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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247237, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339386

ABSTRACT

Abstract Novel coronavirus (nCoV) namely "SARS-CoV-2" is being found responsible for current PANDEMIC commenced from Wuhan (China) since December 2019 and has been described with epidemiological linkage to China in about 221 countries and territories until now. In this study we have characterized the genetic lineage of SARS-CoV-2 and report the recombination within the genus and subgenus of coronaviruses. Phylogenetic relationship of thirty nine coronaviruses belonging to its four genera and five subgenera was analyzed by using the Neighbor-joining method using MEGA 6.0. Phylogenetic trees of full length genome, various proteins (spike, envelope, membrane and nucleocapsid) nucleotide sequences were constructed separately. Putative recombination was probed via RDP4. Our analysis describes that the "SARS-CoV-2" although shows great similarity to Bat-SARS-CoVs sequences through whole genome (giving sequence similarity 89%), exhibits conflicting grouping with the Bat-SARS-like coronavirus sequences (MG772933 and MG772934). Furthermore, seven recombination events were observed in SARS-CoV-2 (NC_045512) by RDP4. But not a single recombination event fulfills the high level of certainty. Recombination mostly housed in spike protein genes than rest of the genome indicating breakpoint cluster arises beyond the 95% and 99% breakpoint density intervals. Genetic similarity levels observed among "SARS-CoV-2" and Bat-SARS-CoVs advocated that the latter did not exhibit the specific variant that cause outbreak in humans, proposing a suggestion that "SARS-CoV-2" has originated possibly from bats. These genomic features and their probable association with virus characteristics along with virulence in humans require further consideration.


Resumo O novo coronavírus (nCoV), nomeadamente "SARS-CoV-2", foi considerado responsável pela pandemia atual iniciada em Wuhan (China) desde dezembro de 2019 e foi descrito com ligação epidemiológica à China em cerca de 221 países e territórios até agora. Neste estudo, caracterizamos a linhagem genética do SARS-CoV-2 e relatamos a recombinação dentro do gênero e subgênero dos coronavírus. A relação filogenética de 39 coronavírus pertencentes a seus quatro gêneros e cinco subgêneros foi analisada usando o método de Neighbour-joining usando MEGA 6.0. Árvores filogenéticas do genoma de comprimento total, várias proteínas (espícula, envelope, membrana e nucleocapsídeo), sequências de nucleotídeos foram construídas separadamente. A recombinação putativa foi testada via RDP4. Nossa análise descreve que o "SARS-CoV-2", embora mostre grande semelhança com as sequências de Bat-SARS-CoVs em todo o genoma (dando semelhança de sequência de 89%), exibe agrupamento conflitante com as sequências de coronavírus do tipo Bat-SARS (MG772933 e MG772934) Além disso, sete eventos de recombinação foram observados em SARS-CoV-2 (NC045512) por RDP4. Mas nem um único evento de recombinação preenche o alto nível de certeza. A recombinação está alojada mais em genes de proteína de pico, principalmente, do que no resto do genoma, indicando que o cluster de ponto de interrupção surge além dos intervalos de densidade de ponto de interrupção de 95% e 99%. Os níveis de similaridade genética observados entre "SARS-CoV-2" e Bat-SARS-CoVs defendem que o último não exibe a variante específica que causa surto em humanos, sugerindo que "SARS-CoV-2" tenha se originado possivelmente de morcegos. Essas características genômicas e sua provável associação com as características do vírus, juntamente com a virulência em humanos, requerem uma consideração mais aprofundada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Chiroptera , COVID-19 , Phylogeny , Computer Simulation , Genome, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-7, 01/jan./2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361634

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: aplicar a modelagem logística da primeira onda da COVID-19, com índice nos países com 20 maiores Produto Interno Bruto (PIB). Métodos: foi utilizada a modelagem matemática de crescimento logístico, considerando os seguintes parâmetros: número cumulativo de casos (C), tamanho final da epidemia na onda única de um surto (K), taxa intrínseca de crescimento (y) e tempo de inflexão (τ). Resultados: o Brasil apresentou maior número de casos e mortalidade, e os Estados Unidos da América (EUA) maior número de casos absolutos. A Coreia do Sul evidenciou o menor ponto de inflexão de 15,3 dias, enquanto o maior foi da Indonésia, com 213,9 dias. Na análise entre o ponto de inflexão e casos acumulados (/100 mil habitantes), observou-se correlação positiva moderada significativa (r=0,629 e p=0,003); (r=0,532 e p=0,016). Conclusão: o reconhecimento do comportamento de uma epidemia por meio da modelagem matemática torna possível determinar a propagação de uma epidemia, visto que, com a possibilidade de captar a dinâmica de uma epidemia, torna-se possível prever a necessidade de medidas públicas antecipadas e, consequentemente, diminuição da mortalidade global.


