Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 625
Filter
1.
Medwave ; 22(2): e002118, mar.2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366391

ABSTRACT

Contexto La hemofilia es un trastorno hemorrágico de la coagulación que ocurre en uno de cada 5000 nacimientos masculinos. Los pacientes con hemofilia A grave no tratados tienen complicaciones hemorrágicas, incluyendo sangrados articulares y menor sobrevida. El emicizumab es un anticuerpo monoclonal aprobado por los Estados Unidos para la profilaxis rutinaria de pacientes pediátricos y adultos con hemofilia A grave con inhibidores del factor VIII de coagulación. Objetivos Realizar un estudio de costo-efectividad de la profilaxis con emicizumab para niños y adultos con hemofilia A grave, en comparación con el actual manejo de esos pacientes en el Ministerio de Salud y el Seguro Social de Salud de Perú. Metodología Se modeló la transición del paciente entre estados médicos con la metodología de Markov y se estimó a lo largo de su vida costos y efectos incrementales de emicizumab comparados con el actual manejo. Se estimó el impacto presupuestario de emicizumab proyectando costos netos anuales y su valor presente a cinco años. Resultados Emicizumab generaría ahorros en el Ministerio de Salud entre 14,6 y 16,0 por niño y 11,8 por adulto, en US$ millones actuales, y en el Seguro Social de Salud de 12,8 a 14,9 por niño y 40,1 por adulto. Además, se generan ganancias en efectividad, medidas en años de vida ajustados por calidad, de 0,36 por niño y 0,56 por adulto y de 0,25 por niño y 0,36 por adulto en esas respectivas instituciones. El impacto presupuestario sería un ahorro anual neto, en US$ millones, de 12,8 y 15,0 en esas entidades. Conclusión El actual manejo de la enfermedad es muy costoso y con resultados de salud inferiores a los posibles con emicizumab. Este fármaco produciría grandes ahorros y mejor salud. Ambas entidades debieran implementar protocolos para la profilaxis y tratamiento de la hemofilia y financiarla con presupuesto propio.


Settings Hemophilia is a coagulation disorder that occurs in one in 5000 male births. Patients with untreated severe hemophilia A have hemorrhagic complications, including joint bleeds and decreased survival. Emicizumab is a monoclonal antibody approved by the United States for routine prophylaxis of pediatric and adult patients with severe hemophilia A with factor VIII inhibitors. Objectives To perform a cost-effectiveness study of emicizumab prophylaxis for children and adults with severe hemophilia A compared with the current disease management in the Peruvian Ministry of Health and Social Security Health Insurance. Methods The patient transition between medical states was modeled with Markov methodology, and the lifetime costs and incremental effects of emicizumab compared to current management were estimated. The budgetary impact of emicizumab was estimated by projecting annual net costs and its five-year present value. Results In the Ministry of Health, emicizumab would generate savings between 14.6 and 16.0 per child and 11.8 per adult, in current US$ million. Social Security Health Insurance savings would be 12.8 to 14.9 per child and 40.1 per adult. In addition, this strategy would generate effectiveness gains, measured in quality-adjusted life-years, of 0.36 per child and 0.56 per adult and 0.25 per child, and 0.36 per adult in those respective institutions. The budgetary impact would be a net annual saving of 12.8 and 15.0 US$ million in those entities. Conclusions The current management of hemophilia A is very costly and has health outcomes inferior to those possible with emicizumab. This drug would produce significant savings and better patient health. The Ministry of Health and Social Health Insurance should implement hemophilia prophylaxis and treatment protocols and finance this drug.

2.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 22-28, mar. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362447

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: una tecnología médica es el conjunto de técnicas, medicamentos, equipos y procedimientos utilizados por los profesionales de la salud en la atención médica. Este estudio busca identificar los criterios de evaluación de nuevas tecnologías en salud que utilizan algunos hospitales. Metodología: estudio observacional de corte transversal. Se incluyeron todos los directores de hospitales y clínicas del departamento de Antioquia que estuvieran interesados en participar en la investigación. Se aplicó una encuesta de 21 preguntas. Resultados: el 60 % de los encuestados dio la máxima importancia a la capacidad de producción de daños en la atención de los pacientes; el 90 % tiene en cuenta el criterio de seguridad clínica (éticos y jurídicos) y el 100 % lo hace con la evaluación de costo efectividad. En cuanto al orden de relevancia para la toma de decisiones en la adquisición de nuevas tecnologías, el perfil epidemiológico institucional tuvo mayor calificación. Conclusiones: las instituciones de salud encuestadas tienen protocolos establecidos para la evaluación de tecnologías. Se identificaron los temas a los que se les da mayor priorización, como son la producción de daños a la atención de pacientes, la seguridad clínica, aspectos éticos y jurídicos, y la evaluación de costo efectividad


Introduction: A medical technology is the set of techniques, drugs, equipment, and procedures used by health professionals in the delivery of medical care. Objective: to identify the criteria for evaluating new health technologies used by some hospitals. Methodology: An observational cross-sectional study was carried out. All the directors of Hospitals and Clinics of the department of Antioquia who belonged to one and who were interested in participating in the research were included. A survey of 21 questions was applied. Results: 60 % of the respondents gave the maximum importance to the capacity to produce damages in the care of patients, 90 % consider the criteria of clinical, ethical, and legal safety; and 100 % do it with the evaluation of cost effectiveness. In relation to the order of relevance for decision-making in the acquisition of new health technologies, it was evidenced that the institutional epidemiological profile had a higher rating. Conclusions: The surveyed health institutions have established protocols in the evaluation of new health technologies. Likewise, the issues that are given the highest priority were identified, such as the issue of harm to patient care, clinical safety, ethical and legal aspects, and cost-effectiveness evaluation.


