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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251336, 2024. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355879

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bulbine natalensis and Chorophytum comosum are potential medicinal source for the treatment of cancers. Chronic myeloid leukaemia is a hematopoietic stem cells disorder treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors but often cause recurrence of the leukaemia after cessation of therapy, hence require alternative treatment. This study determines the anti-cancer effect of leaf, root and bulb methanolic and aqueous extracts of B. natalensis and C. comosum in chronic human myelogenous leukaemia (K562) cell line by MTT, Hoechst bis-benzimide nuclear and annexin V stain assays. The root methanolic extract of B. natalensis and C. comosum showed a high cytotoxicity of 8.6% and 16.7% respectively on the K562 cell line at 1,000 μg/ml concentration. Morphological loss of cell membrane integrity causing degradation of the cell and fragmentation were observed in the root methanolic extract of both plants. A high apoptosis (p < 0.0001) was induced in the K562 cells by both leaf and root extracts of the C. comosum compared to the B. natalensis. This study shows both plants possess apoptotic effect against in vitro myelogenous leukaemia which contributes to the overall anti-cancer properties of B. natalensis and C. comosum to justify future therapeutic applications against chronic myelogenous leukaemia blood cancer.


Resumo Bulbine natalensis Baker e Chorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacques são potenciais fontes medicinais para o tratamento de cânceres. A Leucemia Mieloide Crônica (LMC) é um distúrbio das células-tronco hematopoiéticas que é tratado com inibidores da tirosina quinase, mas frequentemente, causa recorrência da leucemia após a interrupção da terapia, portanto, requer um tratamento alternativo. Este estudo determinou o efeito anticancerígeno de extratos metanólicos e aquosos de folha, raiz e bulbo de B. natalensis e C. comosum na linhagem celular de leucemia mieloide humana crônica (K562) por ensaios de MTT, Hoechst bis-benzimida nuclear e anexina V. O extrato metanólico da raiz de B. natalensis e C. comosum apresentou alta citotoxidade de 8,6% e 16,7% respectivamente, na linhagem celular K562 com a concentração de 1,000 μg / ml. Perda morfológica da integridade da membrana celular causando degradação dos núcleos, citoplasma e encolhimento celular foi observada no extrato metanólico da raiz de ambas as plantas. Uma alta apoptose (p <0,0001) foi induzida nas células K562 por extratos de folhas e raízes de C. comosum em comparação com B. natalensis. Este estudo mostrou que ambas as plantas possuem efeito apoptótico contra leucemia mieloide in vitro que contribui para as propriedades anticâncer gerais de B. natalensis e C. comosum para justificar futuras aplicações terapêuticas contra câncer de sangue de LMC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Xanthorrhoeaceae , Apoptosis , K562 Cells
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251289, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355889

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present research was made to determine the micronuclei and cytotoxic capacity of the antidepressant venlafaxine in an in vivo acute and subchronic assays in mouse. In the first study, we administered once 5, 50, and 250 mg/kg of the drug, and included a negative and a daunorubicin treated group. Observations were daily made during four days. The subchronic assay lasted 5 weeks with daily administration of venlafaxine (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg) plus a negative and an imipramine administered groups. Observations were made each week. In the first assay results showed no micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE) increase, except with the high dose at 72 h. The strongest cytotoxic effect was found with 250 mg/kg at 72 h (a 51% cytotoxic effect in comparison with the mean control level). In the subchronic assay no MNPE increase was found; however, with the highest dose a significant increase of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes was observed in the last three weeks (a mean of 51% respect to the mean control value). A cytotoxic effect with the two high doses in the last two weeks was observed (a polychromatic erythrocyte mean decrease of 52% respect to the mean control value). Results suggest caution with venlafaxine.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi feita para determinar a capacidade micronuclei e citotóxica do antidepressivo venlafaxina em ensaios agudos e subcrônicos in vivo em camundongos. No primeiro estudo, administramos uma vez 5, 50 e 250 mg/kg do medicamento e incluímos um grupo negativo e um grupo tratado com daunorubicina. As observações foram feitas diariamente durante quatro dias. O ensaio subcrônico durou cinco semanas com administração diária de venlafaxina (1, 5, e 10 mg/kg) mais um grupo negativo e um grupo administrado de imipramina. As observações foram feitas a cada semana. No primeiro ensaio, os resultados não mostraram aumento de eritrócitos policromáticos micronucleados (MNPE), exceto com a dose elevada a 72 h. O efeito citotóxico mais forte foi encontrado com 250 mg/kg a 72 h (um efeito citotóxico de 51% em comparação com o nível médio de controle). No ensaio subcrônico não foi encontrado aumento de MNPE; entretanto, com a dose mais alta, um aumento significativo de eritrócitos normocromáticos micronucleados foi observado nas últimas três semanas (média de 51% em relação ao valor médio de controle). Foi observado um efeito citotóxico com as duas altas doses nas últimas duas semanas (uma diminuição média de 52% em relação ao valor médio de controle dos eritrócitos policromáticos). Os resultados sugerem cautela com a venlafaxina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , DNA Damage , Antineoplastic Agents , Micronucleus Tests , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Erythrocytes , Venlafaxine Hydrochloride/toxicity
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240118, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278559

