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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256949, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360214

ABSTRACT

Abstract Among Bemisia tabaci species, the invasive MEAM1 and MED species are key agricultural pests for many crops. In Brazil, most part of B. tabaci population outbreaks were associated with MEAM1, which, since 1990s quickly spread across the entire country. Later in 2014, the MED was identified in Brazil, initially more restricted to greenhouses, but suddenly reaching new areas in the South and Southeast open regions. Thus, our objective was to investigate the geographical distribution of MEAM1 and MED on open field crops in Brazil. MEAM1 is still the predominant species on open field crops such as soybean, cotton, and tomato. The sequencing of a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene fragment revealed a single haplotype of MEAM1, suggesting the establishment of a single MEAM1 strain in the country. The haplotypes found for MEAM1 and MED are genetically related to the globally dispersed strains, Jap1 and Mch1, respectively. Continuous monitoring of B. tabaci species is crucial because landscape alterations, climatic changes, and pest management methods may shift the B. tabaci species distribution and dominance in Brazilian crop areas.


Resumo Dentre as espécies de Bemisia tabaci, as espécies invasoras MEAM1 e MED se destacam como pragas de grande importância para várias culturas. No Brasil, a maior parte dos surtos populacionais de mosca-branca são associados a presença da espécie MEAM1, que a partir 1990 se espalhou por todo o país. Por outro lado, em 2014 a espécie MED foi identificada no Brasil, inicialmente restrita a casas de vegetação, mas rapidamente se difundindo em novas áreas nas regiões Sul e Sudeste do Brasil. Assim, nosso objetivo foi investigar a distribuição geográfica das espécies MEAM1 e MED em grandes culturas no Brasil. A espécie MEAM1 continua sendo predominante nas monoculturas como algodão, soja e tomate. O sequenciamento de um fragmento do gene citocromo c oxidase subunidade I (COI) revelou a presença de um haplótipo para MEAM1, sugerindo o estabelecimento de apenas uma linhagem no país. Os haplótipos encontrados para MEAM1 e MED são geneticamente relacionados as linhagens globalmente dispersas Jap1 e Mch1, respectivamente. O monitoramento contínuo das espécies de B. tabaci é crucial pois as mudanças na paisagem, mudanças climáticas e métodos de manejo das pragas podem alterar a dominância e a distribuição dessas espécies nas áreas agrícolas do Brasil.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251198, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339350

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract on different tissues in terms of DNA damage, biochemical and antioxidant parameter values in rats with high-calorie diets. With this aim, Wistar albino male rats were divided into 4 groups containing 6 rats each and the study was completed over 12 weeks duration. At the end of the implementation process over the 12 weeks, rats were sacrificed and blood and tissue samples were obtained. Analyses were performed on blood and tissue samples. According to results for DNA damage (8-OHdG), in brain tissue the OG2 group was significantly reduced compared to the NC group. For MDA results in liver tissue, OG1 and OG2 groups were determined to increase by a significant degree compared to the control group, while the OG2 group was also increased significantly compared to the obese group. In terms of the other parameters, comparison between the groups linked to consumption of a high calorie diet (HCD) and administration of Gundelia tournefortii L. in terms of antioxidant activities and serum samples obtained statistically significant results. Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extracts had effects that may be counted as positive on antioxidant parameter activity and were especially identified to improve DNA damage and MDA levels in brain tissues. Additionally, consumption of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract in the diet may have antiobesity effects; thus, it should be evaluated for use as an effective weight-loss method and as a new therapeutic agent targeting obesity.


Resumo O presente estudo foi desenhado para investigar os efeitos do extrato da planta Gundelia tournefortii L. em diferentes tecidos em termos de danos ao DNA, valores de parâmetros bioquímicos e antioxidantes em ratos com dietas hipercalóricas. Com esse objetivo, ratos Wistar albinos machos foram divididos em 4 grupos contendo 6 ratos cada e o estudo foi concluído ao longo de 12 semanas de duração. No final desse processo de implementação, os ratos foram sacrificados e amostras de sangue e tecido foram obtidas. As análises foram realizadas em amostras de sangue e tecido. De acordo com os resultados para danos ao DNA (8-OHdG), no tecido cerebral o grupo OG2 foi significativamente reduzido em comparação com o grupo NC. Para os resultados de MDA no tecido hepático, os grupos OG1 e OG2 aumentaram significativamente em comparação ao grupo controle, enquanto o grupo OG2 também aumentou significativamente em comparação ao grupo obeso. Quanto aos demais parâmetros, a comparação entre os grupos ligados ao consumo de dieta hipercalórica (DC) e à administração de Gundelia tournefortii L. em termos de atividades antioxidantes e amostras de soro obteve resultados estatisticamente significativos. Os extratos de plantas de Gundelia tournefortii L. tiveram efeitos que podem ser considerados positivos na atividade dos parâmetros antioxidantes e foram especialmente identificados para melhorar os danos ao DNA e os níveis de MDA nos tecidos cerebrais. Além disso, o consumo de extrato vegetal de Gundelia tournefortii L. na dieta pode ter efeitos antiobesidade; portanto, deve ser avaliado para uso como um método eficaz de perda de peso e como um novo agente terapêutico voltado para a obesidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Asteraceae , Antioxidants , DNA Damage , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Obesity/drug therapy
3.
Infectio ; 26(2): 189-192, Jan.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356267

