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Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(5): 784-787, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407287


Abstract Kawasaki disease was first reported in 1967, and it was classified as an autoimmune vasculitis of the small and medium arteries. It is a self-limiting condition that occurs mostly in childhood, but it may involve complications — such as coronary artery aneurysms, myocardial ischemia, and arrhythmias — with significant morbidity and mortality that occur later in life. In this article, we present the association of an ascending aortic aneurysm with bicuspid aortic disease in addition to coronary aneurysm in a 55-year-old patient diagnosed with Kawasaki disease.

Arq. bras. cardiol ; 119(3): 402-410, set. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403339


Resumo Fundamento A circulação colateral coronária (CCC) proporciona um fluxo sanguíneo alternativo a tecido miocárdico exposto a isquemia e ajuda a preservar as funções miocárdicas. A produção endotelial de óxido nítrico (NO) e o fator de crescimento endotelial vascular (VEGF) foram apontados como os fatores mais importantes no desenvolvimento da CCC. A adropina é um hormônio peptídeo responsável pela hemostasia energética, e é conhecida por seus efeitos positivos no endotélio por NO e VEGF. Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a associação entre adropina e a presença de CCC em pacientes com síndrome coronariana crônica (SCC) Métodos Um total de 102 pacientes com SCC, que tinham oclusão total de pelo menos 1 artéria coronária epicárdica importante, foram incluídos no estudo e foram divididos em dois grupos: o grupo de pacientes (n: 50) com CCC ruim (Rentrop 0-1) e o grupo de pacientes (n: 52) com CCC boa (Rentrop 2-3). O nível de significância adotado para a análise estatística foi 5%. Resultados Os níveis médios de adropina identificados foram 210,83±17,76 pg/mL e 268,25±28,94 pg/mL nos grupos com CCC ruim e boa, respectivamente (p<0,001). Detectou-se que os níveis de adropina têm correlação com as razões neutrófilo-linfócito (r: 0,17, p: 0,04) e com os escores de Rentrop (r: 0,76, p<0,001), e correlação negativa com idade (r: -0,23, p: 0,01) e com os escores Gensini (r: -0,19, p: 0,02). O nível de adropina é um preditor independente da boa evolução da CCC (RC: 1.12, IC 95%: (1,06-1,18), p<0,001). Conclusão Este estudo sugere que os níveis de adropina podem ser um fator associado à de CCC em pacientes com SCC.

Abstract Background Coronary collateral circulation (CCC) provides an alternative blood flow to myocardial tissue exposed to ischemia and helps to preserve myocardial functions. Endothelial-derived nitric-oxide (NO) production and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have been suggested as the most important factors in the development of CCC. Adropin is a peptide hormone responsible for energy hemostasis, and is known for its positive effects on the endothelium through NO and VEGF. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the association between adropin and the presence of CCC in patients with chronic coronary syndrome (CCS). Methods A total of 102 patients with CCS, who had complete occlusion of at least one major epicardial coronary artery, were included in the study and were divided into two groups: the group of patients (n:50) with poor CCC (Rentrop 0-1) and the group of patients (n:52) with good CCC (Rentrop 2-3). The level of significance adopted in the statistical analysis was 5%. Results Mean adropine levels were found as 210.83±17.76 pg/mL and 268.25±28.94 pg/mL in the poor and good CCC groups, respectively (p<0.001). Adropin levels proved to be positively correlated with neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios (r:0.17, p:0.04) and the rentrop scores (r:0.76, p<0.001), and negatively correlated with age (r:-0.23, p:0.01) and Gensini scores (r:-0.19, p:0.02). Adropin level is a strong independent predictor of good CCC development (OR:1.12, 95% CI:(1.06-1.18), p<0.001). Conclusion This study suggests that adropin levels may be a possible factor associated with the presence of CCC in CCS patients.

Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(4): 493-500, Jul.-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394720


Abstract Introduction: The goal of this study is to investigate the association between diagnosis and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) and Asprosin level. Methods: Patients diagnosed with CAD who underwent conventional coronary angiography for the first time were included in the present study. The patients were divided into four groups, each consisting of 20 individuals, as medical group, single coronary lesion group, double coronary lesion group, and multiple coronary lesions group. Serum Asprosin values and Gensini scores of the groups were compared in terms of compliance. Results: In this study, Asprosin values were found to be significantly higher in the multiple coronary lesions group than in the medical, single coronary, and double coronary lesion groups (P<0.05). In the double coronary lesion group, Asprosin values were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the in the medical and single coronary lesion groups. It was also found that Asprosin values did not differ at significant levels in the medical and single coronary lesion groups (P>0.05). It was determined that the increases in Asprosin values and Gensini scores were compatible with each other. Conclusion: The present study showed that the increases in serum Asprosin levels, along with the increases in the number of coronary arteries with critical stenosis, might be a marker in diagnosing and determining the severity of CAD.

Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(4): 595-598, Jul.-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394733


ABSTRACT Iatrogenic acute aortic dissections during percutaneous coronary interventions are an extremely rare but potentially life-threatening complication, occurring in less than 0.02% of transcatheter procedures. We report three patients with different characteristics suffering from iatrogenic aortic dissection during percutaneous coronary intervention successfully treated with an emergency open-heart surgery. A conservative strategy should be pursuit only in small, localized lesions.

Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(3): 321-327, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376551


Abstract Introduction: The objective of this study is to evaluate the left ventricular systolic function of patients with coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) using the three-dimensional speckle-tracking imaging (3D-STI) technique. Methods: From June 2018 to June 2019,72 subjects from Huzhou Central Hospital were enrolled, including 42 CMD in-patients with typical chest pain or chest tightness and positive treadmill exercise stress test, but without coronary stenosis on coronary angiography, (the CMD group) and another 30 healthy individuals who were undergoing physical examinations in an outpatient clinic (the control group). Using 3D-STI technique, the global longitudinal strain (GLS), global radial strain (GRS), global circumferential strain (GCS), global area strain (GAS), and left ventricle were measured. Results: Compared with the control group, GLS and GAS were significantly reduced in the CMD group (P<0.05), while GRS and GCS were similar in both groups (P>0.05). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that GLS and GAS were the influencing factors of CMD. For the diagnosis of CMD, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of GLS was 0.883, and the area under the ROC curve of GAS was 0.875. GAS of -29.3% (log-rank test chi-square=34.245, P<0.001) was a strong predictor of major adverse cardiac events. Conclusion: 3D-STI technique has obvious advantages in the evaluation of the left ventricular systolic function for CMD patients. Moreover, 3D-STI parameters, especially GLS and GAS, can detect the early abnormal changes in the ischaemic myocardium. Being timelier and more sensitive than echocardiography, 3D-STI should be recommended for clinical application.

Radiol. bras ; 55(3): 156-160, May-june 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387084


Abstract Objective: To compare the degree of coronary stenosis (≥ 50% luminal narrowing) determined by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) with that determined by invasive coronary angiography (ICA), using segment-by-segment analysis. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of the records of patients who underwent CCTA and ICA between January 2014 and June 2018 at a general hospital in Brazil. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was applied, and the areas under the curve were used in order to assess the overall accuracy of the methods. Results: The degree of coronary stenosis was evaluated in a total of 844 arterial segments. The diagnostic performance of CCTA was good, with a sensitivity of 82.3%, a specificity of 96.4%, and a negative predictive value of 97.7% (95% CI: 96.5-98.5). In the segment-by-segment analysis, CCTA had excellent accuracy for the left main coronary artery and for other segments. Conclusion: In clinical practice at general hospitals, CCTA appears to have diagnostic performance comparable to that of ICA.

Resumo Objetivo: O objetivo do estudo é comparar os graus de estenose coronariana (≥ 50% de redução luminal) determinados pela tomografia computadorizada e pelo cateterismo, utilizando uma análise segmento a segmento. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo conduzido em pacientes que foram submetidos a tomografia computadorizada e a cateterismo, de janeiro de 2014 a junho de 2018, em um hospital geral. A análise da curva característica de operação do receptor foi utilizada para a análise da acurácia. Resultados: Na avaliação dos vasos, em um total de 844 segmentos, o desempenho da tomografia computadorizada foi bom, com sensibilidade de 82,3%, especificidade de 96,4% e valor preditivo negativo de 97,7% (IC 95%: 96,5-98,5). Na análise segmento a segmento, o tronco da coronária esquerda, assim como outros segmentos, apresentaram excelente acurácia. Conclusão: A tomografia computadorizada mostrou bom desempenho diagnóstico quando comparada com o cateterismo na prática diária de um hospital geral.

Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 29(2): 248-254, ene.-abr. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376887


Resumen La disección espontánea de la arteria coronaria es una causa no aterosclerótica de infarto de miocardio, la cual es más común en mujeres jóvenes con pocos o ningún factor de riesgo cardiovascular. Es infrecuente, no se asocia a iatrogenia ni trauma, y se presenta por acumulación espontánea de sangre entre las capas de la pared arterial coronaria, por ruptura de la íntima; de ahí que genera una falsa luz que produce compresión externa del verdadero lumen arterial, con lo cual altera el flujo sanguíneo coronario y ocluye la arteria comprometida. Se expone el caso de una mujer de 31 años, sin factores de riesgo cardiovascular, quien ingresó a un servicio de urgencias con dolor torácico típico, de 2 horas de evolución. En el electrocardiograma se apreció elevación del segmento ST en las derivaciones de la cara anteroseptal e inferior, y troponina T de alta sensibilidad positiva, por lo que se realizó terapia trombolítica con tenecteplasa, sin obtener criterios de reperfusión. Se hizo angiografía coronaria, la cual mostró obstrucción total de la arteria coronaria descendente anterior en el tercio medio. El ultrasonido intravascular documentó flap de disección y hematoma en este segmento, los cuales confirmaron la disección coronaria espontánea. Se realizó angioplastia con implante de stent coronario y se restableció la circulación, observando mejoría de los síntomas.