ABSTRACT

Abstract For many centuries human populations have been suffering and trying to fight with disease-bearing mosquitoes. Emerging and reemerging diseases such as Dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya affect billions of people around the world and recently has been appealing to control with chemical pesticides. Malathion (MT) is one of the main pesticides used against mosquitoes, the vectors of these diseases. This study aimed to assess cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of the malathion for the bioindicator Allium cepa L. using a multivariate and integrative approach. Moreover, an appendix table was compiled with all available literature of insecticides assessed by the Allium cepa system to support our discussion. Exposures during 48h to 0.5 mg mL-1 and 1.0 mg mL-1 MT were compared to the negative control (distilled water) and positive control (MMS solution at 10 mg L-1). The presence of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequency, and mitotic index abnormalities was evaluated. Anaphase bridges were the alterations with higher incidence and presented a significantly elevated rate in the concentration of 0.5 mg mL-1, including when compared to the positive control. The integrative discriminant analysis summarizes that MT in assessed concentrations presented effects like the positive control, corroborating its potential of toxicity to DNA. Therefore, it is concluded that MT in its pure composition and in realistic concentrations used, has genotoxic potential in the biological assessment of A. cepa cells. The multivariate integrative analysis was fundamental to show a whole response of all data, providing a global view of the effect of MT on DNA.


Resumo Por muitos séculos, as populações humanas sofrem e tentam combater os mosquitos transmissores de doenças. Doenças emergentes e reemergentes como Dengue, Zika e Chikungunya afetam bilhões de pessoas em todo o mundo e, recentemente, vem apelando ao controle com pesticidas químicos. O Malation (MT) é um dos principais pesticidas usados ​​contra mosquitos, vetores dessas doenças. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a citotoxicidade e a mutagenicidade do MT para o bioindicador Allium cepa L. usando uma abordagem multivariada e integrativa. Além disso, uma tabela suplementar foi compilada com toda a literatura disponível de inseticidas avaliada pelo sistema Allium cepa para apoiar nossa discussão. Exposições ao MT durante 48h a 0,5 mg mL-1 e 1,0 mg mL-1 foram comparadas a um controle negativo (água destilada) e um controle positivo (10 mg L-1 de MMS). Foram avaliadas a presença de aberrações cromossômicas, frequência de micronúcleos e anormalidades no índice mitótico. As pontes anafásicas foram as alterações com maior incidência e apresentaram uma taxa significativamente elevada na concentração de 0,5 mg mL-1, inclusive quando comparadas ao controle positivo. A análise discriminante integrativa resume que o MT nas concentrações avaliadas apresentou efeitos semelhantes ao controle positivo, corroborando seu potencial de toxicidade para o DNA. Portanto, conclui-se que o MT, em sua composição pura e nas concentrações realistas utilizadas, possui potencial genotóxico na avaliação biológica de células de A. cepa. A análise integrativa multivariada foi fundamental para mostrar uma resposta completa de todos os dados, fornecendo uma visão global do efeito da MT no DNA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection , Insecticides/toxicity , DNA Damage , Chromosome Aberrations , Plant Roots , Onions , Mosquito Vectors , Malathion/toxicity , Mitotic Index
4.
Braz. dent. j ; 33(2): 33-43, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1374625

ABSTRACT

Abstract An endodontic material must be minimally harmful to stem cells since they are essential, thanks to their capacity for cell proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation. For this reason, in this in vitro study, the cell viability and the expression of genes involved in cell plasticity and differentiation were investigated in stem cells recovered from human dental pulp (hDPSCs) that were in contact with four endodontic materials (Endofill, MTA, Pulp Canal Sealer, and Sealer 26). The viability of HDPSCs was assessed by MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays. PCR evaluated cellular plasticity by determining the CD34, CD45, Nestin, CD105, Nanog, and OCT4 expressions. The effect on cell differentiation was determined by RT-PCR expression of the RUNX2, ALP, OC/BGLAP, and DMP1 genes. The data were analyzed using ANOVA with Bonferroni correction (p <0.05). Pulp Canal Sealer and Endofill decreased cell viability after 48 hours (p <0.001). MTA and Sealer 26 did not disrupt cell viability (p> 0.05). When cultivated in the presence of MTA and Sealer 26, hDPSCs expressed Nestin, CD105, NANOG, and OCT-4 and did not express CD34 and CD45. MTA and Sealer 26 interfered with DMP1, OC/BGLAP and RUNX2 expressions (p <0.05) but did not change ALP gene expression (p> 0.05). MTA and Sealer 26 showed biological compatibility in the presence of hDPSCs.


Resumo Um material endodôntico deve ser minimamente prejudicial às células-tronco, uma vez que essas células são extremamente importantes, devido à sua capacidade de proliferação, autorrenovação e diferenciação celular. Por esse motivo, a viabilidade celular e a expressão de genes envolvidos na plasticidade e diferenciação celular foram investigadas em células-tronco recuperadas de polpa dentária humana (HDPSCs) que estiveram em contato com quatro materiais endodônticos (Endofill, MTA, Pulp Canal Sealer e Sealer 26). A viabilidade das HDPSCs foi avaliada pelos ensaios MTT e de exclusão de azul de tripano. A plasticidade celular foi avaliada pela determinação das expressões dos genes CD34, CD45, Nestin, CD105, Nanog e OCT4 por PCR. O efeito na diferenciação celular foi determinado pela expressão dos genes RUNX2, ALP, OC/BGLAP e DMP1 por RT-PCR. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA com correção de Bonferroni (p <0,05). Em comparação com o controle, Pulp Canal Sealer e Endofill diminuíram a viabilidade celular após 48 horas (p <0,001). MTA e Sealer 26 não interromperam a viabilidade celular (p> 0,05). Quando cultivado na presença de MTA e Sealer 26, as HDPSCs expressaram Nestin, CD105, NANOG e OCT-4 e não expressaram CD34 e CD45. MTA e Sealer 26 interferiram nas expressões de DMP1, OC / BGLAP e RUNX2 (p <0,05), mas não alteraram a expressão do gene ALP (p> 0,05). Sendo assim, MTA e Sealer 26 demonstraram compatibilidade biológica na presença de HDPSCs.