ABSTRACT

Resumen El molusco contagioso es una infección viral cutánea, usualmente benigna y autolimitada, causada por un virus del género Molluscipoxvirus. Es más frecuente en niños, adultos jóvenes sexualmente activos e inmunosuprimidos. La lesión clínica característica es una pápula umbilicada eucrómica o de tono perlado, que se disemina rápidamente y puede afectar cualquier superficie muco-cutánea, aunque la localización en los párpados es atípica. Se presentan dos casos de pacientes jóvenes inmunosuprimidos, con moluscos contagiosos palpebrales, en quienes el diagnóstico clínico inicial fue incorrecto. Se enfatiza la importancia de diagnosti car oportunamente las lesiones papulares que afectan la piel del párpado ya que la presencia de molusco contagioso en esta zona se considera una manifestación cutánea de inmunosupresión.


Abstract Molluscum contagiosum is a cutaneous viral infection, usually benign and self-limited, caused by the molluscum contagiosum virus, of the genus Molluscipoxvirus. It is more common in pediatric population, sexually active young people and immunosuppressed patients. Clinical presentation is characterized by umbilicated white to flesh-colored or pearly papules, which rapidly spread and can affect any muco-cutaneous membrane. Although the eyelid presentation is atypical, we herein present two young, immunosuppressed patients, with diagnosis of palpebral molluscum contagiosum, in which the initial clinical diagnosis was wrong. We emphasize the importance in making a timely diagnosis of papular lesions localized on the eyelids and the correlation of these lesions as a cutaneous manifestation of immunosuppression.

4.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(1): 27-38, 20220401.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1366663

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Procesos como la mutagénesis, la carcinogénesis y la teratogénesis son producto de la interacción de agentes de origen endógeno como exógeno que interactúan con la molécula de ADN en forma crónica produciendo rupturas en la doble hélice, y en cromosomas completos resultando en la inestabilidad genómica. El estrés oxidativo al que se encuentran sometidas las células al formarse las especies reactivas de oxígeno (ROS) y también las especies reactivas de nitrógeno (RNS), que pueden provenir de radicales producidos a consecuencia de la diabetes o en estados iniciales de la enfermedad renal crónica o como respuesta a procesos inflamatorios en estados avanzados de estas patologías, actúan como agentes genotóxicos endógenos.Objetivos: Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar el daño basal en la molécula de ADN de pacientes diabéticos hemodializados, a través del ensayo del Cometa, como un bioindicador de inestabilidad genómica., durante seis meses de tratamiento. Materiales y métodos: Se planteó un estudio longitudinal prospectivo de cohorte para comparar los diferentes niveles de daño antes y durante los primeros seis del tratamiento de hemodiálisis. Se evaluó con el test del cometa o electroforesis de células individuales, el daño basal en muestras de sangre venosa de pacientes diagnosticados con Diabetes de tipo II como control negativo y en pacientes diabéticos con enfermedad renal crónica antes de iniciar el tratamiento de diálisis y luego durante el tratamiento. Se utilizó el test de t- Student para muestras independientes y emparejadas. Resultados: Se observó un aumento significativo de daño basal y oxidativo en el material genético de pacientes diabéticos con enfermedad renal crónica, comparados con los controles negativos (p< 0.005) y se observó, además, que el daño celular aumenta con el tratamiento de hemodiálisis (p<0.005). Conclusión: Los resultados obtenidos en esta investigación permiten concluir que el estrés oxidativo tiene un efecto genotóxico y que el nivel de daño genético es un buen bioindicador del avance de la enfermedad renal crónica y que la hemodiálisis induce a un aumento de daño a nivel del material genético, aumentando el riesgo de carcinogénesis.


Introduction: Processes such as mutagenesis, carcinogenesis and teratogenesis are the product of the interaction of agents of endogenous and exogenous origin that interact with the DNA molecule in a chronic way producing ruptures in the double helix, and in complete chromosomes resulting in genomic instability. The oxidative stress to which the cells are subjected when reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are formed, which may come from radicals produced as a result of diabetes or in initial stages of chronic kidney disease or in response to inflammatory processes in advanced stages of these pathologies, act as endogenous genotoxic agents. Objectives: This research aimed to determine the basal damage in the DNA molecule of hemodialyzed diabetic patients, through the Comet assay, as a bioindicator of genomic instability, during six months of treatment. Materials and methods: For this research, a prospective longitudinal cohort study was proposed to compare the different levels of genetic damage before and during the first six of hemodialysis treatment. Baseline damage was evaluated with the comet test or single cell electrophoresis, in venous blood samples from patients diagnosed with Type II Diabetes as a negative control and in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease before starting dialysis treatment and then during treatment. Results: A significant increase in basal and oxidative damage was observed in the genetic material of diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease, compared to negative controls (p< 0.005) and it was also observed that cell damage increases with hemodialysis treatment (p<0.005). The t-Student test was used for independent and paired samples. Conclusion: The results obtained in this research allow us to conclude that oxidative stress has a genotoxic effect and that the level of genetic damage is a good bioindicator of the progression of chronic kidney disease and that hemodialysis induces an increase in damage at the level of the genetic material, increasing the risk of carcinogenesis.


