSTRACT

Abstract BACKGROUND: Meningitis is listed as one of the diseases requiring compulsory notification in Brazil. It can affect all age groups and also has no seasonality. Cases can be recorded in all months of the year and in all states of Brazil. Despite its importance, the obligation of immediate notification may have been compromised by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on compulsory notifications of meningitis in Brazil and its states during the first wave of the pandemic. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was an ecological study involving all confirmed cases of meningitis in Brazil, in its regions and in its states. METHODS: Data for the months from 2015 to 2020 were obtained from the database of the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, SINAN), in the Department of Informatics of the National Health System (Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, DATASUS). The P-score was used to obtain the percentage change in the numbers of cases reported in 2020. RESULTS: A 45.7% reduction in notifications of meningitis in Brazil was observed. Regarding the regions and the states, with the exception of Roraima, all of them showed a negative P-score, with decreasing curves each month. CONCLUSION: The pandemic caused a negative impact on meningitis notifications in Brazil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Meningitis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Notification , Pandemics/prevention & control
11.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 14(supl.1): 52-52, feb. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394712

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: Frente al aumento de casos de COVID-19 en el municipio bonaerense de Quilmes, y considerando las características sociodemográficas y habitacionales de su población, se puso en funcionamiento el Centro de Aislamiento Sanitario en la Universidad Nacional de Quilmes (CAS-UNQ) desde el 22 de abril hasta el 15 de noviembre de 2020. El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir el funcionamiento del CAS-UNQ y su contribución al abordaje de la primera ola de COVID 19 en el municipio de Quilmes de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. MÉTODOS: La organización general del CAS-UNQ estuvo a cargo del equipo de salud, que desplegó las estrategias necesarias para la atención de todas las personas alojadas. Las personas ingresadas se encontraban cursando cuadros leves de la enfermedad y no podían realizar el aislamiento en su domicilio. Se establecieron tres líneas de trabajo: atención médica, acompañamiento psicológico y abordaje social con perspectiva de derechos. RESULTADOS: Se aisló a 954 personas (407 mujeres adultas, 362 varones adultos y 185 niños menores de 13 años). El máximo de personas aisladas de forma simultánea fue de 120. La media de edad de internación fue de 27 años. DISCUSIÓN: La puesta en funcionamiento del CASUNQ fue una herramienta efectiva tanto para cortar cadenas de contagios en entornos de rápida propagación del virus como para implementar acompañamientos integrales de salud y acceso a derechos de la población.


INTRODUCTION: In response to the increase of COVID-19 cases in the city of Quilmes (Buenos Aires Province), and considering the sociodemographic and housing characteristics of its population, a Sanitary Isolation Center at the National University of Quilmes (CASUNQ) was put into operation from April 22 to November 15, 2020. The objective of this work was to describe the operation of CAS-UNQ and its contribution to addressing the first wave of COVID 19 in Quilmes. METHODS: The general organization if the CAS-UNQ was conducted by a health team, which deployed the necessary strategies to take care of all the people housed there. Those who came to CAS-UNQ were experiencing mild illness and could not be isolated at home. Three lines of work were established: medical care, psychological support and social approach with a rights perspective. RESULTS: A total of 954 people were isolated (407 women, 362 men, and 185 children under 13 years of age). The maximum number of people isolated simultaneously was 120. The mean age of hospitalization was 27 years. DISCUSSION: The implementation of the CAS-UNQ was an effective tool both to cut chains of infections in environments of rapid spread of the virus and to carry out comprehensive health monitoring and access to rights of the population.

12.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1353239

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including type-2 diabetes and hypertension, have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates because of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Maintaining quality care for these conditions is important but data on the impact of COVID-19 on NCD care in South Africa are sparse. Aim: This study aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 on facility and community-based NCD care and management during the first COVID-19 wave. Setting: Two public health sector primary care sites in the Cape Town Metro, including a Community Orientated Primary Care (COPC) learning site. Methods: A rapid appraisal with convergent mixed-methods design, including semi-structured interviews with facility and community health workers (CHWs) (n = 20) and patients living with NCDs (n = 8), was used. Interviews were conducted in English and Afrikaans by qualified interviewers. Transcripts were analysed by thematic content analysis. Quantitative data of health facility attendance, chronic dispensing unit (CDU) prescriptions and routine diabetes control were sourced from the Provincial Health Data Centre and analysed descriptively. Results: Qualitative analysis revealed three themes: disruption (cancellation of services, fear of infection, stress and anxiety), service reorganisation (communication, home delivery of medication, CHW scope of work, risk stratification and change management) and outcomes (workload and morale, stigma, appreciation and impact on NCD control). There was a drop in primary care attendance and an increase in CDU prescriptions and uncontrolled diabetes. Conclusion: This study described the service disruption together with rapid reorganisation and change management at primary care level during the first COVID-19 wave. The changes were strengthened by the COPC foundation in one of the study sites. The impact of COVID-19 on primary-level NCD care and management requires more investigation.


