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1.
ABCS health sci ; 49: [1-9], 11 jun. 2024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555516

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Olfactory symptoms have been reported as particular in COVID-19 patients. Objective: To synthesize and analyze the existing evidence on the monitoring loss of sense of smell and taste in COVID-19 patients, and for how long symptoms persist after the virus is no longer active in the organism. Methods: A search was implemented in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science databases. This systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted according to PRISMA, and the risk of bias was assessed through the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The review protocol is registered in PROSPERO. Results: Our systematic review included data from 14 articles with a total of 2143 participants. The most reported sensory symptom of COVID-19 was anosmia, which was detected in 1499 patients, being the only symptom to appear in all studies. Ageusia was detected in 595 patients, dysgeusia in 514 patients, and hyposmia in 209 patients. The studies provided the number of 729 patients with sensory symptoms during the acute COVID-19 infection of 15 days, and 1020 patients with lasting sensory symptoms, presenting sensory dysfunctions after the average latent period of 15 days of the acute COVID-19 infection. Conclusion: Evidence points to the loss or dysfunction of taste and smell as one of the symptoms of COVID-19 persisting for an average time of 15 days, with 44% of COVID-19 patients with persistent symptoms for more than 15 days. Nevertheless, most studies do not perform a follow-up with those patients. Therefore, further research on sensory symptoms and their follow-up is required.

2.
ABCS health sci ; 49: [1-8], 11 jun. 2024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555523

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The increase in the workload of health professionals and the degree of complexity of patients, attribute greater risk to psychosocial stress. Objective: To evaluate the associations between occupational stress, quality of life at work, and coping strategies by the hospital nursing team during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Cross sectional, quantitative study with convenience sampling, data collection from August to December 2020; in two units of the private hospital network, with sociodemographic, occupational and health questionnaires; visual analogue scale for assessing quality of life at work; Demand-Control-Support (DCS); Occupational Coping Scale. Results: The total sample consisted of 196 nursing professionals. There was significant certainty (negative, however, the dimension "Demand" of the DCS and QWL (<0.001, r=-0.367). Control over work-related work has a significant quality (but the "Control" dimension of the DCS and QWL (=0.025, r=0.160); and significantly negative, however, between the "Social Support" dimension of DCS and "Negative Equivalence" of Coping (p=0.003, r=-0.2013). Conclusion: The findings of this study allowed the correlation between occupational stress, coping and quality of life at work, showing that the lower the social support, the greater the use of avoidance strategies and consequently decline in quality of life at work. They also allowed us to identify the coping strategies used by the nursing staff and quality of life at work in the face of occupational stress during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 45(1): 113-126, jan./jun. 2024. Tab, Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513051

ABSTRACT

A síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SRAG) é caracterizada por sintomas de febre alta, tosse e dispneia, e, na maioria dos casos, relacionada a uma quantidade reduzida de agentes infecciosos. O objetivo foi avaliar a prevalência dos vírus respiratórios Influenza A (FluA), vírus sincicial respiratório (RSV) e do novo coronavírus (SARS-CoV-2) em pacientes com internação hospitalar por SRAG. Estudo transversal, com pacientes em internação hospitalar com SRAG entre novembro de 2021 e maio de 2022. Dados sociodemográficos e clínicos e amostras da nasofaringe foram coletados/as, as quais foram submetidas à extração de RNA e testadas quanto à positividade para Influenza A, RSV e SARS-CoV-2 por meio da técnica de PCR em tempo real pelo método SYBR Green. Foram incluídos 42 pacientes, sendo 59,5% do sexo feminino, 57,1% idosos, 54,8% com ensino fundamental. A maior parte dos pacientes reportou hábito tabagista prévio ou atual (54,8%), não etilista (73,8%) e 83,3% deles apresentavam alguma comorbidade, sendo hipertensão arterial sistêmica e diabetes mellitus tipo 2 as mais prevalentes. Um total de 10,5% dos pacientes testou positivo para FluA, nenhuma amostra positiva para RSV e 76,3% positivos para SARS-CoV-2. Na população estudada, SRAG com agravo hospitalar foi observado em maior proporção, em mulheres, idosos e pessoas com comorbidades, embora sem significância estatística, sendo o novo coronavírus o agente etiológico mais relacionado, o que evidencia a patogenicidade desse agente e suas consequências ainda são evidentes após quase 2 anos de período pandêmico.


Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is characterized by symptoms of high fever, cough and dyspnea, and is in most cases related to a reduced amount of infectious agents. The objective was to assess the prevalence of respiratory viruses Influenza A (FluA), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in patients hospitalized for SARS. Cross-sectional study, with patients hospitalized with SARS between November 2021 and May 2022. Sociodemographic and clinical data and nasopharyngeal samples were collected, which were subjected to RNA extraction and tested for positivity for Influenza A, RSV and SARS-CoV-2 using the real-time PCR technique using the SYBR Green method. 42 patients were included, 59.5% female, 57.1% elderly, 54.8% with primary education. Most patients reported previous or current smoking habits (54.8%), non-drinkers (73.8) and 83.3% of them had some comorbidity, with systemic arterial hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus being the most prevalent. A total of 10.5% of patients tested positive for FluA, no samples positive for RSV, and 76.3% positive for SARS-CoV-2. In the studied population, SARS with hospital injury was observed more frequently in women and the elderly, with associated comorbidities, with the new coronavirus being the most related etiological agent, which shows, although not statistically significant, that the pathogenicity of this agent and its consequences are still evident after almost 2 years of period pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged
4.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 45(1): 3-12, jan./jun. 2024. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554865