5.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(1): 1-9, 2022-01-09. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363740

ABSTRACT

Background: Therapeutic advances against cancer have not been as successful as expected and have adverse effects that patients rarely tolerate. A study in Peru identified favorable anticancer effects of Annona muricata (AM), a medicinal plant known as soursop, in C-678 mouse gastric adenocarcinoma. However, to date, no results have been reported in human cells. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the cytotoxic effect of AM extract against a human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (AGS). Methodology: Experimental in vitro analytical study using a hydroalcoholic extract of AM (AMOH) leaves collected in the Amazonas. Chemical functional groups were identified by phytochemical screening. To obtain the cytotoxic effect, different dilutions of extract were added to the plates containing the cell lines and the data were extrapolated to GraphPad employing an observation card. Finally, the cytotoxic effect was expressed as the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) and nonlinear regression analysis was performed to determine the growth inhibition of cancer cells. Results: Phytochemical screening showed the presence of reducing carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, tannins, triterpenes, steroids, saponins, flavonoids, proteins, cardiac glycosides, and anthocyanins. A calibration curve with gallic acid was used to determine the total phenol content and, quercetin was used to identify the flavonoid content. The AGS cell line showed cytotoxic activity with AMOH with an IC50 at 24 hours of 45.81 µg/mL and 19.05 µg/mL at 48 hours. Conclusion: Several chemical functional groups of AM were identified. In addition, the AMOH showed a cytotoxic effect against the AGS cell line


Antecedente: Los avances terapéuticos frente al cáncer no han tenido el éxito esperado y presentan efectos adversos pocas veces tolerados por el paciente. Un estudio en Perú identificó el efecto anticancerígeno de la Annona muricata (AM), planta medicinal conocida como guanábana, en adenocarcinoma gástrico de ratón C-678 con resultados favorables, sin embargo, no se ha encontrado evidencia previa en células humanas. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto citotóxico del extracto de AM frente a la línea celular de adenocarcinoma gástrico humano (AGS). Materiales y métodos: Estudio experimental in vitro tipo analítico con extracto hidroalcohólico de hojas de AM (AMOH) recolectadas en Amazonas. Mediante screening fitoquímico se identificaron los grupos funcionales químicos. Para obtener el efecto citotóxico, se añadieron diferentes diluciones de extracto a las placas que contienen las líneas celulares y mediante una ficha de observación los datos fueron extrapolados a GraphPad. Finalmente se expresó como la concentración inhibitoria media máxima (IC50) y se hizo un análisis de regresión no lineal con la finalidad de encontrar la cantidad de inhibición de crecimiento de células oncológicas. Resultados: En el screening fitoquímico se pudo identificar la presencia de carbohidratos reductores, alcaloides, fenoles, taninos, tritérpenos y esteroides, saponinas, flavonoides, proteínas, glicósidos cardiotónicos y antocianinas. Para identificar el contenido total de fenoles se utilizó la curva de calibración con ácido gálico el cual nos comprobó la presencia de una buena cantidad de estos metabolitos. Adicionalmente se utilizó quercetina para identificar el contenido de flavonoides, obteniendo resultados favorables ya que se hizo evidente su presencia. La línea celular AGS mostró una actividad citotóxica frente al AMOH con un IC50 a las 24 horas de 45.81ug/mL y 19.05ug/mL a las 48 horas. Conclusión: Se identifica a los grupos funcionales de la AM. Además, AMOH demostró un efecto citotóxico contra la línea celular AGS


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Stomach , Neoplasms
6.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 65: e22200784, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364455

ABSTRACT

Abstract Nanoscale biomaterials are commonly used in a wide range of biomedical applications such as bone graft substitutes, gene delivery systems, and biologically active agents. On the other hand, the cytotoxic potential of these particles hasn't yet been studied comprehensively to understand whether or not they exert any negative impact on the cellular structures. Here, we undertook the synthesis of beta-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP) and biphasic tricalcium phosphate (BCP) nanoparticles (NPs) and determine their concentration-dependent toxic effects in human fetal osteoblastic (hFOB 1.19) cell line. Firstly, BCP and β-TCP were synthesized using a water-based precipitation technique and characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The cytological effects of β-TCP and BCP at different concentrations (0-640 ppm) were evaluated by using 3- (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. The total oxidative status (TOS) parameter was used for investigating oxidative stress potentials of the NPs. In addition, the study assessed the DNA damage product 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-Oxo-dG) level in hFOB 1.19 cell cultures. The results indicated that the β-TCP (above 320 ppm) and BCP (above 80 ppm) NPs exhibited cytotoxicity effects on high concentrations. It was also observed that the oxidative stress increased relatively as the concentrations of NPs increased, aligning with the cytotoxicity results. However, the NPs concentrations of 160 ppm and above increased the level of 8-OH-dG. Consequently, there is a need for more systematic in vivo and in vitro approaches to the toxic effects of both nanoparticles.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243628, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249260