Objetivo: uma tecnologia médica é o conjunto de técnicas, medicamentos, equipamentose procedimentos utilizados pelos profissionais da saúde na atenção médica. Este estudobusca identificar os critérios de avaliação de novas tecnologias na saúde que utilizam alguns hospitais. Metodologia: estudo observacional de corte transversal. Se incluíram todos os diretoresde hospitais e clínicas do Departamento de Antioquia que estiveram interessados em participar na investigação. Se aplicou uma enquete de 21 perguntas. Resultados: 60 % dos entrevistados deram a máxima importância na capacidade de produção de danos na atenção dos pacientes; 90% têm em conta o critério de segurançaclínica (éticos e jurídicos) e 100% o fazem com a avaliação de custo efetividade. Enquantoà ordem de relevância para a toma de decisões na aquisição de novas tecnologias, o perfil epidemiológico institucional teve maior qualificação. Conclusões: as instituições de saúde entrevistadas têm protocolos estabelecidos para a avaliação de tecnologias. Se identificaram os temas aos quais se deve dar maior priorização, como são a produção de danos à atenção de pacientes, a segurança clínica, aspectos éticos jurídicos, a avaliação de custo efetividade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , World Health Organization , Costs and Cost Analysis , Economics , Equipment and Supplies , Decision
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920593

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the caries preventive effect and economic outcome of an oral health promotion model in rural primary schools in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.@*Methods@# In November 2015, a baseline survey was conducted on the caries prevalence of rural first graders in program areas, and then a program intervention was carried out on the first graders of target primary schools. The intervention methods included the distribution of oral health care products, oral health education, teacher training, etc. In 2020, the method of cluster random sampling was adopted to include the sixth graders who received the program intervention as first graders and were still available in 2020 as the intervention group. During this period, the sixth graders transferred from foreign schools who failed to receive the program intervention as first graders were included in the non-intervention group. The caries preventive effect was evaluated by analyzing the caries epidemiological data of 2 652 children aged 11-13 years, comparing the intervention and non-intervention group. The cost of the program was estimated by the structural analysis method. A decision tree model was established by TreeAge pro2019 and incorporated into the effect parameters and cost parameters for cost-effectiveness analysis and sensitivity analysis.@* Results @# The prevalence of caries in the intervention group was 54.8%, and the mean DMFT was 1.36 ± 1.64, both of which were lower than those in the non-intervention group. The difference in prevalence and mean DMFT between the two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). It costs CNY 319.83 per child to reduce suffering from caries. The number of patients with caries in the intervention group was the most sensitive indicator of an economic effect. The probability of a cost-effectiveness advantage for the program was 92.2%. @*Conclusion @# This oral health promotion model used in rural schools demonstrated a caries preventive effect that was very likely economically advantageous. It is of practical significance to improve and promote this model in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.

4.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 74-78, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907016

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To conduct the pharmacoeconomic evaluation of empagliflozin in the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF),and to provide evidence-based reference for rational drug use and medical and healthy decision-making. METHODS A Markov model was used to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of the regimen of empagliflozin in the treatment of HFrEF ,and to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of standard treatment plan plus empagliflozin (empagliflozin group)vs. standard treatment plan (standard treatment group ). Clinical parameters were obtained from the EMPEROR-Reduced study;cost and utility data came from the published literatures. The cycle of the model was 1 month and the simulation time was 20 years. Single-factor sensitivity analysis and probability sensitivity analysis were performed to validate the results of cost-effectiveness analysis. RESULTS Compared with the standard treatment group ,each additional quality-adjusted life year in the empagliflozin group cost 37 995.94 yuan more ,which was less than China ’s 1 time GDP per capita in 2020(72 447 yuan). The results of single factor sensitivity analysis showed that steady-state hospitalization rate of 2 groups was the most important factor affecting the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio . The results of probability sensitivity analysis showed that when the willingness-to-pay threshold (WTP)was 1 time GDP per capita in 2020(72 447 yuan),the probability of empagliflozin group with cost-effectiveness advantage was 58.8%;when the WTP was 3 times GDP per capita in 2020(217 341 yuan),the probability of empagliflozin group with cost-effectiveness advantage was 63.8%. CONCLUSIONS Compared with standard treatment plan alone,standard treatment plan plus empagliflozin is more cost-effective in the treatment of HFrEF. However ,the economic probability is not high.

5.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(4): 476-481, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350816

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: We performed cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses of the modified International Consortium on Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia protocol in Mexico for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia. Methods: We performed a three-state Markov analysis: stable disease (first line complete response [CR]), disease event (relapse, second line response and CR) and death. The modified IC-APL protocol is composed of three phases: induction, consolidation and maintenance. Cost and outcomes were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs); quality-adjusted life-years were used to calculate incremental cost-utility ratios (ICURs). Results: The CR was achieved in 18 patients (90%), treated with the IC-APL protocol as the first-line option; one patient (5%) died in induction, another one never achieved CR (5%); of the 18 patients that achieved CR, 1 relapsed (5.5%). The median treatment cost of the IC-APL protocol was $21,523 USD. The average life-year in our study was 7.8 years, while the average quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) was 6.1 years. When comparing the ICER between the IC-APL and the all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) plus arsenic trioxide (ATO) protocols, we found the different costs of $6497, $19,133 and $17,123 USD in Italy, the USA and Canada, respectively. In relation to the ICUR, we found the different costs to be $13,955 and $11,979 USD in the USA and Canada, respectively. Conclusion: Taking into account the similar response rates, lower cost and easy access to the modified IC-APL regimen, we consider it a cost-effective and cost-utility protocol, deeming it the treatment of choice for our population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/diagnosis , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/drug therapy , Tretinoin/therapeutic use , Clinical Protocols , Cost-Benefit Analysis
6.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353151