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar o nível de estresse percebido e sofrimento psíquico em gestores de saúde na pandemia da Covid-19. Método: estudo descritivo, transversal com abordagem quantitativa. A coleta ocorreu de abril a setembro de 2021, com 40 gestores de serviço de saúde. Utilizou-se para a coleta de dados um instrumento para caracterização sociodemográfica e ocupacional e as escalas "Perceived Stress Scale-14" e "Self Reporting Questionnaire" para avaliação do estresse percebido e sofrimento psíquico. Os dados coletados foram analisados no Statistical Package for the Social Sciences versão 22.0. O presente estudo faz parte de um projeto intitulado "Trabalhadores dos Serviços de Saúde Frente à Pandemia de Covid-19", aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa sob CAAE número 35260620.9.0000.5231. Resultados: a maioria dos profissionais eram do sexo feminino (90%, N=36), casados (70%, N=28), com filhos (80%, N=32), com média de idade de 45 anos e com pós--graduação (47,5%, N=19). A média dos escores relacionados ao estresse percebido foi 31,13 pontos (DP=3,77) sendo o mínimo 24 e máximo de 42 pontos. Com relação ao sofrimento psíquico, (40%, N=16) os gestores apresentaram prováveis casos de transtornos. A prática de atividades físicas e de lazer (p<0,05) tem papel importante na diminuição do estresse percebido e do sofrimento psíquico. Conclusão: os gestores em saúde apresentaram, durante a pandemia, estresse e sofrimento psíquico, resultados esses que devem ser considerados para promoção de autocuidado aos gestores de saúde, enfatizando a necessidade da realização de atividades físicas e de lazer.


Objective: to analyze the level of perceived stress and psychological suffering in health managers during the Covid-19 pandemic. Method: descriptive, cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. The collection took place from April to September 2021, with 40 health service managers. An instrument for socio-demographic and occupational characterization and the "Perceived Stress Scale-14" and "Self Reporting Questionnaire" scales were used for the assessment of perceived stress and psychic suffering. The collected data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22.0. The present study is part of a project entitled "Health Service Workers in the Face of the Covid-19 Pandemic", approved by the Research Ethics Committee under CAAE number 35260620.9.0000.5231. Results: most professionals were female (90%, N=36), married (70%, N=28), with children (80%, N=32), with a mean age of 45 years and with a postgraduate degree. -graduation (47.5%, N=19). The average score related to perceived stress was 31.13 points (SD=3.77), with a minimum of 24 and a maximum of 42 points. With regard to psychic suffering, (40%, N=16) the managers presented probable cases of disorders. The practice of physical and leisure activities (p<0.05) plays an important role in reducing perceived stress and psychological distress. Conclusion: health managers presented, during the pandemic, stress and psychic suffering, results that should be considered for promoting self-care to health managers, emphasizing the need to carry out physical and leisure activities.Keywords: Health manager; Occupational stress; Covid-19; Coronavirus infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged
5.
J. bras. nefrol ; 46(2): e20230056, Apr.-June 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550498

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently in COVID-19 patients and is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. Knowing the risks of AKI allows for identification, prevention, and timely treatment. This study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with AKI in hospitalized patients. Methods: A descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional, and analytical component study of adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 from March 1 to December 31, 2020 was carried out. AKI was defined by the creatinine criteria of the KDIGO-AKI guidelines. Information, regarding risk factors, was obtained from electronic medical records. Results: Out of the 934 patients, 42.93% developed AKI, 60.59% KDIGO-1, and 9.9% required renal replacement therapy. Patients with AKI had longer hospital stay, higher mortality, and required more intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor support. Multivariate analysis showed that age (OR 1.03; 95% CI 1.02-1.04), male sex (OR 2.13; 95% CI 1.49-3.04), diabetes mellitus (DM) (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.04-2.32), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.06-4.04), C-reactive protein (CRP) (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.00-1.03), ICU admission (OR 1.81; 95% CI 1.04-3.16), and vasopressor support (OR 7.46; 95% CI 3.34-16.64) were risk factors for AKI, and that bicarbonate (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.84-0.94) and partial pressure arterial oxygen/inspired oxygen fraction index (OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.98-0.99) could be protective factors. Conclusions: A high frequency of AKI was documented in COVID-19 patients, with several predictors: age, male sex, DM, CKD, CRP, ICU admission, and vasopressor support. AKI occurred more frequently in patients with higher disease severity and was associated with higher mortality and worse outcomes.