Subject(s)
Renal Dialysis , Comet Assay , Dialysis , Research , DNA , Oxidative Stress
5.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 12-18, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364310

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The AKR1B1 gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of glucose into sorbitol. Chronic hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) leads to increased AKR1B1 affinity for glucose and, consequently, sorbitol accumulation. Elevated sorbitol increases oxidative stress, which is one of the main pathways related to chronic complications of diabetes, including diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Accordingly, some studies have suggested the rs759853 polymorphism in the AKR1B1 gene is associated with DKD; however, findings are still contradictory. The aim was to investigate the association of the rs759853 polymorphism in the AKR1B1 gene and DKD. Materials and methods: The sample comprised 695 patients with type 2 DM (T2DM) and DKD (cases) and 310 patients with T2DM of more than 10 years' duration, but no DKD (controls). The polymorphism was genotyped by real-time PCR. Results: Allelic and genotype frequencies of this polymorphism did not differ significantly between groups. However, the A/A genotype was associated with risk for DKD after adjustment for gender, triglycerides, BMI, presence of hypertension and diabetic retinopathy, and duration of DM, under both recessive (P = 0.048) and additive (P = 0.037) inheritance models. Conclusion: Our data suggest an association between the AKR1B1 rs759853A/A genotype and risk for DKD in Brazilians T2DM patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aldehyde Reductase/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetic Nephropathies/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Alleles , Gene Frequency , Genotype
6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(1): 131-156, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356297

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) and seminal oxidative stress are emerging measurable factors in male factor infertility, which interventions could potentially reduce. We evaluated (i) the impact of lifestyle changes combined with oral antioxidant intake on sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and static oxidation-reduction potential (sORP), and (ii) the correlation between DFI and sORP. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective study involving 93 infertile males with a history of failed IVF/ICSI. Ten healthy male volunteers served as controls. Semen analysis was carried out according to 2010 WHO manual, whereas seminal sORP was measured using the MiOXSYS platform. SDF was assessed by sperm chromatin structure assay. Participants with DFI >15% underwent a three-month lifestyle intervention program, primarily based on diet and exercise, combined with oral antioxidant therapy using multivitamins, coenzyme Q10, omega-3, and oligo-elements. We assessed changes in semen parameters, DFI, and sORP, and compared DFI results to those of volunteers obtained two weeks apart. Spearman rank correlation tests were computed for sORP and DFI results. Results: Thirty-eight (40.8%) patients had DFI >15%, of whom 31 participated in the intervention program. A significant decrease in median DFI from 25.8% to 18.0% was seen after the intervention (P <0.0001). The mean DFI decrease was 7.2% (95% CI: 4.8-9.5%; P <0.0001), whereas it was 0.42% (95%CI; -4.8 to 5.6%) in volunteers (P <0.00001). No differences were observed in sperm parameters and sORP. Based on paired sORP and DFI data from 86 patients, no correlation was observed between sORP and DFI values (rho=0.03). Conclusion: A 3-month lifestyle intervention program combined with antioxidant therapy reduced DFI in infertile men with elevated SDF and a history of failed IVF/ICSI. A personalized lifestyle and antioxidant intervention could improve fertility of subfertile couples through a reduction in DFI, albeit controlled trials evaluating reproductive outcomes are needed before firm conclusions can be made. Trial registration number and date: clinicaltrials.gov NCT03898752, April 2, 2019.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infertility, Male/drug therapy , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Spermatozoa , Fertilization in Vitro , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Oxidative Stress , DNA Fragmentation , Life Style
7.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 282-284, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920870

ABSTRACT

This article summarizes the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection after HBsAg seroclearance, as well as its mechanism and implications.

8.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 233-235, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913150

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the most common type of infection in end-stage liver disease, and the diagnosis and treatment of SBP are facing great difficulties and challenges. In recent years, great achievements have been made in molecular diagnostic techniques, but they have not been widely used in clinical practice. Based on the current status of the diagnosis of SBP, this article reviews the advances in molecular microbiological methods in the diagnosis of SBP. Bacterial qualitative analysis alone cannot clarify the association between bacterial DNA and clinical manifestations, and the combination of bacterial quantitative analysis and bacterial type can more accurately describe the biological characteristics of SBP, which may help with the diagnosis of SBP and its special types and the application of antimicrobial agents.

9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e250865, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285604

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cadmium (Cd) is one of the major toxicants, which affects human health through occupational and environmental exposure. In the current study, we evaluated the protective effects of morel mushrooms against Cd-induced reproductive damages in rats. For this purpose, 30 male rats were divided into 6 groups (n=5/group), the first group served as the control group, second group was treated with an intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of 1 mg/kg/day of Cd. Third and fourth groups were co-treated with 1 mg/kg/day of Cd (i.p) and 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of morel mushroom extract (orally) respectively. The final 2 groups received oral gavage of 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of morel mushroom extract alone. After treatment for 17 days, the animals were euthanized, and testes and epididymis were dissected out. One testis and epididymis of each animal were processed for histology, while the other testis and epididymis were used for daily sperm production (DSP) and comet assay. Our results showed that Cd and morel mushrooms have no effect on animal weight, but Cd significantly decreases the DSP count and damages the heritable DNA which is reversed in co-treatment groups. Similarly, the histopathological results of testes and epididymis show that morel mushrooms control the damage to these tissues. Whereas the morel mushroom extract alone could enhance the production of testosterone. These results conclude that morel mushrooms not only control the damage done by Cd, but it could also be used as a protection mechanism for heritable DNA damage.