Subject(s)
Quality of Health Care , Delivery of Health Care , Noncommunicable Diseases , COVID-19 , Disease Management , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hypertension
13.
South African Family Practice ; 64(3): 1-6, 19 May 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1380569

ABSTRACT

The etonogestrel subcutaneous contraceptive implant offers efficacy for three years, but some women remove it earlier than prescribed. This study discusses factors associated with the early removal of these implants at a Pretoria community health centre between 01January 2020 to 30 June 2020.Methods: A cross-sectional study using a piloted and researcher assistant-administered questionnaire.Results: Of the 124 participants who removed their etonogestrel subcutaneous contraceptive implant earlier than prescribed, most were single, unemployed, in the age group 30­39 years, Christian, with secondary level education and with parity one or more. Etonogestrel subcutaneous contraceptive implant pre-insertion counselling was given to all participants, most of whom had not previously used contraceptives. Those participants with previous contraceptive use had used injectables. Long-term contraception was the main reason for getting the etonogestrel subcutaneous contraceptive implant. Most participants did not attend post-insertion counselling. Heavy bleeding was the most common side effect and reason for early removal. Fifty-one participants kept the etonogestrel subcutaneous contraceptive implant in for a longer period of 12­23 months. From participants' responses, it seems that Etonogestrel implants may be offered from as early as 15­20 years of age. Conclusion: Women having etonogestrel subcutaneous contraceptive implants removed early at a Pretoria community health centre tended to be young, single, unemployed, Christian, with a secondary level education and with parity one or more. All participants attended the etonogestrel subcutaneous contraceptive implant pre-insertion counselling services but not the post-counselling services. Heavy bleeding was the main reason for the early removal of the etonogestrel subcutaneous contraceptive implant.Keywords: early removal; etonogestrel; subcutaneous contraceptive; implant; Pretoria; community health centre; weight gain; vaginal bleeding.


Subject(s)
Contraception , Device Removal , Early Diagnosis , Gestational Weight Gain , Prostheses and Implants , Uterine Hemorrhage
14.
South African Family Practice ; 64(3): 1-11, 19 May 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1380570

ABSTRACT

The high burden of tuberculosis (TB) in South Africa (SA) is associated with uncontrolled transmission in communities and delayed diagnosis of active cases. Active surveillance for TB is provided by community-based services (CBS). Research is required to understand key factors influencing TB screening services in the CBS. This study explored the implementation of active surveillance for TB where community-oriented primary care (COPC) had been successfully implemented to identify these factors.Methods: This was a qualitative study of four established COPC sites across two provinces in SA where active surveillance for TB is implemented. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposively selected healthcare workers in the CBS and citizens in these communities. The recorded interviews were transcribed for data analysis using ATLAS.tisoftware.Results: The factors influencing active surveillance for TB were directly related to the major players in the delivery of CBS. These factors interacted in a complex network influencing implementation of active surveillance for TB. Building effective relationships across stakeholder platforms by community health workers (CHWs) was directly influenced by the training, capacity building afforded these CHWs by the district health services; and acceptability of CBS. Each factor interplayed with others to influence active surveillance for TB.Conclusion: Community health workers were central to the success of active surveillance for TB. The complex interactions of the social determinants of health and TB transmission in communities required CHWs to develop trusting relationships that responded to these issues that have impact on TB disease and linked clients to healthcare.Keywords: tuberculosis; active case finding; community-oriented primary care; community health worker (CHW); community-based services; active surveillance.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Watchful Waiting , Community Health Workers
15.
Rev. enferm. UFSM ; 12: 43, 2022.
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1392530

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever as ações educativas desenvolvidas pelos Agentes Comunitários de Saúde (ACS) no cuidado às pessoas com Hipertensão Arterial e Diabetes mellitus que vivem no campo. Método: estudo qualitativo desenvolvido com 16 ACS que atuavam em nove unidades de saúde rurais de um município do Sul do Brasil, nos meses de junho a agosto de 2019. Utilizou-se a entrevista semiestruturada como instrumento de coleta de dados. A análise dos dados foi fundamentada pela análise de conteúdo. Resultados: as narrativas revelaram que os ACS são promotores de ações educativas, como: visita domiciliária, grupos, rodas de conversa, palestras e sala de espera; todavia, essas atividades são realizadas junto a outros profissionais e estão direcionadas a grupos específicos. Conclusão: os ACS precisam refletir sobre a forma como suas práticas educativas estão sendo desenvolvidas, a fim de estabelecer espaços de discussões que tenham impacto nas condicionalidades crônicas.