Abstract Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a non-atherosclerotic cause of myocardial infarction, more frequent in young women with few or no cardiovascular risk factors, it is infrequent, and it is not associated with iatrogenesis or trauma. It occurs due to spontaneous accumulation of blood between the layers of the coronary artery wall, due to rupture of the intima, generating a false lumen that produces external compression of the true arterial lumen, altering coronary blood flow, occluding the compromised artery. It is presented the case of a 31-year-old woman with no cardiovascular risk factors, who was admitted to an emergency department, with typical chest pain of 2 hours of evolution, showing ST-segment elevation in leads of anteroseptal and inferior face on the electrocardiogram and troponin T with high sensitivity positive. Therefore, thrombolytic therapy was performed with tenecteplase, without obtaining reperfusion criteria. Coronary angiography was performed that demonstrates total obstruction of the anterior descending coronary artery in the middle third. Intravascular ultrasound documents the dissection flap and hematoma in this segment that confirm spontaneous coronary dissection, performing angioplasty with implantation of a coronary stent, restoring circulation with improvement of symptoms.

Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 607-613, mar. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364344


Resumo Fundamento A ventriculografia esquerda é um método invasivo para avaliar a função sistólica do ventrículo esquerdo. Depois do advento de métodos não invasivos, o seu uso tem sido questionado por resultar em algum risco para o paciente. Objetivos Avaliar quais fatores associam-se independentemente com a decisão de realizar ventriculografia em pacientes com doença arterial coronariana. Métodos Tratou-se de um estudo analítico, retrospectivo, avaliando prontuários eletrônicos e banco de dados e comparando 21 variáveis de interesse pré-definidas entre pacientes submetidos a cineangiocoronariografia. Foi considerado significante p < 0,05. Resultados Avaliamos 600 pacientes consecutivos, e a ventriculografia esquerda foi realizada na maioria dos pacientes submetidos a uma cineangiocoronariografia (54%). Depois da análise multivariada, os pacientes com síndromes coronarianas crônicas ( odds ratio [OR] 1,72; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC 95%]: 1,20-2,46; p < 0,01) tiveram maior chance de serem submetidos ao procedimento. Os pacientes com função ventricular conhecida (OR = 0,58; IC 95%: 0,40-0,85; p < 0,01), os revascularizados (OR 0,31; IC 95% 0,14-0,69; p < 0,01), os hipertensos (OR 0,58; IC 95%: 0,36-0,94; p = 0,02) e aqueles com maiores valores de creatinina (OR 0,42; IC 95% 0,26-0,69; p < 0,01) tiveram maior chance de não realizar ventriculografia. Conclusões Nos pacientes submetidos a cineangiocoronariografia, o diagnóstico de síndrome coronariana crônica associou-se de modo independente com uma maior realização da técnica, enquanto ter a função ventricular previamente conhecida, ser hipertenso, ter sido submetido a revascularização cirúrgica prévia e ter valores de creatinina mais elevados associaram-se a uma maior chance de não realizar o método.

Abstract Background Left ventriculography is an invasive method for assessment of left ventricular systolic function. Since the advent of noninvasive methods, its use has been questioned, as it carries some risk to the patient. Objective To assess which factors are independently associated with the decision to perform ventriculography in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods Analytical, retrospective, database review study of electronic medical records comparing 21 predefined variables of interest among patients undergoing coronary angiography. P-values <0.05 were considered significant. Results We evaluated 600 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography. Left ventriculography was performed in the majority of cases (54%). After multivariate analysis, patients with chronic coronary syndrome (OR 1.72; 95% CI: 1.20-2.46; p < 0.01) were more likely to undergo the procedure. Patients with known ventricular function (OR 0.58; 95% CI: 0.40-0.85; p < 0.01); those with a history of CABG (OR 0.31; 95% CI: 0.14-0.69; p < 0.01) or hypertension (OR 0.58; 95% CI: 0.36-0.94; p = 0.02); and those with higher creatinine levels (OR 0.42; 95% CI: 0.26-0.69; p < 0.01) had greater odds of not undergoing ventriculography. Conclusions In patients undergoing coronary angiography, a diagnosis of chronic coronary syndrome was independently associated with greater likelihood of left ventriculography, while having previously determined ventricular function, a history of hypertension or CABG, and higher creatinine levels were associated with a decreased likelihood of undergoing this procedure.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Coronary Angiography , Heart
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 75-79, mar. 2022. Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362712


Los aneurismas de las arterias coronarias (AAC) son poco comunes, con una incidencia de 0.3-5.3%. Se definen como una dilatación 1.5 veces mayor al diámetro interno de la arteria normal adyacente. La arteria coronaria derecha es la más comúnmente afectada. Su fisiopatología es poco clara, pero se cree que una de sus principales causas es la aterosclerosis. Los AAC son generalmente asintomáticos o pueden estar asociados a isquemia miocárdica. Su tratamiento aún no está bien establecido, debido al desconocimiento general sobre su historia natural, e incluye desde un manejo conservador hasta el tratamiento quirúrgico. A continuación, se reporta el caso de un paciente con infarto agudo de miocardio y elevación del segmento ST, llevado a coronariografía que evidenció aneurisma de la coronaria derecha, que requirió trombectomía, angioplastia y manejo médico vitalicio ambulatorio.

Coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) are a rare entity with an incidence of 0.3-5.3%. They are dilations of 1.5 times larger than normal adjacent artery, with the right coronary artery as the most affected vessel. Its pathophysiology is unclear but atherosclerosis is believed to be the main cause. CAA are generally asymptomatic but can cause coronary ischemia. Its treatment is yet to be established due to general ignorance about its nature. It ranges from conservative management to surgery. In the following text, we report a case of a patient with acute myocardial infarction presenting ST-segment elevation, who showed a right coronary artery aneurysm in coronary angiography. The patient required thrombectomy, angioplasty and subsequent lifetime outpatient medical management.

Os aneurismas das artérias coronárias (AAC) são pouco comuns, com uma incidência de 0.3-5.3%. Se definem como uma dilatação 1.5 vezes maior ao diâmetro interno da artéria normal adjacente. A artéria coronária direita é a mais comumente afetada. Sua fisiopatologia é pouco clara, mas se crê que uma das suas principais causas é a aterosclerose. Os AAC são geralmente assintomáticos ou podem estar associados a isquemia miocárdica. Seu tratamento ainda não está bem estabelecido, devido ao desconhecimento geral sobre sua história natural, e inclui desde um manejo conservador até o tratamento cirúrgico. A continuação, se reporta o caso de um paciente com infarto agudo de miocárdio e elevação do segmento ST, levado a coronariografia que evidenciou aneurisma da coronária direita, que requereu trombectomia, angioplastia e manejo médico vitalício ambulatório.

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aneurysm , Coronary Angiography , Myocardial Ischemia , Angioplasty , Coronary Vessels , Myocardial Infarction
J. Transcatheter Interv ; 30: eA20220033, 20220101.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1402643


Introdução: Lesões significativas no tronco de coronária esquerda são encontradas em aproximadamente 5% dos pacientes submetidos à coronariografia, sendo a maioria dos casos multiarteriais e com envolvimento do tronco distal. A cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio é considerada o tratamento preferencial para lesões de tronco de coronária esquerda não protegido. No entanto, com o avanço de técnicas e a introdução dos novos stents liberadores de fármacos, a intervenção coronariana percutânea tem sido considerada estratégia viável, apresentando resultados favoráveis. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os desfechos em pacientes com lesões de tronco de coronária esquerda não protegido submetidos à intervenção coronariana percutânea. Métodos: Foram analisados dados eletrônicos de pacientes submetidos à intervenção coronariana percutânea entre dezembro de 2017 e janeiro de 2020 em um único centro, com o objetivo de avaliar características clínicas, angiográficas e os desfechos clínicos. Resultados: Foram incluídos 103 pacientes portadores de lesões significativas de tronco não protegido, 66% eram do sexo masculino, 88,3% eram hipertensos, e 87,4% possuíam função ventricular normal. Lesões envolvendo a bifurcação foram identificadas em 73,8% dos pacientes, 36,9% apresentavam lesões concomitantes nos três grandes vasos epicárdicos e 42,7% com escore SYNTAX intermediário (23 a 32 pontos). O sucesso angiográfico foi obtido em 100% dos casos, com quatro (3,9%) eventos cardíacos e cerebrovasculares adversos, sendo 2,9% de mortalidade. Conclusão: Os resultados hospitalares sustentam a intervenção coronariana percutânea como um procedimento seguro, de excelente resultado angiográfico e eventos cardíacos e cerebrovasculares adversos comparáveis aos da cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio, configurando opção bastante viável em relação ao tratamento cirúrgico.

Background: Significant lesions in the left main coronary artery are found in approximately 5% of patients undergoing coronary angiography, with most cases involving multiple vessels and affecting the distal bifurcation. A coronary artery bypass graft surgery is considered the preferred treatment for unprotected left main coronary artery lesions. However, with the advancement of techniques and the introduction of new drug-eluting stents, percutaneous coronary intervention has been considered a viable strategy, with favorable results. The objective of this study was to analyze the outcomes in patients with unprotected left main coronary artery lesions undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods: Electronic data from patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention between December 2017 and January 2020 at a single center were analyzed to assess clinical and angiographic characteristics and clinical outcomes. Results: A total of 103 patients with significant unprotected left main coronary artery lesions were included; in that, 66% were male, 88.3% were hypertensive, and 87.4% had normal ventricular function. Lesions involving the bifurcation were identified in 73.8% of patients, 36.9% had concomitant lesions in the three major epicardial vessels, and 42.7% had an intermediate SYNTAX score (23 to 32 points). Angiographic success was achieved in 100% of cases, with four (3.9%) adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events, with 2.9% mortality. Conclusion: Hospital results support percutaneous coronary intervention as a safe procedure, with excellent angiographic results and low rates of adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events. We concluded that percutaneous coronary intervention is an option to coronary artery bypass graft surgery and is a very viable option for surgical treatment of unprotected left main coronary artery lesions.

J. Transcatheter Interv ; 30: eA20210036, 20220101.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1410938


Um homem de 28 anos com história pregressa de abuso de drogas foi encaminhado para coronariografia de emergência após parada cardíaca. O eletrocardiograma pós-ressuscitação mostrou elevação do segmento ST em V1-V4. A angiografia mostrou dissecção espontânea da artéria coronária, multiarterial e em diversos segmentos. Devido à instabilidade clínica, o paciente foi submetido à intervenção coronária percutânea da artéria descendente anterior. A prevalência da dissecção espontânea da artéria coronária como causa de síndrome coronariana aguda em homens é infrequente. No entanto, nos casos suspeitos, ela deve ser excluída. A parada cardiorrespiratória é um quadro incomum na dissecção espontânea da artéria coronária, e a intervenção coronária percutânea como modalidade terapêutica ainda é uma questão em debate.

A 28-year-old male with a previous history of drug abuse was sent to an emergent coronary angiography, after a cardiac arrest, with a post-resuscitation eletrocardiogram showing ST- segment elevation from V1-V4. Angiography showed multivessel and multisegment spontaneous coronary artery dissection. Due to clinical instability, patient underwent left anterior descending artery percutaneous coronary intervention. Prevalence of spontaneous coronary artery dissection as the cause of acute coronary syndrome is anecdotal in men. Yet, in the right scenarios as in this case, it must be ruled out. Cardiorespiratory arrest is an uncommon presentation of spontaneous coronary artery dissection and percutaneous coronary intervention in spontaneous coronary artery dissection is still a matter of debate.

J. Transcatheter Interv ; 30: eA20210044, 20220101.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1401672


A dissecção espontânea da artéria coronária é definida como uma dissecção coronária epicárdica não iatrogênica, não associada à aterosclerose ou a trauma. A lesão miocárdica ocorre devido à obstrução da artéria coronária causada por hematoma intramural ou ruptura da íntima, em vez de ruptura de placa aterosclerótica ou trombo intraluminal. Relatamos um caso de dissecção espontânea tipo 2 variante A no segmento médio da artéria descendente anterior apresentando-se como síndrome de Wellens tipo A, que necessitou de intervenção coronária percutânea para alívio de angina refratária e congestão pulmonar.

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is defined as non-iatrogenic epicardial coronary dissection, not associated with atherosclerosis or trauma. Myocardial injury occurs due to coronary artery obstruction caused by intramural hematoma or intimal disruption, rather than atherosclerotic plaque rupture or intraluminal thrombus. We report a case of type 2 variant A spontaneous coronary artery dissection in the mid left anterior descending artery, presenting with type A Wellens' syndrome, which required percutaneous coronary intervention for relief of refractory angina and pulmonary congestion.

J. Transcatheter Interv ; 30: eA20220010, 20220101. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396123


As anomalias congênitas e, dentre elas, as variações anatômicas das artérias coronarianas, embora pouco frequentes, são cada vez mais estudadas e diagnosticadas devido à estreita relação de sintomas, tais quais angina, dispneia, síncope ou arritmias em pessoas jovens sem comorbidades. Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal apresentar o estudo de caso de um paciente com sintomas isquêmicos secundários à malformação de uma artéria coronariana. Descrevem-se o momento da admissão do paciente, o diagnóstico mediante exames complementares e a resolução terapêutica do caso. As fístulas coronarianas, apesar de terem uma baixa incidência entre as cardiopatias congênitas, tornaram-se cada vez mais frequentes, sendo melhor caraterizadas devido aos novos métodos diagnósticos.

Congenital anomalies and within them anatomical variations of coronary arteries, although uncommon, are being increasingly studied and diagnosed due to the close relationship of symptoms such as angina, dyspnea, syncope or arrhythmias in young people without comorbidities. This study aimed to present the case report of a patient with ischemic symptoms secondary to malformation of a coronary artery. We describe the moment of patient admission, diagnosis by complementary tests and therapeutic resolution of the case. Coronary fistulas, despite having a low incidence among congenital heart diseases, have become increasingly frequent, being better characteristic due to new diagnostic methods.

Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(2): 478-485, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364331


Resumo Fundamento A relação direta entre a doença arterial coronariana (DAC) e o câncer de pulmão não é bem conhecida. Objetivo Investigar a associação entre a gravidade anatômica da DAC e do câncer de pulmão. Métodos Trezentos pacientes, incluindo 75 recém-diagnosticados com câncer de pulmão e 225 pacientes correspondentes sem câncer, foram submetidos à angiografia coronária durante a internação, sem intervenção coronária percutânea (ICP) prévia nem enxerto de bypass da artéria coronária (CABG). O escore SYNTAX foi utilizado para avaliar a gravidade da DAC. Uma pontuação alta no escore foi definida como > 15 (o maior quartil do escore SYNTAX). O teste de tendência de Cochran-Armitage foi utilizado para verificar a distribuição dos escores dos pacientes. Uma análise de regressão logística foi utilizada para avaliar a associação entre a gravidade da DAC e o câncer de pulmão. Os valores de p foram estabelecidos quando o nível de significância era 5%. Resultados A tendência de distribuição dos escores SYNTAX dos pacientes por quartis foi diferente entre aqueles com câncer de pulmão e controles (do quartil mais baixo ao mais alto: 20,0%; 20,0%; 24,0%; 36,0% vs. 26,7%; 26,2%; 25,8%; 21,3%; p=0,022). A pontuação no escore SYNTAX foi mais alta em pacientes com câncer do que nos pacientes controle (36,0% vs. 21,3%, p=0,011).O maior quartil do escore demonstrou mais riscos de desenvolver câncer de pulmão em comparação ao quartil mais baixo (OR: 2.250, IC95%: 1.077 a 4.699 ; P -trend= 0,016). Após ajustes, os pacientes no maior quartil do escore SYNTAX tinham mais risco de desenvolver câncer de pulmão (OR: 2.1o49, IC95%: 1.008 a 4.584; P -trend= 0,028). Pacientes com escores SYNTAX alto (> 15) tinham 1.985 mais chances de ter câncer de pulmão (IC95%: 1.105-3.563, P= 0,022). Conclusão A gravidade anatômica da DAC está associada ao risco de câncer de pulmão, o que indica que um rastreamento completo deste tipo de câncer possa ser mais significativo entre pacientes com DAC.

Abstract Background The direct relationship between coronary artery disease (CAD) and lung cancer is not well known. Objective To investigate the association between the anatomical severity of CAD and lung cancer. Methods Three-hundred study patients, including 75 recently diagnosed lung cancer patients and 225 matched non-cancer patients, underwent coronary angiography during hospitalization without previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The SYNTAX score (SXscore) was used to assess the severity of CAD. A high SXscore (SXhigh) grade was defined as SXscore > 15 (the highest quartile of the SXscore). The Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to assess the distribution of patients' SXscores. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between the severity of CAD and lung cancer. P-values were set when significance level was 5%. Results The distribution trend of patients' SXscore by quartiles was different between lung cancer patients and control patients (from the lowest to the highest quartile: 20.0%, 20.0%, 24.0%, 36.0% vs. 26.7%, 26.2%, 25.8%, 21.3%, p=0.022). The SX high rate was higher in lung cancer patients than in control patients (36.0% vs. 21.3%, p=0.011).The highest quartile of the SXscore showed higher risk of lung cancer in comparison to the lowest quartile (OR: 2,250, 95%CI: 1,077 to 4,699 ; P-trend= 0.016). After adjustment, patients in the highest quartile of the SXscore had higher risk of lung cancer (OR: 2,149, 95%CI: 1,008 to 4,584; P-trend= 0.028). Patients with high SXscore (> 15) had 1,985 times more chances of having lung cancer (95%CI: 1,105-3,563, P= 0.022). Conclusions The anatomical severity of CAD is associated with the risk of lung cancer, which indicates that a thorough lung cancer screening may be significant among severe CAD patients.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Severity of Illness Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Coronary Angiography , Early Detection of Cancer , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1119-1125, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923762


OBJECTIVE To syste matically evaluate the prevention effects of nicorandil on contrast-induced nephropathy in patients underwent coronary angiography (CAG)or stent implantation (CSI),and to provide evidence-based reference for clinical drug use. METHODS Retrieved from PubMed ,Embase,Cochrane library ,Wanfang database ,CBM and CNKI ,randomized controlled trial (RCT)about nicorandil (trial group )versus normal saline or placebo (control group )prevented contrast-induced nephropathy in patients underwent CAG or CSI were collected during the inception to Nov. 2021. After extracting literature that met the inclusion criteria ,the bias risk assessment tool of RCT in Cochrane manual was used for quality evaluation ,and meta-analysis was performed by using RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS A total of 17 RCTs were included ,involving 3 279 patients. Among them,there were 1 587 patients in trial group ,and 1 692 patients in control group. Results of meta-analysis showed that the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in trial group was significantly lo wer than control group [RR =0.40,95%CI(0.31,0.51), P<0.000 1] . Results of subgroup analysis showed that the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in trial group was significantly lower than control group ,whether intravenous administration [RR =0.47,95%CI(0.29,0.74),P=0.001] or oral administration [RR =0.37,95%CI(0.28,0.50),P<0.000 01],whether patients with normal renal function [RR =0.42,95%CI(0.30, 0.59),P<0.000 01] or with renal insufficiency [RR =0.38, 95% CI(0.26,0.54),P<0.000 01]. Scr of 24 h[SMD= -1.38,95%CI(-2.32,-0.44),P=0.004],48 h[SMD= -0.81,95%CI(-1.19,-0.43),P<0.000 1] and 72 h[SMD= -0.24,95%CI(-0.43,-0.05),P=0.01] after surgery in trialgroup were significantly lower than control group ;the decrease of creatinine clearance rate of 48 h[SMD=1.27, 95%CI(0.48,2.07),P=0.001] and 72 h[SMD=0.37,95%CI(0.07,0.67),P=0.02] after surgery in trial group were significantly lower than control group ;cystatin C of 24 h[SMD=-0.93,95%CI(-1.72,-0.14),P=0.02],48 h[SMD=-1.72,95%CI (-2.33,-1.10),P<0.000 01] and 72 h[SMD=-0.36,95%CI(-0.62,-0.10),P=0.006] after surgery in trial group were significantly lower than control group. CONCLUSIONS Pretreatment of nicorandil can reduce the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients underwent CAG or CSI ,and reduce the damage of renal function after application of contrast.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933445


Objective:To develop a pretest probability model of obstructive coronary artery disease with machine learning based on multi-site Chinese population data.Methods:Chinese regiStry in early deTection and Risk strAtificaTion of coronary plaques (C-Strat) study is a prospective multi-center cohort study, in which consecutive patients with suspected obstructive coronary artery disease and ≥64 detector row coronary computed tomography angioplasty (CCTA) evaluation were included. Data from the patients were randomly split into a training set (70%) and a test set (30%). More than 50% of coronary artery stenosis by CCTA was defined as positive outcome. A boosted ensemble algorithm (XGBoost), 10-fold cross-validation and Bayesian optimization were used to establish a new prediction model-CARDIACS(pretest probability model from Chinese registry in eARly Detection and rIsk stratificAtion of Coronary plaques Study), and a logistic regression was used to establish a model-LOGISTIC in training set. The test set was used for validation and comparison among CARDIACS, LOGISTIC, UDFM (updated Diamond-Forrester Model) and DFCASS(Diamond-Forrester and CASS).Results:The study population included 29 455 patients with age of (57.0±9.7) years and 44.8% women, of whom 19.1% (5 622/29 455) had obstructive coronary artery disease. For CARDIACS, the age, the reason for visit and the body mass index (BMI) were the most important predictive variables. In the independent test set, the area under the curve (AUC) of CARDIACS was 0.72 (95% CI 0.70-0.73), which was significantly superior to that of LOGISTIC (AUC 0.69, 95% CI 0.68-0.71, P=0.015), UDFM (AUC 0.64, 95% CI 0.62-0.65, P<0.001) and DFCASS (AUC 0.66, 95% CI 0.64-0.67, P<0.001), respectively. Conclusion:Based on Chinese population, the study developed a new pretest probability model--CARDIACS, which was superior to the traditional models. CARDIACS is expected to assist in the clinical decision-making for patients with stable chest pain.

Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 256-260, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933068


Objective:To investigate the correlation of serum testosterone level with severity and characteristics of coronary plaque, stent implantation rate and major cardiovascular adverse events(MACE)in elderly male patients with coronary heart disease(CHD).Methods:In this retrospective study, a total of 63 elderly male patients of the Third People's Hospital of Hangzhou with coronary angiography(CAG)-confirmed CHD and to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI)were selected.According to serum testosterone level, they were divided into the low testosterone(low T)group and the normal testosterone(normal T)group.Optical coherence tomography(OCT)was performed in both groups to define the characteristics of coronary artery lesions and guide stent implantation.The correlation of serum testosterone level with blood lipids, glycated hemoglobin(HbA1c), degree of coronary artery lesions, plaque characteristics, stent implantation and MACE in two groups were analyzed.The in-stent restenosis rate after stent implantation and the variation of minimum lumen diameter of stent were determined during 12 months follow up in both groups.Results:Total cholesterol(TC), low-density lipoprotein(LDL-C)and HbA1c were higher in the low T group than in the normal T group( t=7.808、-5.871、6.611, all P<0.05). When taking testosterone as the independent variable, and TC, triglycerides(TG), LDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C)and HbA1c as the dependent variables, linear regression analysis showed that TC, LDL-C and HbA1c were negatively correlated with testosterone level( β=-0.733, -0.716, -0.581, P<0.05). More than 2 vascular lesions were more common in low testosterone group versus the control group( χ2=8.66, P<0.05). Mixed plaques, lipid plaques, and calcified plaques were more commonly found in low testosterone group versus the control group( χ2=7.87, P<0.05). Unstable plaques were more common in the low T group( χ2=6.14, P<0.05). The low T group vs the normal T group, coronary stent implantation rate were 93.3%(28/30 cases) vs.66.7%(22/33 cases), the difference was statistically significant( χ2=6.82, P<0.05). When testosterone, TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, HbA1c were taken as the independent variables, and the stent implantation rate was the dependent variable, logistic regression analysis results showed that only testosterone, TC and HbA1c were independently correlated with stent implantation rate( OR=0.971、425.523、0.004, P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in minimum stent lumen diameters between the two groups under OCT-guided coronary stent implantation( t=-1.064, P>0.05). During 12 months follow up, the MACE0 incidence was 26.7%(8/30 cases, in low T group)than 6.1%(2/33 cases, in normal T group), with statistically significant difference( χ2=5.00, P<0.05). When taking testosterone, TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C and HbA1c as the independent variables, and MACE as the dependent variable, logistic regression analysis results showed that only testosterone and LDL-C were independently correlated with MACE( OR=0.968, 0.008, P<0.05). Conclusions:Serum testosterone level is negatively correlated with TC, LDL-C and HbA1c, and may be correlated with the degree of coronary artery lesions, plaque properties, MACE and stent implantation rate of CHD patients.Serum testosterone can be used to evaluate the characteristics and conditions of CHD, and help to predict the prognosis of CHD.The OCT is a good guide tool for coronary stent implantation.

Organ Transplantation ; (6): 206-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920850


Objective To summarize the incidence of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) after heart transplantation and the effect on the long-term survival of recipients. Methods Clinical data of 1 006 heart transplant recipients were retrospectively analyzed. Of 48 CAV patients, 4 cases were not included in this analysis due to lack of imaging evidence. A total of 1 002 recipients were divided into the CAV group (n=44) and non-CAV group (n=958) according to the incidence of CAV. The incidence of CAV was summarized. Clinical data of all patients were statistically compared between two groups. Imaging diagnosis, coronary artery disease, drug treatment and complications, postoperative survival and causes of death of CAV patients were analyzed. Results Among 1 006 heart transplant recipients, 48 cases (4.77%) developed CAV. Compared with the non-CAV group, the proportion of preoperative smoking history, preoperative hypertension history, coronary artery disease and perioperative infection was significantly higher in the CAV group (all P < 0.05). Among 44 patients diagnosed with CAV by imaging examination, 24 cases were diagnosed with CAV by coronary CT angiography (CTA), 4 cases by coronary angiography (CAG), and 16 cases by coronary CTA combined with CAG. Among 44 patients, the proportion of grade Ⅰ CAV was 45% (20/44), 30% (13/44) for grade Ⅱ CAV and 25% (11/44) for grade Ⅲ CAV, respectively. All patients received long-term use of statins after operation, and 20 patients were given with antiplatelet drugs. Among 44 CAV patients, 11 patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, 6 cases received repeated heart transplantation, and 8 patients died. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that there was no significant difference in the long-term survival rate between the CAV and non-CAV groups (P > 0.05), whereas the survival rate of patients tended to decline after the diagnosis of CAV (at postoperative 6-7 years). The long-term survival rates of patients with grade Ⅰ, grade Ⅱ and grade Ⅲ CAV showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). Even for patients with grade Ⅰ CAV, the long-term survival rate tended to decline. Conclusions CAV is a common and intractable complication following heart transplantation, and the long-term survival rate of patients after the diagnosis of CAV tended to decline. Deepening understanding of CAV, prompt prevention, diagnosis and treatment should be delivered to improve the long-term survival rate of patients after heart transplantation.