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1.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 14: e10086, 2022. tab, ilus, mapas
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1355011

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar o perfil epidemiológico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana entre 2007 e 2017 na Paraíba, Nordeste Brasileiro. Método: Estudo ecológico dos casos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana registrados no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação. Utilizou-se o Risco Relativo, Método Scan Espacial e Método Bayesiano Empírico Local para a análise dos conglomerados. Resultados: Foram registrados 671 casos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana na Paraíba entre 2007 e 2017 com maior ocorrência em 2009 e 2010, com 121 e 91 notificações, respectivamente e no sexo masculino (341). A maioria apresentou a forma clínica cutânea e residentes na zona rural. Identificaram-se conglomerados espaciais significativos da leishmaniose tegumentar americana na Paraíba, no Litoral Norte, microrregião do Agreste e no município de Poço Dantas no Alto Sertão. Conclusões: os conglomerados espaciais de risco para a infecção demonstram a importância de ações imediatas de educação em saúde para prevenção do agravo


Objective: to analyze the epidemiological profile of american cutaneous leishmaniasis between 2007 and 2017 in Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. Method: Ecological study of cases of american cutaneous leishmaniasis registered in the Notifiable Diseases Information System. Relative Risk, Spatial Scan Method and Local Empirical Bayesian Method were used for the analysis of conglomerates.Results: 671 cases of american cutaneous leishmaniasis were registered in Paraíba between 2007 and 2017, with the highest occurrence in 2009 and 2010, with 121 and 91 notifications, respectively and among males (341). Most presented the clinical cutaneous form and lived in the rural area. Significant spatial conglomerates of american cutaneous leishmaniasis were identified in Paraíba, on the North Coast, the Agreste micro-region and in the municipality of Poço Dantas in Alto Sertão. Conclusions: thespatial conglomerates at risk for infection demonstrate the importance of immediate health education actions to prevent the disease


Objetivo: analizar el perfil epidemiológico de la leishmniosis cutánea entre 2007 y 2017 en Paraíba, noreste de Brasil. Método: Estudio ecológico de casos de leishmniosis cutánea registrados en el Sistema de Información de Enfermedades de Notificación. El riesgo relativo, el método de exploración espacial y el método bayesiano empírico local se utilizaron para el análisis del conglomerados. Resultados: se registraron 671 casos de leishmaniasis cutánea en Paraíba entre 2007 y 2017, con la mayor incidencia en 2009 y 2010, con 121 y 91 notificaciones, respectivamente, y entre hombres (341). La mayoría presentaba la forma cutánea clínica y vivía en el área rural. Se identificaron importantes conglomerados espaciales de leishmaniasis cutánea en Paraíba, en la costa norte, en la microrregión de Agreste y en el municipio de Poço Dantas en Alto Sertão. Conclusiones: los conglomerados espaciales en riesgo de infección demuestran la importancia de las acciones inmediatas de educación sanitaria para prevenir la enfermedad


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cluster Analysis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Spatial Analysis , Health Profile , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Bayes Theorem , Health Information Systems
2.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(5): 602-604, Sept.-Oct. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345132

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis is a rare universal disease associated with an inadequate host cell immune response, caused by different species: infantum, aethiopica, major, mexicana, and others, which presents the challenge of a poor therapeutic response. In Brazil, it is caused by L. amazonensis. A case confirmed by histopathology with an abundance of vacuolated macrophages full of amastigotes and lymphocyte scarcity, identified by RFLP-ITS1PCR and in vitro decrease and exhaustion of the host cell immune response to L. amazonensis antigen, was treated early (3 months after the onset) with Glucantime (2 months) and allopurinol (29 months) with clinical cure, after a follow-up for 30 months after treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leishmania mexicana , Leishmaniasis, Diffuse Cutaneous/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Meglumine Antimoniate
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 557-565, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153389