ABSTRACT

Abstract Flavoring additives are of great technological importance for the food industry. However, there is little information regarding the toxicological properties of these micro-ingredients, especially at the cellular level. The present study used meristematic root cells of Allium cepa L. to evaluate the toxicity of a liquid, aroma and flavor synthetic chocolate additive, manufactured and widely marketed throughout Brazil and exported to other countries in South America. The flavoring concentrations evaluated were 100.00; 50.00; 25.00; 1.00; 0.50 and 0.25 µL/L, where the highest concentration established was one-hundred times lower than that commercially suggested for use. The concentration 100 µL/L substantially reduced cell division of meristems within 24- and 48-hours exposure. Concentrations from 100.00 to 0.50 µL/L resulted in a significant number of prophases to the detriment of the other phases of cell division, indicating an aneugenic activity, and induced a significant number of cellular changes, with emphasis on micronuclei, nuclear buds and chromosomal breaks. Under the established analysis conditions, with the exception of concentration 0.25 µL/L, the flavoring of chocolate caused cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity to root meristems.


Resumo Os aditivos aromatizantes têm grande importância tecnológica para a indústria de alimentos. Contudo, poucas são as informações quanto as propriedades toxicológicas desses microingredientes, especialmente, em nível celular. No presente estudo avaliou-se, sobre as células meristemáticas de raízes de Allium cepa L., a toxicidade de um aditivo sintético líquido de aroma e sabor de chocolate, fabricado e amplamente comercializado em todo Brasil, e exportado para outros países da América do Sul. As concentrações de aromatizante avaliadas foram 100,00; 50,00; 25,00; 1,00; 0,50 e 0,25 µL/L, onde a maior concentração estabelecida foi cem vezes menor que a sugerida comercialmente para uso. Com base na interpretação dos resultados, a concentração 100 µL/L reduziu substancialmente a divisão celular dos meristemas nas 24 e 48 horas de exposição. As concentrações 100,00 a 0,50 µL/L demonstraram número significativo de prófases em detrimento as outras fases da divisão celular, indicando ação aneugênica, e induziram número significativo de alterações celulares, com ênfase a micronúcleos, broto nucleares e quebras cromossômicas. Nas condições de análises estabelecidas, com exceção a concentração 0,25 µL/L, o aromatizante de chocolate causou citotoxicidade, genotoxicidade e mutagenicidade aos meristemas radiculares.


Subject(s)
Chocolate , Mutagens/toxicity , DNA Damage , Brazil , Plant Roots , Onions , Food Additives
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55: e0373, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376351

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Aedes aegypti is currently controlled with synthetic larvicides; however, mosquitoes have become highly resistant to these larvicides and difficult to eradicate. Studies have shown that insecticides derived from fungal extracts have various mechanisms of action that reduce the risk of resistance in these mosquitoes. One possible mechanism is uncontrolled production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the larvae, which can cause changes at the cellular level. Thus, the crude extract of Xylaria sp. was evaluated to investigate the oxidative effect of this extract in A. aegypti larvae by quantifying the oxidative damage to proteins and lipids. Methods: The larvicidal potential of the crude extract of Xylaria sp. Was evaluated, and the extract was subsequently tested in human lung fibroblasts for cytotoxicity and ROS production. ROS level was quantified in the larvae that were killed following exposure to the extract in the larvicide test. Results: The crude extract of Xylaria sp. Caused cytotoxicity and induced ROS production in human lung fibroblasts and A. aegypti larvae, respectively. In the larvicide trial, the extract showed an LC50 of 264.456 ppm and an LC90 of 364.307 ppm, and was thus considered active. The extract showed greater oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, with LC90 values of 24.7 µmol MDA/L and 14.6278 ×10-3 nmol carbonyl/ mg protein, respectively. Conclusions: Crude extracts of Xylaria sp. induced oxidative stress that may have caused the mortality of A. aegypti larvae.

9.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210114, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365227

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To compare the cytotoxicity of commercial reparative endodontic cements on human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs). Material and Methods The culture of hPDLSCs was established. Cell density was set at 2 × 104 cells/well in 96-well plates. Extracts of Biodentine, Bio-C Repair, Cimmo HD, MTA Repair HP and White MTA were prepared. Then, the extracts were diluted (pure, 1:4 and 1:16) and inserted into cell-seeded wells for 24, 48, and 72 h to assess cell viability through MTT assay. hPDLSCs incubated with culture medium alone served as a negative control group. Data were analyzed by Two-Way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results At 24 h, pure extract of MTA Repair HP and Biodentine 1:16 presented higher cell viability compared to control. Lower cell viability was found for pure extract of Cimmo HD, MTA Repair HP 1:4 and 1:16, and White MTA 1:16. At 48 h, pure extract of Bio-C Repair and MTA Repair HP presented higher cell viability compared to control. At 72 h, only the pure extract of MTA Repair HP led to higher cell proliferation compared to control. Conclusion Biodentine, Bio-C Repair and MTA Repair HP were able to induce hPDLSCs proliferation. Cimmo HD and White MTA were found to be mostly cytotoxic in hPDLSCs.