RESUMO Introdução: Lesão renal aguda (LRA) ocorre frequentemente em pacientes com COVID-19 e associa-se a maior morbidade e mortalidade. Conhecer riscos da LRA permite a identificação, prevenção e tratamento oportuno. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar fatores de risco associados à LRA em pacientes hospitalizados. Métodos: Realizou-se estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, transversal e de componente analítico de pacientes adultos hospitalizados com COVID-19 de 1º de março a 31 de dezembro, 2020. Definiu-se a LRA pelos critérios de creatinina das diretrizes KDIGO-LRA. Informações sobre fatores de risco foram obtidas de prontuários eletrônicos. Resultados: Dos 934 pacientes, 42,93% desenvolveram LRA, 60,59% KDIGO-1 e 9,9% necessitaram de terapia renal substitutiva. Pacientes com LRA apresentaram maior tempo de internação, maior mortalidade e necessitaram de mais internações em UTIs, ventilação mecânica e suporte vasopressor. A análise multivariada mostrou que idade (OR 1,03; IC 95% 1,02-1,04), sexo masculino (OR 2,13; IC 95% 1,49-3,04), diabetes mellitus (DM) (OR 1,55; IC 95% 1,04-2,32), doença renal crônica (DRC) (OR 2,07; IC 95% 1,06-4,04), proteína C reativa (PCR) (OR 1,02; IC 95% 1,00-1,03), admissão em UTI (OR 1,81; IC 95% 1,04-3,16) e suporte vasopressor (OR 7,46; IC 95% 3,34-16,64) foram fatores de risco para LRA, e que bicarbonato (OR 0,89; IC 95% 0,84-0,94) e índice de pressão parcial de oxigênio arterial/fração inspirada de oxigênio (OR 0,99; IC 95% 0,98-0,99) poderiam ser fatores de proteção. Conclusões: Documentou-se alta frequência de LRA em pacientes com COVID-19, com diversos preditores: idade, sexo masculino, DM, DRC, PCR, admissão em UTI e suporte vasopressor. LRA ocorreu mais frequentemente em pacientes com maior gravidade da doença e associou-se a maior mortalidade e piores desfechos.

6.
Nursing (Ed. bras., Impr.) ; 27(309): 10167-10172, mar.2024. tab.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1556478

ABSTRACT

Estabelecer como ocorreu o acesso ao serviço de saúde dos homens com diabetes durante a pandemia SARS-CoV-2, bem como identificar seu perfil sociodemográficos. Método: O estudo se trata de uma metodologia do tipo descritiva, exploratória com abordagem quantitativa. A pesquisa foi realizada na unidade de atenção primária à saúde pertencente à Regional VI. Participaram da pesquisa homens, selecionados de acordo com os critérios pré estabelecidos. Resultados: A faixa etária da população observada varia entre trinta e setenta anos de idade, sendo que a maioria dos pacientes (46,7%) possui entre 50 e 60 anos de idade. Cerca de 66,7% dos pacientes apresentam fatores de risco. Conclusão: As condições de oferta de serviços de saúde destinados aos pacientes do sexo masculino atendidos na atenção básica foram mantidas durante a pandemia, entretanto a adaptação de acompanhamento dos pacientes à distância foi insuficiente.(AU)


To establish how access to health services for men with diabetes occurred during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, as well as to identify their sociodemographic profile. Method: This is a descriptive, exploratory study with a quantitative approach. The research was carried out in a primary health care unit belonging to Regional VI. Men took part in the research, selected according to pre-established criteria. Results: The age range of the observed population varies between thirty and seventy years old, with the majority of patients (46.7%) being between 50 and 60 years old. Around 66.7% of the patients had risk factors. Conclusion: The conditions for offering health services to male patients treated in primary care were maintained during the pandemic, but there was insufficient adaptation to monitoring patients remotely.(AU)


Establecer cómo los hombres con diabetes accedieron al servicio de salud durante la pandemia de SARS-CoV-2, así como identificar su perfil sociodemográfico. Método: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, exploratorio y con abordaje cuantitativo. La investigación se realizó en una unidad de atención primaria de salud perteneciente a la Región VI. Participaron de la investigación hombres, seleccionados de acuerdo con criterios preestablecidos. Resultados: El rango de edad de la población observada varía entre treinta y setenta años, con la mayoría de los pacientes (46,7%) entre 50 y 60 años. Alrededor del 66,7% de los pacientes presentaban factores de riesgo. Conclusión: Las condiciones para ofrecer servicios sanitarios a los pacientes varones atendidos en atención primaria se mantuvieron durante la pandemia, pero la adaptación del seguimiento a distancia de los pacientes fue insuficiente.(AU)


Subject(s)
Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Primary Health Care , Coronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus , Men's Health
8.
Cad. Ibero-Am. Direito Sanit. (Online) ; 13(1): 69-82, jan.-mar.2024.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538385

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar se a situação pandêmica interferiu na extensão e no modo como as questões referentes ao direito à saúde foram apreciadas pelo Supremo Tribunal Federal. Metodologia: foi realizada pesquisa documental, que, após consulta na base de dados do Supremo Tribunal Federal, com o filtro pelo termo "saúde", retornou um total de 1.178 acórdãos, sendo 447 do período pré-pandêmico e 731 do período pandêmico, os quais foram analisados e classificados conforme a pertinência temática. Após os descartes da etapa de classificação, identificaram-se 70 acórdãos no período pré-pandêmico e 167 acórdãos no pandêmico que versam efetivamente sobre o direito à saúde. Resultados: a pandemia impôs inúmeros desafios ao sistema de saúde, de modo que o Poder Judiciário foi instado a se manifestar ante às controvérsias ora instauradas. Nessas manifestações, identificou-se que houve aumento nas demandas de controle concentrado e no quantitativo absoluto de decisões envolvendo o direito à saúde, bem como que qualitativamente, em geral, o padrão decisório anterior foi mantido, embora novos temas tenham surgido. Conclusão: o estudo concluiu que a tendência da Suprema Corte permanece favorável ao reconhecimento de direitos sanitários, tendo, para tal, argumentos como a não ofensa à separação de poderes e a impossibilidade de arguir a reserva do possível para impedir sua concessão.