Objective: to apply logistic modeling of the first wave of COVID-19 in countries with the 20 highest Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Methods: logistic growth mathematical modeling was used, considering the following parameters: cumulative number of cases (C), the final size of the epidemic in the single wave of an outbreak (K), intrinsic growth rate (y), and inflection time (τ). Results: Brazil showed the highest number of cases and mortality, and the United States of America (USA) had the highest number of absolute cases. South Korea showed the lowest inflection point of 15.3 days, while the highest infection point was Indonesia, with 213.9 days. In the analysis between the inflection point and cumulative cases (/100,000 population), a moderate significant positive correlation was observed (r=0.629 and p=0.003); (r=0.532 and p=0.016). Conclusion: the recognition of the behavior of an epidemic through mathematical modeling makes it possible to determine the spread of an epidemic, since, with the possibility of capturing the dynamics of an epidemic, it becomes possible to predict the need for anticipated public measures and, consequently, decrease in overall mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Logistic Models , Gross Domestic Product , Epidemics
3.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-7, 01/jan./2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361637

ABSTRACT

Aim: to identify which complications and prognosis of diabetic patients, hospitalized, who acquired COVID-19, through a systematic review. Methods: a systematic review based on the PRISMA flowchart, including cohort studies, available in Portuguese, English, Spanish, French, and Mandarin, published from 2019 to 2020, using the PICOS strategy, in the databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scielo, Lilacs, Scopus and Science Direct, which in addition to the inclusion criteria after questionnaires to assess methodological quality and risk of bias. Results: of the 811 articles researched, 6 were included in this research. These studies showed that patients with COVID-19 and higher DM with worse prognosis, spent more time in the ICU, constantly needed indifference, greater complications when related to other comorbidities, high mortality rate, and glycemic control associated with advanced age directly affected patients. Outcomes even of non-diabetic subjects. Conclusion: this review identified the severity of the pathophysiological association is related to older age and biochemical and inflammatory factors linked to the two pathogens and that these subjects are more prone to specialized hospital care, which, however, result in high rates of hospital mortality.


Objetivo: identificar quais complicações e prognósticos dos pacientes diabéticos, internados, que adquiriram COVID-19, por meio de uma revisão sistemática. Métodos: foi realizada uma revisão sistemática baseada no fluxograma PRISMA, incluindo estudos de coorte, disponíveis em português, inglês, espanhol, francês e mandarim, publicados de 2019 a 2020, utilizando a estratégia PICOS, nas bases de dados: PubMed, Web of Science, Scielo, Lilacs, Scopus e Sciece Direct. Além dos critérios de inclusão passam por questionários para avaliar a qualidade metodológica e risco de viés. Resultados: dos 811 artigos pesquisados, 6 foram incluídos nesta pesquisa. Esses estudos mostraram que pacientes com COVID-19 e DM apresentam pior prognóstico, maior permanência em UTI, necessidade constante de ventilação invasiva, maiores complicações quando relacionadas a outras comorbidades, elevado índice de mortalidade, e o controle glicêmico associado à idade avançada afetavam diretamente os desfechos inclusive de pacientes não diabéticos. Conclusão: esta revisão identificou que a gravidade da associação fisiopatológica está relacionada à idade mais avançada e aos fatores bioquímicos e inflamatórios ligados aos dois patógenos e que esses sujeitos são mais propensos ao atendimento hospitalar especializado, o que, no entanto, resulta em altas taxas de mortalidade hospitalar.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Strategies , Hospital Mortality , Diabetes Mellitus , Glycemic Control
4.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e225368, jan.-dez. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1384156

ABSTRACT

Aim In Brazil, COVID-19 remains one of the epicenters of the pandemic, thus, presential educational activities are suspended. The study aimed to describe the approach of flipped classroom performed to provide social distancing and to maintain teaching activities during COVID-19-pandemic. Methods Flipped Classroom was chosen to be associated with the role-play technique as a central methodology. To bring students closer to activities performed in the non-pandemic period, some actions and assessments were also role-played by Professor simulating patients in virtual meetings. Results Although the changes in the format of the lessons, our approaches stimulated the students maintained the high frequency of students in the activities (almost 100%) providing continuity activities. Conclusions This report can reinforce that meaningful learning can be taught by using a virtual/remote approach. However, the potential positive results observed cannot be used as an excuse to maintain remote teaching activities with the objective of cost-cutting by the institutions.


Subject(s)
Students, Dental , Teaching , Physical Distancing , COVID-19 , Learning
5.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226698, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1393366

ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate the psychological impact of COVID-19 on undergraduate and graduate students of the Dental School of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo. Methods: Three questionnaires were used: sociodemographic, WHO Abbreviated Quality of Life Inventory, and General Anxiety Disorder-7. Data were analyzed using Graph Pad Prism 7a (α = 5%). Mann-Whitney or Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post-tests were used for statistical comparisons. The Spearman test was used as the correlation test. Results: 257 students responded to the online form that assessed their quality of life and anxiety level. On a scale from 1 to 100, with 100 being the best quality of life, the average obtained was 64.71 (± 13.36). In addition, 87.6% of the students rated their quality of life as good or very good. 74.7% reported good or very good health. The anxiety analysis resulted in an average of 10.04 (± 4.5), indicating moderate anxiety levels. There was an inversely proportional correlation between age and degree of anxiety (p = 0.008, r = -0.1628) and self-perceived learning and student commitment (r = 0.69). Conclusion: Despite the good quality of life and the students' good self-perception of health, they showed a moderate degree of anxiety during the social distancing caused by COVID-19, also demonstrating a decrease in interest and commitment during distance education


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Students, Dental , Coronavirus Infections , Patient Health Questionnaire , Physical Distancing , COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Self Concept
6.
Rev. urug. enferm ; 17(2): 1-14, dic. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1391902

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar as características das internações de recém-nascidos em uma unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal do extremo sul do Brasil durante um curto período de tempo. Método: Estudo observacional, com 85 neonatos, por dados secundários de pacientes internados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal, nos meses de maio de 2020 a outubro de 2020. Resultados: A prevalência das internações foi do sexo masculino, com diagnóstico de prematuridade, que pesavam entre 1500g e 2499g, não receberam leite materno na primeira hora de vida, receberam visitas dos pais, colo e leite materno durante a internação. As mães tinham mais de 6 consultas de pré-natal e os bebês nasceram de cesárea. Conclusão: O atendimento prestado de forma holística, baseado na ciência e maneira humanizada aos recém-nascidos e aos pais, pode reduzir a mortalidade infantil, trazer maior segurança aos pais e confi ança na equipe assistencial, além de evitar complicações futuras no desenvolvimento infantil.


