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1.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(1): 55-64, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365533

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with hyperlactatemia, which leads to adverse clinical outcomes. No study has examined the effect of different clamping techniques on postoperative hyperlactatemia (PHL). Thus, we aimed to evaluate the impact of two different techniques on PHL and the clinical outcomes in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass surgery. Methods: This retrospective study included 100 patients who underwent isolated CPB either with single clamp technique (SCT, n=47) or double clamp technique (DCT, n=53). Demographic and preoperative laboratory data, as well as operative features and arterial blood lactate levels at the onset and at the end of CPB, were collected from patient charts. Results: Blood lactate levels collected at the end of CPB did not differ significantly between groups whereas intraoperative lactate increased significantly in both groups (P<0.005). PHL developed in 16 patients (32%). There was no meaningful difference in SCT and DCT in this regard. Left internal mammary artery was used more frequently in the DCT group than in the SCT group. While the cross-clamp time was significantly longer in the SCT group, there was no difference regarding CPB time. Among postoperative complications, only the incidence of stroke was significantly higher in the DCT group than in the SCT group (10.6% vs. 0%, P=0.020). CPB time, cross-clamp time and numbers of proximal saphenous graft and distal anastomosis showed a significant positive correlation with the postoperative lactate level. In the regression analysis, CPB time emerged as the only independent predictor of PHL (OR 1.04, CI 95% 1.01-1.07, P=0.011). Conclusion: There was no difference in postoperative blood lactate levels between SCT and DCT groups.

2.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(1): 135-138, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365541

ABSTRACT

Abstract The modality of repeat revascularization due to late graft failure is a debated topic. The latest available European guidelines recommend redo coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for cases of extensively diseased and/or occluded grafts and those with diffuse native vessel disease. We present the case of a patient being relieved of recurrent unstable angina pectoris with redo CABG using no-touch saphenous vein grafts after repeated and unsuccessful attempts with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This could be an alternative to PCI in patients with a complex medical history. Teamwork between cardiologists and surgeons is pivotal in deciding the best treatment modality.

3.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(1): 13-19, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365547

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) after off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) grafting surgery. Methods: A total of 8,442 patients undergoing OPCAB from April 1, 2009 to December 31, 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 956 were eventually enrolled on this study based on our exclusion criteria. All subjects were divided into two groups: group 1 (n=63) - DSWI; group 2 (n=893) - without DSWI. Patients were excluded if they had one of the following: acute coronary syndrome, conversion to OPCAB grafting surgery, redo procedure, concomitant cardiac surgery procedures. Results: The prevalence of body mass index (BMI) ≥40 kg/m2 (7.9% vs. 1.9%, respectively; P=0.01), lower extremity atherosclerotic artery disease (23.8% vs. 7.2%, respectively; P=0.001) and use of bilateral internal thoracic artery (19.5% vs. 2.5%, respectively; P=0.008) was significantly higher in patients with DSWI. The incidence of morbidities, including reoperation for bleeding (26.4% vs. 2.1%, respectively; P<0.001), stroke (4.8% vs. 0.8%, respectively; P=0.02), acute renal failure (7.9% vs. 0.8%, respectively; P=0.001), delirium (7.9% vs. 1.7%, respectively; P=0.008) and blood transfusion (30.6% vs. 9.8%, respectively; P<0.001) was significantly higher in patients with DSWI. Conclusions: A BMI of >40 kg/m2, lower extremity artery disease, use of bilateral internal thoracic artery (BITA) graft, postoperative stroke, sepsis, reoperation due to postoperative complications and blood product requirement significantly increased the risk of sternal infection after OPCAB.