Subject(s)
Periodontal Ligament/anatomy & histology , Root Canal Filling Materials , Stem Cells/immunology , Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic/instrumentation , Dental Cements , Immunologic Tests/instrumentation , Brazil , Cell Count , Analysis of Variance , Endodontics , Primary Cell Culture
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18754, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374529

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) are two challenging causes of radiotherapy and chemotherapy resistance, leading to most cases of failure and recurrence in breast cancer therapy. This study was conducted to investigated the inhibitory effect of combination therapy with doxorubicin (an anthracycline) and FM19G11 (an HIF inhibitor) on MCF-7 cells and their CSC-like cells (CSC-LCs). MCF-7 CSC-LCs with a CD44+/CD24- phenotype were sorted and characterized by flow cytometry. A combination of doxorubicin and FM19G11 caused more cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 and CSC-LCs compared to doxorubicin monotherapy. The largest synergistic effect was observed in CSC-LCs under hypoxic conditions; however, MCF-7 cells showed no synergism in normoxic conditions. The administration of doxorubicin and FM19G11 induced late apoptotic and necrotic cell death in MCF-7 and CSC-LCs. Additionally, G2 phase arrest was observed in both cells. Our results demonstrated that co-administration of FM19G11 and doxorubicin had a synergistic effect in hypoxia and improved drug resistance in breast cancer stem cells.

11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18308, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374534

ABSTRACT

Abstract In antimalarial research there are no standard procedures to determine the toxicity of a drug candidate. Among the alternatives available, in vitro cytotoxicity assays are the most widely used to predict toxic effects of future therapeutic products. They have the advantage over the in vivo assays, in that they offer the possibility to restrain the number of experimental variables. The objective of the present study was to compare in vitro cytotoxic methods by testing various compounds currently used to treat malaria against different cell lines. Neutral red (NR) uptake and methylthiazoletetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric in vitro assays were used to determine preliminary toxicity of commercially available antimalarial drugs against tumor and non-tumor cells lines. Toxicity through brine shrimp lethality bioassay and hemolytic activity were also evaluated. Significant differences were observed in the tests measured by NR uptake. The tumor cell lines TOV-21G and HepG2 and non-tumor WI-26VA4 cells showed relatively uniform toxicity results, with TOV-21G being the most sensitive cell tested, presenting the lowest concentration to cause death to 50% of viable cells (CC50) values. The results of this study support the use of TOV-21G, HepG2 and WI-26VA4 cells lines as the choice for cytotoxicity tests to evaluate potential bioactive compounds.

12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19261, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374545

ABSTRACT

Abstract Persea americana Mill., belonging to the family Lauraceae, is noteworthy for the large amount of ethnopharmacological information in its regard, attributing to it many and varied medicinal properties. The tea and alcoholic extracts made from its leaves are used in folk medicine to treat various ailments. This study was designed to analyze the cytogenotoxicity and underlying chemistry of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of avocado leaves, using the Allium cepa and micronucleus tests. The results obtained by applying the experimental models demonstrate that the extracts did not have a genotoxic effect at any of the concentrations analyzed, and even demonstrated a certain protective effect, possibly due to the presence of flavonoids and phenols, both of which are antioxidant substances. However, the extracts did present a cytotoxic effect. There were numerous karyorrhectic cells and those with nuclear alterations related to cell death. At the highest concentrations, it was possible to observe cytoplasmic alterations and binucleated cells. The extracts also caused a significant reduction in the number of cells undergoing division. These effects can be a response to the phytochemical agents present in the extracts. The results suggest that the extracts contain bioactive components that deserve further studies related to cancer therapies.

13.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18747, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374571

ABSTRACT

Abstract Phenolic compounds are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and in the microorganisms. Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivative-ferulic acid, are phenolic compounds. Ferulic acid possesses antioxidant potential, as well as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. It prevents the harmful effects of radiation both as an ultraviolet absorber and as a free radical scavenger; it is not cytotoxic. Although ferulic acid has beneficial properties, it is hardly used in cosmetic preparations and has been rarely studied in the literature. Herein, we review the literature on ferulic acid, to provide information which can contribute to further research on the compound.

14.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(4): 468-475, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350824

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Although the efficacy of hydroxyurea (HU) in inhibiting erythrocyte sickling has been well demonstrated, the action of this drug on human neutrophils and the mechanism by which it improves the manifestations of the disease have not been studied thoroughly. We aimed to investigate the cell viability, along with inflammatory and oxidative markers in the neutrophils of sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients and the effects of HU therapy on these cells, by evaluating the dose-responsiveness. Methods: In the present study, 101 patients (45 men and 56 women, aged 18-69 years) with SCA were divided into groups according to the use or not of HU: the SS group (without HU treatment, n = 47) and the SSHU group (under HU treatment, n = 54). The SSHU group was further stratified into subgroups according to the daily dose of the drug that patients already used: SSHU - 0.5 g (n = 19); SSHU - 1 g (n = 26) and SSHU - 1.5-2 g (n = 9). A control group (AA) comprised 50 healthy individuals. Neutrophils isolated from whole blood were analyzed using Trypan Blue, monoiodotyrosine (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) toxicity assays. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and concentrations of interleukin 10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and malonaldehyde (MDA) were also measured. Results: Neutrophils from SCA patients showed membrane fragility and a significant decrease in cell viability when analyzed by Trypan Blue (p < 0.05), MTT (p < 0.001) and LDH (p = 0.011), compared to the AA group. Levels of inflammatory (MPO, TNF-α, and IL-10) and oxidative markers (SOD, GSH-Px, and MDA) were also altered (p < 0.05) in these cells, showing a significant difference in the SSHU-1g and SSHU - 1.5-2 g groups, compared to the SS group. Treatment with HU reverted the levels of all markers to concentrations similar to those in healthy individuals in a positive dose-effect relationship. Conclusion: The HU did not generate a cytotoxic effect on neutrophils in SCA patients, but it modulated their oxidative and inflammatory mechanisms, promoting cytoprotection with a positive dose-effect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Hydroxyurea , Anemia, Sickle Cell , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Oxidative Stress , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Dosage , Inflammation , Malondialdehyde , Neutrophils
15.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(6): 1-7, Nov.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1355841