Objetivo: Evaluar las características de las hospitalizaciones de recién nacidos en una unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales en el extremo sur de Brasil durante un corto período de tiempo. Método: Estudio observacional, con 85 neonatos, con base en datos secundarios de pacientes hospitalizados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales, de mayo de 2020 a octubre de 2020. Resultados: La prevalencia de hospitalizaciones fue del sexo masculino, con diagnóstico de prematuridad, que pesaron entre 1500g y 2499g, no recibió leche materna en la primera hora de vida, recibió visitas de los padres, regazo y leche materna durante la hospitalización. Las madres tuvieron más de 6 consultas prenatales y los bebés nacieron por cesárea. Conclusión: La atención brindada de forma holística, basada en la ciencia y de forma humanizada a los recién nacidos y a los padres, puede reducir la mortalidad infantil, brindar mayor seguridad a los padres y confi anza en el equipo de atención, además de prevenir futuras complicaciones en el desarrollo del niño.


Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of hospitalizations of newborns in a neonatal intensive care unit in the extreme south of Brazil during a short period of time. Method: Observational study, with 85 neonates, based on secondary data from patients hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, from May 2020 to October 2020. Results: The prevalence of hospitalizations was male, with a diagnosis of prematurity, who weighed between 1500g and 2499g, did not receive breast milk in the fi rst hour of life, received visits from parents, lap and breast milk during hospitalization. The mothers had more than 6 prenatal consultations and the babies were born by cesarean section. Conclusion: The care provided in a holistic way, based on science and in a humanized way to newborns and parents, can reduce infant mortality, bring greater security to parents and confidence in the care team, in addition to preventing future complications in child development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Quality of Health Care , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Infant Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Humanization of Assistance , Holistic Health
7.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 50(3): e200, July-Sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388928

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The practice of anesthesiology during the COVlD-i9/SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has had a psychological impact, and has been associated with ethical dilemmas, work overload, and occupational risk. Objective: To understand different problems affecting anesthesiologists, in particular with regards to professional ethics in the decision-making process, increased personal workload, and the potential risk in terms of their own safety and health, as a consequence of working during the COVlD-19 pandemic. Methods: Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. A survey was administered to anesthesiologists members of the Colombian Society of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation (S.C.A.R.E.), to enquire about work hours, occupational safety, prevention standards and strategies, and ethical aspects involved in decision making during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: 218 anesthesiologist participated in the survey. Most of the respondents felt that there was not a significant increase in their workload, except for those in critical care (42.5 %; n = 17). Most of the participants believe that leisure time is not enough. 55.96 % (n = 122) of the participants said they felt moderately safe with the biosecurity measures, but with a higher risk of contagion versus other practitioners, with 72.9 % (n = 159) responding that they used their own money to buy personal protection equipment (PPE). There was also evidence that one fourth of the respondents has faced ethical dilemmas during the resuscitation of SARS-CoV-2 - infected patients. Conclusions: The information gathered is a preliminary approach to the situation arising in Colombia as a result of the pandemic; it is clear that anesthesiologists perceive higher associated lack of safety due to different factors such as higher risk of infection, shortage of PPEs and burnout, inter alia. Hence we believe that it is fundamental to acknowledge the work of all anesthesiologists and understand the impact that the pandemic has had on this group of professionals.


Resumen Introducción: El ejercicio de la anestesiología durante la pandemia por COVID-i9/SARS-CoV-2 ha tenido un impacto psicológico y ha estado asociado a dilemas éticos, aumento en la sobrecarga y riesgo laboral. Objetivo: Comprender distintos problemas en los que se han visto envueltos los médicos anestesiólogos, en especial los relacionados con su ética profesional en el proceso de tomar decisiones, el aumento en la carga personal y el posible riesgo de su seguridad y salud como consecuencia de su labor durante la pandemia por COVID-19. Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal. Por medio de una encuesta, aplicada a anestesiólogos afiliados a la Sociedad Colombiana de Anestesiología y Reanimación (S.C.A.R.E.), se indagó acerca de jornadas laborales, seguridad laboral, normas y estrategias de prevención, y aspectos éticos vinculados con la toma de decisiones durante la pandemia por COVID-19. Resultados: Participaron 218 anestesiólogos. La mayoría de los encuestados consideró que no hubo aumento significativo en su carga laboral, excepto aquellos que ejercen en cuidado crítico (42,5 %; n = 17). La mayoría de los participantes consideran que el tiempo de descanso no es suficiente. Un 55,96 % (n = 122) de los participantes, refieren sentirse moderadamente seguros con las medidas de bioseguridad, pero con un mayor riesgo de contagio frente a otros profesionales, con un 72,9 % (n = 159) y manifestaron haber invertido de sus propios recursos para la adquisición de elementos de protección personal (EPP). Así mismo, se evidenció que una cuarta parte de los entrevistados se ha enfrentado a dilemas éticos durante la reanimación de pacientes infectados por SARS-CoV-2. Conclusiones: La información obtenida hace un acercamiento inicial a la problemática generada en Colombia por la pandemia, donde es evidente que los anestesiólogos perciben una mayor inseguridad asociada, debido a diversos factores como mayor riesgo de infección, insuficiencia de EPP y burnout, entre otros. Por ende, creemos que es fundamental reconocer el trabajo de todos los anestesiólogos, y comprender el impacto que la pandemia ha tenido en estos profesionales.

