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Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55: e0553, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360812


ABSTRACT Background: Chagas disease (CD) is caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and can be carried by different species of triatomines, including Rhodnius neglectus, which is wild, well distributed in Brazil, and has formed colonies in palm trees located in urban areas of municipalities in the state of São Paulo. Chemical control has been routinely used to reduce population density, but each year, there has been an increase in species dispersion and density. This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of insects to insecticides used in control. Methods: The reference population was collected from Araçatuba municipality, Nilce Maia. Dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied to the back of the first-stage nymphs, which were biologically synchronized. The control group received pure acetone only. Mortality was assessed after 72 h. Results: The mortality rate with respect to diagnostic dose was 100%. The susceptibility profile observed for this population showed RR50 ranging from 1.76 to 3.632. Conclusions: The populations were susceptible to the insecticides tested. It is possible that the insecticide residual effect on this ecotope has decreased the lifespan, and controlling failures may be the cause of recolonization in this environment.

Tropical Biomedicine ; : 165-170, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904667


@#The spraying of insecticide on foliage to provide an insecticidal barrier may serve as part of the vector control measures to combat the increasing threat of Aedes-borne diseases. The effectiveness of insecticide barrier spraying was evaluated by assessing the residual efficacy of deltamethrin sprayed on foliage against Malaysian Ae. aegypti (L.) and Ae. albopictus (Skuse). In this semi-field study, landscape plants grown within the vicinity of the Institute for Medical Research (IMR), Malaysia, were treated with deltamethrin suspension concentrate (SC) with the dosage of 30 mg/m2 and 50 mg/m2 in three rounds of spraying. Deltamethrin residual activity on treated and untreated leaves was investigated using standard WHO cone bioassays. Wild Aedes populations at both deltamethrin-treated and untreated plant clusters were monitored by ovitrap surveillance. Ovitrap monitoring revealed that the mean number of Ae. albopictus larvae at deltamethrin-treated were significantly lower than the mean number of larvae of the same species at the untreated plant cluster. Cone bioassay results showed that the insecticide remained effective for up to 4 weeks (> 80% mortality), but the insecticide residual activity was affected by rainfall. These results suggest that insecticide barrier spraying is a promising tool and may be used along with other mosquito control tools such as indoor residual spray and space spraying to reduce the dengue burden.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904627


Objective To investigate the susceptibility of Anopheles sinensis to malathion, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in Puyang City, Henan Province, so as to provide the scientific basis for local malaria vector control. Methods An. sinensis was captured from Puyang County, Puyang City of Henan Province in September 2018 and July 2020, and the susceptibility of field captured An. sinensis to malathion, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin was tested using the filter-paper bioassay recommended by WHO. The insecticide resistance level was assessed based on the WHO criteria. Results In 2018 and 2010, the half knock-down times (KT50) of malathion were 91.08 min and 40.95 min for An. sinensis, with knock-down rates of 37.50% and 60.87% 60 min post-exposure to malathion and 24-hour mortality rates of 90.91% and 100%, respectively, and the insecticide resistance levels were moderately resistant (M) and susceptible (S). The KT50 of deltamethrin were 415.56 min and 341.19 min for An. sinensis in 2018 and 2020, with knock-down rates of 22.92% and 16.98% 60 min post-exposure to malathion and 24-hour mortality rates of 22.92% and 16.98%, and the insecticide resistance levels were all resistant (R). The KT50 of lambda-cyhalothrin were 164.22 min and 236.22 min for An. sinensis in 2018 and 2020, with knock-down rates of 30.39% and 38.30% 60 min postexposure to malathion and 24 h mortality rates of 19.60% and 21.28%, respectively, and the insecticide resistance levels were all R. Conclusion An. sinensis is relatively susceptible to malathion but has developed high-level resistance to deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in Puyang City, Henan Province..