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study investigated the cytotoxicity and release of Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-β1) from cultured human apical papilla cells (APCs) after application of four bioactive materials. Culture of APCs was established and used for cytotoxic and quantitative assays. Extracts of Biodentine, Bio-C Repair, MTA Repair and White MTA were prepared and diluted (1, 1:4 and 1:16) and used for MTT assays up to 72 h. Total TGF-β1 was quantified by ELISA. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). For Biodentine, at 24 h and 48 h, cell viability was lower than control (p < 0.05). At 72 h, only undiluted extract of Biodentine were cytotoxic (p < 0.05). At 24 h, a cytotoxic effect was found for undiluted and 1:4 dilution of Bio-C Repair (p < 0.05). At 48 h, however, Bio-C Repair at 1:4 and 1:8 dilution showed higher cell viability (p < 0.05). At 24 and 48 h, the cell viability for undiluted MTA Repair were higher than control (p < 0.05). For White MTA, at 24 and 48 h, all dilutions were cytotoxic (p < 0.05). All cements led to reduced release of total TGF-β1 from the APCs (p < 0.05). In conclusion, cell viability varied depending on the material and dilution. Only Bio-C repair and MTA repair led to higher cell viability of APCs. All materials induced a decrease in the release of total TGF-β1 from the APCs.


Resumo Este estudo investigou a citotoxicidade e liberação do Fator de Crescimento Transformador Beta 1 (TGF-β1) em células da papila apical humana (APCs) cultivadas após a aplicação de quatro materiais bioativos. A cultura de APCs foi estabelecida e usada para ensaios citotóxicos e quantitativos. Extratos de Biodentine, Bio-C Repair, MTA Repair e White MTA foram preparados e diluídos (1, 1: 4 e 1:16) e usados para ensaios de MTT por até 72 h. O TGF-β1 total foi quantificado por ELISA. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA e teste de Tukey (α = 0,05). Para o Biodentine, em 24 h e 48 h, efeito citotóxico foi observado (p <0,05). Em 72 h, apenas o extrato não diluído de Biodentine teve efeito citotóxico (p <0,05). Em 24 h, valores mais baixos de viabilidade celular foram encontrados para o extrato não diluído e diluidi 1:4 de Bio-C Repair (p <0,05). Em 48 h, no entanto, Bio-C Repair na diluição 1:4 e 1:8 mostrou maior viabilidade celular (p <0,05). A viabilidade celular para MTA Repair não diluído em 24 e 48 h foi maior que o controle (p <0,05). Para White MTA, às 24 e 48 h, a viabilidade celular em todas as diluições foram citotóxicas (p <0,05). Todos os cimentos levaram à redução da liberação de TGF-β1 total das APCs (p <0,05). Em conclusão, a viabilidade celular variou dependendo do material e da diluição. Biodentine, Bio-C Repair e MTA Repair levaram a uma maior viabilidade celular de APCs. Todos os materiais induziram uma diminuição na liberação de TGF-β1 total das APCs.

16.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 575-583, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153400

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vernonanthura polyanthes, popularly known as assa-peixe, is a medicinal plant that has been widely used by Brazilian Cerrado population for treatment of diseases without a detailed evaluation of their effectiveness, toxicity, and proper dosage. Thus, more studies investigating the safety of V. polyanthes aqueous extract before the use are needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract using the Artemia salina and Allium cepa assays. For the A. salina assay, three groups of 10 larvae were exposed to V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract at the concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/ml. For the A. cepa assay, 5 onion bulbs were exposed to V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract at 10, 20, and 40 mg/ml, and then submitted to macroscopic and microscopic analysis. As result it was identified a toxicity and cytotoxicity of V. polyanthes dependent on the extract concentration. The A. salina assay suggests that the concentration of 24 mg/ml of the V. polyanthes extract is able to kill 50% of naupllis; while the A. cepa assay suggests that V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract is toxic at concentrations higher than 20 mg/ml; however the cytotoxic effect in A. cepa root cells was observed at 40 mg/ml of the extract. It is important to say that the V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract concentration commonly used in popular medicine is 20 mg/ml. Thus, the popular concentration used is very close to toxicity limit in A. salina model (24 mg/ml) and is the concentration which showed toxic effect in A. cepa root cells (20 mg/ml). No genotoxic activity of V. polyantes leaves aqueous extract was observed in the conditions used in this study. Because of the antiproliferative action and no genotoxic activity, V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract may present compounds with potential use for human medicine. However more detailed studies need to be performed to confirm this potential.