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease with a wide distribution in the Americas. Brazil is an endemic country and present cases in all states. This study aimed to describe the occurrence, the underlying clinical and epidemiological factors, and the correlation of climatic variables with the frequency of reported CL cases in the municipality of Caxias, state of Maranhão, Brazil. This is a retrospective and descriptive epidemiological study based on data extracted from the Brazilian Information System of Diseases Notification, from 2007 to 2017. Maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation, and relative air humidity data were provided by the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. A total of 201 reported autochthonous CL cases were analyzed. The predominance of cases was observed in males (70.1%). The age range between 31 and 60 years old was the most affected, with 96 cases (47.9%). Of the total number of registered cases, 38.8% of the affected individuals were engaged in agriculture-related activities. The georeferenced distribution revealed the heterogeneity of disease occurrence, with cases concentrated in the Western and Southern regions of the municipality. An association was detected between relative air humidity (monthly mean) and the number of CL cases per month (p = 0.04). CL continues to be a concerning public health issue in Caxias. In this context, there is a pressing need to strengthen measures of prevention and control of the disease through the network of health services of the municipality, considering local and regional particularities.


Resumo A leishmaniose cutânea (CL) é uma doença tropical negligenciada, com ampla distribuição nas Américas. O Brasil é um país endêmico e apresenta casos em todos os estados. Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever a ocorrência, os fatores clínicos e epidemiológicos subjacentes e a correlação de variáveis climáticas com a frequência de casos de CL notificados no município de Caxias, estado do Maranhão, Brasil. Este é um estudo epidemiológico retrospectivo e descritivo, com base em dados extraídos da Notificação do Sistema Brasileiro de Informação de Doenças, de 2007 a 2017. Dados máximos e mínimos de temperatura, precipitação e umidade relativa do ar foram fornecidos pelo Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia. Foram analisados 201 casos de CL autóctones relatados. A predominância de casos foi observada no sexo masculino (70,1%). A faixa etária entre 31 e 60 anos foi a mais afetada, com 96 casos (47,9%). Do número total de casos registrados, 38,8% dos indivíduos afetados estavam envolvidos em atividades relacionadas à agricultura. A distribuição georreferenciada revelou a heterogeneidade da ocorrência da doença, com casos concentrados nas regiões oeste e sul do município. Foi detectada associação entre a umidade relativa do ar (média mensal) e o número de casos de CL por mês (p = 0,04). O CL continua sendo uma questão preocupante de saúde pública em Caxias. Nesse contexto, há uma necessidade premente de fortalecer medidas de prevenção e controle da doença por meio da rede de serviços de saúde do município, considerando as particularidades locais e regionais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Cities , Environment
4.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(3): 352-354, May-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285072

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis is characterized by ulcers with raised edges and a granular bottom, mainly on the lower limbs. This is a case report of a male patient with an ulcer on the left plantar region. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive PCR for L. braziliensis and the presence of amastigotes of Leishmania sp. in the histopathological examination. After treatment with Glucantime, the patient showed full healing of the ulcer. The unusual location of the ulceration calls attention to atypical presentations of leishmaniasis, and the importance of histopathological examination and PCR, leading to the appropriate diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Foot Ulcer , Leishmania , Ulcer , Meglumine Antimoniate
5.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(1): 131-136, maio 5, 2021. fi, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355067

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA) é uma infecção zoonótica cujo tratamento é realizado com a droga antimoniato de meglumina (AM). Objetivo: Relatar as alterações eletrocardiográficas decorrentes do uso de AM em pacientes com LTA. Metodologia: foi realizada uma revisão integrativa da literatura por meio das bases de dados BIREME, PUBMED, COCHRANE, SCIELO e literatura cinzenta, usando como estratégia de busca o cruzamento dos seguintes descritores, nos idiomas português e inglês: leishmaniose cutânea, eletrocardiografia, meglumina e toxicidade. Não foi estipulado um intervalo temporal para que um maior número de publicações fosse obtido. Resultados: foram encontrados 134 artigos, desses apenas 09 atenderam aos critérios de inclusão. As principais alterações eletrocardiográficas encontradas durante a terapêutica foram as alterações de repolarização ventricular, com destaque para o prolongamento do intervalo QT corrigido pela frequência cardíaca. Já entre as alterações mais graves em termos de morbimortalidade, destacam-se as arritmias ventriculares complexas, principalmente a Torsade de pointes. Discussão: em todos os artigos selecionados foram encontradas alterações ao eletrocardiograma (ECG) durante o tratamento com AM, sendo recomendado em todos os pacientes, o acompanhamento eletrocardiográfico. Apenas um estudo excluiu as alterações do ECG basal, presença de comorbidades e uso de drogas cardiotóxicas sendo esses possíveis vieses para avaliação da toxicidade cardíaca diretamente provocada pelo antimonial. Conclusão: considerando as alterações na repolarização ventricular e as possíveis arritmias ventriculares em pacientes em tratamento para LTA em uso de AM, o acompanhamento eletrocardiográfico é recomendado durante a terapêutica de todos esses pacientes, sendo útil para prevenção de complicações cardiovasculares importantes.


