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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 45: 38-45, May 15, 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Taraxacum species (commonly known as dandelion) used as herbal medicine have been reported to exhibit an antiproliferative effect on hepatoma cells and antitumor activity in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Although several investigations have demonstrated the safety of Taraxacum officinale, the safety of tissue-cultured plants of T. formosanum has not been assessed so far. Therefore, the present study examines the safety of the water extract of the entire plant of tissue cultured T. formosanum based on acute and subacute toxicity tests in rats, as well as the Ames tests. RESULTS: No death or toxicity symptoms were observed in the acute and subacute tests. The results of the acute test revealed that the LD50 (50% of lethal dose) value of the T. formosanum water extract for rats exceeded 5 g/kg bw. No abnormal changes in the body weight, weekly food consumption, organ weight, or hematological, biochemical, and morphological parameters were observed in the subacute toxicity test. Thus, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of T. formosanum water extract was estimated to be higher than 2.0 g/kg. Finally, the results of the Ames test revealed that T. formosanum water extract was not genotoxic at any tested concentration to any of five Salmonella strains. CONCLUSIONS: The water extract of tissue-cultured T. formosanum was non-toxic to rats in acute and subacute tests and exhibited no genotoxicity to five Salmonella strains.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Taraxacum/toxicity , Tissue Culture Techniques/methods , Safety , Flavonoids/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Urinalysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Phenol/analysis , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Herbal Medicine , Taraxacum/chemistry , Serum , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Toxicity Tests, Subacute , Mutagenicity Tests
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-823910

ABSTRACT

The protection of the liver as an essential organ in the body against oxidative stress and deleterious compounds has been the subject of recent investigations. Among different compounds, medicinal plants play an important role due to their hepatoprotective effects. Taraxacum officinale or "common dandelion" is a popular plant that has been traditionally used for its hepatoprotective effects. Currently, there are limited clinical studies on its hepatoprotective effects. The aim of this review article is to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of dandelion and its mechanism of action. We reviewed literature up to July 2019 on "Taraxacum officinale" or "dandelion"and hepatoprotection. Currently available pharmacological studies indicate that dandelion extracts have hepatoprotective effects against chemical agents due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The anti-inflammatory effects of dandelion, the prebiotic effects of its oligofructans, inhibitory effects against the release of lipopolysaccharides and fasting induced adipose factor, digestive enzymes, and enhancing effects of lipogenesis, reduce lipid accumulation and liver inflammation, which directly or indirectly improve the liver functions. Given emerging evidence on hepatoprotective effects of dandelion, designing large human clinical studies is essential.

3.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 353-358, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-857338

ABSTRACT

Aim: To discuss the effects of water extract of dandelion root on the proliferation and apoptosis of human triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and its mechanism. Methods: In this study, the cytotoxicity of dandelion root extract and the inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation were detected by Alamar Blue method. Effects of water extracts of dandelion root on apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells were assessed by morphological observation, DAPI staining and flow cytometry; The mechanism of dandelion root water extract induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells was analysed by Western blot. Results: Extracts from various parts of dandelion were not cytotoxic; furthermore, 7.5 and 15 g · L-1 water extract of dandelion significantly inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells, and the cells showed obvious apoptotic characteristics. Flow cytometry further confirmed the aqueous extract of dandelion root could induce the apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells. In terms of molecular mechanism, the water extract of dandelion root decreased the expression of Bcl-2 protein in a concentration-dependent manner, while the expressions of Bax, p53, active c-PARP, caspase-8, caspase-9 and caspase-3 increased. Caspase-8 inhibitor (Z-IETD-FMK) and caspase-9 inhibitor (Z-LEHD-FMK) were able to reverse the proliferation inhibitory activity of dandelion water extract on MDA-MB-231 cells. Conclusions: The water extract of dandelion has a significant inhibitory effect on human triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, pointing to its potential clinical application value for the treatment of triple negative breast cancer.

4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 36: 15-23, nov. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047981

ABSTRACT

Background: Taraxacum officinale G.H. Weber ex Wiggers is a wild plant used in folk medicine to treat several diseases owing to bioactive secondary metabolites present in its tissue. The accumulation of such molecules in plant cells can occur as a response against abiotic stress, but these metabolites are often deposited in low concentrations. For this reason, the use of a biotechnological approach to improve the yields of technologically interesting bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins is a compelling option. This work focuses on investigating the potential of in vitro T. officinale cultures as an anthocyanin source. Results: To demonstrate the suitability of anthocyanin induction and accumulation in calluses under specific conditions, anthocyanin was induced in the T. officinale callus. A specific medium of 5.5% sucrose supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine /1-naphthaleneacetic acid in a 10:1 ratio was used to produce an anthocyanin yield of 1.23 mg g-1 fw. An in vitro dandelion callus line was established from this experiment. Five mathematical models were then used to objectively and predictably explain the growth of anthocyanin-induced calluses from T. officinale. Of these models, the Richards model offered the most suitable representation of anthocyanin callus growth in a solid medium and permitted the calculation of the corresponding kinetic parameters. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate the potential of an in vitro anthocyanin-induced callus line from T. officinale as an industrial anthocyanin source.