Objective: to identify whether the pandemic situation interfered with the extent and way in which issues relating to the right to health were assessed by the Federal Supreme Court. Methodology: documentary research was carried out, which, after consulting the Federal Supreme Court database, with the filter using the term "health", returned a total of 1,178 rulings, 447 from the pre-pandemic period and 731 from the pandemic period, which were analyzed and classified according to thematic relevance. After the classification stage discards, 70 rulings were identified in the pre-pandemic period and 167 rulings in the pandemic that effectively deal with the right to health. Results: the pandemic imposed numerous challenges on the health system, so that the Judiciary was urged to speak out in the face of the now established controversies. In these manifestations, it was identified that there was an increase in demands for concentrated control and in the absolute quantity of decisions involving the right to health, as well as that qualitatively, in general, the previous decision-making pattern was maintained, although new themes have emerged. Conclusion: the study concluded that the Supreme Court's tendency remains in favor of the recognition of health rights, using arguments such as the non-offense of the separation of powers and the impossibility of arguing on the possible reservation to prevent their granting.


Objetivo: identificar si la situación de pandemia interfirió en el alcance y la forma en que las cuestiones relativas al derecho a la salud fueron evaluadas por el Supremo Tribunal Federal. Metodología: se realizó una investigación documental que, consultada la base de datos del Supremo Tribunal Federal, con el filtro del término "salud", arrojó un total de 1.178 sentencias, 447 del período prepandemia y 731 del período pandémico, que fueron analizados y clasificados según relevancia temática. Descartada la etapa de clasificación, se identificaron 70 sentencias en el período prepandemia y 167 sentencias en la pandemia que abordan efectivamente el derecho a la salud. Resultados: la pandemia impuso numerosos desafíos al sistema de salud, por lo que se instó al Poder Judicial a pronunciarse ante las controversias ahora establecidas. En estas manifestaciones se identificó que hubo un aumento en las demandas de control concentrado y en la cantidad absoluta de decisiones que abordan el derecho a la salud, así como que cualitativamente, en general, se mantuvo el patrón de toma de decisiones anterior, aunque han surgido nuevos temas. Conclusión: el estudio concluyó que se mantiene la tendencia de la Corte Suprema a favor del reconocimiento de los derechos a la salud, utilizando argumentos como la no infracción de la separación de poderes y la imposibilidad de argumentar la reserva de lo posible para impedir su otorgamiento.


Subject(s)
Health Law
9.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 81(1): 31-35, Jan.-Feb. 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557186

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: With the identification of COVID-19 disease in China, a pandemic began that affected health-care systems. The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of the Hospital de Ginecobstetricia del Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente experienced an increase in patient flow as part of the COVID-19 strategy of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). This study aimed to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on neonatal care and mortality indicators in our unit. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study to compare the number of hospital births, pre-term newborns (PTNB), NICU admissions, and deaths. Changes in frequencies between 2019 and 2021 were analyzed using Poisson distribution. Changes in PTNB births, proportion of admissions, and deaths/NICU discharges were analyzed by z-test for two proportions. Results: Between 2019 and 2021, the number of births increased by more than 2-fold. NICU admissions increased from 770 in 2019 to 1045 in 2021 (p < 0.01). The ratio of deaths/discharge from the service was 16.9% in 2019 and 13.1% in 2021 (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Mortality indicators in the NICU decreased from 2019 to 2021, even with the increase in the number of patients admitted during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Resumen Introducción: Con la identificación de la enfermedad por COVID-19 en China, inició una pandemia que afectó a los sistemas de salud. La Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales (UCIN) del Hospital de Ginecobstetricia del Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) vio incrementado su flujo de pacientes como parte de la Estrategia COVID-19 del IMSS. El objetivo fue analizar el impacto de la pandemia COVID-19 en los indicadores de atención y mortalidad neonatal en nuestra unidad. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo para comparar el número de nacimientos en el hospital, nacimientos de recién nacidos prematuros (RNPT), ingresos a UCIN y defunciones. Se analizaron los cambios en frecuencias entre los años 2019 a 2021 mediante la distribución de Poisson. Los cambios en nacimientos de RNPT, proporción de ingresos y defunciones/egreso en UCIN se analizaron mediante prueba Z para dos proporciones. Resultados: Entre los años 2019 a 2021, el número de nacimientos incrementó más de 2 veces. Los ingresos a UCIN aumentaron de 770 en 2019, a 1045 en 2021 (p < 0.01). La proporción de defunciones/egreso del servicio fue de 16.9% en 2019, y 13.1% en 2021 (p = 0.02). Conclusiones: Los indicadores de mortalidad en la UCIN disminuyeron de 2019 a 2021, aun con el incremento en el número de pacientes atendidos durante la pandemia COVID-19.

10.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 81(1): 53-72, Jan.-Feb. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557189

ABSTRACT

Abstract This work aimed to show which treatments showed efficacy against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); therefore, the results of 37 clinical trials started in 2020 and completed in 2021 are reviewed and discussed here. These were selected from databases, excluding vaccines, computational studies, in silico, in vitro, and those with hyperimmune sera from recovered patients. We found 34 drugs, one vitamin, and one herbal remedy with pharmacological activity against symptomatic COVID-19. They reduced mortality, disease progression, or recovery time. For each treatment, the identifier and type of trial, the severity of the disease, the sponsor, the country where the trial was conducted, and the trial results are presented. The drugs were classified according to their mechanism of action. Several drugs that reduced mortality also reduced inflammation in the most severe cases. These include some that are not considered anti-inflammatory, such as Aviptadil, pyridostigmine bromide, anakinra, imatinib, baricitinib, and bevacizumab, as well as the combination of ivermectin, aspirin, dexamethasone, and enoxaparin. Nigella sativa seeds with honey have also been reported to have therapeutic activity. On the other hand, tofacitinib, novaferon with ritonavir, and lopinavir were also effective, as well as in combination with antiviral therapies such as danoprevir with ritonavir. The natural products colchicine and Vitamin D3 were only effective in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19, as was hydroxychloroquine. Drug repositioning has been the main tool in the search for effective therapies by expanding the pharmacological options available to patients.


Resumen El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer qué tratamientos mostraron efectividad contra COVID-19, para lo cual se revisan y discuten los resultados de 37 estudios clínicos iniciados durante 2020 y concluidos en 2021. Estos fueron seleccionados de bases de datos, excluyendo vacunas, estudios computacionales, in silico, in vitro y con sueros hiperinmunes de pacientes recuperados. Se documentaron 34 fármacos, una vitamina y un remedio herbolario, con actividad farmacológica ante COVID-19 sintomático. Estos redujeron la mortalidad, el progreso de la enfermedad, o el tiempo de recuperación. Para cada tratamiento se presenta identificador y tipo de estudio, la gravedad de la enfermedad, patrocinador, país donde se realizó, así como sus resultados. Los fármacos se clasificaron de acuerdo con su mecanismo de acción. Varios fármacos que redujeron la mortalidad también disminuyeron la inflamación en los casos más graves. Esto incluyendo algunos no considerados antiinflamatorios, como el aviptadil, el bromuro de piridostigmina, el anakinra, el imatinib, el baricitinib y el bevacizumab, así como la combinación de ivermectina, aspirina, dexametasona y enoxaparina. También se reportaron con actividad terapéutica las semillas de Nigella sativa con miel. Además, resultaron efectivos el tofacitinib, el novaferón con ritonavir y lopinavir, así como los antivirales en terapias combinadas como el danoprevir con ritonavir. Los productos naturales colchicina y vitamina D3, solo tuvieron actividad en los pacientes en estado leve a moderado de la COVID-19, así como la hidroxicloroquina. El reposicionamiento de fármacos fue la principal herramienta para buscar terapias efectivas ampliando las opciones farmacológicas accesibles a los pacientes.

11.
Medisan ; 28(1)feb. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558491

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La infección por el virus SARS-CoV-2 se ha convertido en una pandemia que ha ocasionado gran número de complicaciones y suele ser fatal para embarazadas y puérperas. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de embarazadas y puérperas con covid-19 ingresadas en cuidados intensivos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, de corte transversal, de 56 embarazadas y puérperas con diagnóstico confirmado de covid-19, ingresadas en el Servicio de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital Provincial Docente Dr. Joaquín Castillo Duany de Santiago de Cuba durante el 2021. Las variables analizadas fueron la edad, los antecedentes personales, la causa de ingreso, el estado al egreso y la principal causa de muerte. A tal efecto, se calcularon las frecuencias, los porcentajes y la tasa de letalidad. Resultados: Hubo predominio de las gestantes en todos los grupos de edades (58,9 %) en relación con las puérperas (41,1 %), principalmente en el grupo etario de 31-35 años (30,3 %). La hipertensión arterial resultó ser la comorbilidad más frecuente con 71,4 y 28,6 %, para embarazadas y puérperas, respectivamente; en tanto, 66,6 % de las primeras y 33,3 % de las segundas fueron ingresadas por neumonía. Todas las embarazadas egresaron vivas y 7 puérperas fallecieron. La tasa de letalidad fue de 12,5 y el síndrome de disfunción multiorgánica apareció en 57,2 % de las afectadas. Conclusiones: La hipertensión arterial fue la comorbilidad más frecuente, la neumonía viral, el principal diagnóstico al ingreso y el síndrome de disfunción multiorgánica, la primera causa directa de muerte.


Introduction: Infection due to SARS-CoV-2 virus has become a pandemic that has caused great number of complications and is usually fatal for pregnant and newly-delivered women. Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of pregnant and newly-delivered women with Covid-19 admitted to intensive care units. Methods: An observational descriptive, cross-sectional study of 56 pregnant and newly-delivered women with confirmed diagnosis of Covid-19 was carried out; they were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of Dr. Joaquín Castillo Duany Teaching Provincial Hospital in Santiago de Cuba during 2021. The analyzed variables were age, past health history, cause of admission, state when discharged from the institution and the main cause of death. For this purpose, the frequencies, percentages and case fatality rate were calculated. Results: There was a prevalence of pregnant women in all the age groups (58.9%) relative to the newly-delivered women (41.1%), mainly in the 31- 35 age group (30.3%). Hypertension was the most frequent comorbidity with 71.4 and 28.6%, for pregnant and newly-delivered women, respectively; as long as, 66.6% of the first ones and 33.3% of the second ones were admitted due to pneumonia. All the pregnant women were discharged alive and 7 newly-delivered women died. Case fatality rate was 12.5 and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome appeared in 57.2% of those affected. Conclusions: Hypertension was the most frequent comorbidity, viral pneumonia was the main admission diagnosis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, the first direct cause of death.