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar a custo-efetividade da trifluridina/cloridrato de tipiracila (FTD/TPI) em comparação ao melhor cuidado de suporte (sigla em inglês BSC, best supportive care) e ao regorafenibe para o tratamento em pacientes com câncer colorretal metastático (CCRm) politratados (terceira linha ou linhas posteriores) sob a perspectiva de pagadores privados no Brasil. Métodos: Foi construído um modelo de sobrevida particionado considerando três estados de saúde. A efetividade foi medida em anos-vida ganhos e Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALY). Os custos foram obtidos a partir da perspectiva do sistema de saúde privado brasileiro considerando um horizonte temporal de cinco anos. Também foram realizadas análises de sensibilidade univariada e probabilística para avaliar a robustez do modelo. Resultados: A utilização de FTD/TPI pode gerar melhores desfechos clínicos versus BSC e economia de recursos versus regorafenibe. FTD/TPI proporcionou mais 0,098 anos de vida por paciente e uma qualidade de vida incremental de 0,072, comparada ao BSC. Já em relação ao regorafenibe, a FTD/TPI apresentou redução de R$ 2.088,49 nos custos por paciente e benefícios clínicos com incremento marginal. Conclusão: FTD/TPI representa uma opção de tratamento de CCRm custo-efetiva, comparada ao regorafenibe, na perspectiva de pagadores privados no Brasil


Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness analysis of trifluridine/tipiracil chloridrate (FTD/TPI) compared to best supportative care (BSC) and regorafenib for the treatment of polytreated metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) (3rd line or later lines) in the private payer perspective in Brazil. Methods: A partitioned survival model was developed based on three health states. Effectiveness was measured in life-years gained and Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). Costs were obtained from the perspective of the supplementary healthcare system in Brazil considering a time horizon of five years. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the robustness of the model. Results: The use of FTD/TPI may generate better clinical outcomes versus BSC and resource savings versus regorafenib. FTD/TPI provided more 0,098 years of life per patient and an incremental quality of life of 0,072 compared to BSC. Regarding regorafenib, FTD/TPI provided a cost reduction of R$ 2.088,49 per patient and similar clinical benefits. Conclusion: FTD/TPI represents a cost-effective treatment option for mCRC compared to regorafenib from the perspective of the supplementary healthcare system in Brazil

7.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 428-433, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347287

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Construir um modelo de custo-efetividade para comparar o uso de propofol com o de midazolam em pacientes críticos adultos sob uso de ventilação mecânica. Métodos: Foi construído um modelo de árvore decisória para pacientes críticos submetidos à ventilação mecânica, o qual foi analisado sob a perspectiva do sistema privado de saúde no Brasil. O horizonte temporal foi o da internação na unidade de terapia intensiva. Os desfechos foram custo-efetividade por hora de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva evitada e custo-efetividade por hora de ventilação mecânica evitada. Foram obtidos os dados do modelo a partir de metanálise prévia. Assumiu-se que o custo da medicação estava incluído nos custos da unidade de terapia intensiva. Conduziram-se análises univariada e de sensibilidade probabilística. Resultados: Pacientes mecanicamente ventilados em uso de propofol tiveram diminuição de sua permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva e na duração da ventilação mecânica, respectivamente, em 47,97 horas e 21,65 horas. Com o uso de propofol, ocorreu redução média do custo de U$2.998,971 em comparação ao uso do midazolam. A custo-efetividade por hora de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva evitada e por hora de ventilação mecânica evitada foi dominante, respectivamente, em 94,40% e 80,8% do tempo. Conclusão: Ocorreu diminuição significante do custo associado ao uso de propofol, no que se refere à permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva e à duração da ventilação mecânica para pacientes críticos adultos.


ABSTRACT Objective: To build a cost-effectiveness model to compare the use of propofol versus midazolam in critically ill adult patients under mechanical ventilation. Methods: We built a decision tree model for critically ill patients submitted to mechanical ventilation and analyzed it from the Brazilian private health care system perspective. The time horizon was that of intensive care unit hospitalization. The outcomes were cost-effectiveness per hour of intensive care unit stay avoided and cost-effectiveness per hour of mechanical ventilation avoided. We retrieved data for the model from a previous meta-analysis. We assumed that the cost of medication was embedded in the intensive care unit cost. We conducted univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results: Mechanically ventilated patients using propofol had their intensive care unit stay and the duration of mechanical ventilation decreased by 47.97 hours and 21.65 hours, respectively. There was an average cost reduction of US$ 2,998.971 for propofol when compared to midazolam. The cost-effectiveness per hour of intensive care unit stay and mechanical ventilation avoided were dominant 94.40% and 80.8% of the time, respectively. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in costs associated with propofol use related to intensive care unit stay and duration of mechanical ventilation for critically ill adult patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Midazolam , Propofol , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Hospitalization , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Intensive Care Units
8.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291964