Resumo Vernonanthura polyanthes, popularmente conhecida como assa-peixe, é uma planta medicinal amplamente utilizada pela população brasileira do Cerrado para o tratamento doenças, sem uma avaliação detalhada de sua eficácia, toxicidade e dosagem adequada. Dessa forma, são necessários estudos para investigar a segurança do uso do extrato aquoso de V. polyanthes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a toxicidade, citotoxicidade e genotoxicidade do extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyanthes utilizando os ensaios de Artemia salina e Allium cepa. Para o ensaio de A. salina, três grupos de 10 larvas foram expostos ao extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyanthes nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20, 40 e 80 mg/ml. Para o ensaio de A. cepa, 5 bulbos de cebola foram expostas ao extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyanthes nas concentrações de 10, 20 e 40 mg/ml, e então submetidos a análise macroscópica e microscópica. O ensaio de A. salina sugere que a concentração de 24 mg/ml do extrato de V. polyanthes é capaz de matar 50% dos náuplios; enquanto o ensaio de A. cepa sugere que o extrato aquoso das folhas de V. polyanthes é tóxico em concentrações superiores a 20 mg/ml. O efeito citotóxico nas células da raiz de A. cepa foi observado apenas na concentração de 40 mg/ml. É importante dizer que a concentração de extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyanthes comumente usada na medicina popular é de 20 mg/ml. Assim, a concentração popular utilizada está muito próxima do limite de toxicidade no modelo de A. salina (24 mg/ml) e é a mesma concentração que apresentou efeito tóxico nas células da raiz de A. cepa (20 mg/ml). Não foi observada atividade genotóxica do extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyantes nas condições utilizadas neste trabalho. Por causa da ação antiproliferativa e ausência de atividade genotóxica, o extrato aquoso de folhas de V. polyanthes pode ser uma boa fonte natural de compostos antitumorais e pode apresentar potencial para uso na medicina. No entanto, estudos mais detalhados precisam ser realizados para confirmar esse potencial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Asteraceae , Brazil , Plant Leaves , Onions
17.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 76-84, July. 2021. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Butyrate is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that induces apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation of colorectal cancer cells. To improve its anticancer activity, butyrate has been evaluated mixed with drugs and different molecules. Plant antimicrobial peptides are attractive anticancer alternative molecules because they show selective cytotoxic activity against different cancer cell lines. In this work, we explore if the plant defensin c-thionin (Capsicum chinense) can improve butyrate activity on Caco-2 cell line and we also determined the mechanism of death activated. RESULTS: The combined treatment of c-thionin (3.5 mM) and butyrate (50 mM) showed higher cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells with respect to single treatments. Also, the combined treatment reduced cell proliferation and exhibited a higher rate of apoptosis than single treatments. Combined treatment induced caspases 8 and 9 activation to an extent comparable with that of butyrate while c-thionin did not activate caspases. Additionally, reactive oxygen species generation preceded the onset of apoptosis, and superoxide anion production was higher in cells treated with the combined treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The c-thionin from Habanero chili pepper improved the butyrate cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells. This effect occurred through apoptosis induction associated with reactive oxygen species production. Therefore, the combination of butyrate with cytotoxic antimicrobial peptides could be an attractive strategy for cancer therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Butyrates , Capsicum/chemistry , Adenocarcinoma , Colonic Neoplasms , Cell Cycle , Reactive Oxygen Species , Apoptosis , Caco-2 Cells , Defensins , Thionins
18.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 21-29, July. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283484

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) contain a chemotherapeutic drug and are regarded as a promising technique for improving targeted delivery into cancer cells. RESULTS: In this study, the fabrication of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was investigated with loaded Dextran (DEXSPION) using the co-precipitation technique and conjugated by folate (FA). These nanoparticles (NPs) were employed as carriers and anticancer compounds against liver cancer cells in vitro. Structural, magnetic, morphological characterization, size, and drug loading activities of the obtained FA-DEX-5-FUSPION NPs were checked using FTIR, VSM, FESEM, TEM, DLS, and zeta potential techniques. The cellular toxicity effect of FA-DEX-5-FU-SPION NPs was evaluated using the MTT test on liver cancer (SNU-423) and healthy cells (LO2). Furthermore, the apoptosis measurement and the expression levels of NF-1, Her-2/neu, c-Raf-1, and Wnt-1 genes were evaluated post-treatment using flow cytometry and RT-PCR, respectively. The obtained NPs were spherical with a suitable dispersity without noticeable aggregation. The size of the NPs, polydispersity, and zeta were 74 ± 13 nm, 0.080 and 45 mV, respectively. The results of the encapsulation efficiency of the nano-compound showed highly colloidal stability and proper drug maintenance. The results indicated that FA-DEX-5-FU-SPION demonstrated a sustained release profile of 5-FU in both phosphate and citrate buffer solutions separately, with higher cytotoxicity against SNU-423 cells than against other cells types. These findings suggest that FA-DEX-SPION NPs exert synergistic effects for targeting intracellular delivery of 5-FU, apoptosis induction, and gene expression stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: The findings proved that FA-DEX-5-FU-SPION presented remarkable antitumor properties; no adverse subsequences were revealed against normal cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Polymers , Gene Expression/drug effects , Drug Delivery Systems , Apoptosis/drug effects , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Delayed-Action Preparations , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Magnetite Nanoparticles , Flow Cytometry
19.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(3): 65-74, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345502

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study investigated the effect of three commercial calcium silicate-based materials (CSBM) on cytotoxicity and pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines production in cultured human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs). Culture of hPDLSCs was established and characterized. Extracts of Bio-C Sealer (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil), MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil) and PBS Cimmo HP (Cimmo Soluções em Saúde, Pouso Alegre, MG, Brazil) were prepared by placing cement specimens (5 x 3 mm) in culture medium. Then, the extracts were serially two-fold diluted (1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 1:16) and inserted into the cell-seeded wells for 24, 48 and 72 h for MTT assays. TNF-α and IL-10 cytokines were quantified by ELISA at 24h-cell supernatants. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). All CSBM exhibited some cytotoxicity that varied according to extract concentration and time of evaluation. MTA Fillapex presented the highest cytotoxic effects with significant reduction of metabolic activity/cell viability when compared to Bio-C Sealer and Cimmo HP®. TNF-α was significantly upregulated by the three tested cements (p < 0.05) while only MTA Fillapex significantly upregulated IL-10 in comparison to control. Taken collectively, the results showed that PBS Cimmo HP®, Bio-C Sealer and MTA Fillapex present mild and transient cytotoxicity and slightly induced TNF-α production. MTA Fillapex upregulated IL-10 release by hPDLSCs.