12.
Medisan ; 28(1)feb. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558495

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Un elevado porcentaje de pacientes que han padecido la covid-19 refiere una serie de manifestaciones clínicas que persisten luego del cuadro original. Uno de los grupos poblacionales en el que esto ocurre con mayor frecuencia es el de adultos mayores, a los cuales se les debe prestar máxima atención. Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad de la terapia multimodal en ancianos con manifestaciones psicosomáticas por síndrome poscovid-19. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio cuasiexperimental de intervención terapéutica, sin grupo de control, en el Hospital General Docente Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso de Santiago de Cuba, durante el periodo de marzo a mayo de 2021. La población estudiada se conformó por 25 pacientes de 60 y más años de edad con síndrome poscovid-19, quienes presentaron manifestaciones psicosomáticas y recibieron tratamiento multimodal (psicoterapia grupal y terapia floral). Se analizaron las variables sexo, edad, manifestaciones psicosomáticas y respuesta al tratamiento, cuya efectividad se evaluó según la proporción de pacientes con respuesta satisfactoria, considerando un nivel de significación de 5 %. Resultados: Predominaron el sexo masculino y los grupos etarios de 65-69 y 70-74 años. Las manifestaciones más frecuentes fueron la disnea, la astenia y la ansiedad. Después de aplicar la terapia multimodal, se logró una proporción significativa de pacientes con condición favorable, pues disminuyó el número de manifestaciones psicosomáticas. Conclusiones: La terapia multimodal resultó ser efectiva para reducir el número de manifestaciones psicosomáticas en los adultos mayores con síndrome poscovid-19.


Introduction: A high percentage of patients that have suffered from covid-19 refer a series of clinical manifestations that persist after the original pattern. One of the population groups in which this happens most frequently is the elderly, to whom maximum care should be paid. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the combined modality therapy in elderly with psychosomatic manifestations due to postcovid-19 syndrome. Methods: A quasi-experiment study without control group of therapeutic intervention was carried out at Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso General Teaching Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from March to May, 2021. The population studied was made up of 25 patients of 60 years and over with postcovid-19 syndrome, who presented psychosomatic manifestations and received combined modality treatment (group psychotherapy and floral therapy). Sex, age and psychosomatic manifestations were analyzed as variables, as well as the response to treatment, which effectiveness was evaluated according to the proportion of patients with a satisfactory response, taking into account a significance level of 5 %. Results: There was a prevalence of the male sex and the 65-69 and 70-74 age groups. The most frequent manifestations were dyspnea, asthenia and anxiety. After applying the combined modality therapy, a significant proportion of patients with a favorable condition was achieved, since the number of psychosomatic manifestations decreased. Conclusions: Combined modality therapy was effective to reduce the number of psychosomatic manifestations in elderly with postcovid-19 syndrome.

13.
Medisur ; 22(1)feb. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558539

ABSTRACT

Fundamento la infección por SARS-CoV-2 es la enfermedad emergente más importante del presente siglo. En dicho contexto, el Grupo de las Industrias Biotecnológica y Farmacéutica Cubanas (BioCubaFarma) creó alternativas terapéuticas para combatir la COVID-19, entre ellas el uso de Jusvinza, la cual forma parte del protocolo utilizado en el país. Objetivo determinar la resolutividad terapéutica de Jusvinza en pacientes confirmados de COVID-19. Métodos se realizó un estudio descriptivo, durante el periodo de enero a septiembre de 2021, en el Hospital Militar Dr. Joaquín Castillo Duany, de Santiago de Cuba. El universo estuvo constituido por 166 confirmados de COVID-19, a quienes se administró Jusvinza. Se analizaron algunas variables clínicas (estado clínico, enfermedades no transmisibles asociadas, progresión clínica), epidemiológicas (edad, sexo) y farmacológicas (resolutividad, duración en días). Se utilizó una planilla de vaciamiento de datos, los cuales fueron tomados de las historias clínicas. Resultados la morbimortalidad por COVID-19 fue superior en el sexo masculino, asociado a comorbilidades y edad mayor de 60 años; el sexo femenino resultó el de mayor resolutividad al tratamiento con Jusvinza (71,7 %), la cual incrementó su porcentaje en ausencia de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles asociadas (81,4 %). Los pacientes de alto riesgo fueron los de más baja mortalidad (15,8 %). Conclusiones la resolutividad en pacientes confirmados de COVID-19 tratados con Jusvinza fue más elevada en casos de alto riesgo que en graves y críticos.


Foundation SARS-CoV-2 infection is the most important emerging disease of this century. In this context, the Cuban Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Industries Group (BioCubaFarma) created therapeutic alternatives to combat COVID-19, including the use of Jusvinza, which is part of the protocol used in the country. Objective to determine the Jusvinza therapeutic resolution in confirmed COVID-19 patients. Methods a descriptive study carried out from January to September 2021, at the Dr. Joaquín Castillo Duany Military Hospital, in Santiago de Cuba. The universe consisted of 166 confirmed COVID-19 cases, to whom Jusvinza was administered. Some clinical variables (clinical status, associated non-communicable diseases, clinical progression), epidemiological (age, sex) and pharmacological (resolving, duration in days) were analyzed. A data extraction form was used, which was taken from the medical records. Results morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 was higher in males, related to comorbidities and age over 60 years; The female sex was the one with the greatest response to treatment with Jusvinza (71.7%), which increased its percentage in the absence of associated chronic non-communicable diseases (81.4%). High-risk patients had the lowest mortality (15.8%). Conclusions resolution in confirmed COVID-19 patients treated with Jusvinza was higher in high-risk cases than in severe and critical cases.