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886763


Objective To analyze the changes of small molecular metabolites in the larvae of a deltamethrin-sensitive strain of Anopheles sinensis following exposure to deltamethrin, so as to provide the scientific basis for investigating the metabolic pathway and screening metabolic markers of deltamethrin in An. sinensis. Methods The 50% and 75% lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC75) of deltamethrin against the larvae of a deltamethrin-sensitive strain of An. sinensis were calculated in laboratory. The type and content of An. sinensis larvae metabolites were detected using high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) following exposure to deltamethrin at LC50 and LC75 for 30 min and 24 h, and the changes of metabolites were analyzed. Results The LC50 and LC75 values of deltamethrin were 4.36 × 10-3 µg/mL and 1.12 × 10-2 µg/mL against thelarvae of a deltamethrin-sensitive strain of An. sinensis. Following exposure of the larvae of a deltamethrin-sensitive strain of An. sinensis to deltamethrin at LC50 and LC75 for 30 min, the differential metabolites mainly included organic oxygen compounds, carboxylic acid and its derivatives, fatty acyl and pyrimidine nucleotides, with reduced glucose levels. Following exposure for 24 h, the differential metabolites mainly included organic oxygen compounds, carboxylic acid and its derivatives, aliphatic acyl and purine nucleotides, with increased glucose level detected. Conclusion Carbohydrate, carboxylic acid and its derivatives, fatty acyls, amino acids and their derivatives may play important roles in deltamethrin metabolism in the larvae of a deltamethrin-sensitive strain of An. sinensis.

Int J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 2020 Aug; 12(8): 111-116
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-206006


Objective: The objective of the present study is the evaluation of the effect of the sublethal (40% and 60% of 48h LC50) binary combination (1:5 ratios) of molluscicides deltamethrin+MGK-264 on the endogenous levels of protein, amino acid and nucleic acid in different tissues of snail Lymnaea acuminata. Methods: The snails were treated with 1:5 mixtures of sub-lethal concentration of (40% and 60% of 48h LC50) deltamethrin+MGK-264 on the protein, amino acid and nucleic acid levels in gonadal, nervous and foot tissue of L. acuminata. In order to study the effect of withdrawal from treatment, the snails were first exposed to the above concentrations for 96h, after which they were transferred to freshwater. Water was changed every 24h for the next seven days, after which different biochemical parameters were estimated. Results: There was a significant change in the levels of protein (sublethal concentration of 60% of 48h LC50 after 96h) gonadal, nervous and foot tissues are 48.1, 12.1 and 14.5%, respectively, amino acid are 273, 234 and 252%, respectively, DNA are 25.1, 38.9 and 42.1%, respectively and RNA are 12.2, 30.7 and 30.5%, respectively. These changes were time and concentration-dependent. In the withdrawal experiment, the snails were treated for 96h to transfer in freshwater for 7 d, which caused significant recovery in all the biochemical parameters. Conclusion: The present study concluded that the high molluscicidal activity of deltamethrin+MGK-264 simultaneous decrease in the levels of proteins, DNA, RNA and increase in the level of amino acids.

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210925


The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of pesticide residues in bovine milk and associated health risks in human. To assess the pesticide residues, a total of 200 milk samples were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with Photo Diode Array Detector (PDA).The residues of carbaryl, 4’4’ DDT and deltamethrin pesticides were found in the 27.5%, 11% and 5% milk samples, respectively. The spatial distribution of pesticide residues in milk samples indicated that carbaryl was wide spread over the entire study area. The non-significance differences in mean residual concentrations of all three pesticides in cow and buffalo milk samples were recorded. The human health risk assessment in terms of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health hazard was calculated based on both lower bound [LB (mean residue levels)] and upper bound [UB (95th percentile level)] limits at current levels of pesticides in bovine milk samples. The estimated average daily dietary intake (EADDI) of studied pesticides was found below the acceptable dietary intake (ADI) for both adult and children, at mean as well as 95th percentile upper bound (UB) levels. The values suggesting lower carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risk to adult however children are at greater health risk.Keywords: Bovine milk, carbaryl, deltamethrin

Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190431, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135241


BACKGROUND Long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) may be effective for vector control of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Their efficacy, however, has not been sufficiently evaluated. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the large-scale efficacy of LLINs on Lutzomyia longiflocosa entomological parameters up to two years post-intervention in the sub-Andean region of Colombia. METHODS A matched-triplet cluster-randomised study of 21 rural settlements, matched by pre-intervention L. longiflocosa indoor density was used to compare three interventions: dip it yourself (DIY) lambda-cyhalothrin LLIN, deltamethrin LLIN, and untreated nets (control). Sand fly indoor density, feeding success, and parity were recorded using CDC light trap collections at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months post-intervention. FINDINGS Both LLINs reduced significantly (74-76%) the indoor density and the proportion of fully engorged sand flies up to two years post-intervention without differences between them. Residual lethal effects of both LLINs and the use of all nets remained high throughout the two-year evaluation period. CONCLUSIONS Both LLINs demonstrated high efficacy against L. longiflocosa indoors. Therefore, the deployment of these LLINs could have a significant impact on the reduction of CL transmission in the sub-Andean region. The DIY lambda-cyhalothrin kit may be used to convert untreated nets to LLINs increasing coverage.

Animals , Mosquito Control/methods , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/prevention & control , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Anopheles/drug effects , Rural Population , Insecticide Resistance , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Colombia , Mosquito Vectors
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837669


Objective To explore the sensitivity of Culex pipiens pallens to common chemical insecticides in the southwestern region of Shandong Province, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the development of reasonable and effective mosquito control measures. Methods The resistance of Cx. pipiens pallens larvae to 5 chemical insecticides, such as cypermethrin, deltamethrin, DDVP, propoxur, and acetofenate were tested by using the WHO biological test method in 2018, and the co-toxicity coefficients after compounding the above-mentioned insecticides were tested by using a drug compounding method. Results The resistance indexes of Cx. pipiens pallens to cypermethrin, deltamethrin, DDVP, propoxur, and acetofenate in 3 cities were 144.43–557.54, 118.17–445.33, 6.44–19.00, 2.37–8.10, and 0.88–2.98, respectively, and expect the difference between the DDVP resistances of Cx. pipiens pallens in Jining City and Heze City was not statistically significant (P > 0.05), all the other differences were statistically significant (all P < 0.05). The synergistic coefficients of cypermethrin + DDVP, cypermethrin + propoxur, DDVP + acetofenate, and propoxur + acetofenate were 199.58 – 456.95, 190.56 – 292.37, 123.32 – 319.24, and 192.31 – 367.32, respectively. The lower synergism was observed by using the mixture of DDVP + propoxur (synergistic coefficient: 99.87–108.36) . Conclusions After decades of chemical control, Cx. pipiens pallens in the southwestern region of Shandong Province has produced different degrees of resistance to common chemical insecticides. Therefore, comprehensive control measures should be taken to control mosquito breeding and prevent the development of insecticide resistance.

Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180544, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002687


BACKGROUND Aedes aegypti populations in Brazil have been subjected to insecticide selection pressures with variable levels and sources since 1967. Therefore, the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MoH) coordinated the activities of an Ae. aegypti insecticide resistance monitoring network (MoReNAa) from 1999 to 2012. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to consolidate all information available from between 1985 and 2017 regarding the resistance status and mechanisms of Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations against the main insecticide compounds used at the national level, including the larvicide temephos (an organophosphate) and the adulticide deltamethrin (a pyrethroid). METHODS Data were gathered from two sources: a bibliographic review of studies published from 1985 to 2017, and unpublished data produced by our team within the MoReNAa between 1998 and 2012. A total of 146 municipalities were included, many of which were evaluated several times, totalling 457 evaluations for temephos and 274 for deltamethrin. Insecticide resistance data from the five Brazilian regions were examined separately using annual records of both the MoH supply of insecticides to each state and the dengue incidence in each evaluated municipality. FINDINGS Ae. aegypti resistance to temephos and deltamethrin, the main larvicide and adulticide, respectively, employed against mosquitoes in Brazil for a long time, was found to be widespread in the country, although with some regional variations. Comparisons between metabolic and target-site resistance mechanisms showed that one or another of these was the main component of pesticide resistance in each studied population. MAIN CONCLUSIONS (i) A robust dataset on the assessments of the insecticide resistance of Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations performed since 1985 was made available through our study. (ii) Our findings call into question the efficacy of chemical control as the sole methodology of vector control. (iii) It is necessary to ensure that sustainable insecticide resistance monitoring is maintained as a key component of integrated vector management. (iv) Consideration of additional parameters, beyond the supply of insecticides distributed by the MoH or the diverse local dynamics of dengue incidence, is necessary to find consistent correlations with heterogeneous vector resistance profiles.

Humans , Insecticide Resistance/immunology , Temefos/analysis , Aedes , Vector Control of Diseases , Brazil/epidemiology
Rev. bras. entomol ; 62(2): 107-111, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045502


Abstract We evaluated in the present study the effect of deltamethrin resistance on the fitness cost of the filed populations of Anopheles labranchiae. A susceptible population was used as reference to do different comparisons. We selected the most resistant larvae population collected from northern Tunisia. Eggs were used for study of life history traits including developmental time, larvae mortality, fertility, hatchability and adult sex-ratio. Our results showed that deltamethrin resistance affected negatively (p < 0.05) the developmental time with the median range of 70 h, mortality with the rate of 7 folds in resistant population and hatchability which are lower than in susceptible population. Whereas, no significant differences were detected in adult sex-ratio and fertility of the two studied populations. Our results could help to determine the evolution of population dynamics of the resistant studied population in the areas where insecticide resistance is reported and resistance management is needed.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704248


Objective To explore the expression characteristics of cytochrome P450(CYP)candidate genes(CYP6M3, CYP6Y1,CYP6P5,CYP4H14,CYP4G17,CYP12F16)in Anopheles sinensis.Methods The samples were collected from dif-ferent developmental stages(eggs,larvae,pupae and adult mosquitoes(females and males)),and different tissues(salivary glands,malpighian tubes,midguts,ovaries,and fat bodies)of An.sinensis and the female adult mosquitoes exposed by differ-ent insecticide doses(0,1.25,3.75,6.25,12.5μg/bottle)and time points(0,5,15,30,60 minutes),then the total RNA was extracted. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR(qPCR)assay was used to analyze the relative expressions of six CYP genes in An.sinensis at different developmental stages,tissues and different insecticide exposure doses and time.Results The expressions of CYP6M3 and CYP6Y1 in the male adult mosquitoes were the highest,the expression of CYP6M3 gene in the males was 35.1 times higher than that in the females,the expression of CYP6Y1 in the males was 61.4 times higher than that in the females;the expression level of CYP4H14 in the larvae was the lowest,the expression of CYP4H14 in the females was 22.5 times higher than that in the fourth instar larvae.The expressions of candidate CYP genes in different tissues of An.sinensis were significantly different,the expression of CYP6M3 in the malpighian tubule was 38.9 times higher than that in the ovary,the ex-pression of CYP6Y1 in the fatbody was 9.1 times higher than that in the ovary,the expression of CYP4G17 was 4.6 times higher than that in the ovary,and the expression of CYP12F16 was 4.4 times higher thanthat in the ovary.The exposure to different in-secticide doses and time showed some induction effects in the expressions of candidate CYP genes,which affected the expres-sions of candidate CYP genes in An.sinensis.Conclusion The expression of candidate CYP genes varies significantly in differ-ent developmental stages and various tissues of An.sinensis,and exposure to deltamethrin at various doses and time points af-fects CYP genes expression in An.sinensis.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-693703


Objective To establish a quantitative method for the simultaneous measurement of the residual level of three pesticides in Nelumbinis semen by GC-MS/MS. Methods The samples were extracted by acetonitrile and purify by Cleanert TPH column. The samples were then tested by GC-MS/MS. Information on relative retention time and mass charge ratio was used for qualitative analysis. The peak area obtained by secondary ion MS of bifenthrin (181.1/166.1)was used as the reference peak to calculate the relative correction factor for the peak area of fenpropathrin (265.1/210.1) and deltamethrin (252.9/93.0), to establish a method using bifenthrin as the reference substance to determinate there sidual quantity of three pesticides in Nelumbinis semen by GC-MS/MS. Results When the injection quantity of the sample containing bifenthrin,fenpropathrin and deltamethrin in the range of 0.01-0.1 ng , there was a good linear relationship between the injection quantity and peak are a Limitation of quantification (LOQ) of bifenthrin , fenpropathrin and deltamethrin were 4.321×10-4 ng, 3.435×10-4 ng, 8.913×10-3 ng, respectively. The average recovery rates of bifenthrin, fenpropathrin and deltamethrin were 93.5%, 93.5% and 93.8%, respectively. Conclusions The method of quantitative analysis of multi-components with a single-marker is simple, quick and accurate. It suitable for the detection of residual quantity of bifenthrin, fenpropathrin and deltamethrin in Nelumbinis semen.

Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(5): e170377, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894922


BACKGROUND There is little information on the effect of using deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars for the control of canine visceral leishmaniasis. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of 4% deltamethrin-impregnated collars (Scalibor®) in controlling visceral leishmaniasis in Lutzomyia longipalpis by comparing populations in intervention and non-intervention areas. METHODS Phlebotomine flies were captured over 30 months in four neighbourhoods with intense visceral leishmaniasis transmission in Fortaleza and Montes Claros. We calculated the rates of domicile infestation, relative abundance of Lu. longipalpis, and Lu. longipalpis distribution in each site, capture location (intra- and peridomestic locations) and area (intervention and non-intervention areas). FINDINGS In the control area in Fortaleza, the relative abundance of Lu. longipalpis was 415 specimens at each capture site, whereas in the intervention area it was 159.25; in Montes Claros, the relative abundance was 5,660 specimens per capture site in the control area, whereas in the intervention area it was 2,499.4. The use of dog collars was associated with a reduction in captured insects of 15% (p = 0.004) and 60% (p < 0.001) in Montes Claros and Fortaleza, respectively. MAIN CONCLUSIONS We observed a lower vector abundance in the intervention areas, suggesting an effect of the insecticide-impregnated collars.

Animals , Dogs , Psychodidae , Leishmaniasis, Visceral , Insect Control/instrumentation , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Nitriles/administration & dosage
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(9): e180131, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-955122


BACKGROUND Behavioural effects of insecticides on endophagic phlebotomine sand fly vectors of Leishmania are poorly understood mainly because of the lack of an experimental hut (EH) in which to study them. OBJECTIVE To build an EH to evaluate the effects of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) on Lutzomyia longiflocosa. METHODS The study had two phases: (1) Laboratory experiments using tunnel tests to select the traps for the EH; and (2) EH construction and evaluation of the effects of deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin LLINs on L. longiflocosa females inside the EH. FINDINGS Phase 1: The horizontal-slit trap was the best trap. This trap collected the highest percentage of sand flies, and prevented them from escaping. Therefore, this trap was used in the EH. Phase 2: The main effects of LLINs on L. longiflocosa in the EH were: landing inhibition, inhibition from entering the bednet, induced exophily, and high mortality (total and inside exit traps). CONCLUSIONS The EH was effective for evaluating the effects of LLINs on endophagic sand flies. Although both types of LLINs showed high efficacy, the lambda-cyhalothrin-treated LLIN performed better. This is the first report of induced exophily in sand flies.

Psychodidae , Insecticides/toxicity , Leishmania , Mosquito Vectors
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-700077


Objective:To evaluate the deltamethrin pyrethroid insecticides against Anopheles labranchiae,potential malaria vector in Tunisia.Methods:Six field populations of Anopheles labranchiae mosquitoes were collected from six localities in Northern and Central Tunisia between October and November 2016.Different bioassays were performed to estimate the level of resistance in each collected population.Two synergists were used to estimate the involvement of detoxification enzymes in insecticide resistance.Results:All studied strains were resistant and the RRs0 ranged from 12.5 in sample #1 to 72.5 in sample #6.Synergist tests using piperonyl butoxide indicated the involvement of monoxygenases enzymes in the recorded resistance.In contrast,the increase of deltamethrin mortality was not significant in presence of S,S,sributyl phosphorothioate (0.8 < SR < 1.2),suggesting no role of esterases (and/or GST) in the resistance phenotype.The correlation recorded between mortality due to DDT and the LC50 of deltamethrin insecticide indicated an insensitive sodium channel affected by Kdr mutation (Spearman rank correlation,r =-0.59,P < 0.01).Conclusions:These results should be considered in the current mosquitoes control programs in Tunisia.The use of pesticides and insecticides by both agricultural and public health departments in Tunisia should be more rational to reduce the development of resistance in populations.Different insecticide applications should be implemented alternately.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-495743


Objective To understand the status of resistance to multiple insecticides and the frequencies of kdr mutations in Culex pipiens pallens from north?central Anhui Province. Methods From July to September,2014,the C. pipiens pallens mosquito larvae were collected in Huaibei,Bengbu and Chuzhou cities of the north?central Anhui Province and reared to adults. The female adult mosquitoes at 3-5 days post emergence were tested for susceptibility to the four insecticides,namely 0.05%deltamethrin,5%malathion,0.1%bendiocarb and 4%DDT,by using the standard WHO resistance tube bioassay. The detec?tion of the point mutations of the kdr gene at codon 1014 was conducted by PCR and DNA sequencing in the deltamethrin?resis?tant and?susceptible mosquitoes. Results High levels of resistance to all the four insecticides were found in all the three tested populations,although mosquito mortality varied among populations and test insecticides. Among the test insecticides,DDT showed lowest mortality with no significant difference(F=1.027,P>0.05)in all test populations,whereas significantly differ?ent mortalities were observed among populations for the remained three insecticides tested(deltamethrin,malathion,and ben?diocarb)(F = 23.823,33.955,128.841;all P < 0.01). Two types of non?synonymous kdr mutation at codon position 1014 (L1014F and L1014S)were observed. A positive correlation between L1014F mutation frequencies and deltamethrin resistance levels were detected in the three mosquito populations(r2=0.718,P<0.01). Conclusions The observed high levels of resis?tance to multiple?insecticides coupled with the occurrence of medium to high kdr frequencies in populations of C. pipiens pallens could profoundly affect the mosquito vector control programme in China. The local health departments need to strengthen vector dynamic monitoring and implement rational resistance management strategies.

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(4): 417-421, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755968



Despite chemical and physical vector control strategies, persistent infestations of Triatoma sordida have been reported in a large part of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the cause for this is little investigated. We aimed to characterize the deltamethrin toxicological profile in peridomestic T. sordidapopulations from Triângulo Mineiro area of Minas Gerais.


Susceptibility to deltamethrin was assessed in seventeen peridomestic T. sordida populations. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin in acetone (0.2µL) were topically applied on the first instar nymphs (F1; five days old; fasting weight, 1.2 ± 0.2mg). Dose response results were analyzed using Probit software, and the lethal doses, slope and resistance ratios were determined. Qualitative tests were also performed.


The deltamethrin susceptibility profile of T. sordida populations revealed resistance ratios ranging from 0.84 to 2.8. The percentage mortality in response to a diagnostic dose was 100.0% in all populations.


From our results, the lack of resistance to insecticides but persistent T. sordida infestations in the Triângulo Mineiro area may be because of: 1) environmental degradation facilitating dispersion of T. sordida , allowing colonization in artificial ecotopes; 2) operational failures; and 3) complexity of the peridomicile in the study area.These variables are being investigated.


Animals , Insecticides , Nitriles , Pyrethrins , Triatoma , Biological Assay , Brazil , Chagas Disease/transmission
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(2): 157-161, mar-apr/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746229


INTRODUCTION: Despite years of efforts towards the elimination of Triatoma infestans in Brazil, residual foci still persist in some areas of the States of Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul. The persistence of these T. infestans populations in the country has two different origins of equal concern: operational failures or insecticide resistance. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize the susceptibility profile of the residual Brazilian populations of T. infestans to deltamethrin. METHODS: The susceptibility reference lineage was derived from Cipein/Argentina. The populations studied were manually collected using a dislodging agent in peridomiciles in the States of Bahia (Novo Horizonte) and of Rio Grande do Sul (Santa Rosa and Doutor Maurício Cardoso). Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied at the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed the mortality of a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 (2.76ng a.i./nymph) determined for the susceptibility reference lineage. RESULTS: The susceptibility profile characterization of the T. infestans populations revealed an RR50 ranging from 1.73 to 3.26. The mortality percentage in response to a diagnostic dose was 100%. The results obtained in the quantitative and qualitative assays corresponded for all populations. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that the persistence of residual foci of T. infestans in Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul is not related to insecticide resistance but may be associated with operational failures. In Rio Grande do Sul, we must consider the possibility of continuous reinfestation by Argentinian individuals, which justifies active and efficient epidemiological surveillance. .

Animals , Insect Vectors , Insecticide Resistance , Nitriles , Pyrethrins , Triatoma , Biological Assay , Brazil , Chagas Disease/transmission
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(1): 39-43, jan-feb/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742971


INTRODUCTION: Triatoma brasiliensis is the species of greatest epidemiological relevance in the semi-arid region of Brazil. This species is predominantly found in domestic environments, and it has the ability to build large colonies with high levels of natural infection via Trypanosoma cruzi. Thus, T. brasiliensis is one of the most efficient transmitters of Chagas disease (CD) to humans. Despite household spraying with residual insecticides, many areas report persistent reinfestations for reasons that remain poorly understood. Therefore, this study sought to characterize the toxicological profile of deltamethrin in T. brasiliensis from areas with persistent reinfestation in State of Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: The susceptibility reference lineage (SRL) was derived from Umari. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied to the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed mortality in response to a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 (0.851 nanograms of active ingredient per treated nymph) of the SRL. RESULTS: The susceptibility profile characterization of the T. brasiliensis populations revealed 50% resistance ratios (RR50) that ranged from 0.32 to 1.21. The percentage of mortality in response to the diagnostic dose was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that T. brasiliensis was highly susceptible to deltamethrin. The control difficulties found might be related to the recolonization of the triatomines originating from neighboring environments and the possible operational failures related to the process of spraying that enabled specimens less susceptible to deltamethrin to survive. .

Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Health Status Disparities , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Social Class , Causality , Cohort Studies , Employment/classification , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Logistic Models , Lipoproteins, LDL/blood , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-838985


Objective To investigate the resistance to deltamethrin and permethrin in Aedes albopictus in Haikou City, and to detect the knockdown resistance (kdr) mutants of A. albopictus, elucidating the association of resistant phenotype with kdr mutation. Methods The A. albopictus samples were collected from Xinfu Island, Longtang Town, Shishan Town, Baishamen Park, and the flower market in Haikou City. Their susceptibility to deltamethrin and permethrin was tested by larval bioassay. The resistance level was determined by the R/S ratio. The kdr gene was amplified and analyzed, and the relationship between the resistant phenotype and kdr mutation was determined by Chi-square test. Results The A. albopictus samples from the flower market and Baishamen Park showed resistance to deltamethrin and permethrin, of which the flower market population had an R/S ratio of up to 436.36, indicating a high level of resistance. The A. albopictus samples from Longtang Town and Shishan Town were sensitive to permethrin, but had low (R/S ratio, 9.09) and moderate (18.18) degrees of resistance to deltamethrin, respectively. The Xinfu Island population was sensitive to both deltamethrin and permethrin. The codon 1 534 kdr was detected point mutations among 317 A. albopictus samples, with two mutant alleles, TGC/C and TCC/S. The five genotypes were wild-type TTC/TTC (frequency, 62.15%), wild/mutant heterozygous TTC/TGC (0.63%) and TTC/TCC (16.09%), homozygous mutant TCC/TCC (20.82%), and mutant heterozygous TGC/TCC (0.32%). Chi-square test revealed significant differences in the frequency of kdr mutant genotype between A. albopictu sensitive to the insecticides (31.97%) and those resistant to the insecticides (42.94%), P <0.05. Conclusion Some A. albopictus populations in Haikou City have developed resistance to both deltamethrin and permethrin. The resistant phenotype and kdr mutant genotype are closely associated. This study has also discovered for the first time the novel TCC/S point mutation of kdr.