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar o custo-efetividade do uso de um painel genético de 21 genes em pacientes adultas diagnosticadas com câncer de mama em estádio inicial em uma operadora de saúde com mais de 500.000 vidas. Métodos: Foi utilizada uma coorte prospectiva seguida de um estudo de custo-efetividade entre os pacientes que utilizaram Oncotype DX® em 2020. Calcularam-se as despesas totais de cada esquema de quimioterapia (QT), somando-se os custos dos produtos e taxas de infusão. Resultados: Das 35 pacientes que utilizaram o teste de 21 genes no período avaliado, 60% (n = 21) não necessitaram de QT. Quando aplicadas simulações, houve custo evitado de R$ -1.945.448,88 (custos incrementais potenciais de R$ -6.488.207,56 até R$ 443.485,26, dependendo do esquema de QT escolhido). Conclusão: A inserção do teste de 21 genes na jornada do tratamento de câncer de mama na saúde suplementar evidenciou significativa relevância, pois contribuiu com o uso adequado da terapêutica, garantindo a sustentabilidade do sistema de saúde. Apresentando-se como uma opção custo-efetiva para a maioria dos esquemas de QT em comparação com a sua não utilização no tratamento, para a saúde suplementar brasileira


Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the use of a genetic panel of 21 genes in adult patients diagnosed with early stage breast cancer in a healthcare provider with more than 500,000 lives. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted, followed by cost-effectiveness, among patients who used Oncotype DX® , in 2020. The total costs of each chemotherapy scheme (QT) were calculated, adding the costs of the products and infusion fees. Results: Of the 35 patients who used 21 gene tests in the evaluation period, 60% (n = 21) did not require QT. When simulations were applied, there was an avoided cost of R$ -1.945.448,88 (Potentials incremental costs from -R$ 6.488.207,56 to +R$ 443.485,26, depending on the chosen QT scheme). Conclusion: The insertion of 21-Gene recurrence score in the breast cancer treatment journey in supplementary health showed significant relevance, as it contributes to the appropriate use of therapy, guaranteeing the sustainability of the health system. Presenting itself as a cost-effective option for most QT schemes compared to not being used in treatment, for Brazilian supplementary health System

9.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291968

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar desfechos clínico-econômicos associados à vacina contra influenza quadrivalente baseada em células (QIVc) versus a vacina trivalente atualmente utilizada (TIVe) para prevenção sazonal de influenza no Programa Nacional de Imunizações (PNI) brasileiro. Métodos: Um modelo estático de árvore de decisão foi usado. Considerou-se um total de 54.071.642 indivíduos vacinados em 2019; a circulação de influenza por subtipo foi baseada em dados de vigilância epidemiológica. A efetividade da vacina (EV) TIVe foi extraída de metanálises publicadas; já a EV relativa da QIVc foi retirada de um estudo observacional retrospectivo. A incompatibilidade antigênica da vacina com vírus circulantes foi baseada em fontes retrospectivas internacionais. O uso de recursos baseou-se em estudos do mundo real. Custos unitários foram retirados de tabelas-padrão publicados em 2019 em reais (BRL). Resultados: Substituir a TIVe pela QIVc pode evitar, anualmente, casos sintomáticos (452.065) e reduzir visitas ambulatoriais (118.735), hospitalizações (15.466), mortes (2.753), custos médicos (-BRL 46.677.357) e custos indiretos (-BRL 59.962.135). O número anual de anos de vida ajustados por qualidade de vida (QALYs) pode aumentar em 96.129. Resultados de base a partir da perspectiva do pagador mostram uma razão de custo-efetividade incremental (RCEI) de BRL 17.293/QALY e, da perspectiva da sociedade, o RCEI obtido foi de um ganho de BRL 16.669/QALY. Usando o Produto Interno Bruto (PIB) brasileiro como um limiar (BRL 34.533/QALY), trocar a TIVe pela QIVc no PNI pode ser uma estratégia altamente custo-efetiva. Conclusões: O uso da QIVc pelo PNI tem potencial para ser altamente custo-efetivo tanto da perspectiva do pagador quanto da sociedade


Objectives: This study aimed to estimate health and economic outcomes associated to cell-based quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIVc) versus current trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVe) for seasonal influenza prevention in the Brazilian National Immunization Program (NIP), from the societal and public payer perspectives. Methods: A 1-year static decision-tree model based on literature was used. 54,071,642 total vaccinated individuals in 2019 were considered; influenza subtype circulation was based on Brazilian epidemiologic data (2009-2019). TIVe vaccine effectiveness (VE) was extracted from a published meta-analysis and QIVc relative VE from an international retrospective observational study. A/H3N2 egg-adaptation and B mismatch to recommended strain were gathered from international retrospective sources. Resource use was obtained from real-world studies. Inputs were adjusted to influenza subtype and multiple age groups with Brazilian literature. Unit costs were retrieved from published standard tables in 2019 Brazilian Reais (BRL). Results: Replacing TIVe with QIVc, can annually avert symptomatic cases (452,065) and reduce outpatient visits (118,735); hospitalizations (15,466), deaths (2,753), overall medical direct costs (-BRL 46,677,357) and indirect costs (-BRL 59,962,135). The annual number of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) could be increased by 96,129. Base case results from the payer perspective show an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of BRL 17,293/QALY gained and from the societal perspective the ICER obtained was BRL 16,669/QALY gained. Using the Brazilian Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a threshold (BRL 34,533/QALY) switching TIVe with QIVc in the NIP can be a highly cost-effective strategy, leading to a high QALY increment and preventing medical and indirect costs. Conclusions: The use of QIVc by the NIP has the potential to be highly cost-effective in the payer and society perspective

10.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 13(1): 31-42, Abril/2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1252695