4.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 206-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920850

ABSTRACT

Objective To summarize the incidence of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) after heart transplantation and the effect on the long-term survival of recipients. Methods Clinical data of 1 006 heart transplant recipients were retrospectively analyzed. Of 48 CAV patients, 4 cases were not included in this analysis due to lack of imaging evidence. A total of 1 002 recipients were divided into the CAV group (n=44) and non-CAV group (n=958) according to the incidence of CAV. The incidence of CAV was summarized. Clinical data of all patients were statistically compared between two groups. Imaging diagnosis, coronary artery disease, drug treatment and complications, postoperative survival and causes of death of CAV patients were analyzed. Results Among 1 006 heart transplant recipients, 48 cases (4.77%) developed CAV. Compared with the non-CAV group, the proportion of preoperative smoking history, preoperative hypertension history, coronary artery disease and perioperative infection was significantly higher in the CAV group (all P < 0.05). Among 44 patients diagnosed with CAV by imaging examination, 24 cases were diagnosed with CAV by coronary CT angiography (CTA), 4 cases by coronary angiography (CAG), and 16 cases by coronary CTA combined with CAG. Among 44 patients, the proportion of grade Ⅰ CAV was 45% (20/44), 30% (13/44) for grade Ⅱ CAV and 25% (11/44) for grade Ⅲ CAV, respectively. All patients received long-term use of statins after operation, and 20 patients were given with antiplatelet drugs. Among 44 CAV patients, 11 patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, 6 cases received repeated heart transplantation, and 8 patients died. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that there was no significant difference in the long-term survival rate between the CAV and non-CAV groups (P > 0.05), whereas the survival rate of patients tended to decline after the diagnosis of CAV (at postoperative 6-7 years). The long-term survival rates of patients with grade Ⅰ, grade Ⅱ and grade Ⅲ CAV showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). Even for patients with grade Ⅰ CAV, the long-term survival rate tended to decline. Conclusions CAV is a common and intractable complication following heart transplantation, and the long-term survival rate of patients after the diagnosis of CAV tended to decline. Deepening understanding of CAV, prompt prevention, diagnosis and treatment should be delivered to improve the long-term survival rate of patients after heart transplantation.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920825

ABSTRACT

@#Objective    To evaluate the short- and mid-term outcomes of sequential anastomosis and simple anastomosis of saphenous vein in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods    The clinical data of 438 patients who underwent sequential anastomosis of saphenous vein and 165 patients who underwent simple anastomosis of saphenous vein from 2015 to 2018 in Daxing Teaching Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. After propensity score matching, 130 pairs of patients were included in the sequential anastomosis group [78 males and 52 females, aged 60 (52, 68) years] and simple anastomosis group [80 males and 50 females, aged 61 (52, 70) years]. The short- and mid-term clinical outcomes were compared. Results    The two propensity score-matched groups had similar baseline clinical data. No significant difference was found between sequential anastomosis and simple anastomosis groups in the in-hospital outcomes, including in-hospital death (1.5% vs. 1.5%, P=1.000), the incidence of complications (4.6% vs. 6.2%, P>0.05), and the mean flow of grafts (30.0±11.8 mL/min vs. 28.0±9.5 mL/min, P=0.597). The operation time of the sequential anastomosis group was shorter than that of the simple anastomosis group (142.5±21.2 min vs. 186.3±27.6 min, P<0.001). The drainage of the sequential anastomosis group was less than that of the simple anastomosis group (204.7±39.6 mL vs. 271.3±48.3 mL, P<0.001). The follow-up time was 12-60 (28.3±8.9) months, during which the mortality of the two groups was not statistically different (3.2% vs. 4.0%, P=0.796). Conclusion    The saphenous vein sequential anastomosis of saphenous vein is superior to the simple anastomosis. Sequential anastomosis technique can reduce aortic anastomosis,  shorten operation time, and reduce bleeding drainage during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. The short- and mid- term clinical effects are satisfactory.

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8.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(3): 354-364, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288230