Objective: to describe the educational actions developed by community health agents (CHAs) in the care of people with hypertension and diabetes mellitus living in the countryside. Method: this was a qualitative study developed with 16 CHAs who worked in nine rural health units of a municipality in southern Brazil from June to August 2019. The semi-structured interview was used as a data collection instrument, and data analysis was grounded on content analysis. Results: the narratives revealed that the CHAs are promoters of educational actions, such as home visits, groups, round-table discussions, lectures, and waiting rooms; nonetheless, these activities are performed together with other professionals and are directed at specific groups. Conclusion: the CHAs need to reflect on how their educational practices are being developed to establish spaces for discussions that impact chronic conditionalities.


Objetivo: describir las acciones educativas que los Agentes Comunitarios de Salud (ACS) han llevado a cabo para atender a personas con Hipertensión Arterial y Diabetes mellitus, que viven en el campo. Método: estudio cualitativo con 16 ACS que trabajaron en nueve unidades de salud rurales de un municipio del sur de Brasil, durante los meses de junio a agosto de 2019. Se realizó una entrevista semiestructurada para la recogida de datos. El análisis de los datos se basó en el análisis de contenido. Resultados: las narraciones revelan que los ACS son promotores de actividades educativas, como: visitas domiciliarias, grupos, rutas de conversación, palestras y sala de espera; por otra parte, estas actividades se realizan junto a otros profesionales y se dirigen a grupos específicos. Conclusión: los ACS necesitan reflexionar sobre cómo se desarrollan sus prácticas educativas, para establecer espacios de discusión que incidan en las condiciones crónicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Patient Care Team , Rural Population , Health Education , Chronic Disease , Community Health Workers
16.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2022. 70 f p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397315

ABSTRACT

O município do Rio de Janeiro passou por um processo de reorganização da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) entre 2018 e 2020, onde foram suprimidas equipes de Saúde da Família e equipes de Saúde Bucal. As mudanças desconfiguram o modelo da Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF) e retiram deste modelo de atenção seu protagonismo como estratégia privilegiada para fortalecer a APS. Os Agentes Comunitários de Saúde (ACS) são uma das categorias mais afetadas pela reorganização, uma vez que houve grande redução no número de profissionais e, com a flexibilização dos parâmetros de cobertura populacional, viram seu processo de trabalho extremamente afetado e precarizado. A literatura aponta que existe um componente importante de sofrimento emocional nesses sujeitos, que também demandam cuidados nessa área. A violência estrutural e o sofrimento social aos quais estão submetidos faz destes profissionais um grupo mais vulnerável ao sofrimento emocional. Em virtude do cenário de incertezas que enfrentaram, acredita-se que o processo de reorganização da APS teve impacto sobre a saúde mental dos Agentes Comunitários. Deste modo, o objetivo do presente estudo é investigar como o contexto de reorganização da APS no município do Rio de Janeiro afetou a saúde mental destes profissionais. Para tanto, foram realizadas entrevistas individuais com 9 ACS atuantes em uma clínica da família localizada na zona norte do Rio de Janeiro. De modo geral, os profissionais entrevistados demonstraram sofrimento com as incertezas vivenciadas no período em questão e com as condições precarizadas de trabalho que se seguiram a ele. A situação de precarização que a APS vinha enfrentando foi agravada pela pandemia de COVID-19, com aumento da sobrecarga dos profissionais. A forma como estes profissionais expressaram o sofrimento nas entrevistas pode ser relacionada com o conceito de idiomas de sofrimento. É possível estabelecer relações entre o sofrimento vivenciado pelos agentes comunitários e o processo de reorganização da APS, uma vez que este processo os deixou em uma situação de maior vulnerabilidade. No entanto, não é possível enquadrar este fenômeno em uma categoria diagnóstica, pois o sofrimento destes profissionais aponta para questões sociais e econômicas. Fazer isso seria patologizar a experiência vivida por eles e desconsiderar o sofrimento social e a violência estrutural aos quais estão submetidos.