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever e analisar criticamente as avaliações econômicas de medicamentos antineoplásicos submetidas à Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar (ANS) durante o processo de atualização do rol de procedimentos em saúde 2020. Métodos: Estudo transversal de análise crítica dos estudos de avaliação econômica integrantes da documentação submetida à ANS com o objetivo de incorporação no rol de procedimentos. A avaliação da qualidade metodológica foi realizada por meio da ferramenta Methodology Checklist 6: Economic Evaluations Version 3.0 da Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Resultados: Foram incluídas 49 avaliações econômicas: 22 estudos de custo-efetividade, 10 estudos de custo-utilidade, três estudos de custo-minimização e 14 estudos de custo-efetividade e custo-utilidade. A qualidade metodológica foi considerada, na maior parte (88%), como aceitável ou de baixa qualidade. Conclusão: Estudos de avaliação econômica são fundamentais no processo decisório de incorporação de tecnologias na saúde suplementar. Esta análise crítica sugere que a qualidade dos estudos econômicos apresentados dentro das propostas de incorporação de antineoplásicos durante o processo de atualização do rol 2020 da ANS foi limitada. Inconsistências metodológicas e falta de um relato transparente reduzem a validade e a aplicabilidade dos achados na tomada de decisão.


Objective: To describe and critically appraise the economic evaluations of antineoplastic drugs submitted to the ANS during the process of updating its 2020' list of procedures. Methods: Cross-sectional study of critical analysis of the economic evaluation studies included in the documentation submitted to the ANS with the aim of incorporating them into the list of procedures. The methodological quality assessment was carried out using the Methodology Checklist 6: Economic Evaluations Version 3.0 of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Results: Overall, 49 economic evaluations were included: 22 cost-effectiveness studies, 10 cost-utility studies, three cost-minimization studies and 14 mixed economic studies. Methodological quality was mostly considered as acceptable or low quality. Conclusion: Economic evaluation studies are fundamental in the decision-making process of incorporating technologies into supplementary health care. This critical appraisal suggests that the quality of the economic studies presented within the proposals to incorporate antineoplastics during the process of updating the ANS 2020 roll was limited. Methodological inconsistencies and lack of transparent reporting reduce the validity and applicability of findings for decision-making


Subject(s)
Decision Making , Health Care Economics and Organizations , Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation , Neoplasms , Antineoplastic Agents
11.
Coluna/Columna ; 20(1): 38-41, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154021

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the cost effectiveness of vancomycin powder in the prophylaxis of posterior lumbar spine instrumentation, seeking potential savings. Methods: A retrospective, observational study was performed to evaluate the cost effectiveness. Data were retrieved from patients' files from March 2016 to April 2017; costs were considered for the procedures, as well as which antibiotic was used. Results: A total of 184 patients were included. Of these, 102 received prophylactic treatment with 1g of cephalothin and 82 received 1g of cephalothin and 1g of vancomycin powder, which was applied to the wound prior to tissue closure. Of the 184 patients, 110 were women (59%) and 74 were men (41%), and the mean age was 55 years (24-77). The participants had a median BMI of 28.9 kg/m2 (19-39). The average cost per hospitalized patient was $3974 USD and the average cost of rehospitalization due to infection was, on average, $7700 USD. The use of vancomycin powder led to cost savings of $75,008.79 USD per 100 posterior spinal fusions performed for degenerative spine. Conclusion: The use of vancomycin powder is a cost-effective option for prophylaxis of surgical site infection in spine fusion. Level of evidence III; Economic and decision analysis.


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar a relação de custo-eficácia da vancomicina em pó como profilaxia da instrumentação posterior da coluna lombar, buscando possíveis economias. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo e observacional para avaliar a relação custo-eficácia. Os dados foram recuperados dos arquivos dos pacientes de março de 2016 a abril de 2017; foram considerados os custos dos procedimentos, bem como o antibiótico usado. Resultados: Um total de 184 pacientes foi incluído, dos quais 102 receberam tratamento profilático com 1 g de cefalotina e 82 receberam 1 g de cefalotina e 1 g de vancomicina em pó, que foi aplicada na ferida antes do fechamento do tecido. Dos 184 pacientes, 110 eram mulheres (59%) e 74 eram homens (41%), e a média de idade foi de 55 anos (24-77). Os pacientes tinham IMC médio de 28,9 kg m2 (19-39).O custo médio por paciente hospitalizado foi US$ 3.974 e o custo médio de reinternação por infecção foi, em média, US$ 7.700. O uso de vancomicina em pó levou a uma redução de custos de US$ 75.008,79 referentes a 100 fusões que seriam realizadas nos casos de degeneração da coluna. Conclusões: O uso de vancomicina em pó é uma opção de baixo custo para a profilaxia da infecção do sítio cirúrgico na artrodese de coluna. Nível de evidência III; Análise econômica e de decisão.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Identificar la relación de costo-eficacia de la vancomicina en polvo como profilaxis de la instrumentación posterior de la columna lumbar, buscando posibles economías. Métodos: Fue realizado un estudio retrospectivo y observacional para evaluar la relación costo-eficacia. Los datos fueron recuperados de los archivos de los pacientes de marzo de 2016 a abril de 2017; fueron considerados los costos de los procedimientos, bien como el antibiótico usado. Resultados: Fue incluido un total de 184 pacientes, de los cuales 102 recibieron tratamiento profiláctico y 1 g de cefalotina y 82 recibieron 1 g de cefalotina y 1 g de vancomicina en polvo, que fue aplicada en la herida antes del cierre del tejido. De los 184 pacientes, 110 eran mujeres (59%) y 74 eran hombres (41%), y el promedio de edad fue de 55 años (24-77). Los pacientes tenían IMC promedio de 28,9 kg/m2 (19-39). El costo promedio por paciente hospitalizado fue de USD 3.974 y el costo promedio de reinternación por infección fue, en promedio, de USD 7700. El uso de vancomicina en polvo llevó a una reducción de costos de USD 75.008,79 referentes a 100 fusiones que serían realizadas en los casos de degeneración de la columna. Conclusiones: El uso de vancomicina en polvo es una opción de bajo costo para la profilaxis de la infección del sitio quirúrgico en la artrodesis de columna. Nivel de evidencia III; Análisis económico y de decisión.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spinal Fusion , Vancomycin , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Antibiotic Prophylaxis
12.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(1): 45-52, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341259