8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(4): e183-e186, Agosto 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1379148

ABSTRACT

Las encefalitis son cuadros clínicos frecuentes en la edad pediátrica. Pueden dividirse en aquellas causadas por la infección del sistema nervioso central y en las de etiología inmunomediada (algunas de las cuales pueden ser para- o posinfecciosas). En marzo de 2020 la Organización Mundial de la Salud declaró la pandemia por el coronavirus de tipo 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2, por su sigla en inglés). Los reportes pediátricos de enfermedad por dicho agente describen una amplia gama de manifestaciones clínicas: compromiso respiratorio, gastrointestinal, síntomas neurológicos, entre otros; y el síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico asociado a COVID-19 (SIM-C). Describimos el caso de un niño de 2 años con diagnóstico de encefalitis por anticuerpos antirreceptor N-metil-d-aspartato (anti-NMDAR), en quien se comprobó, mediante serología, una infección reciente por SARS-CoV-2. La presencia de marcadores serológicos positivos para SARS-CoV-2 en un paciente que presentó encefalitis por anticuerpos anti-NMDAR podría interpretarse como una asociación temporal, estableciéndose la posibilidad de que el virus haya actuado como gatillo de una enfermedad autoinmunitaria.


Encephalitis are frequent clinical pictures in pediatric age. They can be divided into those caused by infection of the central nervous system and those of immune-mediated etiology (some of which may be para- or post-infectious). In March 2020, the WHO declared a SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Pediatric reports of disease caused by this agent describe a wide range of clinical manifestations: respiratory and gastrointestinal compromise, neurological symptoms, among others; and a multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children associated with COVID-19 (MIS-C).We describe the case of a 2-year-old boy with a diagnosis of anti-NMDAR antibody encephalitis, in whom a recent SARSCoV-2 infection was serologically proven. The presence of positive serological markers for SARS-CoV-2 in a patient who presented encephalitis due to anti-NMDAR antibodies could be interpreted as a temporal association; establishing the possibility that the virus has acted as a trigger for an autoimmune disease


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Encephalitis/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
An. bras. dermatol ; 97(4): 501-504, July-Aug. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383598

ABSTRACT

Abstract COVID-19 disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus causes a wide range of clinical manifestations, ranging from mild to severe, with the main ones affecting the respiratory tract, such as pneumonia. In patients with greater severity, the high frequency of bacterial and fungal coinfection stands out, a situation related both to the patient's pre-existing comorbidities and due to the hospitalization itself. Cases of mucormycosis associated with COVID-19 were highlighted in the lay and scientific media, with the increase in mycosis cases being directly and indirectly attributed to the viral infection. This report describes a case of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis in a diabetic patient hospitalized for COVID-19, whose diagnosis was confirmed by identifying the agent Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus through culture for fungi and PCR examination.

11.
Univ. salud ; 24(2): 197-204, mayo-ago. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377467

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Debido a la pandemia por COVID-19 fue necesario implementar la cuarentena obligatoria, con el fin de contener la propagación del virus; situación que generó cambios en los estilos de vida y diversas respuestas que incluyen temor, ansiedad, monotonía e incertidumbre. Esto pudo alterar la capacidad en la percepción del tiempo de los individuos, y con ello afectar su salud mental. Objetivo: Sintetizar las bases neurológicas del fenómeno de percepción de tiempo, su importancia y la evidencia científica sobre posibles alteraciones en condiciones de cuarentena. Materiales y métodos: Revisión bibliográfica temática en bases de datos Pubmed, Medline, Scopus, y Google Scholar. Los términos de búsqueda en español e inglés incluyeron: percepción de tiempo, estimación de tiempo, pandemia, cognición, estados emocionales, salud mental. Resultados: Se describe el concepto de percepción del tiempo, sus bases neurológicas y las alteraciones que se pueden generar. Conclusión: La salud mental fue afectada por la pandemia, sin embargo, se desconoce con claridad la forma como se desarrolló dicha afectación a mediano y largo plazo.


Abstract Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic made it necessary to implement obligatory quarantine measures in order to contain viral spreading. This situation generated lifestyle changes and diverse responses such as fear, anxiety, monotony, and uncertainty. This affected the people's capacity to perceive time resulting in changes in mental health. Objective: Synthesize the neurological bases of the phenomenon of time perception, its importance and the scientific evidence regarding the possible alterations in the conditions of quarantine. Materials of methods: A thematic bibliographic review was carried out in Pubmed, Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. The Spanish and English keywords used were: perception of time, estimation of time, pandemic, cognition, emotional states, and mental health. Results: The concept of time perception, its neurological bases and the alterations that can be generated are described. Conclusions: Mental health was affected during pandemic, yet its effects in the short-term and long-term are not understood clearly.