Resumo O cádmio (Cd) é um dos principais tóxicos, que afeta a saúde humana por meio da exposição ocupacional e ambiental. No presente estudo, avaliamos os efeitos protetores dos cogumelos morel contra os danos reprodutivos induzidos pelo Cd em ratos. Para tanto, 30 ratos machos foram divididos em 6 grupos (n = 5 / grupo); o primeiro grupo serviu de controle, o segundo grupo foi tratado com injeção intraperitoneal (i.p) de 1 mg / kg / dia de Cd. O terceiro e o quarto grupos foram cotratados com 1 mg / kg / dia de Cd (i.p) e 10 e 20 mg / kg / dia de extrato de cogumelo morel (por via oral), respectivamente. Os dois grupos finais receberam gavagem oral de 10 e 20 mg / kg / dia de extrato de cogumelo morel sozinho. Após o tratamento por 17 dias, os animais foram sacrificados e os testículos e o epidídimo foram dissecados. Um testículo e epidídimo de cada animal foram processados ​​para histologia, enquanto o outro testículo e epidídimo foram usados ​​para produção diária de esperma (DSP) e ensaio cometa. Nossos resultados mostraram que os cogumelos Cd e morel não têm efeito sobre o peso do animal, mas o Cd diminui significativamente a contagem de DSP e danifica o DNA hereditário, que é revertido em grupos de cotratamento. Da mesma forma, os resultados histopatológicos dos testículos e do epidídimo mostram que os cogumelos morel controlam os danos a esses tecidos. Considerando que o extrato de cogumelo morel sozinho pode aumentar a produção de testosterona. Esses resultados concluem que os cogumelos morel não apenas controlam os danos causados pelo Cd, mas também podem ser usados ​​como um mecanismo de proteção para danos hereditários ao DNA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cadmium/toxicity , Agaricales , Ascomycota , Spermatozoa , Testis
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e241081, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285584

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study investigated the use of melatonin to arrest the effects of apoptosis in vitrified zebrafish (D. rerio) embryos. Dechorionated embryos at 22-24 somite-stage were divided (n = 60/treatment) into a non-vitrified (Control Group, 0 M melatonin) and vitrified treatments with 0 M (T1), 1 µM (T2) and 1 mM of melatonin (T3). For vitrified treatments, a solution methanol/propylene glycol based was used and the embryos stored in -196 °C for a week. After thaw, survival rate, scanning electron microscopy, expression of anti (bcl-2) and pro-apoptotic (bax/caspase-3) genes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and DNA fragmentation analyses were performed. No live embryos were obtained from vitrified treatments, observing a rapid degeneration immediately after thawing, with the vitelline layer rupture and leakage of its content, followed by breakdown of epithelial cells and melanisation of the tissue. Regarding the apoptotic process, T3 had the highest relative gene expression, for the three genes (P < 0.05) furthermore, T2 had similar expression of pro-apoptotic genes to CG (P < 0.05). ROS formation revealed that CG presented lower percentage of embryo surface area affected (3.80 ± 0.40%) (P < 0.05), in contrast, no differences were found among the other groups. T1 was most significantly (P < 0.05) damaged by DNA fragmentation. The vitrified groups with melatonin had similar damage levels of CG (P > 0.05). The inclusion of 1 µM of melatonin in the vitrifying solution, countered the effects of apoptotic process in post-thaw embryos, suggesting its utility in cryopreserving fish embryos.


Resumo Este estudo investigou o uso da melatonina para conter os efeitos da apoptose em embriões vitrificados de zebrafish (D. rerio). Embriões descorionados no estágio de 22-24 somitos foram divididos (n = 60 / tratamento) em tratamento não vitrificado (Grupo Controle, melatonina 0 M) e tratamentos vitrificados com 0 M (T1), 1 µM (T2) e 1 mM de melatonina (T3). Para os tratamentos vitrificados, utilizou-se uma solução à base de metanol/propilenoglicol e os embriões foram armazenados em -196 °C por uma semana. Após o descongelamento, foram realizadas análises de taxa de sobrevivência, microscopia eletrônica de varredura, expressão dos genes anti (bcl-2) e pró-apoptóticos (bax/caspase-3), formação de espécies reativas de oxigênio (EROS) e análises de fragmentação de DNA. Não foram obtidos embriões vivos a partir dos tratamentos vitrificados, observando uma rápida degeneração imediatamente após o descongelamento, com ruptura da camada vitelina e vazamento de seu conteúdo, seguida de quebra das células epiteliais e melanização do tecido. Em relação ao processo apoptótico. T3 apresentou expressão gênica relativa alta para os três genes (P <0,05), além disso, T2 apresentou expressão semelhante as dos genes pró-apoptóticos de GC (P <0,05). A formação de EROS revelou que GC apresentou menor percentual de área de superfície embrionária afetada (3,80 ± 0,40%) (P <0,05), ao contrário, não foram encontradas diferenças entre os outros grupos. T1 foi mais significativamente (P <0,05) danificado pela fragmentação do DNA. Os grupos vitrificados com melatonina apresentaram níveis de dano semelhantes ao do GC (P> 0,05). A inclusão de 1 µM de melatonina na solução de vitrificação, contrariou os efeitos do processo apoptótico em embriões pós-descongelamento, sugerindo sua utilidade na criopreservação de embriões de peixes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zebrafish , Melatonin/pharmacology , Cryopreservation , Apoptosis
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242403, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278465