Subject(s)
Taraxacum/growth & development , Plant Development , Anthocyanins/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Kinetics , Plant Cells , Phytochemicals
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1694-1701, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-688057

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>In the current society, infertility related to age has become a social problem. The in vitro fertilization (IVF) success rate in women with poor ovarian response (POR) is very low. Dandelion extract T-1 (DE-T1) is an effective component of the extract from the leaves and stems of Taraxacum officinale, which is one of the medicines used in some patients with POR, but its molecular mechanism remains unclear.</p><p><b>Methods</b>Following IVF, ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) of sixty patients were extracted and divided into normal ovarian response (NOR) and POR groups. GCs were cultured in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner with DE-T1, proliferation of GCs was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, and mRNA levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), luteotropic hormone receptor (LHR), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), LHR, and CYP19A1 (aromatase) were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Progesterone and estradiol (E2) concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.</p><p><b>Results</b>The cell viability gradually increased with the progressive increase in the DE-T1 concentration. Compared with the control group (without DE-T1), the mRNA expressions of FSHR, LHR, IGF-1R, and CYP19A1 were upregulated after the addition of DE-T1, especially in the 2.5% DE-T1 group (P < 0.01). The expression of IGF-1R was upregulated approximately 25 times (24.97 ± 4.02 times) in the POR group with 2.5% DE-T1. E2 and progesterone levels increased with the increasing DE-T1 concentration. There were highly significant differences in the E2 and progesterone secretion between the NOR and POR groups (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>Conclusion</b>DE-T1 may promote steroid hormone synthesis by promoting GC proliferation and upregulating GC receptor expression, thereby improving ovarian endocrine function.</p>

6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1724-1731, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-688053

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>Dandelion is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine with several active compounds found in extracts. It has a variety of pharmacological effects, such as a reduction in swelling and inflammation, and detoxification. The mechanism by which dandelion extract inhibits the inflammatory response in skeletal muscle cells remains unknown; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dandelion extract root on the proliferation of skeletal muscle cells and the alleviation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in vitro.</p><p><b>Methods</b>Rat skeletal muscle cells were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rat and cultured in vitro which were cultured in basal medium, or medium containing LPS or dandelion extract. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) was employed to measure cell proliferation; meanwhile, the optimal concentration of dandelion extract and treatment time were selected. Crystal violet staining was used to detect the proliferation of muscle cells. Western blotting analysis was used to detect the levels of inflammatory factors, myogenic factor, and p-AKT protein expression.</p><p><b>Results</b>The optimal concentration and treatment time of dandelion extract for the following study were 5 mg/ml and 4 days, respectively. Dandelion extract was found to increase proliferation of rat skeletal muscle cells (t = 3.145, P < 0.05), with the highest effect observed at 5 mg/ml. LPS was found to decrease proliferation of skeletal muscle cells (t = -131.959, P < 0.001), and dandelion extract could against this affection (t = 19.466, P < 0.01). LPS could induce expression of inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (IL-1β: t = 9.118, P < 0.01; IL-6: t = 4.346, P < 0.05; TNF-α: t = 15.806, P < 0.05), and dandelion extract was shown to reduce LPS-induced expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α (IL-1β: t = -2.823, P < 0.05; IL-6: t = -3.348, P < 0.01; and TNF-α: t = -3.710, P < 0.01). Furthermore, LPS was also shown to decrease expression of myogenic factor, including myod1 and myogenin (MyoD1: t = 4.039, P < 0.05 and myogenin: t = 3.300, P < 0.01), but dandelion extract was shown to against this effect of LPS (MyoD1: t = -3.160, P < 0.05 and myogenin: t = -3.207, P < 0.01). And then, LPS was found to increase expression of p-AKT protein (p-AKT/AKT: t = 4.432, P < 0.05). Moreover, expression of p-AKT protein was found to decrease, with 5 mg/ml of dandelion extract (p-AKT/AKT: t = -3.618, P < 0.05).</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>The findings indicate that dandelion extract plays an important role in skeletal muscle cells viability regulation, promote cells proliferation by increasing level of p-AKT protein expression, and reduce LPS-induced expression of inflammatory factors, inhibiting the inflammatory response of rat skeletal muscle cells.</p>

7.
Chinese Herbal Medicines ; (4): 353-361, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-842106

ABSTRACT

Taraxaci Herba (Taraxacum mongolicum and other species) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine and dietary application for a long history in China, and Taraxacum officinale has been applied in medicinal and food use in other regions and cultures around the globe. In this review, the phytochemical constituents of dandelion (particularly from T. mongolicum and T. officinale) were summarized. Recent published health benefits of dandelion, such as anti-oxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, blood sugar and lipids regulation and hepatoprotective activity, as well as its safety data were highlighted. The limited human clinical study and pharmacokinetics information lead to the thought that well-designed human clinical study should be the focus and opportunity for the future research area to truly understand efficacy function and health benefit of dandelion for its application in medicine and health food area.