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: This study investigated the role of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the perioperative changes in NLR (delta-NLR), the platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and the platelet count in predicting acute kidney injury (AKI) following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) during hospital stay. Methods: The records of 396 patients with preoperative creatinine < 1.5 mg/dl undergoing isolated CABG between October 2015 and October 2019 were reviewed retrospectively. Diagnosis of AKI was based on the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes definition. Demographic data, operative data, in-hospital mortality, preoperative NLR, PLR, and platelet counts were compared between patients with (AKI group) and without (non-AKI group) postoperative AKI. Additionally, NLR, delta-NLR, and PLR values were calculated daily for the first four postoperative days. A "subsequent AKI group" was formed for the first four postoperative days by excluding patients diagnosed with AKI. The daily and overall predictivity of the markers for AKI are investigated. Results: AKI was present in 86 patients during the postoperative period, while 310 patients had normal postoperative renal functions. NLR, delta-NLR, and PLR on the first four postoperative days (P<0.001 for all) were significantly associated with the development of AKI in subsequent days. Multivariate analysis identified postoperative NLR (odds ratio 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.11-1.23; P<0.001) as an independent predictor of AKI. PLR lost its significant association with AKI at the values measured at discharge from hospital (P>0.05). Conclusion: NLR values measured on the first four days postoperatively are a useful tool in predicting AKI during hospital stay following CABG.

9.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(3): 397-405, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288234

ABSTRACT

Abstract Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has consolidated its role as the most effective procedure for treating patients with advanced atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, reducing the long-term risk of myocardial infarction and death compared to other therapies and relieving angina. Despite the recognized benefits afforded by surgical myocardial revascularization, a subset of higher-risk patients bears a more elevated risk of perioperative stroke. Stroke remains the drawback of conventional CABG and has been strongly linked to aortic manipulation (cannulation, cross‐clamping, and side-biting clamping for the performance of proximal aortic anastomoses) and the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Adoption of off-pump CABG (OPCAB) is demonstrated to lower the risk of perioperative stroke, as well as reducing the risk of short-term mortality, renal failure, atrial fibrillation, bleeding, and length of intensive care unit stay. However, increased risk persists owing to the need for the tangential ascending aorta clamping to construct the proximal anastomosis. The concept of anaortic (aorta no-touch) OPCAB (anOPCAB) stems from eliminating ascending aorta manipulation, virtually abolishing the risk of embolism caused by aortic wall debris into the brain circulation. The adoption of anOPCAB has been shown to further decrease the risk of postoperative stroke, especially in higher-risk patients, entailing a step forward and a refinement of outcomes provided by the primeval OPCAB technique. Therefore, anOPCAB has been the recommended technique in patients with cerebrovascular disease and/or calcification or atheromatous plaque in the ascending aorta and should be preferred in patients with high-risk factors for neurological damage and stroke.

10.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(3): 424-428, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288235

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Patients in the postoperative period of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) present respiratory and autonomic dysfunctions. In this sense, cardiovascular physiotherapy has been offered as an indispensable differential for the improvement of the prognosis of this population. Heart rate variability is a simple, noninvasive method to analyze autonomic modulation, as well as the accentuation maneuver of respiratory sinus arrhythmia, which demonstrates the parasympathetic autonomic control over the heart. Five patients undergoing cardiac surgery performed a protocol of cardiovascular physiotherapy in the postoperative period and had their data referring to the preoperative period, the 1st and 4th postoperative days analyzed.

11.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(3): 323-330, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288251

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Our objective was to identify preoperative risk factors and to develop and validate a risk-prediction model for the need for blood (erythrocyte concentrate [EC]) transfusion during extracorporeal circulation (ECC) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: This is a retrospective observational study including 530 consecutive patients who underwent isolated on-pump CABG at our Centre over a full two-year period. The risk model was developed and validated by logistic regression and bootstrap analysis. Discrimination and calibration were assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow (H-L) test, respectively. Results: EC transfusion during ECC was required in 91 patients (17.2%). Of these, the majority were transfused with one (54.9%) or two (41.8%) EC units. The final model covariates (reported as odds ratios; 95% confidence interval) were age (1.07; 1.02-1.13), glomerular filtration rate (0.98; 0.96-1.00), body surface area (0.95; 0.92-0.98), peripheral vascular disease (3.03; 1.01-9.05), cerebrovascular disease (4.58; 1.29-16.18), and hematocrit (0.55; 0.48-0.63). The risk model developed has an excellent discriminatory power (AUC: 0,963). The results of the H-L test showed that the model predicts accurately both on average and across the ranges of deciles of risk. Conclusions: A risk-prediction model for EC transfusion during ECC was developed, which performed adequately in terms of discrimination, calibration, and stability over a wide spectrum of risk. It can be used as an instrument to provide accurate information about the need for EC transfusion during ECC, and as a valuable adjunct for local improvement of clinical practice. OR=odds ratio Key Question: What is the risk of the need for use of erythrocyte concentrate (EC) during cardiopulmonary bypass? Key Findings: Risk factors with the greatest prediction for EC transfusion. Take-Home Message: The implementation of this model would be an important step in optimizing and improving the quality of surgery.