ABSTRACT

Abstract Artemisia is one of the biggest genera in the family Asteraceae, with around 500-600 taxa at specific and sub-specific levels and organised in 5 subgenera. Due to the high number of taxa, a lot taxonomists are trying to solve the problem of its classification and phylogeny but its natural classification still hasn't been achieved. In this research, 60 individuals belonging to 4 taxa of the subgenus Dracunculus of Artemisia L. in Turkey were examined. For all the examined individuals from both the same and different populations belonging to the taxa of the subgenus Dracunculus, the sequences of the regions both psbA-trnH of chloroplast DNA and ITS of nuclear DNA were determined. Also, the gene regions obtained were recorded in the NCBI GenBank database and an accession number was taken. It was found that there was no gene flow and hybridization between the four studied taxa of the subgenus Dracunculus, and these 4 taxa also completed their speciation. According to the results of this molecular study, A. campestris var. campestris, A. campestris var. marschalliana and A. campestris var. araratica were proposed to be raised from the variety level to the species level. This research is important as it is the first molecular based study relating with the subgenus Dracunculus growing in Turkey.


Resumo Artemisia é um dos maiores gêneros da família Asteraceae, com cerca de 500 a 600 táxons em níveis específicos e subespecíficos e organizados em cinco subgêneros. Em razão do grande número de táxons, muitos taxonomistas estão tentando resolver o problema de sua classificação e filogenia, mas sua classificação natural ainda não foi alcançada. Nesta pesquisa, 60 indivíduos pertencentes a quatro táxons do subgênero Dracunculus de Artemisia L. na Turquia foram examinados. Para todos os indivíduos examinados de populações iguais e diferentes pertencentes aos táxons do subgênero Dracunculus, foram determinadas as sequências das regiões psbA-trnH do DNA do cloroplasto e ITS do DNA nuclear. Além disso, as regiões gênicas obtidas foram registradas no banco de dados do NCBI GenBank e um número de acesso foi obtido. Foi constatado que não houve fluxo gênico nem hibridização entre os quatro táxons estudados do subgênero Dracunculus, os quais também completaram sua especiação. De acordo com os resultados deste estudo molecular, A. campestris var. campestris, A. campestris var. marschalliana e A. campestris var. araratica foram propostos para ser elevados do nível de variedade para o nível de espécie. Esta pesquisa é importante porque é o primeiro estudo de base molecular relacionado com o subgênero Dracunculus em crescimento na Turquia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Nucleus , Phylogeny , Turkey , Chloroplasts
12.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 36: e027, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1360245

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Tobacco smoking involves a high risk of human malignancies, including oral cancer, because it contains multiple carcinogens that cause genetic instability. Thus, a worse prognosis would be expected for cancer patients who are smokers. The aim of this study was to assess the DNA damage response through the expression of checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2), H2A histone family member X (H2AX), and P53 among smokers and non-smokers with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Associations between immunoexpression of proteins and clinicopathological data and histopathological grading were also analyzed. A total of 35 individuals (18 non-smokers and 17 smokers) with OSCC of the tongue and/or floor of the mouth were included. Immunohistochemistry for H2AX was conducted for the identification of double-strand breaks, CHK2, and P53 to evaluate the expression of this protein in cell cycle regulation. The sample consisted of 22 males and 13 females, with a mean age of 63.9±11.8 years. OSCC of non-smokers were well-differentiated tumors in 50% of the cases, and those of smokers were equally distributed into moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated tumors (35.3% each). Overall, 31 (88.6%) cases were CHK2-positive, 27 (77.1%) were H2AX-positive, and 23 (65.7%) were P53-positive, with no difference between smokers and non-smokers (p > 0.05). No association was found between proteins and clinicopathologic data (p > 0.05). Similarities in CHK2, H2AX, and P53 immunohistochemical staining patterns were observed between smokers and non-smokers, and immunoexpression was not associated with clinicopathological parameters. However, the findings indicated consistent expression of these proteins in OSCC.

13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 55: e11857, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364549

ABSTRACT

Genome-wide analysis using microarrays has revolutionized breast cancer (BC) research. A substantial body of evidence supports the clinical utility of the 21-gene assay (Oncotype DX) and 70-gene assay (MammaPrint) to predict BC recurrence and the magnitude of benefit from chemotherapy. However, there is currently no genetic tool able to predict chemosensitivity and chemoresistance to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) during BC treatment. In this study, we explored the predictive value of DNA repair gene expression in the neoadjuvant setting. We selected 98 patients with BC treated with NACT. We assessed DNA repair expression in 98 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded core biopsy fragments used at diagnosis and in 32 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded post-NACT residual tumors using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The following genes were selected: BRCA1, PALB2, RAD51C, BRCA2, ATM, FANCA, MSH2, XPA, ERCC1, PARP1, and SNM1. Of 98 patients, 33 (33.7%) achieved pathologic complete response (pCR). The DNA expression of 2 genes assessed in pre-NACT biopsies (PALB2 and ERCC1) was lower in pCR than in non-pCR patients (P=0.005 and P=0.009, respectively). There was no correlation between molecular subtype and expression of DNA repair genes. The genes BRCA2 (P=0.009), ATM (P=0.004), FANCA (P=0.001), and PARP1 (P=0.011) showed a lower expression in post-NACT residual tumor samples (n=32) than in pre-NACT biopsy samples (n=98). The expression of 2 genes (PALB2 and ERCC1) was lower in pCR patients. These alterations in DNA repair could be considered suitable targets for cancer therapy.