The city of Rio de Janeiro underwent a process of reorganization of Primary Health Care (PHC) between 2018 and 2020, where Family Health teams and Oral Health teams were suppressed. The changes disfigure the model of the Family Health Strategy (ESF) and remove from this care model its role as a privileged strategy to strengthen PHC. Community Health Agents (CHA) are one of the categories most affected by the reorganization, since there was a large reduction in the number of professionals and, with the flexibility of population coverage parameters, their work process was extremely affected and precarious. The literature points out that there is an important component of emotional distress in these subjects, who also require care in this area. Structural violence and the social suffering to which they are subjected make these professionals a more vulnerable group to emotional suffering. Due to the scenario of uncertainties they faced, it is believed that the PHC reorganization process had an impact on the mental health of Community Agents. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate how the context of PHC reorganization in the city of Rio de Janeiro affected the mental health of these professionals. Therefore, individual interviews were carried out with 9 ACS working in a family clinic located in the north of Rio de Janeiro. In general, the professionals interviewed showed suffering with the uncertainties experienced in the period in question and with the precarious working conditions that followed it. The precarious situation that the PHC had been facing was aggravated by the COVID-19 pandemic, with an increase in the overload of professionals. The way these professionals expressed suffering in the interviews can be related to the concept of suffering idioms. It is possible to establish relationships between the suffering experienced by community agents and the PHC reorganization process, since this process left them in a situation of greater vulnerability. However, it is not possible to place this phenomenon in a diagnostic category, as the suffering of these professionals points to social and economic issues. To do so would pathologize their lived experience and disregard the social suffering and structural violence to which they are subjected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Mental Health , Community Health Workers , Psychological Distress , National Health Strategies , Brazil
17.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20220070, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1394340

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo elaborar e conduzir a validação de conteúdo e de aparência de um instrumento para identificação das atividades desempenhadas pelos agentes comunitários de saúde na Estratégia Saúde da Família. Método trata-se de um estudo metodológico composto por três etapas: a primeira foi a elaboração do instrumento a partir da revisão de literatura; a segunda foi constituída pela validação de conteúdo por 10 juízes experts; e a terceira pela validação aparente pela população-alvo. Para a análise, calculou-se o Índice de Validade de Conteúdo. Resultados inicialmente, o instrumento foi composto por 45 itens dispostos em 10 dimensões. Os especialistas analisaram e sugeriram a modificação de termos e o acréscimo e o desmembramento de itens. Todas as sugestões foram acolhidas e a versão final do instrumento foi composta por 60 itens. O Índice de Validade de Conteúdo foi ≥ 0,90 para todos os itens. O instrumento abrangeu as atividades preconizadas pelas normativas ministeriais e pelas atribuições que fogem do escopo de atuação, mas que estão presentes na prática dos profissionais. Conclusão e implicações para a prática o instrumento apresentou validade satisfatória e refletiu a realidade do trabalho dos agentes comunitários de saúde, sendo seus itens compostos pela ampla gama de atividades desenvolvidas por esses profissionais.


Resumen Objetivo desarrollar y realizar la validación de contenido y la apariencia de un instrumento para la identificación de las actividades realizadas por los agentes comunitarios de salud en la Estrategia de Salud de la Familia. Método se trata de un estudio metodológico compuesto por tres etapas: la primera fue la elaboración del instrumento, a partir de una revisión bibliográfica; la segunda consistió en la validación de contenido por 10 jueces expertos y la tercera en validación aparente por parte de la población objetivo. Para el análisis se calculó el Índice de Validez de Contenido. Resultados Inicialmente, el instrumento constaba de 45 ítems, ordenados en diez dimensiones. Los expertos analizaron y sugirieron la modificación de los términos y la adición y desmembración de elementos. Todas las sugerencias fueron aceptadas y la versión final del instrumento constó de 60 ítems. El Índice de Validez de Contenido fue ≥ 0,90 para todos los ítems. El instrumento abarcó actividades recomendadas por normas ministeriales y actividades que están fuera del ámbito de actuación, pero que están presentes en la práctica profesional. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica El instrumento presentó validez satisfactoria y refleja la realidad del trabajo de los agentes comunitarios de salud. Sus ítems están compuestos por la amplia gama de actividades desarrolladas por estos profesionales.