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The financial burden of managing hypertension in developing countries, where most of healthcare is funded out-of-pocket, is huge and poor patients cannot sustainably afford it. This is a challenge for most people, especially in sub-Saharan Africa with poor health indices, and this informed the investigation of the cost-effectiveness of anti-hypertensive drugs. Methodology: This was essentially a before-and-after study without control, in which blood pressure was assessed after commencing treatment with anti-hypertensive drugs among hypertensive patients. A systematic sampling technique was employed to recruit 320 participants from new patients attending cardiology clinic and admitted into the wards in four secondary health facilities offering specialized medical services in Nigeria. Results: The median cost of drug treatment of hypertension per week was N977.50; this cost was much lower for monotherapy than combined therapy. Similarly, the median costs of treatment per decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher with combined therapy than monotherapy. The median cost of treatment per decrease in systolic blood pressure was higher than diastolic pressure. Diuretics had the most cost per decrease in diastolic blood pressure, while ACEI had the highest costs per decrease in systolic blood pressure and the highest cost per week. The lowest cost per week was recorded for beta-blockers, which also had the lowest cost per decrease in diastolic blood pressure and similar to the average cost per unit decrease in systolic blood pressure for centrally acting drugs. Conclusion: There was a significant improvement in blood pressure three months following the start of anti-hypertensive drugs. Beta-blockers appeared most cost-effective while diuretics as well as ACE inhibitors were the least. Monotherapy costs less per week, but it could not be proved from this study that it was more cost-effective than combined therapy.


Resumen Antecedentes: la carga financiera del manejo de la hipertensión en países en vías de desarrollo, donde la mayoría de la atención en salud es financiada por cuenta propia, es enorme, y los pacientes de escasos recursos no lo pueden costear de manera sostenible. Este es el reto para la mayoría de las personas, especialmente en África subsahariana que tiene indicadores de salud pobres, y esto fundamentó la investigación de la costo-efectividad de las drogas antihipertensivas. Metodología: esencialmente un estudio antes-después, sin control, en el cual se evaluó la tensión arterial luego de iniciar tratamiento con antihipertensivos en pacientes hipertensos. Se empleó una técnica de muestreo sistemático para reclutar 320 participantes de entre los pacientes nuevos atendidos en consulta de cardiología y hospitalizados en cuatro entidades de salud de segundo nivel en Nigeria. Resultados: el costo medio semanal del tratamiento farmacológico de la hipertensión fue de N977.50; este costo fue mucho menor para la monoterapia que para la terapia combinada. Asimismo, el costo medio de tratamiento por reducción en las cifras de tensión arterial sistólica y diastólica fue mayor con la terapia combinada que con la monoterapia. El costo medio de tratamiento por reducción en la tensión arterial sistólica fue mayor que para la tensión diastólica. Los diuréticos tuvieron el mayor costo por reducción en tensión arterial diastólica, mientras que los IECA tuvieron el mayor costo por reducción en tensión arterial sistólica y el costo más alto por semana. El costo más bajo por semana se registró para los beta-bloqueadores, los cuales también tuvieron el menor costo por reducción en la tensión arterial diastólica y un costo similar al promedio por unidad de reducción en la tensión arterial sistólica para los medicamentos de acción central. Conclusión: hubo una mejoría significativa en la tensión arterial luego de tres meses del inicio de drogas antihipertensivas. Los beta-bloqueadores parecieron ser los más costo-efectivos, mientras que los diuréticos e inhibidores de ECA fueron los menos costo-efectivos. La monoterapia costó menos por semana pero no se pudo comprobar con este estudio que fuera más costo-efectivo que la terapia combinada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Medication Therapy Management , Prescription Drugs , Hypertension
13.
Afr. j. lab. med. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-8, 2021.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1291595

ABSTRACT

Background: Sickle cell anaemia is a common global life-threatening haematological disorder. Most affected births occur in sub-Saharan Africa where children usually go undiagnosed and die early in life. Uganda's national sickle cell screening programme was developed in response to a 2014 sickle cell surveillance study that documented a high disease prevalence. Objective: This study describes the temporal and financial aspects of Uganda's 2014­2019 sickle cell screening programme. Methods: National sickle cell screening data from Uganda's Central Public Health Laboratories were used to calculate turn-around times (TATs) from sample collection to delivery, testing, and result reporting for blood samples collected from February 2014 to March 2019. The parameters affecting specific TATs were assessed. The exact programme expenditures were analysed to determine cost per test and per positive sickle cell disease case detected. Results: A total of 278 651 samples were analysed. The median TAT from sample collection to laboratory receipt was 8 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 6­12), receipt to testing was 3 days (IQR: 1­7), and testing to result reporting was 6 days (IQR: 3­12). Altogether, the sample continuum averaged 16 days (IQR: 11­24). Lower level healthcare facilities were associated with longer sample delivery TATs. Calendar months (January and December) and larger sample volumes impacted testing and result reporting TATs. The cost per test was $4.46 (United States dollars [USD]) and $483.74 USD per positive case detected. Conclusion: Uganda's sickle cell screening programme is efficient and cost-effective. Universal newborn screening is the best strategy for detecting sickle cell anaemia in Uganda.