14.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 95 p. tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1362713

ABSTRACT

O carcinoma de células renais (CCR) é o sétimo tipo de câncer mais comum no ocidente e vêm apresentando um aumento em sua prevalência. A classificação histológica dos CCRs é a abordagem mais utilizada para determinar o subtipo da doença, bem como prognosticar o paciente. Cerca de 70-80% dos CCRs é do subtipo células claras (ccRCC), o qual representa o subtipo mais prevalente e agressivo da doença. A escolha do tratamento difere para cada paciente, sendo a ressecção cirúrgica a terapia mais efetiva nos casos de doença localizada. Apesar de ser um tratamento já estabelecido, estudos mostram uma certa heterogeneidade entre massas renais detectadas, onde cerca de 20% apresentam um perfil benigno, 60% são considerados tumores indolentes, sugerindo desta forma que, entender de forma mais detalhada este tumor pode auxiliar na escolha de um tratamento mais direcionado para o paciente. Sendo assim, o presente trabalho buscou selecionar genes potencialmente alterados em CCR com o intuito de customizar um painel multigênico capaz de identificar variantes somáticas, específicas do tumor, e avaliar as variantes específicas do tumor de forma personalizada em amostras de ctDNA (DNA tumoral circulante) extraídas de plasma e dos dois componentes da urina (sedimento e sobrenadante) coletados no momento da cirurgia (baseline). Neste contexto, dentro de nossa proposta, construímos um painel com 28 genes associados com CCR e sequenciamos 89 casos de tumores renais, juntamente com as amostras de leucócitos. Identificamos que dentre os tumores analisados, 59 apresentavam pelo menos uma variante somática, ou seja, o painel customizado apresentou uma sensibilidade para identificar variantes somáticas em 66% dos casos. Com relação aos 45 tumores classificados como ccRCC em 38 casos identificamos pelo menos uma marca tumoral, ou seja, nosso painel foi capaz de detectar variantes somáticas específicas do tumor em 84,4% desses casos. Um total de 105 variantes somáticas foram identificadas, e os genes mais frequentemente mutados nessa coorte de pacientes foram os genes VHL, PBRM1, BAP1, SETD2. Dos 59 casos em que identificamos variante somática, 44 casos foram avaliados as amostras baseline de plasma e 29 casos de urina (sobrenadante e sedimento), e encontramos pelo menos uma marca tumoral em um dos fluidos corpóreos em 11 pacientes, 6 em amostras de plasma e 6 amostras de urina. Através do desenvolvimento deste estudo, confirmamos que o subtipo ccRCC é o CCR mais bem caracterizado genomicamente e que é importante continuar a investigação genômica principalmente nos subtipos não ccRCC. Além disso o estudo demonstra a viabilidade de utilizar biópsia líquida ctDNA tanto no plasma quanto na urina para fins de diagnóstico e prognóstico.


Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the seventh most common type of cancer in the West and its prevalence is increasing. The histological classification of RCCs is the most used approach to determine the disease subtype as well as the patient's prognosis. About 70% of RCCs are of the clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma subtype (ccRCC), which represents the most prevalent and aggressive subtype of the disease. The choice of treatment is different for each patient. Resection is one of the most effective therapies in cases of localized disease. Despite being an established treatment, studies show a certain heterogeneous profile studied. In this profile, up to 20% even present a benign treatment, helping the indolent, thus suggesting that understanding this tumor in detail can help to choose a more targeted treatment for the patient. Therefore, the present work aimed to select potentially altered genes in CCR in order to customize a multigene panel capable of identifying somatic, tumor-specific variants, and to evaluate the tumor-specific variants in a personalized way in ctDNA (circulating tumor DNA) samples extracted from plasma and from two components of urine (sediment and supernatant) collected at the time of surgery (baseline). In this context, within our proposal, we built a panel with 28 genes associated with CCR and sequenced 89 cases of renal tumors, together with leukocyte samples. We identified that among the analyzed tumors, 59 had at least one somatic variant, that is, the customized panel showed sensitivity to identify somatic variants in 66% of cases. Of the 45 classified as ccRCC in 38 cases we identified at least one tumor marker, that is, our panel was able to detect tumor-specific somatic variants in 84.4%. A total of 105 somatic variants were identified, and the genes most frequently mutated in this cohort of patients were the VHL, PBRM1, BAP1, SETD2 genes. Among 59 cases in which we identified somatic variant, 44 cases were evaluated in baseline plasma samples and 29 cases in urine (supernatant and sediment), and we found at least one tumor mark in one of the body fluids in 11 patients, 6 in plasma samples and 6 urine samples. Through the development of this study, we confirm that the ccRCC subtype is the best genomically characterized CCR and that it is important to continue genomic investigation, especially in the non-ccRCC subtypes. Furthermore, the study demonstrates the feasibility of using ctDNA liquid biopsy in both plasma and urine for diagnostic and prognostic purposes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Circulating Tumor DNA , Liquid Biopsy , Kidney Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Renal Cell
15.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eAO6450, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364794