8.
China Pharmacist ; (12): 1363-1366, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-495165

ABSTRACT

Objective:To summarize the research advance in antitumor activity of dandelion in recent 5 years.Methods:The lit-eratures on the antitumor activity of various extracts of dandelion in recent 5 years were collected , including the effective components such as polysaccharide , triterpenes , phytosterols , flavonoids and organic acids etc .Results:Dandelion showed antitumor activity .The polysaccharide ingredients could effectively prevent the proliferation of pancreatic cancer PANC -1 cells, lupeol could reduce the activity of breast cancer MCF-7 cells, and beta sitosterol could induce the apoptosis of human cervical cancer Hela cells .Conclusion:Dande-lion is effective in the treatment of pancreatic cancer , breast cancer and cervical cance etc .The antitumor activity of the other active in-gredients in dandelion needs further research in order to provide complete theoretical and experimental evidence for the potential appli -cation as antitumor medicine in clinics .

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812477

ABSTRACT

Plants of the genus Taraxacum, commonly known as dandelions, are used to treat breast cancer in traditional folk medicine. However, their use has mainly been based on empirical findings without sufficient scientific evidence. Therefore, we hypothesized that dandelions would behave as a Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and be effective as hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in the postmenopausal women. In the present study, in vitro assay systems, including cell proliferation assay, reporter gene assay, and RT-PCR to evaluate the mRNA expression of estrogen-related genes (pS2 and progesterone receptor, PR), were performed in human breast cancer cells. Dandelion ethanol extract (DEE) significantly increased cell proliferation and estrogen response element (ERE)-driven luciferase activity. DEE significantly induced the expression of estrogen related genes such as pS2 and PR, which was inhibited by tamoxifen at 1 μmol·L(-1). These results indicated that DEE could induce estrogenic activities mediated by a classical estrogen receptor pathway. In addition, immature rat uterotrophic assay was carried out to identify estrogenic activity of DEE in vivo. The lowest concentration of DEE slightly increased the uterine wet weight, but there was no significant effect with the highest concentration of DEE. The results demonstrate the potential estrogenic activities of DEE, providing scientific evidence supporting their use in traditional medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Methods , Female , Gene Expression , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Phytoestrogens , Metabolism , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Plant Leaves , Rats , Receptors, Estrogen , Metabolism , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators , Pharmacology , Taraxacum , Uterus
10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-151637

ABSTRACT

The antibacterial and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate extract of nettle (Urtica dioica) and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) was studied, also phytochemical screening and determination of total phenolic content has been investigated. The results revealed that ethyl acetate extract of nettle was more effective on all bacterial isolates (Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli) than dandelion with highest inhibition zone (24 mm) towards B. cereus, A hydrophila was more resistant than other bacteria. Also it was found that nettle gave large inhibition zone to S. typhi (22mm). Ethyl acetate of nettle had the highest content of phenolic compounds (48.3mg GAE/gdw) while dandelion had only (10.2 mg GAE/gdw) of phenolic content. The phytochemical qualitative screening exhibited flavonoid, glycosides and phenols were present in nettle and dandelion. In nettle, alkaloid, tannins and terpenoids were present, while absent in dandelion, on the other hand, dandelion had the saponins which not found in nettle. Steroids not present in the tow plants. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate extract of nettle and dandelion by ferric thiocyanate method (FTC) exhibited that nettle caused 76% lipid peroxidation in inhibition of linoleic acid emulsion; this activity was greater than dandelion (44%) and α-tocopherol (65%).

11.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 687-690, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-860392

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the genetic characteristics and phylogenetic relationships of dandelions of 20 populations by sequencing ITS sequence. METHODS: The ITS sequence was amplified by PCR with universal primer of ITS, and the ITS sequence of the PCR products was directly sequenced after purification. RESULTS: The total length of ITS sequence of different samples was 711 bp. The ITS sequence was divided into three fragments; ITS1 was 225 bp, 5.8S was 262 bp and ITS2 was 226 bp. In all samples 5.8S was comparatively conserved, while ITS1 and ITS2 had higher diversity in base sequence among the various specimens. CONCLUSION: ITS sequence can be used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of different varieties of dandelions.