Introduction: American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) is a zoonotic infection whose treatment is carried out with the meglumine antimoniate drug (AM). Objective: To report the electrocardiographic changes resulting from the use of AM in patients with ATL. Methodology: an integrative literature review was carried out using the BIREME, PUBMED, COCHRANE, SCIELO and gray literature databases, using as a search strategy the crossing of the following descriptors, in Portuguese and English: cutaneous leishmaniasis, electrocardiography, meglumine and toxicity. A time interval was not stipulated in order to obtain a greater number of publications. Results: we found 134 articles, of which only 9 met the inclusion criteria. The main electrocardiographic changes found during therapy were changes in ventricular repolarization, with emphasis on the prolongation of the QT interval corrected by heart rate. Already the most serious changes in terms of morbidity and mortality, complex ventricular arrhythmias, especially Torsade de pointes, stand out. Discussion: changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG) were found in all selected articles during treatment with AM, with electrocardiographic monitoring being recommended in all patients. Only one study excluded: changes in the baseline ECG, the presence of comorbidities and / or use of cardiotoxic drugs, these being possible biases to assess cardiac toxicity directly caused by the antimonial. Conclusion: considering the changes in ventricular repolarization and possible ventricular arrhythmias in patients undergoing treatment for ATL using AM, electrocardiographic monitoring is recommended during the therapy of all these patients, being useful for the prevention of important cardiovascular complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous , Toxicity , Meglumine Antimoniate , Review
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e00472020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143886

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of filter paper (FP) for lesion scraping collection in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) diagnosis. METHODS: Lesion scrapings from 48 patients were collected and analyzed for PCR. RESULTS: PCR with FP detected up to three Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes. Considering the direct search by microscopy or PCR of samples collected in STE buffer as standards, the sensitivity of PCR with FP was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: FP can be useful for CL diagnosis in remote regions, allowing high sensitivity in the detection of the parasite by PCR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leishmania braziliensis/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Microscopy
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-865433

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the effect of climatic and environmental factors on the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Qom province in 2018. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the data on cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence were collected from the Disease Control and Prevention Center in Qom province. Climatic and environmental data including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Land Surface Temperature (LST), and soil moisture were extracted using satellite images. Data of altitude and sunny hours were provided based on shuttle radar topography mission digital elevation model and hemispherical viewshed algorithm, respectively. The associations of climatic and environmental variables with the incidence of the disease were analyzed by Pearson correlation method. The ArcGIS 10.3 software was used to determine the geographical distribution of these factors. Results: There were positive correlations between cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence and the two climatic factors: LST and sunny hours per day (P=0.041, P=0.016), and it had weak negative correlations with the digital elevation model (P=0.27), soil moisture (P=0.54), and NDVI (P=0.62). The time delay analysis showed that in one-, two-, and three month periods, the correlations increased with a 95% confidence interval. Accordingly, the correlation with the three-month time delay was positive and relatively strong between the cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence and LST and sunny hours (P=0.027, P=0.02); nevertheless, there were negative correlations between the cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence and the soil moisture (P=0.27) and NDVI (P=0.62). Conclusions: As Qom is located in one of the semi-arid climate zones, topography and solar energy are important factors affecting the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in autumn. Therefore, appropriate disease control programs are recommended.