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To understand the feasibility of FGFR3 tests in the Brazilian public health context, and to sample the mutational burden of this receptor in high-grade muscle invasive bladder cancer. Methods A total of 31 patients with high-grade muscle-invasive bladder cancer were included in the present study. Either transurethral resection of bladder tumor or radical cystectomy specimens were analyzed. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were sectioned, hematoxylin and eosin stained, and histologic sections were reviewed. Total RNA was extracted using the RNeasy DSP formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded kit. Qualitative results were displayed in Rotor-Gene AssayManager software. Results Six patients were excluded. From the samples analyzed, four (16.7%) were considered inadequate and could not have their RNA extracted. Two patients presented FGFR3 mutations, accounting for 9.5% of material available for adequate analysis. The two mutations detected included a Y373C mutation in a male patient and a S249C mutation in a female patient. Conclusion FGFR3 mutations could be analyzed in 84% of our cohort and occurred in 9.5% of patients with high-grade muscle invasive bladder cancer in this Brazilian population. FGFR3 gene mutations are targets for therapeutic drugs in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. For this reason, know the frequency of these mutations can have a significant impact on public health policies and costs provisioning.


Subject(s)
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/genetics , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/metabolism , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/pathology , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3/genetics , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3/metabolism , Brazil , RNA , Prevalence , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Muscles/metabolism , Muscles/pathology , Mutation
16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 507-513, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922927

ABSTRACT

The key factors for producing the best quality Chinese herbal medicines are high-quality germplasm, suitable cultivation area and the proper processing methods for herbal raw materials. Gentiana crassicaulis in Gentiana (Sect. Cruciata), Gentianaceae is one of the original plants of the Chinese herb Qinjiao (Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix), and its type specimen was collected in Lijiang, Yunnan. There is a long planting history of the herb in this area. In this study a sampling plot was designated in these traditional planting areas. G. crassicaulis was planted and herbal raw materials were harvested from the plot. The raw materials were prepared locally and at a pharmaceutical factory in Shanghai using processing methods such as "sweating" or "no sweating", "slicing" or "no slicing" (whole root), and "stoving" or "no stoving" (air drying). The quality of all processed samples was evaluated. In addition, molecular markers were determined for identifying cultivated and wild samples from Lijiang, Yunnan. The results are as follows: ① Samples from the sampling plot and the field are taxonomically identified as Gentiana crassicaulis. ② A total of 270 sequences of trnC-GCA-petN, atpB-rbcL, psbN, ndhB-rps7 and ycf1 were obtained, and three genotypes were determined from the cultivated samples; the type III was shared by both cultivated and wild plants. Based on the molecular markers, a DNA barcoding method to identify cultivated and wild samples of G. crassicaulis from Lijiang, Yunnan was established. ③ Total content of loganic acid and gentiopicroside in all samples was ≥ 2.5%, and above the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2020) limit. ④ In HPLC fingerprinting, 9 common peaks were assigned and similarity between all samples was > 0.999; and ⑤ In a PCA score plot all slice samples were clustered, while whole root samples were scattered. Therefore, our studies could provide basic data for optimizing the processing method, producing best quality Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix, and evaluating the quality of different ecotype varieties and the multiple origin of herbal medicines.

17.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 47-64, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922492

ABSTRACT

As a sensor of cytosolic DNA, the role of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) in innate immune response is well established, yet how its functions in different biological conditions remain to be elucidated. Here, we identify cGAS as an essential regulator in inhibiting mitotic DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and protecting short telomeres from end-to-end fusion independent of the canonical cGAS-STING pathway. cGAS associates with telomeric/subtelomeric DNA during mitosis when TRF1/TRF2/POT1 are deficient on telomeres. Depletion of cGAS leads to mitotic chromosome end-to-end fusions predominantly occurring between short telomeres. Mechanistically, cGAS interacts with CDK1 and positions them to chromosome ends. Thus, CDK1 inhibits mitotic non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) by blocking the recruitment of RNF8. cGAS-deficient human primary cells are defective in entering replicative senescence and display chromosome end-to-end fusions, genome instability and prolonged growth arrest. Altogether, cGAS safeguards genome stability by controlling mitotic DSB repair to inhibit mitotic chromosome end-to-end fusions, thus facilitating replicative senescence.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907047

ABSTRACT

@#Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common malignant tumor of the head and neck. In recent years, the incidence rate has been increasing. Mitochondria are dynamic organelles involved in various cell behaviors in eukaryotic cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction is closely related to tumor development. As a switch that determines cancer cell death, targeting mitochondria has become the focus of OSCC treatment. This article reviews the relationship between mitochondria and tumorigenesis and development, OSCC treatment, and cisplatin resistant OSCC. Current studies have found that mitochondrial dysfunction promotes cell carcinogenesis, and the mitochondrial morphology and function of cancer cells are significantly changed. The increase of mitochondrial fission improves the invasiveness of cancer cells, and mitophagy dysfunction can induce cancer cell apoptosis. The emergence of drugs and the development of nanotechnology in targeted drug delivery systems have opened up new methods for targeting mitochondria to treat OSCC, reducing the side effects of systemic medication. The cisplatin resistance of OSCC is generated through the mitochondrial pathway, and the mitochondrial function and mutation mechanism of mitochondrial DNA are clarified in order to provide new ideas for targeting mitochondria to treat cisplatin resistant OSCC.