15.
Rev. méd. hered ; 35(1): 7-14, Jan.-Mar. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1560274

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La pandemia de la Covid 19 forzó a las facultades de medicina a optar por una metodología virtual de enseñanza por la suspensión de las prácticas presenciales con pacientes reales en los establecimientos de salud, debido al confinamiento social y riesgo de contagio. Objetivo Determinar las ventajas y desventajas percibidas por los estudiantes de medicina en relación con la transición de las prácticas presenciales en hospitales a las sesiones virtuales de aprendizaje en un curso de semiología en una facultad de medicina de Lima, Perú. Material y métodos Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal realizado en estudiantes del 4to año de la carrera de Medicina. Los datos se recolectaron mediante una encuesta virtual no validada. Resultados 94 estudiantes respondieron la encuesta (tasa de respuesta: 51,1%). Las ventajas percibidas fueron: 57,4% tener mayor tiempo para estudio teórico y 38,3% en ahorro de tiempo en transporte y movilidad. Las desventajas fueron: 42,6% falta de contacto con pacientes reales y 39,4% no poder realizar una historia clínica adecuada. En cuanto al logro de objetivos de aprendizaje, el 72,3% consideró que logró identificar los problemas de salud del paciente, mientras que el 24,4% afirmó que logró realizar una adecuada historia clínica, y sólo el 9,6% que logró realizar un examen físico completo en pacientes. Conclusión La modalidad virtual de enseñanza permitió a los estudiantes tener más tiempo para revisar aspectos teóricos del curso, pero limitó la adquisición de habilidades prácticas, como realizar una anamnesis adecuada, presentar historias clínicas y examinar pacientes.


SUMMARY The COVID-19 pandemic forced the school of medicines to opt for a virtual teaching modality due to the suspension of face-to-face activities imposed by the lockdown. Objective To determine the advantages and disadvantages of the virtual teaching modality perceived by the students in an introduction to clinical medicine course of a school of medicine in Lima, Peru. Methods A virtual non-validated survey was circulated among fourth year medical students. Results 94 studentes answered the survey (51%). Perceived advantages were to have more time to study (57.4%) and saving time in transportation (39.4%). The disadvantages were lack of contact with real patients (42.6%) and not to be able to obtain a clinical history from patients (39.4%). The 72.3% of students were able to identify the medical problems of patients, but only 24.4% were able to obtain an adequate clinical history and just 9.6% performed an adequate physical examination. Conclusion The virtual teaching modality allowed the student to have more time for self-study but limited their abilities to obtain a clinical history and to perform a physical examination.

16.
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogotá) ; 22(1): 1-13, 20240130.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554961

ABSTRACT

Introducción: consecuencia de la pandemia a causa del coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), desde el 2020 ha aumen-tado la generación de los residuos con riesgo biológico o infeccioso, usados en los protocolos de biosegu-ridad por parte de la ciudadanía en general y el talento humano en salud. Ello generó un alto riesgo para salud y un aumento en el índice de contaminación ambiental y degradación de los recursos naturales, que hasta el momento ha superado las expectativas para su mitigación. Desarrollo: para contrarrestar el impacto del aumento en el índice de contaminación ambiental, se reflexiona sobre la necesidad de buscar acciones medioambientales para mitigar el daño y ampliar el concepto sobre el medio ambiente y la importancia de la interacción y codependencia del ser humano con la naturaleza. Se plantea la idea de retomar elementos conceptuales del conocimiento de las culturas indígenas sobre la visión holística del ambiente, partiendo de una cosmovisión indígena del buen vivir, donde el ambiente y el ser humano se encuentran en constante equilibrio y armonía. Conclusión: se pretende encontrar, desde la cosmovisión indígena, posibles abordajes conceptuales que mitiguen el impacto de la contaminación ambiental a causa del coronavirus, así como la formulación de acciones estratégicas para la adecuada gestión de estos residuos


Introduction: Since 2020, due to the the Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, there has been an increase in generation of waste with biological or infectious risk used in biosafety protocols by the community and human resources in health, which, in turn, generates a high rate of pollution and environmental degradation of natural resources that has so far exceeded expectations for mitigation.Development: To reduce the impact of this problematic situation, a reflection was made to strengthen the current public policies and implement environmental actions that seek to mitigate the damage, but, above all, to change the concept of the environment and increase awareness about the importance of interac-tion and codependency of human beings with nature. The idea of retaking conceptual elements of the knowledge of indigenous cultures regarding the holistic vision of the environment is proposed, starting from a Quechua worldview of good living, where the environment and the human being are in constant balance and harmony. Conclusions:This study is intended to determine, from the indigenous worldview, the possible conceptual approaches that mitigate the environmental impact, as well as to formulate strategic actions for the adequate management of the resultant waste.