12.
RECIIS (Online) ; 16(2): 247-265, abr.-jun. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378347

ABSTRACT

Este artigo analisa os saberes e práticas do cuidado em saúde relacionados à covid-19, a partir da observação participante de pessoas que trocam experiências e interagem sobre o tema no grupo da rede social Facebook, no Brasil, 'Eu já tive Covid-19'. A comunidade virtual, com 16,5 mil membros, gerou 397 postagens no período de 8 de março a 18 de abril de 2021. As postagens foram categorizadas e tiveram seus níveis de engajamento calculados com base no número de interações. Experiências em casos de covid-19, dúvidas e questionamentos dos usuários participantes representaram 74% das postagens. Os comentários com mensagens de acolhimento aproximaram as pessoas, fortalecendo seus laços sociais. Foram identificados discursos que contrariavam o saber científico, sendo uma a cada 25 postagens definida como fake news. Temas como automedicação, xarope caseiro, 'kit covid' e tratamento precoce foram destaque dentre os conteúdos e evidenciam o grau de desinformação dos participantes a respeito da covid-19.


This article analyzes the knowledge and practices of health care related to covid-19, based on the participant observation of people who exchange experiences and interact on the topic in the social network Facebook group, in Brazil, 'I already had Covid-19'. The virtual community, with 16,500 members, generated 397 posts, in the period from March 8 to April 18, 2021. They were categorized and had their engagement levels calculated based on the number of interactions. Experiences in cases of covid-19, doubts and questions from participating users represented 74% of posts. The comments with welcoming messages brought these people closer, strengthening their social ties. Speeches that contradicted scientific knowledge were identified, with one in 25 posts classified as fake news. Topics such as self-medication, homemade syrup, 'covid kit' and early treatment were highlighted among these contents and show the degree of disinformation of the participants about covid-19.


Este artículo analiza los conocimientos y prácticas de atención a la salud relacionados con el covid-19, a partir de la observación participante de personas que intercambian experiencias e interactúan sobre el tema en el grupo de la red social Facebook, en Brasil, 'Eu ya tuvo Covid-19'. La comunidad virtual, con 16.500 miembros, generó 397 publicaciones, en el período del 8 de marzo al 18 de abril de 2021. Se categorizaron y se calcularon los niveles de participación en función del número de interacciones. Experiencias en casos de covid-19, dudas y preguntas de los usuarios participantes representaron el 74% de las publicaciones. Los comentarios con mensajes de bienvenida acercaron a estas personas, fortaleciendo sus lazos sociales. Se identificaron discursos que contradecían el conocimiento científico, con una fake news cada 25 publicaciones. En estos contenidos se destacaron temas como la automedicación, el jarabe casero, el 'kit covid' y el tratamiento temprano, evidenciando el grado de desinformación de los participantes sobre el covid-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus , Communication , Delivery of Health Care , Pandemics , Online Social Networking , Brazil , Information Dissemination , Methods
13.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 30(3): 77-85, 18-jul-2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1379532

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en la actual pandemia por COVID-19, las megalópolis han sido un foco importante de atención por la densidad poblacional con la que cuentan, dado que esta impacta directamente en el número de contagios registrados; sin embargo, el riesgo al que se enfrentan las comunidades rurales es alto y algunas veces desconocido, debido a sus características históricas, geográficas y por su distribución de bienes. Objetivo: interpretar la percepción social de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 de los habitantes de una comunidad rural. Metodología: investigación cualitativa, fenomenológica e interpretativa, realizada en dos etapas. En la primera se hizo trabajo de campo exploratorio y en la segunda se utilizó como técnica de recolección de datos una entrevista semiestructurada para siete habitantes, apoyada en una guía de preguntas. El análisis de los datos se basó en la transcripción, lectura, codificación, formación de categorías y subcategorías. Los criterios de rigor científico fueron la credibilidad y la confirmabilidad. Resultados: se construyeron cinco temas: Ver para creer, Desconfianza, Miedo, Canales de aprendizaje y Zona de protección, cada uno con sus respectivos subtemas. Conclusiones: la percepción social es de vital importancia al permitir interpretar el afrontamiento, debilidades y fortalezas de las comunidades rurales ante la COVID-19; generar conocimiento en este campo es relevante para la creación de herramientas y estrategias que ayuden a los sistemas de salud y a los profesionales sanitarios; en el caso de enfermería, su acción comunitaria es primordial para prevenir la propagación del SARS-CoV-2.


Introduction: In the current COVID-19 pandemic, supercities have been an important focus of attention due to the population density, since this has an impact on the number of registered infections; however, the risk faced by rural communities is high and sometimes unknown due to its historical and geographical characteristics and its distribution of assets. Objective: To interpret the social perception of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic of the inhabitants of a rural community. Methodology: Qualitative, phenomenological and interpretive research, carried out in two stages. In the first one, exploratory field work was done and in the second stage, as a data collection technique, a semi-structured interview with seven inhabitants was used, supported by a question guide. The data analysis was based on the transcription, reading, coding, formation of categories and subcategories. The criteria for scientific rigor were credibility and confirmability. Results: Five themes were constructed: Seeing is believing, Distrust, Fear, Learning channels and Protection zone, each with their respective subtopics. Conclusions: Social perception is of vital importance, since it allows interpreting the coping, weaknesses and strengths of rural communities in the face of COVID-19; generating knowledge in this field is relevant for the creation of tools and strategies that help health systems and health professionals; in the case of nursing, their community action is essential to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Social Perception , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Qualitative Research
14.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 447-453, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377385