12.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(3): 379-387, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288252

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The objective of this study is to compare the effects of conventional monopolar electrosurgery (CMES) and low-thermal plasma kinetic cautery (PKC) on complications such as bleeding, abnormal wound healing, pain, and drainage in patients who underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: This retrospective clinical study included 258 patients undergoing CABG; the patients were randomized to PKC (PEAK PlasmaBlade, n=153) and CMES (n=105) groups. The patients' clinical data were examined retrospectively for biochemical variables, postoperative drainage, post-surgery erythrocyte suspension transfusion count, surgical site pain examined with visual analogue scale (VAS), and wound healing. Two-sided P-value > 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The median post-surgery erythrocyte suspension transfusion number was significantly lower with PKC compared to CMES (0 [0-1] vs. 1 [1-4], respectively, P<0.001). Mean postoperative drain output and time until removal of drain tubes were significantly lower with PKC compared to CMES (300±113 vs. 547±192 and 1.95±1.5 vs. 2.44±1.8; P<0.001 and P=0.025, respectively). Mean VAS score for spontaneous and cough-induced pain were significantly lower with PKC compared to CMES (1.98±1.51 vs. 3.94± 2.09 and 3.76±1.46 vs. 5.6±1.92; P<0.001 for both comparisons). Reoperation due to bleeding was significantly higher with CMES compared to PKC (0 vs. 11 [7.2%], P=0.001). Conclusion: Use of PKC during CABG considerably reduces postoperative drainage, need for blood transfusion, reoperation due to bleeding, and postoperative pain. PCK appears to be a good alternative to CMES for CABG.

13.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(2): 158-164, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251091

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Del Nido cardioplegia (DNC) has been used in pediatric cardiac surgery for many years with a single dose application and its usage in adult cardiac surgery has been increasing in recent years, with results being published. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of DNC on the development of postoperative atrial fibrillation (PoAF). Methods: In this retrospective observational comparative study, 255 patients who underwent isolated on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, between January 2019 and November 2019, were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups: DNC (n=132) and blood cardioplegia (BC) (n=123). Intraoperative and postoperative data were evaluated and compared in terms of the development of PoAF. Results: We found that the development of PoAF and the length of hospital stay remain significantly higher in the BC group (P=0.044, P<0.001, respectively). In addition, the aortic cross-clamp time and the cardioplegia volume delivered were significantly lower in the DNC group (P=0.042, P<0.001, respectively). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only higher cardioplegia volume was determined as an independent predictor for PoAF development (OR 1.001; 95% CI 1.000-1.001; P=0.033). We did not found difference between groups in terms of troponin T, inotropic drug support, need for intraaortic balloon pump and mortality. Conclusion: This study showed that DNC can be used safely in adult coronary bypass surgery and PoAF development effect is reduced.

14.
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 28(1): 101-108, jan.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286442

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Os efeitos da adição da estimulação elétrica funcional (EEF) ao treinamento aeróbico e resistido (treino combinado) de curto prazo em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio (CRM) ainda não foram estabelecidos. O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar o impacto da adição da EEF ao treino combinado no fluxo arterial periférico, na capacidade funcional e na qualidade de vida de pacientes pós-CRM participantes de um programa de reabilitação cardíaca - Fase II. Trata-se de um ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo cego, composto por 17 pacientes (54,8±10,5 anos, 12 homens) randomizados ou em grupo intervenção (GI, n=8,) submetido à EEF no músculo quadríceps associada ao treino combinado, ou em grupo sham (GS, n=9), que realizou a EEF sham em associação ao treino combinado. Os desfechos avaliados foram: fluxo arterial periférico (índice tornozelo-braquial), capacidade funcional (distância percorrida no teste de caminhada de seis minutos - DTC6M) e qualidade de vida (questionário MacNew). Na comparação entre os grupos, o aumento do índice tornozelo-braquial (GI: 0,14±0,08 mmHg vs. GC: 0,05±0,04 mmHg; p=0,020) e do escore do domínio global do questionário MacNew (GI: 1,1±0,3 pontos vs. GC: 0,6±0,4 pontos; p=0,020) foi maior no GI. Entretanto, não foi observada diferença entre os grupos para a DTC6M (GI: 130,9±73,7 m vs. GS: 73,7±32,6 m; p=0,072). A adição da EEF, durante curto período, potencializou os efeitos do exercício aeróbico e resistido sobre o fluxo arterial periférico e a qualidade de vida em pacientes pós CRM em Fase II da reabilitação cardíaca.