8.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200149, 2021. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1154771

ABSTRACT

Skin lesions of patients affected by non-ulcerated cutaneous leishmaniasis (NUCL) caused by L. (L.) infantum chagasi are characterized by lymphohistiocytic inflammatory infiltrate associated with epithelioid granuloma and scarce parasitism. However, the in situ cellular immune response of these patients is unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterize the cellular immune response in the skin lesions of patients affected by NUCL. Methods Twenty biopsies were processed by immunohistochemistry using primary antibodies to T lymphocytes (CD4, CD8), NK cells, B lymphocytes, macrophages, nitric oxide synthase and interferon-gamma. Results Immunohistochemistry revealed higher expression of all cellular types and molecules (IFN-γ, iNOS) in the dermis of diseased skin compared to the skin of healthy individuals (p < 0.05). Morphometric analysis performed in the skin lesions sections showed the predominance of CD8+ T lymphocytes in the mononuclear infiltrate, followed by macrophages, mostly iNOS+, a response that could be mediated by IFN-γ. Conclusion Our study improves knowledge of the cellular immune response in non-ulcerated or atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. (L.) infantum chagasi in Central America and pointed to the pivotal participation of CD8+ T lymphocytes in the host defense mechanisms against the parasite in patients with NUCL.(AU)


Subject(s)
Immunohistochemistry , Dermis/injuries , Immunity , Leishmania , Infections
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e007121, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1341188

ABSTRACT

Abstract American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a neglected zoonotic disease caused mainly by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, which is endemic throughout Brazil. Canine ACL cases were investigated in a rural area of Monte Mor, São Paulo, where a human ACL case had been confirmed. Dogs were evaluated through clinical and laboratory diagnosis including serology, cytological tissue preparations and PCR on skin lesions, lymph node and bone marrow samples. Entomological investigations on sandflies trapped in the surroundings of the study area were performed for 14 months. Nyssomyia neivai was the predominant phlebotomine species, comprising 94.65% of the captured specimens (832 out of 879). This species was the most abundant in all trapping sites, including human homes and dog shelters. Ny. whitmani, Migonemyia migonei, Pintomyia monticola, Evandromyia cortellezzii, Pi. fischeri and Expapilata firmatoi were also captured. Two of the three dogs examined were positive for anti-Leishmania IgG in ELISA using the antigen Fucose mannose ligand and skin samples were positive for L. (V.) braziliensis in PCR, but all the samples collected were negative for L. (L.) infantum. One of the dogs had a confirmed persistent infection for more than one year.


Resumo A leishmaniose tegumentar Americana (LTA) é uma doença zoonótica negligenciada, causada principalmente por Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, sendo endêmica em todo o Brasil. Foram investigados casos de LTA canina em uma área rural da cidade de Monte Mor, São Paulo, onde foi confirmado um caso humano de LTA. Os cães foram avaliados por diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial, incluindo sorologia, esfregaços microscópicos e PCR de amostras em lesões de pele, linfonodos e medula óssea. Também foram realizadas investigações entomológicas durante 14 meses, usando-se armadilhas luminosas para flebotomíneos nas proximidades da área de estudo. Nyssomyia neivai foi a espécie de flebotomíneo predominante com 94,65% dos espécimes capturados (832 de 879). Essa espécie foi a mais abundante em todos os locais de captura, incluindo-se abrigos para humanos e cães. Foram também capturadas as espécies Ny. whitmani, Migonemyia migonei, Pintomyia monticola, Evandromyia cortellezzii, Pi. fischeri e Expapilata firmatoi. Dos três cães examinados, dois apresentaram IgG anti-Leishmania positivo no ELISA, usando-se o antígeno "Fucose mannose ligand", PCR da lesão de pele positivo para L. (V.) braziliensis e negativo em todas amostras para L. (L.) infantum. Um dos cães apresentou infecção persistente por mais de um ano.

10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0514-2020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155581

ABSTRACT

Abstract A 31-year-old male patient developed an ulcer on the glans penis that evolved for three months without healing. We diagnosed it as leishmaniasis using polymerase chain reaction. No immunosuppression or associated diseases were observed. The patient was treated with meglumine antimoniate that cured the lesion in a month post-treatment. Here, we report this case of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesion at the unusual location of glans penis in an immunocompetent individual. The lesion likely developed due to the bite of a vector, highlighting the need for considering cutaneous leishmaniasis among differential diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases in areas endemic for leishmaniasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Organometallic Compounds/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Meglumine Antimoniate/therapeutic use , Genitalia , Meglumine/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0212, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288097

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the immediate region of Ji-Paraná, Rondônia State. METHODS: Samples and epidemiological data were collected from 105 patients. RESULTS: Leishmania infection was observed in 58 (55.2%) patients, and Leishmania braziliensis was present in 82.9% of the 41 sequenced samples. Infected patients were predominantly male (93.1%). Leishmania infection was twice as prevalent among rural inhabitants versus urban inhabitants. Lesions were more frequent in the upper limbs (arms/hands, 41.82%). CONCLUSIONS: The present data corroborate the zoonotic profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis; this information could help to improve surveillance and control strategies.

