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1.
CES odontol ; 34(1): 52-67, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360261

ABSTRACT

Resumen El uso de rayos X juega un papel esencial en el diagnóstico y planificación de tratamientos dentales. Los avances tecnológicos de los equipos de rayos X han contribuido al mayor uso de este tipo de radiación en la práctica odontológica. Aunque la exposición a la radiación es baja en estos procedimientos, todavía existe un riesgo que debe reducirse al mínimo necesario a fin de obtener una imagen adecuada para el diagnóstico y a la vez evitar efectos nocivos para el paciente y el personal involucrado. Debido al alto y creciente número de radiografías dentales, el hecho de que niños y adolescentes sean el foco de la mayoría de estas, la subestimación de la cantidad de exámenes radiológicos reportados y la supuesta baja conciencia de estudiantes y profesionales de la odontología sobre los peligros del uso indiscriminado de los rayos X, es necesario adoptar medidas de protección radiológica para mitigar los efectos biológicos radioinducidos. Este artículo tiene como objetivo revisar los principios básicos de la radioprotección que deben considerarse en la práctica dental, con el fin de garantizar el menor daño posible a trabajadores ocupacionalmente expuestos, pacientes y miembros del público.


Resumo O uso dos raios X desempenha um papel essencial no diagnóstico e planejamento de tratamentos dentários. O avanço tecnológico nos equipamentos de raios-X tem contribuído para o aumento do uso deste tipo de radiação na prática odontológica. Embora a exposição à radiação seja baixa nestes procedimentos, ela representa um risco e deve ser reduzida ao mínimo valor necessário para se obter a imagem adequada para o diagnóstico, evitando efeitos nocivos ao paciente e ao pessoal envolvido. Devido ao elevado e crescente número de radiografias odontológicas, ao fato de crianças e adolescentes serem o foco de grande parte delas, a subestimação do número de exames radiológicos notificados e a suposta baixa conscientização de estudantes e profissionais da odontologia sobre os perigos dos uso indiscriminado de raios-x, é precisa a adoção de medidas de radioproteção para mitigar o risco de efeitos nocivos radioinduzidos. Este artigo tem como objetivo revisar os princípios básicos da radioproteção a serem considerados na prática odontológica, a fim de garantir o menor prejuízo possível para trabalhadores ocupacionalmente expostos, pacientes e membros do público.


Abstract The use of X-rays plays an essential role in the diagnosis and planning of dental treatments. Technological advances in X-ray equipment have contributed to the increased use of this type of radiation in dental practice. Although radiation exposure is low in these procedures, there is still a risk. The reduction of the risk to the minimum value possible is necessary to obtain an adequate image for the diagnosis and avoiding harmful effects on the patient and the personnel involved. Due to the high and growing number of dental X-rays, the fact that children and adolescents are the focus of most of them, the underestimation of the number of radiological examinations reported and the supposed low awareness of dental students and professionals about the dangers the indiscriminate use of X-rays, it is necessary to adopt radioprotection measures to mitigate the risk of harmful radioinduced effects. This article aims to review the basic principles of radioprotection to be considered in dental radiology, in order to ensure the least possible damage to occupationally exposed workers, patients and public members.

2.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 610-616, dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134547

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Las exposiciones médicas con radiación ionizante son actualmente la principal fuente de exposición a la radiación artificial a nivel global, entre ellas, los exámenes dentales corresponden a uno de los más frecuentes. Para prevenir dosis innecesariamente altas a los pacientes durante estas exposiciones, la Comisión Internacional de Protección Radiológica (ICRP) recomienda la utilización de Niveles de Referencia para Diagnóstico (DRLs), como una herramienta efectiva de ayuda a la optimización de la protección radiológica en la exposición médica de pacientes. Dado que la legislación de Chile aún no ha incorporado el uso de los DRLs, el presente trabajo de revisión tuvo como objetivo analizar la publicación N° 135 de la ICRP para generar un documento que sirva de guía para los odontólogos, explicando de manera didáctica y en un lenguaje sencillo, pero técnico, los principales aspectos a tener en cuenta para establecer los DRLs en procedimientos de radiología dental.