RESUMEN Aún no se han establecido los efectos de agregar estimulación eléctrica funcional (EPS) cortoplacista al entrenamiento aeróbico y de resistencia (entrenamiento combinado) en pacientes sometidos a cirugía de injerto de derivación de las arterias coronarias (CABG). El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el impacto de la adición de EPS al entrenamiento combinado sobre el flujo arterial periférico, la capacidad funcional y la calidad de vida de los pacientes post-CABG que participan en un programa de rehabilitación cardíaca de Fase II. Este es un ensayo clínico aleatorizado, doble ciego, compuesto por 17 pacientes (54,8±10,5 años, 12 hombres) aleatorizados en un grupo de intervención (GI, n=8) sometidos a EEF en el músculo cuádriceps asociado a entrenamiento combinado o en grupo simulado (GS, n=9), que realizó el simulacro de EEF en asociación con el entrenamiento combinado. Los resultados evaluados fueron: flujo arterial periférico (índice tobillo braquial), capacidad funcional (distancia recorrida en la prueba de caminata de seis minutos - 6MWT) y calidad de vida (cuestionario MacNew). Al comparar los grupos, el aumento del índice tobillo braquial (GI: 0,14±0,08 mmHg vs. GC: 0,05±0,04 mmHg; p=0,020) y la puntuación para el dominio global del cuestionario MacNew (GI: 1,1±0,3 puntos vs. GC: 0,6±0,4 puntos; p=0,020) fueron mayores en el GI. Sin embargo, no hubo diferencias entre los grupos en la 6MWT (GI: 130,9±73,7 m vs. GS: 73,7±32,6 m; p=0,072). La adición de EEF, durante un período corto, potenció los efectos del ejercicio aeróbico y de resistencia sobre el flujo arterial periférico y la calidad de vida en pacientes post-CABG en la Fase II de rehabilitación cardíaca.


ABSTRACT The effects of adding functional electrical stimulation (FES) to short-term aerobic and resistance exercise (combined training) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery have not yet been established. This study aims to evaluate the effect of adding FES to combined training on peripheral arterial flow, functional capacity and quality of life of post-CABG patients participating in a cardiac rehabilitation program - Phase II. This is a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial, composed of 17 patients (54.8±10.5 years old, 12 men) randomized or in an intervention group (IG, n=8,) submitted to FES in the quadriceps muscle associated with combined training, or in a sham group (SG, n=9), which performed the FES sham in association with the combined training. The evaluated outcomes were: peripheral arterial flow (ankle-brachial index), functional capacity (distance covered in the six-minute walk test - 6MWT) and quality of life (MacNew questionnaire). In the comparison between the groups, the increase in the ankle-brachial index (IG: 0.14±0.08mmHg vs. CG: 0.05±0.04mmHg; p=0.020) and the score of the global MacNew questionnaire (IG: 1.1±0.3 points vs. CG: 0.6±0.4 points; p=0.020) was higher in the IG. However, no difference was observed between the groups for the 6MWT (IG: 130.9±73.7m vs SG: 73.7±32.6m; p=0.072). The addition of FES, during a short period, potentiated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on peripheral arterial flow and quality of life in patients after CABG in Phase II of cardiac rehabilitation.