19.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1054-1060, Oct.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153441

ABSTRACT

Abstract One aquatic coleopteran species from family Dytiscidae and two aquatic coleopteran genera from family Hydrophilidae were recorded in the summer period and represent first records in the Egyptian lakes. Beetles were collected from two northern lakes, Lake Idku and Lake Burullus. They were identified by morphological characteristics as well as the mtDNA barcoding method. A molecular phylogenetic approach was used to determine the genetic identity of the collected samples based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI). Prodaticus servillianus (Dytiscidae) from Egypt showed no significant difference in the COI region and they are highly similar to P. servillianus from Madagascar. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the other two coleopteran genera belong to family Hydrophilidae. Based on COI only, there is no clear evidence for their genetic identity at the species level. So, we defined them to the closest taxon and denoted them as Cymbiodyta type A and B. The results indicated that resolving the molecular identity of the aquatic beetles from northern lakes of Egypt need more considerations in the field of biological conservation. We concluded that utilization of COI as a barcoding region for identifying some coleopteran species is not sufficient and additional molecular markers are required to uncover the molecular taxonomy at deep levels.


Resumo Uma espécie de coleópteros aquático da família Dytiscidae e dois gêneros de coleópteros aquáticos da família Hydrophilidae foram registrados no período de verão e representam os primeiros registros nos lagos egípcios. Os besouros foram coletados em dois lagos do norte, o lago Idku e o lago Burullus, e identificados por características morfológicas e pelo método de código de barras mtDNA. Uma abordagem filogenética molecular foi usada para determinar a identidade genética das amostras coletadas com base no citocromo oxidase I mitocondrial (COI). Prodaticus servillianus (Dytiscidae) do Egito não mostrou diferença significativa na região COI e é altamente semelhante a P. servillianus de Madagascar. A análise filogenética revelou que os outros dois gêneros de coleópteros pertencem à família Hydrophilidae. Com base apenas no COI, não há evidências claras de sua identidade genética no nível da espécie. Assim, nós os agrupamos no táxon mais próximo e os denominamos Cymbiodyta tipo A e B. Os resultados indicaram que a identidade molecular dos besouros aquáticos dos lagos do norte do Egito precisa de mais considerações no campo da conservação biológica. Concluímos que a utilização de COI como região de código de barras para identificar algumas espécies de coleópteros não é suficiente, sendo necessários marcadores moleculares adicionais para descobrir a taxonomia molecular em níveis profundos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lakes , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Phylogeny , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Egypt
20.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(4): 773-786, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355749

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Introduction: Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is cost-effective and a faster method to study genes, but its protocol is challenging. Objective: To analyze different adjustments to the protocol for screening the BRCA genes using Ion Torrent PGM sequencing and correlate the results with the number of false positive (FP) variants. Materials and methods: We conducted a library preparation process and analyzed the number of FP InDels, the library concentration, the number of cycles in the target amplification step, the purity of the nucleic acid, the input, and the number of samples/Ion 314 chips in association with the results obtained by NGS. Results: We carried out 51 reactions and nine adjustments of protocols and observed eight FP InDels in homopolymer regions. No FP Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism variant was observed; 67.5% of protocol variables were jointly associated with the quality of the results obtained (p<0.05). The number of FP InDels decreased when the quality of results increased. Conclusion: The Ion AmpliSeq BRCA1/BRCA2 Community Panel had a better performance using four samples per Ion-314 chip instead of eight and the optimum number of cycles in the amplification step, even when using high-quality DNA, was 23. We observed better results with the manual equalization process and not using the Ion Library Equalizer kit. These adjustments provided a higher coverage of the variants and fewer artifacts (6.7-fold). Laboratories must perform internal validation because FP InDel variants can vary according to the quality of results while the NGS assay should be validated with Sanger.


Resumen | Introducción. La secuenciación de nueva generación es un método rentable y rápido para el estudio de los genes, pero su protocolo entraña desafíos. Objetivo. Investigar diferentes ajustes del protocolo de selección de los genes BRCAmediante secuenciación de Ion Torrent PGM™ y correlacionar los resultados con el número de variantes de falso positivo. Materiales y métodos. El proceso de preparación de la biblioteca, el número de falsos positivos InDels, la concentración de la biblioteca, el número de ciclos en el paso de amplificación de objetivos, la pureza del ácido nucleico, la entrada y el número de muestras por chip del Ion-314 se analizaron en asociación con los resultados obtenidos por secuenciación de nueva generación secuenciación de nueva generación. Resultados. Se hicieron 51 reacciones y nueve ajustes de los protocolos, y se observaron ocho falsos positivos InDels en las regiones de homopolímeros. No se observó ninguna variante de polimorfismo de nucleótido simple falso positivo. En 67,5 % de los casos, las variables de protocolo en su conjunto se asociaron con la calidad de los resultados obtenidos (p<0,05). El número de falsos positivos InDels disminuyó al aumentar la calidad de los resultados. Conclusiones. El panel comunitario Ion AmpliSeq BRCA1/BRCA2 tuvo un mejor rendimiento, con cuatro muestras por chip Ion-314 en lugar de ocho, y el número de ciclos en el paso de amplificación, incluso con ADN de alta calidad, fue mejor con 23. Se observaron mejores resultados con el proceso de ecualización manual y sin el uso del kit Ion Library Equalizer. Estos ajustes proporcionaron una mayor cobertura de las variantes y menos artefactos. Los laboratorios deben realizar la validación interna porque las variantes de falsos positivos InDel pueden variar según la calidad de los resultados. La secuenciación de próxima generación debe validarse con Sanger.


Subject(s)
DNA , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Sequence Analysis , Genes, BRCA1 , Genes, BRCA2
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