Subject(s)
Cost-Benefit Analysis , Health Facilities , Anemia, Sickle Cell , Neonatal Screening , National Health Programs
14.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(4): e0014, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280126

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To assess the economic impact of reducing glaucoma progression by using the trabecular micro-bypass implant, iStent inject®, in the Reference Centers for glaucoma treatment within the Brazilian Public Unified Health System (SUS). Methods In a cost-effectiveness analysis, a Markov model was developed, and the costs were obtained from the SUS perspective (medical direct costs). Effectiveness was measured in progression-free life-years. The time horizon was the mean life expectancy of the Brazilian population. The model parameters were obtained through a review and a critical analysis of the literature. The base case comprised a hypothetical cohort of patients with open-angle glaucoma, using anti-glaucoma eye drops and followed up at Reference Centers of SUS. We tested whether the incorporation of iStent inject® as an alternative second-line therapy would be cost-effective. The outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (R$/progression-free life-years). We tested the robustness of the model by univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results The use of iStent inject® led to decreased progression rate of glaucoma, evidenced by the amount of progression-free life-years obtained with each treatment strategy (7.82 progression-free life-years with iStent inject® versus 6.33 progression-free life-years with medical treatment), thereby improving glaucoma control. There was also a reduction in future costs associated with eye drops, filtering surgeries, and treatment complications. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio ranged from R$ 6,429.30 to R$ 7,550.97/progression-free life-years. The model proved to be robust in the sensitivity analyses. Conclusion This analysis showed that iStent inject®, when used after the failure of the first-line therapy, is able to reduce the rate of glaucoma progression at an acceptable cost.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o impacto econômico da redução da progressão do glaucoma pelo uso do implante de by-pass trabecular iStent inject® no ambiente dos Centros de Referência para tratamento do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Métodos Em uma análise de custo-efetividade, elaborou-se um modelo de Markov, cujos custos foram obtidos a partir da perspectiva do SUS financiador (custos médicos diretos). A efetividade foi medida em anos de vida livres de progressão. O horizonte temporal foi a expectativa de vida média da população brasileira. Os parâmetros do modelo foram obtidos pela revisão e pela análise crítica da literatura. O caso base foi composto de uma coorte hipotética de portadores de glaucoma de ângulo aberto em uso de colírios antiglaucomatosos e em acompanhamento nos Centros de Referência do SUS. Testou-se se a incorporação do iStent inject® como alternativa à segunda linha de tratamento seria custo-efetiva. A medida de desfecho foi a razão de custo-efetividade incremental (R$/anos de vida livres de progressão). A robustez do modelo foi testada por meio de análises de sensibilidade univariada e probabilística. Resultados A utilização do iStent inject® proporcionou uma diminuição da velocidade de progressão do glaucoma, evidenciada pela quantidade de anos de vida livres de progressão obtida com cada estratégia de tratamento (7,82 anos de vida livres de progressão com iStent inject® versus 6,33 anos de vida livres de progressão com tratamento com colírios), melhorando, dessa forma, o controle do glaucoma. Houve ainda redução nos custos futuros associados aos colírios, às cirurgias filtrantes e às complicações do tratamento. A razão de custo-efetividade incremental variou de R$6.429,30 a R$7.550,97/anos de vida livres de progressão. O modelo mostrou-se robusto nas análises de sensibilidade. Conclusão O iStent inject®, quando usado após a falha do primeiro medicamento, é capaz de reduzir a taxa de progressão do glaucoma a um custo aceitável.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prostheses and Implants/economics , Trabecular Meshwork/surgery , Unified Health System , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/surgery , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Disease Progression
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e07552020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155600

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The intensification of research and innovation with the creation of networks of rapid and effective molecular tests as strategies for the end of tuberculosis are essential to avoid late diagnosis and for the eradication of the disease. We aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Xpert®MTB/RIF (Xpert) in the diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis in reference units, in scenarios with and without subsidies, and the respective cost adjustment for today. METHODS: The analyses were performed considering as criterion of effectiveness, negative culture or clinical improvement in the sixth month of follow-up. The comparison was performed using two diagnostic strategies for the drug susceptibility test (DST), BactecTMMGITTM960 System, versus Xpert. The cost effectiveness and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were calculated and dollar-corrected for American inflation (US$ 1.00 = R$ 5,29). RESULTS: Subsidized Xpert had the lowest cost of US$ 33.48 (R$67,52) and the highest incremental average efficiency (13.57), thus being a dominated analysis. After the inflation was calculated, the mean cost was DST-MGIT=US$ 74.85 (R$ 396,73) and Xpert = US$ 37.33 (R$197,86) with subsidies. CONCLUSIONS: The Xpert in the diagnosis of TB-DR in these reference units was cost-effective with subsidies. In the absence of a subsidy, Xpert in TB-DR is not characterized as cost effective. This factor reveals the vulnerability of countries dependent on international organizations' subsidy policies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Cost-Benefit Analysis
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0853-2020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155565

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazil ranks first in the number of HTLV-1/-2-infected individuals worldwide. The high morbidity and mortality of HTLV-1-associated diseases, especially following infection in infancy, requires strong action to reduce vertical transmission. METHODS: To facilitate the appraisal of the implementation of the HTLV antenatal screening program by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, we determined the costs in distinct scenarios according to HTLV seroprevalence, specificity of the screening test, and type of confirmatory test. RESULTS: HTLV antenatal screening would cost R$ 55,777,012-R$ 77,082,123/year. Screening assays with high specificity reduce the need and cost of confirmatory assays by up to 25%. CONCLUSIONS: Careful selection of the screening assay is required to optimize the program.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , HTLV-I Infections/diagnosis , HTLV-II Infections/diagnosis , Prenatal Diagnosis , Brazil , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Delivery of Health Care
17.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887169

