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Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-200706


Aim:To analyze the most complex multi-subunit (MSU) DNA dependent RNA polymerases (RNAPs) of eukaryotic organisms and find out conserved motifs, metal binding sites and catalytic regions and propose a plausible mechanism of action for these complex eukaryoticMSU RNAPs, using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) RNAP II, as a model enzyme.Study Design: Bioinformatics, Biochemical, Site-directed mutagenesis and X-ray crystallographic data were analyzed.Place and Duration of Study: School of Biotechnology, MaduraiKamaraj University, Madurai, India, between 2007-2013. Methodology:Bioinformatics, Biochemical, Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) and X-ray crystallographic data of the enzyme were analyzed. The advanced version of Clustal Omega was used for protein sequence analysis of the MSU DNA dependent RNAPs from various eukaryotic sources. Along with the conserved motifs identified by the bioinformatics analysis, the data already available by biochemical and SDM experiments and X-ray crystallographic analysis of these enzymes were used to confirm the possible amino acids involved in the active sites and catalysis. Results:Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) of RNAPs from different eukaryotic organisms showed a large number of highly conserved motifs among them. Possible catalytic regions in the catalytic subunits of the yeast Rpb2 (= β in eubacteria) and Rpb1 (= β’ in eubacteria) consist of an absolutely conserved amino acid R, in contrast to a K that was reported for DNA polymerases and single subunit (SSU) RNAPs. However, the invariant ‘gatekeeper/DNA template binding’ YG pair that was reported in all SSU RNAPs, prokaryotic MSU RNAPs and DNA polymerases is also highly conserved in eukaryotic Rpb2 initiation subunits, but unusually a KG pair is found in higher eukaryotes including the human RNAPs. Like the eubacterial initiation subunits of MSU RNAPs, the eukaryotic initiation subunits, viz. Rpb2, exhibit very similar active site and catalytic regions but slightly different distance conservations between the templatebinding YG/KG pair and the catalytic R. In the eukaryotic initiation subunits, the proposed catalytic R is placed at the -9thposition from the YG/KG pair and an invariant R is placed at -5 which are implicated to play a role in nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) selection as reported for SSU RNAPs (viral family) and DNA polymerases. Similarly, the eukaryotic elongation subunits (Rpb1) are also found to be very much homologous to the elongation subunits (β’) of prokaryotes. Interestingly, the catalytic regionsare highly conserved, and the metal binding sites are absolutely conserved as in prokaryotic MSU RNAPs. In eukaryotes, the template binding YG pair is replaced with an FG pair. Another interesting observation is, similar to the prokaryotic β’ subunits, inthe eukaryotic Rpb1 elongation subunits also, the proposed catalytic R is placed double the distance, i.e., -18 amino acids downstream from the FG pair unlike in the SSU RNAPs and DNA polymerases where the distance is only -8 amino acids downstream from the YG pair. Thus, the completely conserved FG pair, catalytic R with an invariant R, at -6thposition are proposed to play a crucial role in template binding, NTP selection and polymerization reactions in the elongation subunits of eukaryotic MSU RNAPs. Moreover, the Zn binding motif with the three completely conserved Cs is also highly conserved in the eukaryotic elongation subunits. Another important difference is that the catalytic region is placed very close to the N-terminal region in eukaryotes.Conclusions: Unlike reported for the DNA polymerases and SSU RNA polymerases, the of eukaryotic MSU RNAPs use an R as the catalytic amino acid and exhibit a different distance conservation in the initiation and elongation subunits. An invariant Zn2+binding motif found in the Rpb1 elongation subunits is proposed to participate in proof-reading function. Differences in the active sites of bacterial and human RNA polymerases may pave the way for the design of new and effective drugs for many bacterial infections, including the multidrug resistant strains which are a global crisis at present

Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 161-176, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812439


Isatis indigotica Fort., belonging to Cruciferae, is one of the most commonly used plants in traditional Chinese medicine. The accumulation of the effective components of I. indigotica is related with its growth conditions. The GRAS genes are members of a multigene family of transcriptional regulators that play a crucial role in plant growth. Although the activities of many GRAS genes have long been recognized, only in recent years were some of them identified and functionally characterized in detail. In the present study, 41 GRAS genes were identified from I. indigotica through bioinformatics methods for the first time. They were classified into ten groups according to the classification of Arabidopsis and rice. The characterization, gene structure, conserved motifs, disordered N-terminal domains, and phylogenetic reconstruction of these GRASs were analyzed. Forty-three orthologous gene pairs were shared by I. indigotica and Arabidopsis, and interaction networks of these orthologous genes were constructed. Furthermore, gene expression patterns were investigated by analysis in methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-treated I. indigotica hairy roots based on RNA-seq data. In conclusion, this comprehensive analysis would provide rich resources for further studies of GRAS protein functions in this plant.

Computational Biology , Gene Expression Profiling , Genes, Plant , Isatis , Genetics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Transcription Factors , Genetics
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157848


To analyze the active sites of various prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA polymerases and propose a plausible mechanism of action for the polymerases with the Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I as a model system. Study Design: Bioinformatics, Biochemical and X-ray crystallographic data were analyzed. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Molecular Microbiology, School of Biotechnology, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai – 625 021, India. From 2007 to 2012. Methodology: The advanced version of T-COFFEE was used to analyze both prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA polymerase sequences. Along with this bioinformatics data, X-ray crystallographic and biochemical data were used to confirm the possible amino acids in the active sites of different types of polymerases from various sources. Results: Multiple sequence analyses of various polymerases from different sources show only a few highly conserved motifs among these enzymes except eukaryotic epsilon polymerases where a large number of highly conserved sequences are found. Possible catalytic/active site regions in all these polymerases show a highly conserved catalytic amino acid K/R and the YG/A pair. A distance conservation is also observed between the active sites. Furthermore, two highly conserved Ds and DXD motifs are also observed. Conclusion: The highly conserved amino acid K/R acts as the proton abstractor in catalysis and the YG/A pair acts as a “steric gate” in selection of only dNTPS for polymerization reactions. The two highly conserved Ds act as the “charge shielder” of dNTPs and orient the alpha phosphate of incoming dNTPs to the 3’-OH end of the growing primer.