15.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(1): 57-63, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155802

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: To determine predictors of length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and to develop a risk scoring system were the objectives of this study. Methods: In this retrospective study, 1202 patients' medical records after CABG were evaluated by a research-made checklist. Tarone-Ware test was used to determine the predictors of patients' LOS in the ICU. Cox regression model was used to determine the risk factors and risk ratios associated with ICU LOS. Results: The mean ICU LOS after CABG was 55.27±17.33 hours. Cox regression model showed that having more than two chest tubes (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.005-1.287, Relative Risk [RR]=1.138), occurrence of atelectasis (95% CI 1.000-3.007, RR=1.734), and occurrence of atrial fibrillation after CABG (95% CI 1.428-2.424, RR=1.861) were risk factors associated with longer ICU LOS. The discrimination power of this set of predictors was demonstrated with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and it was 0.69. A simple risk scoring system was developed based on three identified predictors that can raise ICU LOS. Conclusion: The simple risk scoring system developed based on three identified predictors can help to plan more accurately a patient's LOS in hospital for CABG and can be useful in managing human and financial resources.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Bypass , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Length of Stay
16.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(1): 106-111, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155800

ABSTRACT

Abstract The importance of the vasa vasorum and blood supply to the wall of human saphenous vein (hSV) used for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is briefly discussed. This is in the context of the possible physical link of the vasa vasorum connecting with the lumen of hSV and the anti-ischaemic impact of this microvessel network in the hSV used for CABG.


Subject(s)
Humans , Saphenous Vein , Vasa Vasorum , Coronary Artery Bypass , Femoral Vein
17.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(1): 78-85, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155798

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The benefit of total arterial revascularization (TAR) in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains a controversial issue. This study sought to evaluate whether there is any difference on the long-term results of TAR and non-TAR CABG patients. Methods: The Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL/CCTR), Clinical Trials.gov, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), and Google Scholar databases were searched for studies published by October 2020. Randomized clinical trials and observational studies with propensity score matching comparing TAR versus non-TAR CABG were included. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed. The current barriers to implementation of TAR in clinical practice and measures that can be used to optimize outcomes were reviewed. Results: Fourteen publications (from 2012 to 2020) involving a total of 22,746 patients (TAR: 8,941 patients; non-TAR: 13,805 patients) were included. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) for long-term mortality (over 10 years) was lower in the TAR group than in the non-TAR group (random effect model: HR 0.676, 95% confidence interval 0.586-0.779, P<0.001). There was evidence of low heterogeneity of treatment effect among the studies for mortality, and none of the studies had a particular impact on the summary result. The result was not influenced by age, sex, or comorbidities. We identified low risk of publication bias related to this outcome. Conclusion: This review found that TAR presents the best long-term results in patients who undergo CABG. Given that many patients are likely to benefit from TAR, its use should be encouraged.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Coronary Artery Bypass , Treatment Outcome , Propensity Score
18.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(1): 25-31, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155792

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of coronary collateral circulation (CCC) in patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: A total of 127 patients who had undergone CABG (2011-2013) were enrolled into this study and follow-up was obtained by phone contact. Patients were categorized into two groups according to preoperative CCC using the Rentrop method. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, heart failure (HF), and mortality rates were compared between groups. Clinical outcome was defined as combined end point including death, PCI, recurrent MI, stroke, and HF. Results: Sixty-two of 127 patients had poor CCC and 65 had good CCC. There were no differences in terms of PCI, recurrent MI, and HF between the groups. Stroke (seven of 62 [11.3%] and one of 65 [1.5%], P=0.026) and mortality (19 of 62 [30.6%] and 10 of 65 [15.4%], P=0.033) rates were significantly higher in poor CCC group than in good CCC group. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, survival time was not statistically different between the groups. Presence of poor CCC resulted in a significantly higher combined end point incidence (P=0.011). Conclusion: Stroke, mortality rates, and combined end point incidence were significantly higher in poor CCC patients than in the good CCC group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Stroke/etiology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Coronary Artery Bypass , Treatment Outcome , Collateral Circulation , Coronary Circulation
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880561