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, access to healthcare services may have become difficult, which may have led to an increase in chronic diseases and multimorbidity. OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence of multimorbidity and its associated factors among adults living in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cohort study conducted in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: We included data from the two waves of the Prospective Study About Mental and Physical Health (PAMPA). Data were collected via online questionnaires between June and July 2020 (wave 1) and between December 2020 and January 2021 (wave 2). Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of two or more diagnosed medical conditions. RESULTS: In total, 516 individuals were included, among whom 27.1% (95% confidence interval, CI: 23.5-31.1) developed multimorbidity from wave 1 to 2. In adjusted regression models, female sex (hazard ratio, HR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.19-3.24), middle-aged adults (31-59 years) (HR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.18-2.70) and older adults (60 or over) (HR: 2.41; 95% CI: 1.25-4.61) showed higher risk of multimorbidity. Back pain (19.4%), high cholesterol (13.3%) and depression (12.2%) were the medical conditions with the highest proportions reported by the participants during wave 2. CONCLUSION: The incidence of multimorbidity during a six-month period during the COVID-19 pandemic was 27.1% in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Multimorbidity , Middle Aged
15.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 37(2): 133-142, abr.jun.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese, French | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379732

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O objetivo deste artigo foi compreender a importância das "Soft Skills" no contexto do recrutamento e seleção de forma digital. O termo "Soft Skills" significa: atitudes psicológicas e comportamentos construtivos na interação com pessoas e grupos. Nesse contexto foram identificadas as ferramentas que estão sendo utilizadas para avaliá-las e quais são as Soft Skills adequadas nas diversas áreas profissionais em tempos de COVID-19. Métodos: A coleta de dados primários foi realizada através de entrevistas com especialistas que ocorreram em abril de 2020 e de uma survey que foi aplicada entre julho e dezembro de 2020. A amostra, após a limpeza dos dados, resultou em 169 respondentes, permitindo a realização da análise estatística descritiva dos dados. Resultados: Observou-se que as Soft Skills tornaram-se mais estratégicas no panorama da COVID-19. Além disso, ao comparar-se os médicos com especialidade em Cirurgia Plástica em relação às outras profissões, houve maior incidência do grau de concordância total entre os cirurgiões plásticos. Conclusão: Os resultados encontrados podem sugerir que entre os médicos com especialidade em Cirurgia Plástica a importância estratégica das Soft Skills tornou-se ainda mais intensa. Estes resultados, obtidos por meio de uma survey com dados quantitativos, estão em sintonia com a literatura científica apresentada neste artigo, assim como com estudos de organizações corporativas.


Introduction: This article aims to understand the importance of "Soft Skills "digital recruitment and selection. The term "Soft Skills" means psychological attitudes and constructive behaviors in interacting with people and groups. In this context, the tools used to evaluate them and the appropriate Soft Skills in the various professional areas during COVID-19 were identified. Methods: The primary data collection was carried out through interviews with experts in April 2020, and a survey applied between July and December 2020. After cleaning the data, the sample resulted in 169 respondents, allowing the performing descriptive statistical analysis of the data. Results: It was observed that Soft Skills have become more strategic in COVID-19. In addition, when comparing physicians specializing in Plastic Surgery with other professions, there was a higher incidence of the degree of total agreement among plastic surgeons. Conclusion: The results found may suggest that the strategic importance of Soft Skills has become even more intense among physicians specializing in Plastic Surgery. These results, obtained through a survey with quantitative data, align with this article's scientific literature and with corporate organizations' studies.

16.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 37(2): 143-153, abr.jun.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379737

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Devido à crise sanitária mundial provocada pela disseminação da COVID-19, muitos serviços de saúde interromperam a realização de procedimentos cirúrgicos não urgentes. No cenário da Cirurgia Plástica, no qual a maioria das cirurgias são eletivas, estimam-se consequências socioeconômicas a estes especialistas. O objetivo deste estudo é dimensionar este impacto. Métodos: Os efeitos da pandemia dentro da prática clínica dos cirurgiões plásticos brasileiros foi investigada por meio de um questionário on-line, endereçado aos associados da Sociedade Brasileira de Cirurgia Plástica. Resultados: A pesquisa foi aplicada a 645 cirurgiões. A maioria dos entrevistados relatou restrições operacionais à realização de procedimentos e redução da renda, sobretudo nas regiões severamente afetadas pela pandemia. Cirurgiões plásticos com mais de 10 anos de formação foram os mais prejudicados. Elevada taxa de contaminação, sobrecarga mental, diminuição na prática de atividades físicas e uso de medicações psiquiátricas também foram relatados. Conclusão: A pandemia da COVID-19 trouxe mudanças no cenário pessoal e profissional do cirurgião plástico brasileiro. Devido à importante redução no volume de trabalho, houve impacto financeiro nos especialistas de todas as regiões do país, além de reflexos na saúde física e mental. Adaptações foram necessárias para manutenção dos atendimentos, além de exploração de novas áreas de atuação para suprir a baixa demanda de cirurgias estéticas durante a crise.


Introduction: Global sanitary crisis caused by the spread of COVID-19 induced many health services to stop performing non-urgent surgical procedures. In the scenario of plastic surgery, where most procedures are elective, socioeconomic consequences are estimated for these specialists. The objective of this study is to measure this impact. Methods: Effects of the pandemic within the clinical practice of Brazilian plastic surgeons were investigated through an online questionnaire addressed to members of the Sociedade Brasileira de Cirurgia Plástica. Results: A survey was applied to 645 surgeons. Most respondents reported operation restrictions on procedures and income reduction, especially in regions severely affected by the pandemic. Plastic surgeons with more than 10 years of experience were the most affected. High contamination rates, mental overload, decreased physical activity, and psychiatric medications have also been reported. Conclusion: COVID-19 pandemic brought changes to the personal and professional life of the Brazilian plastic surgeon. Due to the significant reduction in the workload, there were financial impacts on specialists from all country regions, besides physical and mental health issues. Adaptations were mandatory to maintain services and explore new areas of activity to supply the low demand for cosmetic surgery during the crisis.

17.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 37(2): 233-238, abr.jun.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379875

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Com o surgimento do conceito de síndrome Pós-COVID-19, o RT PCR negativo, isoladamente, não deve representar a completa recuperação da doença. Nesse contexto, interroga-se: qual segurança de operar um paciente que já apresentou COVID-19? Relato de Caso: Paciente feminina, 36 anos, apresentou COVID-19, com sintomas leves, em dezembro de 2020. Já com resultado negativo de RT-PCR e assintomática, foi submetida a mamoplastia redutora, em janeiro de 2021, utilizando-se a técnica de pedículo inferior do tipo I de Liacyr Ribeiro, com ascensão do complexo areolopapilar (CAP) pela manobra de Letterman. No primeiro dia de pós-operatório, reabriu quadro gripal sintomático e o manteve durante todo o período pós-operatório. Apesar do tratamento satisfatório da necrose parcial de CAP direito, a paciente manteve sintomas respiratórios e sistêmicos sugestivos do retorno do quadro de COVID-19 em pós-operatório tardio. Discussão: Define-se síndrome Pós-COVID-19 como a persistência dos sintomas de COVID-19, por pelo menos 6 meses, após fase aguda da infecção. A fisiopatologia da síndrome não é completamente elucidada, todavia propõe-se relação com a síndrome de Ativação Mastocitária. No relato, ressaltamos a proximidade cronológica entre a infecção por SARS-CoV-2 e o retorno de sintomas respiratórios e sistêmicos sugestivos da síndrome Pós-COVID-19, assim como enfatizamos a necessidade de conhecer os possíveis sintomas e complicações desta síndrome, sobretudo no contexto de pós-operatório. Conclusão: É evidente a necessidade de análise pré-operatória minuciosa em pacientes com histórico clínico de infecção pelo COVID-19, uma vez que há maior risco de complicações pós-operatórias.


Introduction: As the concept of post-COVID-19 syndrome emerges, the negative result of an RT-PCR test is no longer enough to represent a patient's complete clinical recovery. In this context, a question arises: what are the risks of performing surgery on a patient whom COVID-19 has already infected? Case Report: Female patient, 36 years, infected by COVID-19 in December 2020, showing mild symptoms. Once asymptomatic and with a negative RT-PCR test, she was submitted to a breast reduction surgery, in January 2021, through the inferior pedicle technique by Liacyr Ribeiro and Nipple- Areolar Complex (NAC) ascension by Letterman maneuver. On the first postoperative day, the patient developed respiratory symptoms, which continued throughout the postoperative period. Despite the unsatisfactory treatment of partial necrosis of the right NAC, the patient maintained respiratory and systemic symptoms suggestive of the return of COVID-19 in the late postoperative period. Discussion: Post-COVID-19 syndrome is defined as the persistence of symptoms of COVID-19, for at least 6 months, after the acute phase of infection. The syndrome's pathophysiology is not completely elucidated; however, a relationship with the Mast Cell Activation Syndrome is proposed. In the report, we emphasize the chronological proximity between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the return of respiratory and systemic symptoms suggestive of post- COVID-19 syndrome and the need to know the possible symptoms and complications of this syndrome, especially in the context of postoperative. Conclusion: The need for a thorough preoperative analysis in patients with a clinical history of COVID-19 infection is evident since there is a greater risk of postoperative complications.

18.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(1): 24-31, jun, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1379281

ABSTRACT

Durante la pandemia del COVID-19, los médicos se enfrentaron a una admisión masiva sin precedentes de pacientes con neumonía atípica viral.. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar las características clínicas de la primera y segunda ola de la pandemia. Se realizó un estudio observacional analítico de los pacientes con neumonía COVID-19 que ingresaron al Hospital Carrión de Huancayo, Perú ubicado a más de 3000 msnm. Se determinaron 2 periodos de estudio, el grupo uno representado por la primera ola caracterizado por la restricción masiva y cuarentena estricta y la segunda ola donde las actividades productivas ya se habían normalizado en gran proporción. De un total de 252 pacientes con COVID-19, la edad promedio fue 56 años en la primera ola y 52 años en la segunda ola, el sexo masculino fue más frecuente en ambos 74% y 57%, la mortalidad fue 27% y 23%, el tiempo de enfermedad fue 8 días y 10 días, respectivamente. Por otro lado, el porcentaje del uso de antibióticos, ivermectina e hidroxicloroquina fue más elevado en la primera ola. El uso de corticoides y la estancia hospitalaria prolongada fueron más frecuente en la segunda ola. La comparación de ambas olas muestra diferencias en la edad, mortalidad y tiempo de enfermedad, que puede deberse a las nuevas variantes moleculares del SARS-COV-2(AU)