12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-213032

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory response on LPS and IFN-gamma induced Macrophage Raw 264.7 cells was secreted NO (nitric oxide) and PGE2 (prostaglandin E2) though expression of iNOS and COX-2. And many pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 etc.) was secreted on LPS and IFN-gamma induced Macrophage Raw 264.7 cells, too. Atopy dermatitis was inflammatory skin disease with pruritus, xeroderma and specific eczema. OBJECTIVE: We sought to effect of anti-inflammation and skin hydration of AF-343 on Macrophage Raw 264.7 cells and NC/Nga mice with Atopic Dermatitis. METHODS: The immune response of Raw 264.7 cells were induced by LPS and IFN-gamma. Then LPS and IFN-gamma induced Raw 264.7 cells was measured NO, PGE2 production after treatment of different concentrations for AF-343. The related genes (iNOS, COX-2) for NO, PGE2 production were detected using Western blot in LPS and IFN-gamma induced Raw 264.7 cells after treatment of different concentrations for AF-343. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were detected, too. NC/Nga mice as Atopy dermatitis model was induced atopy dermatitis. Then NC/Nga mice with atopy dermatitis were performed oral administration of AF-343 for 1weeks. After oral administration of AF-343, TEWL was measured on skin tissues of NC/Nga mice with atopy dermatitis according to whether were performed oral administration of AF-343 or not. And pro-inflammatory cytokines and IgE was measured in serum, protein of skin tissues of NC/Nga mice. Skin tissues of NC/Nga mice were performed H&E staining, immunohistochemical staining for PCNA, Involucrin and filaggrin. RESULTS: LPS and IFN-gamma induced Raw 264.7 cells was decreased NO, PGE2 production in dose-dependent after treatment of different concentrations for AF-343. The expression level of iNOS, COX-2 protein was decreased in dose-dependent, too. The related pro-inflammatory cytokines in media with LPS and IFN-gamma induced Raw 264.7 cells were decreased after treatment of different concentrations for AF-343. TEWL level of NC/Nga mice skin (back, ear) with atopy dermatitis according to whether were performed oral administration of AF-343 or not was decreased in NC/Nga mice with atopy dermatitis group was performed oral administration by AF-343. When NC/Nga mice group with atopy dermatitis was performed oral administration by AF-343, induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and IgE expression in serum, protein of back, ear skin tissues of each NC/Nga mice group was decreased. H&E stained Skin tissues of NC/Nga mice was confirmed that thickness of epidermis, dermis were decreased in NC/Nga mice group with atopy dermatitis was performed oral administration by AF-343 than NC/Nga mice group with atopy dermatitis. The expression of PCNA, involucrin and filaggrin were decreased in NC/Nga mice group with atopy dermatitis was performed oral administration by AF-343 than NC/Nga mice group with atopy dermatitis as results of immunihistochemical staining using specific antibodies such as PCNA as cell proliferation marker, involucrin and filaggrin as keratinocytes differentiation markers for skin tissues (back, ear) of NC/Nga mice. CONCLUSION: We confirmed effect of anti-inflammation and skin hydration of AF-343 on Macrophage Raw 264.7 cells and NC/Nga mice with Atopic Dermatitis. In conclusion, AF-343 is expecting as therapeutics for atopic dermatitis.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Antibodies , Antigens, Differentiation , Blotting, Western , Cell Proliferation , Cytokines , Dermatitis , Dermatitis, Atopic , Dermis , Dinoprostone , Ear , Eczema , Epidermis , Ichthyosis , Immunoglobulin E , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Intermediate Filament Proteins , Keratinocytes , Macrophages , Mice , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Protein Precursors , Pruritus , Skin , Skin Diseases , Taraxacum
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59834

ABSTRACT

Dandelion (DA) possesses the therapeutic ability to eliminate heat and alleviating swelling, choleresis, dieresis, and inflammation. In order to investigate the anti-arthritic effect of DA, several behavioral parameters such as paw volume, squeaking score, and weight distribution ratio were investigated in a carrageenan-induced arthritis rat model. At the maximum severity of arthritis, the daily administration of DA was initiated and lasted for 9 days. The therapeutic effects of DA were observed on 9th day after the arthritis induction, as compared to saline-treated control group. Oral administration of DA significantly alleviated apparent symptoms of paw volume, squeaking score, and weight distribution ratio in rats. In conclusion, DA was found to be effective in alleviating the inflammatory response and thus arthritic symptoms in carrageenan-induced arthritic rats.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Ankle , Arthritis , Carrageenan , Hot Temperature , Inflammation , Rats , Taraxacum
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80997

ABSTRACT

No abstract availalbe


Subject(s)
Beta vulgaris , Brassica , Comfrey , Taraxacum
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