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the effect of valerian root extract on the sleep quality of patients after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.@*METHODS@#The patients who participated in this triple-blind clinical trial were selected by permuted block randomization. The participants were assigned to the valerian (n=36) and placebo (n=36) groups. The valerian group received 530 mg of valerian capsules for 30 nights after CABG surgery, and the placebo group received 530 mg of the placebo capsules containing wheat flour. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) were assessed on four occasions, including the baseline, the 3rd, 14th and 30th days following intervention.@*RESULTS@#The odds ratio of worsened sleep quality significantly varied over time (the interaction of time and group) in the valerian group compared to the placebo group in various dimensions including total sleep quality (P=0.001), sleep latency (P<0.01), sleep duration (P=0.020), sleep efficiency (P=0.001) and daytime dysfunction (P=0.025). No significant difference was observed in the alterations of the odds ratio of PT in the two groups over time. (P=0.371).@*CONCLUSION@#The consumption of oral valerian root extract over 30 nights could significantly improve the patients' sleep quality safely after CABG surgery.

20.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20210008, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279376

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Variations in the upper limb arterial pattern are commonplace and necessitate complete familiarity for successful surgical and interventional procedures. Variance in the vascular tree may involve any part of the axis artery of the upper limb, including the axillary artery and brachial artery or its branches, in the form of radial and ulnar arteries, which eventually supply the hand via anastomosing arches. Objectives To study the peculiarities of the arterial pattern of the upper limb and to correlate them with embryological development. Methods The entire arterial branching of forty-two upper limbs of formalin fixed adult human cadavers was examined during routine dissection for educational purposes, conducted over a 3-year period in the Department of Anatomy, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi. Results The study found: 1) One case in which a common trunk arose from the third part of the axillary artery, which immediately splayed into four branches (2.4%); 2) High division of the brachial artery into ulnar and radial arteries, in 3 cases (7.1%); 3) Pentafurcation of the brachial artery into ulnar, interosseus, radial, and radial recurrent arteries and a muscular twig to the brachioradialis in 1/42 cases (2.4%); 4) Incomplete Superficial Palmar arch in 3/42 cases (7.1%); and 5) Presence of a median artery in 2/42 case(4.8%) Conclusions This study observed and described the varied arterial patterns of the upper limb and identified the various anomalous patterns, supplementing the surgeon's armamentarium in various surgical procedures, thereby helping to prevent complications or failures of reconstructive surgeries, bypass angiography, and many similar procedures.


Resumo Contexto As variações no padrão arterial dos membros superiores são comuns e, assim, necessitam de total familiaridade para que os procedimentos cirúrgicos e de intervenção sejam bem-sucedidos. A variância na árvore vascular pode envolver qualquer parte da artéria axial dos membros superiores, incluindo a artéria axilar, a artéria braquial ou os seus ramos, na forma das artérias radial e ulnar, as quais, em algum momento, suprem as mãos através dos arcos anastomosados. Objetivos Avaliar as peculiaridades do padrão arterial dos membros superiores e correlacioná-las ao desenvolvimento embriológico. Métodos Foram examinados os ramos arteriais completos de 42 membros superiores de cadáveres adultos conservados em formalina, os quais eram rotineiramente dissecados para fins educacionais durante 3 anos no Departamento de Anatomia Lady Hardinge Medical College, Nova Delhi. Resultados O estudo apresentou cinco desfechos. 1. Foi constatado um caso em que um tronco comum surgiu da terceira parte da artéria axilar que imediatamente se disseminou em quatro ramos (2,4%). 2. Houve divisão maior da artéria braquial em artérias ulnar e radial em três casos (7,1%). 3. Em um caso, ocorreu pentafurcação da artéria braquial em ulnar, interóssea, radial, radial recorrente e de um galho muscular em braquiorradial (2,4%). 4. Foi constatado arco palmar superficial incompleto em três dos 42 casos (7,1%). 5. Foi observada a presença da artéria mediana em 2 dos 42 casos (4,8%). Conclusões Este estudo compreende o padrão arterial do membro superior e identifica os diversos padrões anômalos para agregar ao arsenal terapêutico de cirurgiões para diversos procedimentos cirúrgicos, com o objetivo de combater quaisquer complicações ou falhas de cirurgias reconstrutivas, de angiografias de cirurgias de revascularização e muitas outras.

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