During the COVID-19 pandemic, doctors faced an unprecedented mass admission of patients with viral atypical pneumonia. The objective of the study was to compare the clinical characteristics of the first and second waves of the pandemic. An analytical observational study was carried out on patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who were admitted to Hospital Carrión de Huancayo, Peru located at more than 3000 meters above sea level. Two study periods were determined, group one represented by the first wave characterized by massive restriction and strict quarantine and the second wave where productive activities had already normalized to a great extent. Of a total of 252 patients with COVID-19, the average age was 56 years in the first wave and 52 years in the second wave, the male sex was more frequent in both 74% and 57%, mortality was 27% and 23 %, the time of illness was 8 days and 10 days, respectively. On the other hand, the percentage of use of antibiotics, ivermectin and hydroxychloroquine was higher in the first wave. The use of corticosteroids and prolonged hospital stay was more frequent in the second wave. Comparison of both waves shows differences in age, mortality and time of illness, which may be due to the new molecular variants of SARS-COV-2(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Hospitals
19.
Acta bioeth ; 28(1)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383292

ABSTRACT

Resumen: El confinamiento por la pandemia del covid-19 afectó el otorgamiento de testamentos, siendo estos tan necesarios ante las crisis sanitarias cuando las personas precisan decidir el destino de sus bienes y otros actos individuales ante el riesgo de vida. La solemnidad del testamento impide el ejercicio de testar de los pacientes, incluso de las personas sanas. Facilitar el derecho de testar en tiempos de peste tiene contenido bioético, al estar de por medio la vida, salud, autodeterminación y el derecho de decidir el destino patrimonial. El testamento en épocas de pandemia, apoyado en las TIC, es una solución que debe viabilizarse con la ayuda de la digitalización y tecnología, con el fin de permitir el ejercicio de los derechos de última voluntad en aislamiento por contagio.


Abstract: The confinement due to the Covid pandemic affected the granting of wills, which are so necessary in the health crisis when people need to decide the fate of their property and other individual acts at the risk of life. The solemnity of the will impedes the exercise of testamentary rights of patients, even healthy people. Facilitating the right to testament in times of plague has a bioethical content since life, health, self-determination and the right to decide the destiny of property are at stake. The will in times of pandemic, supported by ICTs, is a solution that should be made feasible with the help of digitization and technology in order to allow the exercise of the rights of last will in isolation by contagion.


Resumo: O confinamento pela pandemia da covid-19 afetou a outorga de testamentos, sendo estes muito necessários durante as crises sanitárias, quando as pessoas precisam decidir o destino de seus bens e outros atos individuais diante do risco de vida. A solenidade do testamento impede o exercício de testar dos pacientes, inclusive das pessoas sadias. Facilitar o direito de testar em tempos de peste tem conteúdo bioético, al estar de por médio (no entendí el significado de esto) a vida, saúde, autodeterminação e o direito de decidir o destino patrimonial. O testamento em épocas de pandemia, apoiado nas TIC, é uma solução que deve viabilizar-se com a ajuda de digitalização e tecnologia, a fim de permitir o exercício dos direitos de última vontade no isolamento por contagio.

20.
BrJP ; 5(2): 168-171, Apr.-June 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383946

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Erector spinae plane block is an interfascial plane block used as a tool for management of pain resulting from thoracic and abdominal surgical procedures described in the literature since 2016 and widely used in clinical practice. In the context of the pandemic caused by Sars-CoV-2, multiple pulmonary complications arising from severe viral pneumonia and respiratory failure that required surgical approaches for their investigation and/or treatment were observed. The present study's objective was to present a series of three cases of patients affected by COVID-19 who had pulmonary complications due to infection or exacerbation of previous pulmonary diseases caused by the new coronavirus, in which the continuous fascial plane block was successfully used for postoperative pain management. CASE REPORTS: Three cases of patients with COVID-19 viral pneumonia requiring diagnostic or therapeutic thoracic surgery who underwent erector spinae plane block for perioperative pain management were presented. CONCLUSION: The use of a catheter with continuous infusion of local anesthetic was useful for reducing analgesic rescue and maintaining good postoperative analgesia with no evidence of adverse effects in the presented patients, also allowing acceleration of postoperative recovery and a better outcome for the patients.


RESUMO JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio do plano dos músculos eretores da espinha é um bloqueio do plano interfascial usado como ferramenta para manejo de dor consequente a procedimentos cirúrgicos torácicos e abdominais descrito na literatura desde 2016 e amplamente utilizado na prática clínica. No contexto da pandemia causada pelo Sars-CoV-2, foram observadas múltiplas complicações pulmonares decorrentes de pneumonia viral grave e insuficiência respiratória que demandaram abordagens cirúrgicas para sua investigação e/ou tratamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar uma série de três casos de pacientes acometidos pela COVID-19 que tiveram complicações pulmonares pela infecção ou exacerbação de doença pulmonar prévia causada pelo novo coronavírus, nos quais o recurso do bloqueio do plano fascial contínuo foi utilizado para manejo de dor pós-operatória com sucesso. RELATO DOS CASOS: Foram apresentados três casos de pacientes acometidos pelo COVID-19 em sua forma de pneumonia viral, para os quais houve necessidade de cirurgia torácica diagnóstica ou terapêutica, e que foram submetidos ao bloqueio do plano dos músculos eretores da espinha para manejo da dor perioperatória. CONCLUSÃO: O uso de cateter com infusão contínua de anestésico local foi útil para a diminuição dos resgates analgésicos e manutenção de boa analgesia pós-operatória sem evidência de efeitos adversos nos pacientes apresentados, possibilitando ainda a aceleração da recuperação pós-operatória e um melhor desfecho para os pacientes.

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