12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0756, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288106

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION This study aimed to determine the number of macrophages and apoptotic cells and perform annexin-A1 detection in patients with leishmaniasis. METHODS Patients with Leishmania infection were admitted to Júlio Müller University Hospital. RESULTS The number of apoptotic cells was higher in the exudative granulomatous reaction. The exudative cellular reaction displayed higher levels of annexin-A1 detection in macrophages and apoptotic cells. The correlation between annexin-A1 detection in apoptotic cells and macrophages was observed in exudative necrotic reaction and exudative necrotic-granulomatous reaction. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate the relevance of annexin-A1 in the regulation of apoptosis and phagocytosis in leishmaniasis.

13.
Article in Spanish, English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177972

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Determinar la respuesta al tratamiento con Estibogluconato Sódico en población indígena y mestiza con diagnóstico de leishmaniasis cutánea según ciclo de tratamiento, sexo y etapa de vida, pertenecientes a las Microredes Nieva, Galilea, Tingo y Pedro Ruiz Gallo de la Región Amazonas del 2014 ­ 2018, en Perú. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, de corte longitudinal, teniendo como universo muestral 559 fichas de pacientes; el método fue inductivo, técnica análisis de datos y el instrumento fue la ficha de registro de datos. Resultados: En la población indígena el 98,1% respondió al tratamiento con primer ciclo de Estibogluconato Sódico y en la población mestiza fue el 94%, los demás pacientes respondieron con segundo ciclo de tratamiento; asimismo del total de pacientes mestizos, el 47,5% fue femenino y de la población indígena el 70,4% fue masculino (p=0,000); de las etapas de vida más afectadas con segundo ciclo de tratamiento fueron la adulta 50% (población indígena) y en la etapa niño 11,2% (población mestiza). Conclusión: El mayor porcentaje de los pacientes presentaron una respuesta adecuada (curaron con el primer ciclo de tratamiento) al Estibogluconato Sódico en ambas poblaciones asimismo las etapas de vida más afectadas fueron la adultez y la niñez


Objetive. To determine the response to treatment with Sodium Stibogluconate in indigenous and mestizo population with diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis according to treatment cycle, sex and life stage, belonging to the Microredes Nieva, Galilea, Tingo and Pedro Ruiz Gallo of the Amazon Region of 2014 - 2018, in Pe r u . M a t e r i a l a n d m e t h o d s : D e s c r i p t i v e , retrospective, longitudinal-sectional study, having as sample universe 559 patient records; the method was inductive, technical data analysis and the instrument was the data record. Results: In the indigenous population, 98.1% responded to the treatment with the first cycle of Sodium Stibogluconate and in the mestizo population it was 94%, the other patients responded with the second treatment cycle; also of the total mestizo patients, 47.5% were female and 70.4% of the indigenous population were male (p=0,000); of the most affected life stages with the second cycle of treatment were the adult 50% (indigenous population) and in the child stage 11.2% (mestizo population). Conclusion: The highest percentage of the patients presented an adequate response (they cured with the first cycle of treatment) to Sodium Stibogluconate in both populations also the most affected life stages were adulthood and childhood

14.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(3): 741-761, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134073

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo faz análise histórica da emergência da leishmaniose tegumentar americana como objeto do conhecimento e desafio médico-sanitário no Amazonas desde a década de 1970. Fornece visão geral dessa época, as medidas sanitárias e os estudos científicos realizados no contexto de implantação dos principais projetos de desenvolvimento regionais executados em nome da política de integração nacional do governo federal. Utiliza como metodologia a análise documental de leis, produção científica, relatórios de pesquisa, boletins epidemiológicos e jornais. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram que a doença surgiu no Amazonas associando o grande problema de saúde com mudanças político-econômicas e alterações socioambientais.