Abstract Objective to develop and validate the content and appearance of an instrument to identify activities performed by community health workers in Family Health Strategy. Method this is a methodological study composed of three stages: the first was the elaboration of the instrument based on a literature review, the second consisted of content validity by ten expert judges, and the third by apparent validity by the target population. For analysis, the content validity index was calculated. Results Initially, the instrument consisted of 45 items arranged in ten dimensions. The experts analyzed and suggested modification of terms and addition and dismemberment of items. All suggestions were accepted, and the final version of the instrument consisted of 60 items. The content validity index was ≥ 0.90 for all items. The instrument covered the activities recommended by ministerial regulations and activities that are outside the scope of action, but which are present in the practice of the community health workers. Conclusion and implications for practice The instrument presented satisfactory validity and reflected the reality of the community health workers, and its items are composed of the wide range of activities developed by these professionals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Primary Health Care , Professional Competence , National Health Strategies , Community Health Workers
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933737

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the status quo of nursing capacity for chronic respiratory disease in community health service centers.Methods:A questionnaire survey on nursing capacity for chronic respiratory disease was conducted in November 2018 among nurses working in internal medicine, general practice and chronic disease management departments of 4 community health service centers in Beijing Miyun District. The questionnaire included the knowledge and work content of chronic respiratory diseases. At the same time semi-structured interviews was conducted on the role of nurses in the management of chronic respiratory diseases among nurses selected by purposive sampling method.Results:In the study 63 valid questionnaires were collected and 14 nurses were interviewed. The results showed that the total score of nurses′ knowledge about chronic respiratory diseases was (62.0±14.4), and the scores of knowledge of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchial asthma and obstructive sleep apnea were (55.5±19.3), (61.0±21.6), (69.5±25.1), respectively. The total knowledge score of nurses with middle-rank professional title or above was higher than that of those with primary title [(67.0±12.9) vs. (54.0±13.6), t=-3.07, P<0.01]. The work contents mainly involved were nursing procedures(22/63,34.9%), health education(18/63,28.6%) and nursing evaluation(8/63,12.7%).Three themes were extracted from the deep interviews: the main work contents for nurses should be nursing procedures, nurses should participate in the chronic respiratory disease management as a member of the integrated medical team; nurses expected practice-oriented trainings of chronic respiratory disease management. Conclusions:The knowledge of chronic respiratory diseases among nurses in community health center needs to be improved, and the nursing skills special for respiratory diseases are needed. It is suggested to develop training courses and nursing guidelines suitable for community health centers and for nurses to participate in chronic respiratory disease management as team members, so that nurses in primary care institutions can play a better role in the management of chronic respiratory diseases.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933731

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the status quo and related issues of reception of pediatric patients by general practitioners in community health centers in Longhua District of Shenzhen through qualitative and quantitative studies.Methods:In qualitative study, 10 general practitioners (GPs) from community health centers in Longhua District of Shenzhen were selected by the purpose sampling method for personal in-depth interviews. The interview contents were recorded and transcribed, then coded by Nvivo software. Theme frame analysis method was used for data sorting and theme extraction. Based on the results of qualitative interviews, the questionnaire was developed and distributed through the electronic questionnaire platform. The contents of the questionnaire included general information, the situation of pediatric patient reception in community health centers, the willingness and ability of GPs to receive children, the existing problems and the measures to promote receiving pediatric patients in community health centers.Results:The results of personal in-depth interviews with 10 GPs showed that the obtained information reached saturation. Through repeated reading, induction and analysis of the interview data, four themes were extracted: ① GPs in community health centers received a large number of pediatric outpatients with common diseases; ② GPs in community health centers are willing to receive child patients, but they were lack of ability; ③ there were many problems of pediatric patients reception in community health centers; ④ training and incentive policies would help to promote child patient reception in community health centers. A total of 223 electronic questionnaires were collected, 219 of which were valid for analysis. All the community health centers in Longhua District received pediatric patients, the number accounted for 20%-60% of the total outpatients; 84.5%(185/219)of the responders were willing to receive child patients, 65.8% (144/219)of them assumed that the consulting ability was average. The main problems for GPs to receive pediatric patients were "insufficient training" (76.7%,168/219) and "lack of consulting ability" (55.3%,121/219). The important measures to promote GPs to receive child patients were to improve their own clinical competence (94.1%,206/219), to have clinical faculty with pediatric background mentoring at the community health center (74.9%,164/219), to improve the supporting facilities (42.9%,94/219) and continuous professional support (38.8%,85/219).Conclusion:The status quo of pediatric patient reception in the community of Shenzhen Longhua District is generally satisfactory. The main problems in this aspect are insufficient training for general practitioners and lack of clinical competence, which should be strengthened and improved in the future.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933725

ABSTRACT

There are a large number of atypical symptoms and undifferentiated diseases in general practice, in which sociological factors are deeply involved. So to incorporate social factors into clinical thinking and to interpret disease from the perspective of the patient′s social life will enrich the multidisciplinary medical model and holistic care in general practice. This article shares author′s clinical experience through introducing typical cases, in which the patient′s social life and behavior characteristics played certain roles in disease development. The article also explores a new way from the sociological perspectives to interpret the complex symptoms that are difficult to be explained clinically by biomedicine or psychology.

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