Introdução: como consequência da pandemia causada pelo Coronavírus (SARS-CoV-2), desde 2020 houve um aumento na geração de resíduos com risco biológico ou infeccioso utilizados em protocolos de bios-segurança pelo público em geral e talentos humanos em saúde; o que gerou um alto risco à saúde e um aumento no índice de contaminação ambiental e degradação dos recursos naturais que até agora tem superado as expectativas para sua mitigação. Desenvolvimento: para neutralizar o impacto do aumento do índice de contaminação ambiental, é feita uma reflexão sobre a necessidade de buscar ações ambien-tais para mitigar os danos, e ampliar o conceito de meio ambiente e a importância da interação e code-pendência do ser humano com a natureza. Propõe-se a ideia de retomar elementos conceituais do conhe-cimento das culturas indígenas sobre a visão holística do meio ambiente, partindo de uma cosmovisão indígena do bem viver, onde o meio ambiente e o ser humano estão em constante equilíbrio e harmonia. Conclusão: pretende-se encontrar a partir da visão de mundo indígena, possíveis abordagens conceituais que mitiguem o impacto da contaminação ambiental devido ao coronavírus, bem como a formulação de ações estratégicas para o gerenciamento adequado desses resíduos


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19
18.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 23: 20246702, 02 jan 2024. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551659

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Apontar os aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos de crianças internadas por COVID-19 em um hospital público situado em um estado da Amazônia Brasileira. MÉTODO: Estudo observacional, descritivo, retrospectivo e documental com uma abordagem quantitativa dos casos de internação pediátrica por COVID-19. RESULTADOS: No Hospital da Criança e Adolescente, foram registrados um total de 5016 casos suspeitos de COVID-19 em crianças. Destes, 666 foram confirmados com a doença e resultaram em 140 internações. Analisamos 136 notificações de crianças internadas por COVID-19. A maioria dos pacientes era lactente (39%) e pré-escolar (36%), com prevalência do sexo masculino (67,6%) e raça/cor preta/parda (86%). Além disso, 83,1% delas residem em área urbana. Quanto ao desfecho, 96,67% evoluíram para a cura e 3,33% resultaram em óbito. CONCLUSÃO: No contexto amazônico, a análise das características clínicas e epidemiológicas deste grupo etário é essencial para orientar os cuidados clínicos, prever a gravidade da doença e determinar o prognóstico.


OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and epidemiologic aspects of children hospitalized for COVID-19 in a public hospital located in a state in the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: Observational, descriptive, retrospective, and documentary study with a quantitative approach to pediatric hospitalization cases due to COVID-19. RESULTS: In the Hospital for Children and Adolescents, a total of 5016 suspected cases of COVID-19 in children were recorded. Of these, 666 were confirmed with the disease, resulting in 140 hospitalizations. We analyzed 136 reports of children hospitalized for COVID-19. Most patients were infants (39%) and preschool children (36%), with a prevalence of males (67.6%) and black/brown race/color (86%). In addition, 83.1% live in urban areas. Regarding the outcome, 96.67% were cured, and 3.33% resulted in death. CONCLUSION: In the Amazonian context, the analysis of this age group's clinical and epidemiologic characteristics is essential to guide clinical care, predict the severity of the disease, and determine the prognosis.

19.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 208-215, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999178

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveThis study explored the application of Yiqi Zengmian prescription as a vaccine adjuvant, aiming to provide a new scheme for the prevention and control of corona virus disease 2019(COVID-19) with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). By analyzing the compatibility and efficacy, this paper examines the compatibility effect of Yiqi Zengmian prescription, which is modified from the classic tonifying agent Si Junzitang, as a vaccine adjuvant. MethodUsing the Database of Ancient Classical Prescriptions, this paper analyzed the composition of Yiqi Zengmian prescription and probed into the theoretical basis for the compatibility of this prescription from the properties, medicine combination, and efficacy. Furthermore, the compatibility effect of this prescription with vaccines was analyzed. ResultAs a TCM prescription, Yiqi Zengmian prescription focuses on the lung and spleen and enhances the Qi in the two organs. The lung governs Qi movement. The body breathes fresh air through the lungs and exchanges the turbid gas in the lungs, and the gas circulates alternately in the lungs to ensure the normal breathing of the human body. The spleen governing transportation and transformation is the hub for Qi movement, and Qi is the embodiment of metabolic function. By regulating qi movement and enhancing the functions of Qi and blood, Yiqi Zengmian prescription can enhance the immunogenicity of the vaccine, which provides a theoretical basis for enhancing the immune effects of vaccines. ConclusionYiqi Zengmian prescription has the effects of replenishing Qi and invigorating spleen, regulating Qi and drying dampness, and enhancing immunity. The in-depth analysis of the TCM theory of Yiqi Zengmian prescription as a vaccine adjuvant and the results of clinical and laboratory studies suggest that Yiqi Zengmian prescription may enhance the induction of immune response after vaccination and maintain the immune memory. However, the mechanism of Yiqi Zengmian prescription in regulating the complex immune network remains to be elucidated.

20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 298-312, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016639

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a serious impact on global public health and the economy. SARS-CoV-2 infiltrates host cells via its surface spike protein, which binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 on the host cell membrane. As a result, small molecules targeting spike protein have emerged as a hotspot in anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug research. Activity screening is an important step in seeking small molecule drugs. Therefore, this article aims to review the biological activity evaluation methods of small molecule inhibitors targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, with the goal of laying the foundation for the discovery of new anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs.

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