Abstract The history of the emergence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Brazilian state of Amazonas since the 1970s is analyzed as an object of knowledge and a medical and public health challenge. An overview of the period is provided, including the public health measures and scientific studies undertaken in the context of the execution of large-scale regional developments pursued in the name of national integration by the federal government. The methodology uses documental analysis of laws, the scientific literature, research reports, epidemiological bulletins, and newspapers. The results show that American cutaneous leishmaniasis emerged as a major health problem in Amazonas in close association with the political, economic, and socioenvironmental changes seen in the period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Public Health/history , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/history , Conservation of Natural Resources , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Psychodidae/parasitology , Urbanization/history , Leishmania braziliensis/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Insect Control/history , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Leishmania guyanensis/isolation & purification , Industrial Development/history , Insect Vectors
15.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(8): 2961-2971, Ago. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1133097

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo foi identificar e caracterizar unidades espaciais de relevância epidemiológica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, por meio das maiores concentrações de casos de leishmaniose tegumentar (LT) no período de 1980 a 2012, considerando os conceitos da geografia. Utilizou-se bancos de dados da SUCAM, FUNASA e SINAN. Foi aplicado um método de ajustamento de dados espacialmente referenciados para delimitação das regiões com as maiores concentrações de densidades de casos chamadas circuitos e polos. Estes foram sobrepostos aos mapas de indicadores socioambientais. Do total de casos registrados no período, 87% ocorreram nos municípios localizados nos circuitos e polos resultantes. As variações na ocorrência de casos nos diferentes circuitos e polos não tiveram relação com os indicadores socioambientais. A identificação dos circuitos e polos pode subsidiar o programa estadual da LT para a priorização de estratégias de ações de prevenção e controle e a otimização dos recursos do programa. Essas regiões, mais estáveis que as localidades, permitem operações de vigilância e controle nas localidades com muitos casos e nas demais da área de risco identificada, por terem as mesmas características daquelas já afetadas.


Abstract The scope of this research was to identify and characterize spatial units of epidemiological relevance in the state of Rio de Janeiro, through the highest concentrations of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) from 1980 to 2012, considering the geographical aspects. SUCAM, FUNASA and SINAN databases were consulted. A method of adjustment of spatially referenced data for demarcation of the regions with the highest concentrations of cases called circuits and poles was applied. These were superimposed on the socioenvironmental indicator maps. Of the total cases registered in the period, 87% occurred in the municipalities located in the resulting circuits and poles. The variations in the occurrence of cases in the different circuits and poles were not related to the socioenvironmental indicators. The identification of the circuits and poles can subsidize the state CL program of the prioritization of strategies of prevention and control actions and the optimization of the resources of the program. These regions, which are more stable than the localities, allow surveillance and control operations in locations with many cases and in other locations in the identified risk area, because they have the same characteristics as those already affected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology
16.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 53(2): 145-152, 20200800.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119624

ABSTRACT

La leishmaniasis cutánea o mucocutánea presenta variedad de formas clínicas, siendo la más frecuente la úlcera moldurada. Una forma poco frecuente es la llamada leishmaniasis cutánea difusa caracterizada por presentar pápulas, tubérculos, nódulos, placas e infiltración. Inicialmente localizadas, pero con tendencia a la progresión, pudiendo llegar a ser diseminadas. Es una forma aún no comunicada en Paraguay. Presentamos el caso de una mujer adulta mayor, con placas y nódulos en ambos miembros inferiores, y cuyo frotis y anatomía patológica confirmaron el diagnóstico de leishmaniasis. Clínicamente clasificada como leishmaniasis cutánea difusa, la PCR y HRM demostraron ser producida por Leishmania (Viannia) brasiliensis.


Cutaneous or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis presents a variety of clinical forms, the most common being a molded ulcer. A rare form is the so-called diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis characterized by presenting papules, tubers, nodules, plaques and infiltration; initially located but with a tendency to progression, and may become widespread. It is a form not reported in Paraguay. We present the case of an older adult woman, with plaques and nodules on both lower limbs, and whose smear and pathological anatomy confirmed the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Clinically classified as diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, PCR and HRM were shown to be produced by Leishmania (Viannia) brasiliensis.


Subject(s)
Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmaniasis, Diffuse Cutaneous , Leishmaniasis, Diffuse Cutaneous/epidemiology
17.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-209677

ABSTRACT

Leishmaniasis has spread beyond the traditional areas of the Rift Valley and North Eastern provinces. There is more evidence of emergence and spread of leishmaniasisin Western Kenya. However, there is currently no comprehensive study on knowledge, attitude and prevention practices on leishmaniasis among the risk populations in the endemic Mount Elgon region of westernKenya. This has hindered the protocol for understanding the epidemiology of leishmaniasis.The descriptive survey design study was carried out from April to June, 2019 and it sought for information on KAP related to cutaneous leishmaniasis (C.L) in Mount Elgon region. Using stratified simple random sampling technique, a total of 340 household participants were selected in the study area. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Regarding the responses given to knowledge, attitude and practice, a score of 1 was given for each right response and 0 for unsure responses. Data analysis was conducted using IBM SPSS version 23 statistical software. Descriptive statistics that include frequency and percentage were used to analyze the results. Out of 340 individuals were participated in our study 214 (62.9%) of the participants were males and 126 (37.1%) were females. The result of the present study in terms of knowledge showed that most of the respondents scored less than four items out of six correctly, hence described as having poor knowledge of CL.With regard to attitude respondents believed that CL was a problem in their area and had positive attitude towards the treatment of the disease. TheOriginal Research Article study also found out that majority of the respondents practiced well, as indicated by scoring positively in more than three items. In terms of plants used in the treatment of the disease,Olea europaea, Kigelia Africana, Terminial mollis, Croton macrostachyus, Tylosema fassoglense andBridella micrantha were mentioned. It was concluded that, people were less knowledgeable, had positive attitude towards the treatment especially using plant extracts could act as the basis for future research on alternative drugs against the disease

18.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 37(3): 462-470, jul-sep 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145017

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos: Evaluar la actividad fotodinámica in vitro de la ftalocianina de aluminio tetrasulfonada clorada (AlPcClS4) sobre promastigotes y amastigotes de Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana y Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Materiales y métodos: La actividad del tratamiento fotodinámico empleando AlPcClS4 sobre promastigotes y amastigotes de Leishmania fue determinada mediante el método colorimétrico Metil Tiazol Tetrazolium (MTT) y PCR cuantitativo, respectivamente. Resultados: El tratamiento fotodinámico presentó un efecto inhibitorio sobre promastigotes, principalmente sobre Leishmania (V.) peruviana, en menor proporción sobre Leishmania (V.) braziliensis y sobre las formas intracelulares de ambas especies. En Leishmania (V.) peruviana, a las 24 horas posirradiación a 200 µM y 350 µM el efecto inhibitorio fue del 72,9% y 73,9%, respectivamente y a las 96 horas fue del 78,8% y 80,6%, respectivamente. En las formas intracelulares, empleando 200 µM y evaluado a las 72 horas postratamiento, se observó una inhibición del 57,8% de amastigotes de Leishmania (V.) peruviana. El IC50 fue del 56,5; 50; 44; y 39,7 µM, que corresponde a las 24, 48, 72 y 96 horas posirradiación, respectivamente. Conclusiones: El tratamiento fotodinámico empleando AlPcClS4 frente a las especies de Leishmania presentó resultados alentadores principalmente sobre Leishmania (V.) peruviana, lo cual sugiere su potencial uso como alternativa o complemento del tratamiento convencional de la leishmaniasis tegumentaria. Sin embargo, aún se requiere continuar con nuevos ensayos para determinar el índice de selectividad sobre el parásito en su forma intracelular, y desarrollar estrategias que faciliten el ingreso eficiente de la molécula hacia la célula hospedera y al parásito.


ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the in vitro photodynamic activity of aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate chloride (AlPcClS4) on promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Materials and methods: The activity of photodynamic therapy using AlPcClS4 on Leishmania promastigote and amastigotes was determined by the Methyl Thiazole Tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric method and quantitative PCR, respectively. Results: Photodynamic treatment showed an inhibitory effect on promastigotes, particularly on Leishmania (V.) peruviana, to a lesser extent on Leishmania (V.) braziliensis and also on intracellular forms of both species. At 24 hours post-radiation, using concentrations of 200 μM and 350 μM, the inhibitory effect on Leishmania (V.) peruviana was 72.9% and 73.9% respectively; at 96 hours the inhibitory effect was of 78.8% and 80.6%, respectively. Regarding intracellular forms, the inhibitory effect on Leishmania (V.) peruviana amastigotes was 57.8% at 72 hours post-treatment, using a concentration of 200 μM. The IC50 was 56.5, 50, 44 and 39.7 μM, at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post-radiation, respectively. Conclusions: Photodynamic therapy using AlPcClS4 against Leishmania species showed encouraging results, mainly on Leishmania (V.) peruviana, suggesting a potential use as an alternative or complement to the usual treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis. However, new trials are still required to determine the selectivity index for the intracellular form of the parasite, and to develop methods to facilitate the efficient entry of the molecule into the host cell and the parasite.

19.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 37(1): 87-92, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101806

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN En el Perú, la leishmaniasis es una enfermedad metaxénica que representa un serio problema de salud pública, debido a su amplia distribución y al número de personas en riesgo de contraer la enfermedad, siendo la población vulnerable principalmente las personas de bajos recursos económicos. El estudio se realizó a partir de pacientes que fueron derivados al Instituto Nacional de Salud entre el 2006 y el 2011 para que se les realizara el diagnóstico especializado. La identificación de la especie de Leishmania infectante se desarrolló mediante el análisis de las curvas de disociación (HRMA) obtenidas a partir del ADN genómico de promastigotes y amastigotes, lo que permitió identificar las especies de Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, Leishmania (V.) guyanensis, Leishmania (V.) peruviana como las más prevalentes, además de Leishmania (V.) lainsoni y Leishmania (L.) amazonensis.


ABSTRACT In Peru, leishmaniasis is a metaxenic disease that represents a serious public health problem, due to its wide distribution and the number of people in danger of contracting the disease, being the vulnerable population mainly those with low economic resources. The study was conducted from patients who were derived to Peru's National Institute of Health between 2006 and 2011 so that the specialized diagnosis could be carried out. The identification of the species of infectious Leishmania was developed through the analysis of the High-Resolution Melting Analysis obtained from the genomic DNA of promastigotes and amastigotes, which allows to identify the species of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, Leishmania (V.) guyanensis, Leishmania (V.) peruviana as more prevalent, in addition to Leishmania (V.) lainsoni and Leishmania (L.) amazonensis.

20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-209511

ABSTRACT

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is endemic in north-west of Libya forlong time andit’s spread to other new foci continues to involve new areaslike Taurgha, Sirt and recently, Zliten. Most ofthe patients in north-west of Libya were infected with zoonoticCutaneous Leishmaniasis, which caused by leishmania major, althoughsome cases of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania tropica were also reported. Zliten is a coastal city in the north west of Libya;with more than 289000 people; and now isknown to be a new focus since 2016 when the sudden increase of the number of patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis had occurred. Aims: This study was performed to observe epidemiological changes about incidence, age of patients, geographical distribution in Zliten city over a period of last 2 year (2017 and 2018).Study Design:Cross-sectional study as retrospective study over time of twoyears, involving all patients, who were presented or referred, to get management of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, in three accredited outpatient departments for cutaneousleishmania (in Zliten). The data were collected and analyzed in Zliten Teching Hospital.Place and Duration of Study: Outpatient Department of Dermatology and Venereology of Zliten Teaching Hospital between 1stJanuary 2017 and 31stDecember 2018.Methodology: The study included all patients (different gender and from all age groups) withCutaneous Leishmaniasis, who sought medical advicein dermatology reference clinics in Zliten over the period of 2 years (2017 and 2018). The main collected data were age, sex, number of lesions, and affected sites in the body, residency of the patients, year and month of presentation. The analysis ofdata was made with the use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 25).Results:Eight hundred thirty nine patients were included in this study. The majority of patients came from Zliten and these represented 95.6%, while the most of them came from Majer (south easternpart of Zliten City with more than 25000 people living in it) and represented 45.5% of total patients with CL included in this study, followed by Al-juma (south westernpart of Zliten with around 52000 people), represented (28%) of total patients with CL.Males were found to be more affected, with male to female ratio, 2.4:1. The most affected age group were these less than forty with peak incidence at age group (20 yrs to 30 yrs). The registered patients in 2017 were 397, this number had increasedslightly to be 440 in the following year (2018).The distribution of patients had shown seasonal variations, with steep increase in the number of cases in December, November and January.Conclusion:Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is remained to be amajor health problem in Zliten, affecting a large number of population every year and need further study to determine molecular identification of parasites, and more efforts are needed to control the vector and reservoir.

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