Resumo Este estudo investigou o efeito de três materiais comerciais à base de silicato de cálcio (CSBM) na citotoxicidade e na produção de citocinas pró e antiinflamatórias em células-tronco do ligamento periodontal humano (hPDLSCs). Cultura de hPDLSCs foi estabelecida e caracterizada. Extratos de Bio-C Sealer (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brasil), MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brasil) e PBS Cimmo HP® (Cimmo Soluções em Saúde, Pouso Alegre, MG, Brasil) foram preparados com a colocação de espécimes dos cimentos (5 x 3 mm) em meio de cultura. Em seguida, os extratos foram diluídos (1, 1: 2, 1: 4, 1: 8, 1:16) e inseridos nos poços semeados de células para ensaio de citotoxicidade por meio de MTT por 24, 48 e 72 h. As citocinas TNF-α e IL-10 foram quantificadas por ELISA em sobrenadantes de células de 24 h. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA e teste de Tukey (α = 0,05). Todos os CSBM exibiram alguma citotoxicidade que variou de acordo com a concentração do extrato e o tempo de avaliação. O MTA Fillapex apresentou os maiores efeitos citotóxicos com redução significativa da atividade metabólica / viabilidade celular quando comparado ao Bio-C Sealer e Cimmo HP®. O TNF-α foi regulado positivamente pelos três cimentos testados (p <0,05), enquanto apenas o MTA Fillapex regulou positivamente a liberação de IL-10 em comparação com o controle. Tomados em conjunto, os resultados mostraram que PBS Cimmo HP®, Bio-C Sealer e MTA Fillapex apresentam citotoxicidade leve e transitória e induziram a produção de TNF-α. O MTA Fillapex regulou positivamente a liberação de IL-10 por hPDLSCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodontal Ligament/cytology , Root Canal Filling Materials/adverse effects , Stem Cells/drug effects , Silicates/adverse effects , Calcium Compounds/adverse effects , Oxides , Materials Testing , Cytokines/metabolism , Aluminum Compounds
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 352-360, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248941

ABSTRACT

In this study, the toxic effects of melittin on Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney cells (MDBK) were analyzed with respect to mitochondrial functionality by reduction of MTT and flow cytometry, apoptosis potential, necrosis, oxygen reactive species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, and DNA fragmentation using flow cytometry and cell membrane destabilization by confocal microscopy. The toxicity presented dose-dependent characteristics and mitochondrial activity was inhibited by up to 78.24 ±3.59% (P<0.01, n = 6) in MDBK cells exposed to melittin (10µg/mL). Flow cytometry analysis revealed that melittin at 2µg/mL had the highest necrosis rate (P<0.05) for the cells. The lipoperoxidation of the membranes was also higher at 2µg/mL of melittin (P<0.05), which was further confirmed by the microphotographs obtained by confocal microscopy. The highest ROS production occurred when the cells were exposed to 2.5µg/mL melittin (P<0.05), and this concentration also increased DNA fragmentation (P<0.05). There was a significative and positive correlation between the lipoperoxidation of membranes with ROS (R=0.4158), mitochondrial functionality (R=0.4149), and apoptosis (R=0.4978). Thus, the oxidative stress generated by melittin culminates in the elevation of intracellular ROS that initiates a cascade of toxic events in MDBK cells.(AU)


Neste estudo, os efeitos tóxicos da melitina em células Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) foram analisados quanto à funcionalidade mitocondrial, por redução de MTT e citometria de fluxo, potencial de apoptose, necrose, produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ROS), peroxidação lipídica e fragmentação de DNA, utilizando-se citometria de fluxo e desestabilização da membrana celular, por microscopia confocal. A toxicidade apresentou características dose-dependentes e a atividade mitocondrial foi inibida até 78,24±3,59% (P<0,01, n = 6) em células MDBK expostas à melitina (10µg/mL). Análises por citometria de fluxo revelaram que a melitina a 2µg/mL apresentou o maior índice necrótico celular (P<0,05). A maior lipoperoxidação de membranas também foi na concentração de 2µg/mL de melitina (P<0,05), o que foi posteriormente confirmado por microscopia confocal. A maior produção de ROS aconteceu quando as células foram expostas a 2,5µg/mL de melitina (P<0,05), e essa concentração também aumentou a fragmentação de DNA (P<0,05). Houve uma significativa correlação positiva entre a lipoperoxidação de membranas e a produção de ROS (R=0,4158), funcionalidade mitocondrial (R=0,4149) e apoptose (R=0,4978). Portanto, o estresse oxidativo gerado pela melitina culminou na elevação de ROS intracelular, que inicia uma cascata de eventos tóxicos nas células MDBK.(AU)


Subject(s)
Reactive Oxygen Species/adverse effects , Apoptosis , Cytotoxins/analysis , Melitten/analysis , Bee Venoms/analysis , Microscopy, Confocal , Flow Cytometry
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