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on all citizens, industries, governments, and academia, and has provided an opportunity to consider the intrinsic value of various resources and activities. The pharmaceutical industries are making a concerted effort to prevent and treat against COVID-19 with rapid research and development to address the emerging need for vaccines and therapeutic drugs for infectious diseases. In terms of HTA, previous guidelines for evaluating the value of vaccines and therapeutics have focused on cost-effectiveness, but the experience of the pandemic has led to the need to consider factors other than cost and utility, which are quantitative evaluations. With the pandemic experience, values that should be considered in addition to the quantitative evaluation of cost and utility were discussed in terms of previously published papers and industry perspectives.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886834

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and benefit of influenza vaccination among school-age children in Xining, Qinghai. Methods A total of 215 children were randomly recruited as the vaccination group and vaccinated with trivalent split influenza vaccine. At the same time, 215 healthy children (no known diseases and past history reported, and no vaccinations) who underwent physical examinations during the same period were selected as the control group. The basic demographic information was investigated and a 1-year follow-up was carried out. Results The demographic characteristics of children in the vaccinated group and the control group were not significantly different (P>0.05), and were comparable between the two groups. After four follow-up visits within one year for the enrolled children, the overall incidence of influenza-like illness in children in the vaccinated group and the control group was 7.4% (16/215) and 16.7% (36/215), respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (χ2=8.75, P2=5.03, P2=1.37, P>0.05). The protection rate was 52.6%, and the protection index was 2.11. The proportions of irrational use of antibiotics were 6.0% (13/215) and 20.9% (45/215), respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (χ2=20.41, P<0.05). The protection rate was 71.3%, and the protection index was 3.48. The per capita income from vaccination was 667.9 yuan, and the benefit-cost ratio was 9.97:1. Conclusion Influenza vaccination for school-age children can effectively prevent the incidence of influenza-like diseases and the common cold, and the vaccination is cost-effective.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904633

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effectiveness and cost of 50% and 80% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (NESWP) and 26% metaldehyde and niclosamide suspension concentrate (MNSC) in hilly schistosomiasis-endemic regions, so as to provide insights into the selection of chemical molluscicides in hilly regions. Methods In September 2020, a wasteland in Guanshanqiao Village, Yanrui Township, Yushan County of Jiangxi Province was selected as the experimental region, which was sectioned into five blocks and defined as four experimental groups (A1, A2, B, C) and a blank control group (D). 80% NESWP were given at doses of 1 g/m2 and 1.5 g/m2 in groups A1 and A2 using the spraying method, 50% NESWP was given at a dose of 2 g/m2 in Group B using the spraying method, and 26% MNSC was at a dose of 4 g/m2 in Group C using the spraying method, while no chemical treatment was given in Group D. Snail survey was performed using a systematic sampling method before chemical treatment and 1, 3, 7 d and 15 d post-treatment to examine the molluscicidal effect, and all molluscicidal costs were estimated to calculate the cost of chemical treatment per 1 m2 and the cost of the reduction in the mean density of living snails per 1%. Results The highest mortality of snails was 78.95% and the lowest density of living snails was 0.2388 snails/0.1 m2 in the experimental groups within 7 d of chemical treatment, and the highest mortality of snails was 94.74% and the lowest density of living snails was 0.058 0 snails/0.1 m2 7 d post-treatment. There were no significant differences in the snail mortality among the A1, A2, B and C groups 1 (χ2 = 2.250, P > 0.05), 3 (χ2 = 1.779, P > 0.05) or 15 d post-treatment (χ2 = 2.286, P > 0.05), while a significant difference was detected in the snail mortality among the four groups 7 d post-treatment (χ2 = 7.990, P = 0.046). In addition, there were no significant differences in the snail mortality between A1 and A2 groups 1 (χ2 = 0.724, P > 0.05), 3 (χ2 = 0.584, P > 0.05), 7 (χ2 = 0.400, P > 0.05) or 15 d post-treatment (χ2 = 0.251, P > 0.05). The costs of chemical treatment per 1 m2 were 0.58, 0.60, 0.64 Yuan and 0.73 Yuan in groups A1, A2, B and C, and the costs of the mean density of living snail per 1% reduction were 19.29, 20.44, 21.68 Yuan and 23.53 Yuan in groups A1, A2, B and C, respectively. Conclusion 80% NESWP shows a high molluscicidal efficacy and low cost in hilly schistosomiasis-endemic regions.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922570

ABSTRACT

Convergence of principles of palliative care and integrative medicine has led to the introduction of the new practice of integrative palliative care in which integrative therapies (including mind-body modalities, traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, and dietary supplements) are used to provide symptom management for patients who are dying or experiencing the sequelae of serious illness and its treatment. We propose an East-West Integrative palliative care model using non-drug therapies, such as acupuncture, diet, exercise, and stress management that shift the paradigm from suppressing the symptoms of illness to addressing both the root cause of the symptoms and the imbalance and declining homeostatic reserve that perpetuate these symptoms. This whole-person model expands the reach of palliative care, prolonging a better quality of life and allowing the patient to maintain as many activities as possible by preventing symptoms and improving function. Through this approach we reframe the dialogue such that patients are "living better" rather than "dying better" when faced with serious illness or death. In this article, we provide an overview of the principles of palliative care, integrative medicine, and the novel area of integrative palliative care, and propose an East-West integrative palliative care model that incorporates and broadens the scope of these existing approaches.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Acupuncture Therapy , Humans , Integrative Medicine , Palliative Care , Quality of Life
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL