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Braz. dent. sci ; 26(1): 1-12, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1413643


Objetivo: A resposta imune da dentina-polpa à patogênese da cárie ainda é pouco compreendida devido à complexa interação dos processos envolvidos. O objetivo desta revisão foi explorar o papel das citocinas e sua relevância na patogênese da cárie dental. Resultados: A cárie dentária pode resultar em uma resposta inflamatória do hospedeiro na polpa dental, caracterizada pelo acúmulo de células inflamatórias levando à liberação de citocinas inflamatórias como, Interleucina-4 (IL-4), Interleucina (IL-6), Interleucina-8 (IL-8) e fator de necrose tumoral­α(TNF-α). IL-4 parece estar correlacionada com a profundidade das lesões cariosas; IL-6 está fortemente correlacionada com a doença cárie e é considerada um potente biomarcador; IL-8 pode ser um potente biomarcador tanto para cárie quanto para outras alterações presentes na polpa e sua liberação está correlacionada com TNF-α e IL-6; TNF-α desempenha um papel importante não apenas na progressão da cárie, mas também em outros processos patológicos. Conclusao: Mediadores específicos têm um grande potencial para servir como biomarcadores quanto à presença e progressão da doença cárie, o que incita a necessidade de mais investigações nesse campo (AU).

Objectives: The dentin-pulp immune response to caries pathogenesis is still poorly understood due to the complex interplay of the involving processes. The aim of this review was to explore the role of cytokines and its relevance in the pathogenesis of dental caries. Results: Dental caries can result in a host inflammatory response in the dental pulp, characterized by the accumulation of inflammatory cells leading to the release of inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin-4 (IL-4), Interleukin (IL-6), Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and Tumor necrosis factor­ α (TNF- α ). IL-4 seems to be correlated to the depth of carious lesions; IL-6 is strongly correlated to caries disease and is considered a potent biomarker; IL-8 can be a potent biomarker for both caries and other changes present in the pulp and, its release is correlated to TNF- α and IL-6; TNF-α plays an important role not only in caries progression, but also in other pathological processes. Conclusion: Specific mediators have a great potential to serve as biomarkers alluding to the presence and progress of caries disease, urging further investigations in the field (AU)

Biomarkers , Cytokines , Interleukins , Dental Caries , Dental Pulp
Braz. dent. j ; 33(5): 9-17, Sep.-Oct. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1403791


Abstract This study assessed the cell viability, cytokine production, and mineralization potential of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) after exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and application of calcium silicate-based materials (CSBM). Characterization of the CSBM was performed by infrared spectroscopy (n = 3). Extracts of Bio-C Repair, Biodentine, Cimmo HD, and MTA Repair HP were prepared and diluted (1:1, 1:4, and 1:16). Culture of hDPCs was established and treated or not with 1 µg/mL of LPS from Escherichia coli for 7 days. MTT assay was used to assess cell viability at 24, 48, and 72 h (n = 6). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was assayed on day 7 (n = 4). Il-10 and TNF-α were quantified by ELISA at 24 h (n = 6). Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Cell viability of LPS-activated hPDCs was higher than untreated control in 48 and 72 h (p < 0.05). Differences between non-treated and LPS-activated hPDCs were observed for Biodentine and Cimmo HP (p < 0.05). The CSBM influenced the cell viability (p < 0.05). ALP activity was higher in LPS-activated hDPCs (p < 0.05). No changes in the concentration of TNF-α were observed between groups (p > 0.05). The CSBM increased the Il-10 production (p < 0.05). LPS-activated hDPCs presented increased cell viability and ALP activity. The CSBM showed mild toxicity and was able to enhance the cell viability and mineralization potential of untreated and LPS-activated hDPCs. The CSBM also induced anti-inflammatory mechanisms without compromising pro-inflammatory ones.

Resumo Este estudo avaliou a viabilidade celular, produção de citocinas e potencial de mineralização de células da polpa dentária humana (hDPCs) após exposição a lipopolissacarídeo (LPS) e aplicação de materiais à base de silicato de cálcio (CSBM). A caracterização do CSBM foi realizada por espectroscopia (n = 3). Extratos de Bio-C Repair, Biodentine, Cimmo HD e MTA Repair HP foram preparados e diluídos (1: 1, 1: 4 e 1:16). A cultura de hDPCs foi estabelecida e tratada ou não com 1 µg / mL de LPS de Escherichia coli por 7 dias. O ensaio de MTT foi usado para avaliar a viabilidade celular em 24, 48 e 72 h (n = 6). A atividade da fosfatase alcalina (ALP) foi avaliada no dia 7 (n = 4). Il-10 e TNF-α foram quantificados por ELISA em 24 h (n = 6). Os dados foram analisados ​​por ANOVA e teste de Tukey (α = 0,05). A viabilidade celular das hPDCs ativados por LPS foi maior do que o controle não tratado em 48 e 72 h (p <0,05). Diferenças entre hPDCs não tratados e ativados por LPS foram observados para Biodentine e Cimmo HP (p < 0,05). Os CSBM influenciaram na viabilidade celular (p <0,05). A atividade de ALP foi maior em hDPCs ativadas por LPS (p <0,05). Não foram observadas alterações na concentração de TNF-α entre os grupos (p> 0,05). Os CSBM aumentaram a produção de Il-10 (p < 0,05). Os hDPCs ativados por LPS apresentaram um aumento na viabilidade celular e atividade ALP. Os CSBM apresentaram toxicidade moderada e foram capazes de aumentar a viabilidade celular e o potencial de mineralização de hDPCs não tratados e ativados por LPS. Os CSBM também induziram mecanismos anti-inflamatórios sem comprometer os pró-inflamatórios.

Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 68(10): 1364-1368, Oct. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406561


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the patterns of serum cytokines in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients at baseline and post-chemotherapy and investigate their association with response to treatment and chronic lymphocytic leukemia prognosis. METHODS: Blood samples were taken from 32 subjects at their first medical visit after being diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 1 year after chemotherapy. Then, levels of cytokines and blood parameters in peripheral blood were measured. Correlation analysis was used to assess the indexes before and after chemotherapy as well as at different disease stages. RESULTS: Most of the patients (45.80%) had stages I and III before initiation of treatment and after treatment, respectively. There were significant differences between levels of interleukin (IL)-6 (p=0.006) and IL-10 (p=0.009) before and after treatment. Notably, the difference in IL-10 levels before and after treatment was significantly higher in the advanced stages compared to that in the non-advanced stages (p=0.007). IL-6 and IL-10 were also higher in the expired patients compared to the survived cases. CONCLUSIONS: Cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-10 may be considered predicting factors for chronic lymphocytic leukemia prognosis.

Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(5): 694-701, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407306


Abstract Introduction: Halting ventilation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is implemented to operate in a less bleeding setting. It sustains a better visualization of the operation area and helps to perform the operation much more comfortably. On the other hand, it may lead to a series of postoperative lung complications such as atelectasis and pleural effusion. In this study, we investigated the effects of low tidal volume ventilation on inflammatory cytokines during CPB. Methods: Twenty-eight patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery were included in the study. Operation standards and ventilation protocols were determined and patients were divided into two groups: patients ventilated with low tidal volume and non-ventilated patients. Plasma samples were taken from patients preoperatively, perioperatively from the coronary sinus and postoperatively after CPB. IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and C5a levels in serum samples were studied with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Results: C5a, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were similar when compared to the low tidal volume ventilated and non-ventilated groups (P>0.05) Comparing the groups by variables, IL-6 levels were increased during CPB in both groups (P=0.021 and P=0.001), and IL-8 levels decreased in the ventilation group during CPB (P=0.018). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that low tidal volume ventilation may reduce the inflammatory response during CPB. Although the benefit of low tidal volume ventilation in CPB has been shown to decrease postoperative lung complications such as pleural effusion, atelectasis and pneumonia, we still lack more definitive and clear proofs of inflammatory cytokines encountered during CPB.

Rev. am. med. respir ; 22(3): 218-224, set. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407074


RESUMEN El uso compasivo de ruxolitinib en la covid-19 demostró una mejoría en las imágenes de tórax y mayor número de altas en el grupo que lo usó vs. el grupo 1 (cloroquinas y azitromicina), con descenso de los marcadores inflamatorios. Existe un artículo que señaló que un caso que fue refractario a la terapia anti-IL6, pero respondió a la inhibi ción de Jak-Stat con ruxolitinib.1 La comorbilidad más frecuente en ambos grupos fue la hipertensión arterial, seguida por la diabetes tipo 2; el grupo 1 presentó un mayor número de pacientes que no presentaban comorbilidades (18 pacientes). El número de hombres con enfermedad por SARS-CoV2 fue mayor en el grupo 1, con 31 hombres (62,0%) frente un total de 19 mujeres (38,0%), mientras que, en el grupo 2, el 25,0% eran hombres y mujeres, el 25,0%. La gravedad de la covid-19 fue definida como moderada: adolescente o adulto con signos clínicos de neumonía (fiebre, tos, disnea, taquipnea), en particular SpO2 ≥ 90% con aire ambiente; y grave: adolescente o adulto con signos clínicos de neumonía (fiebre, tos, disnea, taquipnea) más alguno de los siguientes: frecuencia respiratoria > 30 inspiraciones/min, dificultad respiratoria grave o SpO2 < 90% con aire ambiente.2 El síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda (SDRA) en ambos grupos fue de un pro medio de relación entre la presión arterial de oxígeno y la fracción inspirada de oxí geno (PaFi) en el grupo ruxolitinib 135,3 mmHg vs. Grupo control PaFi 138,9 mmHg. Se definió la eficacia por descenso de los marcadores inflamatorios, mejoría gasomé trica de la PaFi, menor requerimiento de oxígeno, disminución del ingreso a unidad de cuidados intensivos de los pacientes con sintomatología grave, demostración de la seguridad del fármaco en los 10 días posteriores a su uso y detallado del número de casos con alta médica.

ABSTRACT The group with compassionate use of ruxolitinib for Covid-19 showed improved chest images and a larger number of discharged patients, compared to group 1 (chloro quines and azithromycin), with a decrease in inflammatory markers. There is one arti cle that described a case which refractory to anti-IL6 therapy but responded to Jak-Stat inhibition with ruxolitinib.1 The most common comorbidity in both groups was arterial hypertension, followed by diabetes type 2; group 1 showed a larger number of patients without comorbidities (18 patients). The number of male patients with the disease caused by SARS-CoV2 was larger in group 1, with 31 males (62.0%), compared to a total of 19 females (38.0%), whereas in group 2, 25.0% were males, and 25.0% females. The severity of Covid-19 was defined as moderate: adolescent or adult with clinical signs of pneumonia (fever, cough, dys pnea, tachypnea), particularly SpO2 ≥ 90% on ambient air; and severe: adolescent or adult with clinical signs of pneumonia (fever, cough, dyspnea, tachypnea) plus some of the following: respiratory rate > 30 breaths/min, severe respiratory distress or SpO2 < 90% on ambient air.2 The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in both groups had an average ratio of pressure arterial oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen (PaFi) of 135.3 mmHg in the ruxolitinib group versus 138.9 mmHg in the control group. Efficacy was defined as: decrease in inflammatory markers, gasometric improvement in the PaFi, lower oxygen requirement, lower number of patients with severe symptoms admitted to the Intensive Care Unit, proof of the drug's safety 10 days after use, and detailed number of discharged patients.

Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1401953


COVID-19 is a new disease that has brought a great impact on global morbidity and mortality. There have been increasingly frequent reports of persistent symptoms and/or clinical manifestations attributed to COVID-19 after the acute phase of the disease. In this article, we present a case of post-COVID-19 telogen effluvium in a 39-year-old hypertensive and obese patient who looked for medical attention due to massive hair loss. Previous history of moderate COVID-19 4 months ago. After investigation and exclusion of other possible causes of telogen effluvium well established in the literature, the condition was attributed to the previous episode of COVID-19. Persistent fever, the cytokine storm, and the entire immunological cascade of COVID-19 can lead to apoptosis of the keratinocytes of the hair follicles, initiating the catagen phase early followed by the telogen phase with a consequent capillary release. Late symptoms possibly secondary to COVID-19 should receive attention and interest from the medical and scientific community. As it is a new disease, whose late consequences are not yet fully known/elucidated, careful observation and careful clinical follow-up of these patients are recommended (AU)

A COVID-19 é uma doença nova que vem provocando grande impacto na morbimortalidade mundial. Relatos de persistência de sintomas e/ou manifestações clínicas atribuídas à COVID-19 após a fase aguda da doença tem sido cada vez mais frequentes. Neste artigo, apresentamos um caso de eflúvio telógeno pós COVID-19 em um paciente de 39 anos, hipertenso e obeso, que procurou atendimento médico devido à queda volumosa de cabelos. Histórico prévio de COVID-19 moderada há 4 meses. Após investigação e exclusão de outras possíveis causas de eflúvio telógeno bem estabelecidas na literatura o quadro foi atribuído ao episódio prévio de COVID-19. É possível que a febre persistente, a tempestade de citocinas e toda a cascata imunológica da COVID-19 possam levar à apoptose dos queratinócitos dos folículos capilares, iniciando, assim, precocemente a fase catágena seguida pela fase telógena com consequente liberação capilar. Sintomas tardios possivelmente secundários à COVID-19 devem ser alvo de atenção e interesse da comunidade médica e científica. Por se tratar de uma doença nova, cujas consequências tardias ainda não se encontram completamente conhecidas/ elucidadas, recomenda-se a observação atenta e o seguimento clínico criterioso desses pacientes (AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Cytokines , Coronavirus Infections , Alopecia , Fever , Immune System
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(8): 786-793, Aug. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403527


Abstract Background Anthracyclines-based regimen (5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC); cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and 5-fluorouracil [CEF]) and non-anthracycline based regimens (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil [CMF]) are widely used as neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer patients. Objective The present study was conducted to observe the effects of FAC, CEF, and CMF regimen on cognition and circulatory proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6] and interleukin 1β [IL-1β]) for the duration of three cycles of chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. Methods Eighty newly diagnosed HER-2 negative breast cancer patients were enrolled and divided into 3 groups as FAC- (n= 27), CEF- (n= 26), and CMF- (n= 27) receiving patients. Serum IL-6 and IL-1β levels were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State examination (MMSE) questionnaire. Results Anthracycline-based regimen was found to increase the levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and decreased MMSE scores compared with CMF regimen (p< 0.05). Conclusion Anthracycline-based regimen caused comparatively higher peripheral inflammation, which could be the reason for more decline in cognition in anthracycline-receiving patients than non-anthracycline group.

Resumo Antecedentes Regime baseado em antraciclinas (5-fluorouracil, doxorrubicina e ciclofosfamida [FAC]; ciclofosfamida, epirrubicina e 5-fluorouracil [CEF]) e regimes não baseados em antraciclina (ciclofosfamida, metotrexato e 5-fluorouracil (CMF]) são amplamente utilizados como quimioterapia neoadjuvante para pacientes com câncer de mama. Objetivo O presente estudo foi realizado para observar os efeitos do regime FAC, CEF e CMF na cognição e citocinas pró-inflamatórias circulatórias (interleucina 6 [IL-6] e interleucina 1β [IL-1β]) durante três ciclos de quimioterapia em pacientes com câncer de mama. Métodos Oitenta pacientes recém-diagnosticadas com câncer de mama HER-2 negativo foram recrutadas e divididas em 3 grupos de pacientes que receberam FAC (n= 27), CEF (n= 26) ou CMF (n= 27). Os níveis séricos de IL-6 e IL-1β foram medidos por enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) e a cognição foi avaliada por meio do questionário Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Resultados O regime baseado em antraciclinas aumentou os níveis de IL-6, IL-1β e diminuiu os escores do MMSE em comparação com o regime CMF (p< 0,05). Conclusão O regime baseado em antraciclinas causou inflamação periférica comparativamente mais alta, o que pode ser a razão para maior declínio na cognição em pacientes que receberam antraciclinas do que no grupo que não recebeu antraciclina.

Rev. Inst. Med. Trop ; 17(1)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406896


Resumen Introducción: Los niveles de citoquinas podrían ser determinantes en la severidad de la Fiebre Dengue. La supresión de su actividad con inmunomoduladores modificaría su evolución. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto de la adición de doxiciclina sobre el perfil de citocinas de pacientes con dengue y valorar la respuesta clínica y el impacto en la severidad de pacientes con Fiebre de Dengue. Materiales y métodos: Estudio aleatorio, doble ciego, placebo controlado con doxiciclina. Ambos grupos recibieron la medicación por 7 días y se controló la evolución clínica, laboratorio y niveles de citoquinas en los días 0, 3 y 7. Resultados: Fueron incluídos en el estudio 61 pacientes, 36 (59%) en el grupo placebo y 25 (41%) en el grupo doxiciclina. Se observó que los pacientes tratados con doxiciclina mostraron menor plaquetopenia en el día 0 y 3 [(170029±47483/mm3 vs 198875±52211/mm3)(p<0,05) y 129545±62840/mm3 vs 165048±51142/mm3)(p<0,05)] al compararlo con el grupo placebo. Los niveles de IL-6, TNF y raIL-1 no mostraron diferencias significativas. Se observó una tendencia a menores niveles de IL-1ß en el grupo tratado con doxiciclina (52,1±97 vs 3,3±7,7)(0,08). Conclusiones: No se constató diferencias en la presentación clínica, hospitalización ni en la mortalidad entre pacientes tratados con doxiciclina comparados con placebo. Hubo una tendencia a menores niveles de IL-1ß en los pacientes tratados con doxiciclina. Debe aumentarse el tamaño de la muestra para confirmar o rechazar los resultados.

Abstract Background: Cytokine levels could be determinant in the severity of Dengue Fever. The suppression of their activity with immunomodulators would modify its evolution. Objective: To determine the effect of doxycycline on the cytokine profile of patients with dengue fever and to assess the clinical response and the impact on the severity of patients with dengue fever. Materials and methods: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with doxycycline. Both groups received the medication for 7 days and clinical evolution, laboratory and cytokine levels were monitored on days 0, 3 and 7. Results: 61 patients were included in the study, 36 (59%) in the placebo group and 25 (41%) in the doxycycline group. It was observed that patients treated with doxycycline showed lower thrombocytopenia at day 0 and 3 [(170029±47483/mm3 vs 198875±52211/mm3)(p<0.05) and 129545±62840/mm3 vs 165048±51142/mm3)(p<0.05)] when compared to the placebo group. IL-6, TNF and raIL-1 levels showed no significant differences. A trend to lower IL-1ß levels was observed in the doxycycline treated group (52.1±97 vs 3.3±7.7)(0.08). Conclusions: There was no difference in clinical presentation, hospitalization or mortality among patients treated with doxycycline compared to placebo. There was a trend to lower IL-1ß levels in patients treated with doxycycline. The sample size should be increased to confirm or reject the results.

Arq. gastroenterol ; 59(2): 288-295, Apr.-June 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383844


ABSTRACT Background: Polysaccharides from edible mushrooms possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities. Recent studies indicated that necroptosis plays a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and mediates increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. Objective: Therefore, it is imperative to determine the impact of polysaccharide extract from Lentinula edodes (L. edodes) on inflammatory cytokines in experimental model of colitis in mice. Methods: Female C57BL/6 mice divided into three or four mice per group were used for this study. Polysaccharide sample was orally administered to mice prior to (7 days) and during colitis induction with 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (7 days), followed by additional 3 days of administration. Changes in body weight and colon length were used as markers for colitis, and pro-inflammatory cytokines and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) expressions, as well as necroptosis were analyzed in the colon of colitis mice. Data obtained were analysed by Tukey-Kramer and two-tailed standard t tests. Results: The results indicated that the polysaccharide sample suppressed colitis in mice using effects on the body weight and colon length as markers. Also, it was demonstrated that necrostatin-1, a specific inhibitor of necroptosis, suppressed the expression of interleukin (IL)-8, a pro-inflammatory chemokine, in Caco-2 cells induced necroptosis induced by zVAD and TNF-α, an indication that necroptosis may be involved in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, the polysaccharide sample suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and interferon (IFN)-γ in the colon of mice. Conclusion: These results suggested that the suppressive effects of the polysaccharide sample on inflammatory cytokines expression may contribute to its anti-colitis effect, and so may serve as a potent therapeutic agent against inflammatory bowel disease.

RESUMO Contexto: Polissacarídeos de cogumelos comestíveis possuem atividades imunomodulatórias, anti-inflamatórias e anti-tumorais. Estudos recentes indicaram que a necroptose desempenha um papel na patogênese de doenças inflamatórias e regula o aumento da expressão de citocinas inflamatórias. Objetivo: Torna-se imprescindível determinar o impacto do extrato de polissacarídeo de Lentinula edodes (L. edodes) em citocinas inflamatórias em modelo experimental de colite em camundongos. Métodos: Foram utilizados para este estudo os camundongos C57BL/6 femininos divididos em três ou quatro camundongos por grupo. A amostra de polissacarídeo foi administrada oralmente em camundongos antes (7 dias) e durante a indução de colite com sulfato de dextran sulfato de sódio (7 dias), seguido por 3 dias adicionais de administração. Alterações no peso corporal e comprimento do cólon foram utilizadas como marcadores para colite, e citocinas pró-inflamatórias e tumores receptor fator 1 (TNFR1), bem como necroptose foram analisadas no cólon de camundongos colite. Os dados obtidos foram analisados por testes Tukey-Kramer e testes padrão t de duas caudas. Resultados: Os resultados indicaram que a amostra de polissacarídeo suprimiu colite em camundongos usando efeitos sobre o peso corporal e o comprimento do cólon como marcadores. Além disso, foi demonstrado que a necrostatina-1, inibidora específica da necroptose, suprimiu a expres são de interleucina (IL)-8, uma quimiocina pró-inflamatória, em células caco-2 induzidas necroptose induzidas por zVAD e TNF-α, uma indicação de que a necroptose pode estar envolvida na expressão de citocinas pro-inflamatórias. Além disso, a amostra de polissacarídeo suprimiu a expressão de citocinas pró-inflamatórias, como o fator de necrose tumoral (TNF)-α, IL-6, IL-1β e interferon (IFN)-γ no cólon dos camundongos. Conclusão: Esses resultados sugeriram que os efeitos supressivos da amostra de polissacarídeo na expressão de citocinas inflamatórias podem contribuir para o seu efeito anti-colite, podendo, portanto, servir como um potente agente terapêutico contra doença inflamatória intestinal.

Arq. gastroenterol ; 59(2): 238-243, Apr.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383855


ABSTRACT Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises the spectrum between Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), a condition whose prevalence in countries such as Brazil has increased significantly in recent years. Changes in the intestinal epithelial barrier function and, consequently, an increase in intestinal permeability, have been suggested as important factors in the pathogenesis of different autoimmune conditions, including IBD. Therefore, there is a need for a practical tool to assess gut barrier integrity in these patients. Objective: To study factors associated with serum zonulin levels, a marker of intestinal permeability, in patients with IBD. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study that included 117 patients with IBD and 32 healthy controls. Disease activity was assessed by the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) in UC and by the Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI) in CD subjects. Zonulin levels were measured by ELISA and inflammatory cytokines by Cytometric Bead Array, using commercially available kits. Results: The mean age of IBD patients was 44.0±15.9 years, 66.7% were female, 57 subjects were diagnosed with CD and 60 with UC. At evaluation, clinical remission was observed in 56.7% of CD patients and in 59.2% of UC subjects. No differences were observed in zonulin levels when comparing IBD patients with the control group (95.28 ng/mL vs 96.61 ng/mL, P=0.573) and when comparing patients with CD to those with UC (79.68 ng/mL vs 106.10 ng/mL, P=0.887). Among IBD group, zonulin concentrations were higher among females, correlated positively with body mass index (BMI) and age; and negatively with hemoglobin and hematocrit. In patients with UC, zonulin correlated negatively with hemoglobin, hematocrit, and albumin; and positively with BMI and SCCAI. Among CD patients, zonulin was positively correlated with age and BMI, but not with HBI. No correlations were observed between zonulin and circulating cytokines in IBD patients. Conclusion: In this cohort mostly comprised of patients in clinical remission, serum zonulin levels were not higher in patients with IBD than healthy controls, and correlated with variables not linked to baseline disease, such as sex, age and BMI. However, zonulin correlated with clinical and laboratory parameters of disease severity and activity among subjects with UC, but not among patients with CD. These findings indicate a potential role for zonulin as a biomarker in IBD, particularly in UC.

RESUMO Contexto: A doença inflamatória intestinal (DII) compreende o espectro entre a doença de Crohn (DC) e a colite ulcerativa, condição esta cuja prevalência em países como o Brasil vem aumentando significativamente nos últimos anos. Alterações na função da barreira epitelial intestinal e, consequentemente, um aumento da permeabilidade intestinal, têm sido sugeridos como fatores importantes envolvidos na patogênese de diferentes condições autoimunes, dentre elas, a DII. Desta forma, existe a necessidade de uma ferramenta prática para avaliar a integridade da barreira epitelial intestinal nestes pacientes. Objetivo: Estudar os fatores associados com os níveis séricos de zonulina, um marcador da permeabilidade intestinal, em pacientes com DII. Métodos: Estudo observacional transversal que incluiu 117 pacientes com DII e 32 indivíduos que compuseram o grupo controle. A atividade da doença foi avaliada pelo Simple Cliniical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) na colite ulcerativa e pelo índice de Harvey-Bradshaw (IHB) em pacientes com DC. Os níveis de zonulina foram quantificados por ELISA e os níveis das citocinas inflamatórias pelo Cytometric Bead Array, utilizando kits comercialmente disponíveis. Resultados: A média de idade dos pacientes com DII foi de 44,0±15,9 anos, 66,7% eram do sexo feminino, 57 pacientes eram portadores de DC e 60 pacientes eram portadores de colite ulcerativa. No momento da avaliação clínico-laboratorial, 56,7% dos pacientes com DC encontravam-se em remissão clínica e, dentre os pacientes com colite ulcerativa, 59,2% deles assim se encontravam. Não foram observadas diferenças nos níveis séricos de zonulina entre pacientes com DII e grupo controle (95,28 ng/mL vs 96,61 ng/mL; P=0,573), assim como entre pacientes com DC e pacientes com colite ulcerativa (79,68 ng/mL vs 106,10 ng/mL, P=0,887). Dentre os pacientes com DII, as concentrações de zonulina foram mais elevadas no sexo feminino e correlacionaram-se positivamente com o índice de massa corporal (IMC) e com a idade, correlacionando-se negativamente com os níveis de hemoglobina e hematócrito. Nos pacientes com colite ulcerativa, as concentrações de zonulina correlacionaram-se negativamente com os parâmetros hemoglobina, hematócrito e albumina e, positivamente, com o IMC e com o SCCAI. Dentre os pacientes com DC, a zonulina sérica correlacionou-se positivamente com a idade e com o IMC, mas não com o IHB. Não foram observadas correlações entre os níveis de zonulina e as citocinas circulantes nos pacientes com DII. Conclusão: Nesta coorte constituída majoritariamente por pacientes em remissão clínica, os níveis séricos de zonulina não se mostraram aumentados em pacientes com DII em relação a indivíduos controles e correlacionaram-se com variáveis não relacionadas à doença de base, como com o sexo, com a idade e com o IMC. No entanto, os níveis séricos de zonulina correlacionaram-se com parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais de gravidade e atividade da doença dentre os pacientes com colite ulcerativa, mas não dentre os pacientes com DC. Estes achados indicam um potencial papel da zonulina sérica como um biomarcador na DII, principalmente na colite ulcerativa.

Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 26(2): 208-212, Apr.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385092


Abstract Introduction Palatine and pharyngeal tonsils are the first line of defense against pathogens. Clinically, two alterations may require surgical removal of the tonsils: hypertrophy and recurrent tonsillitis. The two conditions probably result from a dysfunction of the immune system. Objective To evaluate possible differences in the plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in patients submitted to adenotonsillectomy. Methods Prospective, longitudinal study with 25 children undergoing adenotonsillectomy separated into 3 different groups: recurrent tonsillitis (RT), composed of 7 patients; recurrent hypertrophy tonsillitis (RTTH), with 8 patients; and the tonsillar hypertrophy (TH) group, with 10 patients. Ten healthy control children (SD) were also included in the study. Peripheral blood was collected, and plasma was separated to measure the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10. The Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis. Results The plasma level of IL-6 was higher in the RT (p= 0.0394) and TH (p= 0.0009) groups, compared with the control group. The TH group also had higher levels of IL-6 than the RT group (p= 0.039). The IL-6/IL-10 ratio was higher in the RT (p= 0.029) and TH (p= 0.0005) groups compared with the control group. Between the RT and RTTH groups, the IL-6/IL-10 ratio was higher in the RT group, with a statistically significant difference (p= 0.0091). Conclusion Patients with a history of chronic tonsillitis had higher levels of IL-6, compared with the control group.

Rev. chil. nutr ; 49(3)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388613


RESUMEN Introducción: la enfermedad de hígado graso no alcohólico (EHGNA) se caracteriza por la acumulación de gotas lipídicas (GL) y sobre expresión de la proteína de GL Perilipina 1 (PLIN1) en los hepatocitos. En su patogénesis y progresión participan NF-ĸB, caspasa-1 y citoquinas proinflamatorias como IL-1β. La medicina popular del norte de Chile utiliza la planta Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) contra enfermedades. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto de un extracto hidroalcohólico de lampaya (EHL) sobre la expresión de marcadores inflamatorios y proteínas asociadas a las GL en hepatocitos tratados con ácidos grasos. Métodos: se incubó hepatocitos HepG2 con 0,66 mM de ácido oleico (AO) y 0,33 mM de ácido palmítico (AP) por 24 o 48 horas en presencia o no de EHL. Se evaluó la expresión proteica de NF-ĸB, PLIN1 y caspasa-1 por Western blot y la expresión de ARNm de IL-1β por qPCR. Resultados: los hepatocitos tratados por 48 h con AO/AP mostraron un aumento en la expresión de IL-1β que fue revertido por la co-incubación con EHL. Conclusión: estos antecedentes aportan nueva evidencia respecto a la actividad biológica del EHL en un modelo de alteraciones metabólicas e inflamatorias, asociadas a la EHGNA, inducidas por AO/AP en hepatocitos humanos.

ABSTRACT Introduction: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by the accumulation of lipid droplets (LD) and overexpression of the LD-associated protein Perilipin 1 (PLIN1). NF-ĸB, caspase-1 and proinflammatory cytokine such as IL-1β participate in the pathogenesis and progression of NAFLD. Traditional medicine in northern Chile uses the plant Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) against diseases. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a hydroalcoholic extract of lampaya (HEL) on the expression of inflammatory markers and LD-associated proteins in hepatocytes treated with fatty acids. Methods: HepG2 hepatocytes were incubated with 0.66 mM oleic acid (OA) and 0.33 mM palmitic acid (PA) for 24 or 48 h in the presence or not of HEL. The protein expression of NF-ĸB, PLIN1 and caspase-1 was evaluated by Western blot while the mRNA expression of IL-1β was assessed by qPCR. Results: hepatocytes treated for 48 h with OA/AP showed an increase in IL-1β expression that was reversed by co-incubation with HEL. Conclusion: These antecedents provide new evidence regarding the biological activity of HEL in a model of metabolic and inflammatory alterations, associated with NAFLD, induced by OA/PA in human hepatocytes.

Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 24-24, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396564


Under LPS-stimulus, platelets can activate macrophagesby a cell-to-cell contact or through cytokine degranulation. Rebound effects of anti-thrombotic agents, such as prostanoids and COX inhibitors can lead to thrombosis, infarct, and stroke. Aspirin has been prescribed for decades due to its powerful antiplatelet action, but it is also related to paradoxical effects such as withdrawal syndrome peaks, resistance, and thrombogenesis. Ultra-diluted aspirin can also produce the same effect in one hour, regardless of Cox-2, by still unknown pathways. Antithrombotic effects of aspirin are also reversed by its high dilutions.Aims: This study aims to characterize the effects of aspirin 15cH on macrophages challenged with LPS, a Cox-2 activator.Methodology: RAW 264.7 macrophages were sown in 24 wells plates using R10medium, boosted with 1µg/ml LPS,and treated with aspirin 15 cH and controls. The activity was evaluated after 24 hours. Supernatants were evaluated for cytokines, nitric oxide, and dielectric oscillations, through solvatochromic dyes (Cartwright's method).Results and discussion: macrophage spreading was increased by aspirin 15 cH, anLPS-like effect. Paradoxically, a significant reduction of this effect was noted when both, LPS and aspirin 15 cH, were added. Succussed water reversed the effect of LPS, leading to TNF (p<0.05) production close to baseline levels. Also, the single treatment with succussed water inhibited IL-10 production (p<0.05), but aspirin 200 µg/mL (positive control) highly increased it (p<0.0001), showing the validity of the model. Nitric oxide production was strengthened by LPS presence (p<0.0001), as expected, but partially downregulated after treatment with aspirin 200 µg/mL, water and succussed water. A pilot study with solvatochromic dyes showed no significant difference among treatments.Conclusion: The main data suggest that aspirin 15 cH increases macrophage activity but presents a paradoxal effect when mixed with LPS. On the other hand, succussed water itself has modulatory effects on macrophages.

Preparation Scales , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Macrophage Activation
Acta méd. peru ; 39(2): 151-165, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403002


RESUMEN El transductor de señal Janus-Kinasa y la vía de activación de la transcripción conocida como JAK/STAT es una ruta de señalización principal para la transducción de información en muchas citocinas inflamatorias implicadas durante la sepsis. Se ha demostrado que la vía JAK/STAT está fuertemente relacionada con el fallo multiorgánico, además que muchas citocinas pueden ejercer sus efectos biológicos a través de esta ruta. En los últimos años, se ha logrado un progreso significativo en la comprensión de las funciones de este complejo, sin embargo, su rol en la sepsis como objetivo terapéutico permanece en experimentación. En esta revisión se describen las funciones específicas de la vía JAK/STAT, su rol en la sepsis y presentamos un enfoque traslacional respecto a la perspectiva terapéutica para inhibir esta ruta de señalización durante la sepsis y su interacción con enfermedades inflamatorias como la COVID-19.

ABSTRACT The Janus-Kinase signal transducer and the transcription activation pathway known as JAK /STAT is a major signaling pathway for the transduction of information in many inflammatory cytokines involved during sepsis. The JAK /STAT pathway has been shown to be strongly related to multiorgan failure, and many cytokines can exert their biological effects through this pathway. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in understanding functions of this complex; however, its role in sepsis as a therapeutic target remains under experimentation. This review describes the specific functions of the JAK /STAT pathway, its role in sepsis, and presents a translational approach to the therapeutic perspective aiming to inhibit this signaling pathway during sepsis and its interaction with inflammatory diseases such as COVID-19.

Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(2): 200-206, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376527


Abstract Introduction: Drug-eluting stents (DES) coated with rapamycin or paclitaxel as antiproliferative substances significantly reduced the incidence of clinical restenosis and had fewer side effects after percutaneous coronary intervention. However, DES coated with rapamycin or paclitaxel still cause restenosis due to abnormal tissue growth which remained a therapeutic problem, particularly in certain subgroups, possibly due to drug concentrations. This study examined the impact of different concentrations of rapamycin and paclitaxel on cytokine, cell viability and proliferation in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC)-derived foam cells. Methods: The foam cell model was established in vitro by incubating HASMC with 20 µg/mL oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) for 48 hours. Subsequently, foam cells were treated with different concentrations (0.01 µg/mL, 0.1 µg/mL, 0.5 µg/mL, 1 µg/mL, 5 µg/mL and 10 µg/mL) of rapamycin or paclitaxel for 48 hours, to measure cytokine, cell viability and proliferation by ELISA and MTT, respectively. Finally, viability and proliferation were measured by MTT after the foam cells were treated with 1 µg/mL rapamycin or paclitaxel combined with cytokine antibody for 48 hours. Results: After incubation of HASMC with ox-LDL, the ratios of cholesterol ester and total cholesterol increased significantly (55.29%) (P<0.01). Lipid staining with Oil Red O showed many lipid vacuoles and red dye particles in the cells. Meanwhile, cell viability and proliferation significantly increased compared with the control. This indicated that HASMC had been transformed into foam cells (P<0.01) while rapamycin or paclitaxel concentrations ≥0.1 µg/mL can significantly decrease the foam cell proliferation (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and 1 µg/mL of rapamycin or paclitaxel appeared the most effective concentration. As for cytokines, rapamycin or paclitaxel concentrations ≥1 ug/mL could significantly increase the level of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 (P<0.05 or P<0.01), which was enhanced with the increase of drug concentration. However, rapamycin or paclitaxel concentrations ≥1 µg/mL could significantly reduce the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-35 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) (P<0.05 or P<0.01), which decreased with the increase of drug concentration. In addition, rapamycin or paclitaxel combined with anti-IL-1β, anti-IL-6, anti- TNF-α or anti-IL-35 had no significant effect on foam cell proliferation compared to the drug alone. However, rapamycin or paclitaxel combined with anti-IL-10 or anti-TGF-β can significantly enhance foam cell proliferation (P<0.01). In addition, there was no difference in the effects of the same concentrations of rapamycin and paclitaxel on foam cells. Conclusion: Although rapamycin or paclitaxel can reduce foam cell proliferation, too high or too low concentrations could decrease effectiveness. In particular, a high dose can induce foam cells to increase inflammatory cytokines secretion, reduce anti-inflammatory cytokines secretion, and thus affect the inhibiting proliferation. For rapamycin- and paclitaxel-eluting stents, this conclusion may explain the clinical observation of in-stent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. DES coated with an appropriate concentration of rapamycin or paclitaxel may, at least to some extent, contribute significantly to reducing incidence of late in-stent restenosis.

Odovtos (En línea) ; 24(1)abr. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1386576


Abstract Periodontitis is a low-grade inflammatory disease caused by a subgingival dysbiotic microbiota. Multiple studies have determined the higher prevalence of tooth loss and poor oral hygiene in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the periodontal diagnosis, periodontal bacteria or mediators has not been measured to date. Aim: To determine the periodontal status, the pro-inflammatory mediators, Porphyromonas gingivalis load, and Apoliporpotein E (ApoE) in patients with AD. A complete dental examination was performed on 30 patients, and cognitive status was determined by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Subgingival microbiota and GCF samples were then taken from all patients from the deepest sites. Total DNA was isolated from the microbiota samples for the quantification of the 16S ribosomal subunit. Pro-inflammatory mediators and ApoE were quantified from the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Patients with AD had periodontitis stage III-IV in 80%, a higher concentration of pro-inflammatory and ApoE mediators, and a higher P. gingivalis load compared to healthy subjects. The pro-inflammatory mediators, P. gingivalis load had a negative correlation with the MoCA test scores. Finally, a ROC curve was performed to assess the specificity and sensitivity of ApoE levels, detecting an area of 84.9%. In AD patients, we found a more severe periodontitis, a higher levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, and higher bacterial load. In addition, there is an increase in ApoE that allows to clearly determine patients with health, periodontitis and periodontitis and AD.

Resumen La periodontitis es una enfermedad crónica no transmisible que se caracteriza por generar una inflamación sistémica de bajo grado causada por una microbiota disbiótica subgingival. Múltiples estudios han determinado la mayor prevalencia de pérdida de dientes y mala higiene bucal en pacientes con enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA). Sin embargo, el diagnóstico periodontal, bacterias periodontales o mediadores pro-inflamatorio no se ha medido hasta la fecha. Determinar el estado periodontal, los mediadores pro-inflamatorios, la carga de Porphyromonas gingivalis y la apoliporpoteína E (ApoE) en pacientes con EA. Se realizó un examen odontológico completo en 30 pacientes y el estado cognitivo se determinó mediante la Evaluación Cognitiva de Montreal (MoCA). Luego, se tomaron muestras de microbiota subgingival y FCG de todos los pacientes de los sitios más profundos. Se aisló el DNA total de las muestras de microbiota para la cuantificación de la subunidad ribosómica 16S. Los mediadores pro-inflamatorios y la ApoE se cuantificaron a partir del líquido crevicular gingival (GCF). Los pacientes con EA tenían periodontitis en estadio III-IV en 80%, una mayor concentración de mediadores pro-inflamatorios y ApoE, y una mayor carga de P. gingivalis en comparación con los sujetos sanos. Los mediadores pro-inflamatorios y la carga de P. gingivalis tuvieron una correlación negativa con las puntuaciones de la prueba MoCA. Finalmente, se realizó una curva ROC para evaluar la especificidad y sensibilidad de los niveles de ApoE, detectando un área del 84,9%. En los pacientes con EA encontramos una periodontitis más severa, mayores niveles de mediadores pro-inflamatorios y mayor carga bacteriana. Además, un aumento de ApoE que permite determinar claramente a los pacientes con salud, periodontitis y periodontitis y EA.

Humans , Biomarkers/analysis , Gingival Crevicular Fluid , Alzheimer Disease , Chronic Periodontitis
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408681


Introducción: La relación entre las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles y los trastornos mentales, como ansiedad y depresión, ocurren de modo bidireccional, es decir, que la presencia de una condición predispone el desarrollo de la otra. Objetivo: Indagar en la literatura revisada acerca de los aspectos relacionados con los estados depresivos en pacientes con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles de mayor impacto en salud pública. Métodos: Investigación tipo documental por revisión bibliográfica sistemática de estudios sobre los estados depresivos y el padecimiento de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, publicados en revistas médicas de acceso abierto en español o inglés, que contribuyan a la comprensión del por qué la comorbilidad de estas enfermedades. Conclusiones: Un diagnóstico y control deficiente de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles y de los estados depresivos, pueden llevar a la falta de adherencia al tratamiento, lo que aumenta la morbimortalidad de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. En los estados depresivos y las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles se comparten mecanismos biológicos de actividad inmunológica que, en un complejo equilibrio, determinado por la activación de genes específicos, en conjunto contribuyen con la aparición de estados depresivos y agravamiento de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. Es necesaria una visión integral a nivel diagnóstico y de control que permitan en conjunto decidir el tratamiento más adecuado según las características del paciente, para proceder con la derivación oportuna y apropiada en cada caso(AU)

Introduction: The relationship between chronic noncommunicable diseases and mental disorders, such as anxiety and depression, occur in a bidirectional way, that is, the presence of one condition predisposes the development of the other. Objective: To investigate, in the literature reviewed, about the aspects related to depressive states in patients with chronic noncommunicable diseases of major impact on public health. Methods: Documental research that consisted in the systematic literature review of studies about depressive states and being affected by chronic noncommunicable diseases, published in open access medical journals in Spanish or English and that contribute to the understanding the comorbidity of these conditions. Conclusions: Poor diagnosis and control of chronic noncommunicable diseases and depressive states can lead to lack of adherence to treatment, which increases the morbimortality of chronic noncommunicable diseases. Depressive states and chronic noncommunicable diseases share biological mechanisms of immune activity that, in a complex balance, determined by the activation of specific genes, together contribute to the onset of depressive states and aggravation of chronic noncommunicable diseases. It is necessary to have a comprehensive vision at the diagnostic and control levels that allows to decide together the most adequate treatment according to the patient's characteristics, in order to proceed with the opportune and appropriate referral in each case(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Cytokines , Depression/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Inflammation/diagnosis
Acta méd. costarric ; 64(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1402989


Resumen Objetivo: Describir la asociación de las variantes en los genes que codifican por citocinas participantes en el proceso inflamatorio con la susceptibilidad y la gravedad clínica de las enfermedades. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio documental con revisión de literatura científica encontrada en las siguientes bases de datos: Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scielo, PLOS, Hinari, Redalyc, Dialnet, Taylor, ProQuest. Se revisaron 84 referencias relacionadas con artículos de investigación, revisiones sistemáticas y metaanálisis con los términos ''variante'', ''variante en un solo nucléotido'', ''polimorfismo de nucleótido único'', ''citocinas proinflamatorias'', ''citocinas antiinflamatorias'', ''interleucinas'', ''factor de necrosis tumoral'', ''susceptibilidad genética'', ''enfermedades'' y ''patologías''. Resultados: La evidencia señala que las variantes en un solo nucleótido se detectan principalmente en regiones promotoras de genes que codifican para citocinas reguladoras de procesos inflamatorios, como son: IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, IL-18, IL-22 y el factor de necrosis tumoral. Conclusiones: La expresión y la producción diferencial de estas citocinas desempeñan un papel relevante en la patogenia y la predisposición a sufrir enfermedades, especialmente metabólicas, malignas, autoinmunes e infecciosas. Se mostró también un efecto diferencial de las variantes según las características étnicas, lo que resulta ser una herramienta eficaz en la medicina preventiva.

Abstract Aim: To describe the association of variations in cytokine genes that participate in the inflammatory process with the susceptibility and clinical severity of diseases. Methods: A documentary study was carried out with a review of the scientific literature of the database: Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scielo, PLOS, Hinari, Redalyc, Dialnet, Taylor, ProQuest. Eighty-four references were reviewed that included research articles, systematic reviews and meta-analyzes, using the terms ''Variants'', ''Single Nucleotide Variation'', ''Proinflammatory cytokines'', ''Anti-inflammatory cytokines'', ''Interleukins'', ''Tumor Necrosis Factor'', ''genetic susceptibility'', ''diseases'', pathologies''. Results: The evidence indicates that Single Nucleotide Variants are detected mainly in promoter regions of genes that code for cytokines that regulate inflammatory processes such as: IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL -17, IL-18, IL-22 and tumoral necrosis factor. Conclusions: The expression and differential production of these cytokines play a role in the pathogenesis and predisposition to diseases, especially metabolic, malignant, autoimmune, and infectious. A differential effect of variants according to ethnic characteristics is also observed, which turns out to be an effective tool to be used in preventive medicine.

Cytokines/analysis , Interleukins , Lymphotoxin-alpha , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Braz. dent. j ; 33(1): 41-56, jan.-fev. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1364481


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the subcutaneous connective tissue response of isogenic mice exposed to tricalcium silicate (Biodentine) and aggregated mineral trioxide (ProRoot MTA). A total of 120 mice were divided into 4 groups in 3 different experimental periods (7, 21 and 63 days): Biodentine; Pro-Root MTA; zinc oxide-eugenol and; Negative control - Sham. After the experimental periods microscopic descriptive, semi-quantitative and quantitative analysis of the inflammatory process were analyzed on H&E sections and evaluation of the gene expression of Il10, Infg, Il6, Il1r1 and Tnf (qRT-PCR) were performed. The data obtained were analyzed using the chi-square test and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Bonferroni post-test (5% significance level). Results: In the microscopic analysis, a slight inflammatory infiltrate was observed, with a predominance of sparse macrophages and polymorphonuclear cells, slight tissue fibrosis, regular fibrous capsule and with dystrophic calcifications, in all groups that received the materials (Biodentine and Pro-Root MTA). In parallel, all materials modulated the gene expression of the different cytokines and receptors evaluated. Conclusion: Pro-Root MTA and Biodentine showed a tissue compatibility, mediated inflammation, with increased fibrous tissue and production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a resposta do tecido conjuntivo subcutâneo de camundongos isogênicos expostos à Biodentine™ e ao Trióxido Mineral Agregado (MTA). Métodos: Um total de 120 camundongos foram divididos em 4 grupos e 3 períodos experimentais diferentes (7, 21 e 63 dias): Biodentine™ (Septodont, Saint Maur des Fosses, França); Pro-Root MTA (Dentsplay, Tulsa, EUA); óxido de zinco eugenol (Biodinâmica Química e Farmacêutica LTDA., Ibiporã, PR - Brasil); e controle negativo - Sham. Após os períodos experimentais, análises microscópicas descritivas, semiquantitativas e quantitativas do processo inflamatório foram analisadas nos cortes de H&E e ainda, foi realizada a avaliação da expressão gênica de Il10, Infg, Il6, Il1r1 e Tnf (qRT-PCR). Os dados obtidos foram analisados por meio do teste do qui-quadrado e da análise de variância (ANOVA) two-way, seguido do pós-teste de Bonferroni (nível de significância de 5%). Resultados: Na análise microscópica observou-se discreto infiltrado inflamatório, com predomínio de macrófagos esparsos e polimorfonucleares, leve fibrose tecidual, cápsula fibrosa regular e com calcificações distróficas, em todos os grupos que receberam os materiais (Biodentine ™ e Pro-Root MTA). Paralelamente, todos os materiais modulam a expressão gênica das diferentes citocinas e receptores avaliados. Conclusão: Pro-Root MTA e Biodentine™ mostraram compatibilidade tecidual, inflamação mediada, com aumento do tecido fibroso e produção de citocinas pró- e antiinflamatórias.

Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(1): 35-47, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365526


Abstract Introduction: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterised by hyperinflammatory state, systemic coagulopathies, and multiorgan involvement, especially acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We here describe our preliminary clinical experience with COVID-19 patients treated via an early initiation of extracorporeal blood purification combined with systemic heparinisation and respiratory support. Methods: Fifteen patients were included; several biomarkers associated with COVID-19 severity were monitored. Personalised treatment was tailored according to the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumour necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein (CRP), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, thrombocyte counts, D-dimers, and fibrinogen. Treatment consisted of respiratory support, extracorporeal blood purification using the AN69ST (oXiris®) hemofilter, and 300 U/kg heparin to maintain activation clotting time ≥ 180 seconds. Results: Ten patients presented with severe to critical disease (dyspnoea, hypoxia, respiratory rate > 30/min, peripheral oxygen saturation < 90%, or > 50% lung involvement on X-ray imaging). The median intensive care unit length of stay was 9.3 days (interquartile range 5.3-10.1); two patients developed ARDS and died after 5 and 26 days. Clinical improvement was associated with normalisation (increase) of thrombocytes and white blood cells, stable levels of IL-6 (< 50 ng/mL), and a decrease of CRP and fibrinogen. Conclusion: Continuous monitoring of COVID-19 severity biomarkers and radiological imaging is crucial to assess disease progression, uncontrolled inflammation, and to avert irreversible multiorgan failure. The combination of systemic heparin anticoagulation regimens and extracorporeal blood purification using cytokine-adsorbing hemofilters may reduce hyperinflammation, prevent coagulopathy, and support clinical recovery.