SUMMARY: Currently exposure to ionizing radiation is currently the main source of exposure to artificial radiation worldwide, with dental examinations being one of the most frequent events. In order to prevent exposure of unnecessarily high doses in patients, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends the use of Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs), as an effective tool to help maximize protection from radiation during medical exposure of patients. Given that the Chilean legislation has not yet incorporated the use of DRLs, the purpose of this study was to analyze publication N° 135 of the ICRP to generate a document, to serve as a guide for dentists, didactically outlining in simple but technical language, the main aspects to consider when establishing DRLs in dental radiology procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation Protection/standards , Radiography, Dental/methods , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Protection/methods , International Agencies , Practice Guideline , Radiation Exposure/prevention & control , Evaluation Studies as Topic
3.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 12(3): 246-251, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-975741

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Los procedimientos de imagenología dental son el tipo más frecuente de estudio radiológico y aportan información esencial para apoyar la evaluación, diagnóstico y tratamiento de patologías y/o alteraciones dentomaxilofaciales. La presente revisión narrativa, muestra los procedimientos de radiología dental, define conceptos asociados a la protección radiológica en éstos y entrega una guía con recomendaciones para mejorar la seguridad y protección radiológica del paciente y del operador, en esta clase de procedimientos imagenológicos. Comprender que bajo el actual sistema de protección radiológica, es el Odontólogo quién debe justificar la realización o no de un tipo de procedimiento radiológico, teniendo presente los costos económicos y sobre todo los costos en términos de dosis para el paciente.


ABSTRACT: Dental imaging procedures are the most frequent type of radiological study and provide essential information to support the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of pathologies and / or dentomaxillofacial alterations. The present narrative review shows dental radiology procedures, defines concepts associated with radiological protection in these and provides a guide with recommendations to improve the safety and radiological protection of the patient and the operator in this kind of imaging procedures. Understanding that under the current system of radiological protection, it is the dentist who must confirm the realization or not, of a type of radiological procedure, keeping in mind the financial costs, and above all, consequences to the patient in terms of dose used in the procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiology/methods , Radiography, Dental, Digital/methods , Radiation Protection/methods , Radiation Exposure/prevention & control
4.
J. res. dent ; 5(5): 90-94, sep.-oct2017.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359043

ABSTRACT

The concept of using radiographic methods for age estimation has kindled so much interest in the field of forensic dentistry in past few decades. Aim and Objectives: To evaluate the different dental radiographic methods for age estimation and their significance in the field of forensic dentistry. Methodology:- 64articles were collected after an extensive literature review. Literature survey of these articles was done.Conclusion:-Radiographic methods play an indispensible role in age estimation specifically in living persons because of their non-invasive and non-destructive nature. This review paper focus on different radiographic methods and new developments available for radiological dental age estimation and their effective aid in identification and crime investigation.

5.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-184691

ABSTRACT

The concept of using radiographic methods for age estimation has kindled so much interest in the field of forensic dentistry in past few decades. Aim and Objectives: To evaluate the different dental radiographic methods for age estimation and their significance in the field of forensic dentistry. Methodology:- 64 articles were collected after an extensive literature review. Literature survey of these articles was done. Conclusion:-Radiographic methods play an indispensible role in age estimation specifically in living persons because of their non-invasive and non-desrtructive nature. This review paper focus on different radiographic methods and new developments available for radiological dental age estimation and their effective aid in identification and crime investigation.

6.
Rev. ABENO ; 16(4): 114-124, 2016. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-882214

ABSTRACT

Considering the difficulties to obtain good quality dental radiographic images taken by dental students, this study aimed to develop and to evaluate a Learning Object (LO), where the student is able to use a computer to simulate radiograph expositions, modifying the factors that interfere with the radiographic image quality. This study was exploratory and descriptive. For that, 48 periapical radiographs were obtained from the posterior region of a dried bone human jaw with different combinations of kVp/mA, film speed, focal distance, and time of exposition. Each radiograph received a "label" according to the factors used and also with a comment making a value judgment regarding its quality, its applicability for the diagnosis, and, if necessary, suggestions or questions about the required adjustments. In the LO screen students could simulate different situations (combination of factors) until obtaining the best result. Dental students (n=64) were divided into two groups. During the first week both groups participated in a theoretical lecture, and, subsequently, answered a test/assessment on the subject. In the following week Group 1 students solved practical exercises related to the subject, in the laboratory, and answered a second test/assessment. Students from Group 2 performed the activity with the LO in the laboratory. At the end of the activity, they also answered the test/assessment, and an open-ended questionnaire to evaluate the activity. At week3 the same activities from the week before were repeated, reversing the classes, and, then, a third test/assessment was applied. Statistical tests showed that there were no statistical differences in the groups' performance in any of the different moments of the evaluation. The use of the LO did not improved significantly the frequency of students' correctness (number of correct responses) in the tests/assessments. However, the LO methodology was considered very good, because, according to the participants, it was a tool that stimulates learning. The use of the LO, in addition to the practical exercises, contributed to the learning process on the factors that might interfere on the radiographic image (AU).


Considerando as dificuldades apresentadas pelos estudantes de odontologia na obtenção de imagens radiográficas de qualidade, o presente estudo teve por objetivos desenvolver e avaliar um objeto de aprendizagem (OA) no qual o usuário possa simular exposições radiográficas, modificando os fatores que interferem na qualidade da imagem radiográfica. Para este estudo exploratório descritivo, 48 radiografias periapicais foram obtidas da região posterior de uma mandíbula humana seca, com diferentes combinações de kVp/mA, sensibilidade do filme, distância focal e tempo de exposição. A cada imagem foi atribuído um texto sobre sua qualidade, aplicabilidade ao diagnóstico e, se necessário, sugestões ou questões sobre ajustes requeridos. Na tela do OA os estudantes podem simular situações combinando os diferentes fatores até que obtenham o melhor resultado. Para a avaliação do OA, 64 alunos de graduação foram divididos em dois grupos. Todos os alunos participaram da aula teórica e realizaram um teste. Na semana seguinte o Grupo 1 executou exercícios práticos e o Grupo 2 utilizou o OA, ambos respondendo a um segundo teste. Na terceira semana os grupos inverteram as atividades e foi aplicado o terceiro teste. Um questionário aberto foi respondido por todos os alunos com intuito de avaliar qualitativamente o OA. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante quanto aos acertos nos testes entre os grupos. O OA não melhorou o desempenho dos estudantes em testes, porém foi considerado como uma metodologia muito boa, que estimula o aprendizado. A utilização do OA somou-se aos exercícios práticos, melhorando no aprendizado dos fatores que podem interferir na imagem radiográfica (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Education, Dental , Radiography, Dental/instrumentation , Students, Dental , Teaching Materials , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Arq. odontol ; 49(4): 191-197, Out.-Dez. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-735678

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar o conhecimento teórico e a prática radiológica dos cirurgiões dentistas no município de Belo Horizonte. Materiais e Métodos: Foi aplicado questionário para 256 dentistas registrados em Belo Horizonte, selecionados aleatoriamente, enfocando aspectos relacionados ao conhecimento teórico e à prática radiológica na clínica odontológica. Os dados foram analisados por meio de análise de frequência e análise bivariada. Resultados: Dos entrevistados, 53,9% possuíam aparelhos de raios-X. Destes, 19,6% não conheciam o tipo de aparelho que utilizavam. Os profissionais com até 20 anos de formatura apresentaram maior conhecimento sobre as técnicas radiográficas e sobre as medidas de radioproteção e biossegurança, porém mostraram menor conhecimento sobre as características do aparelho que utilizavam. Por outro lado, os profissionais formados há mais de 21 anos demonstraram maior conhecimento sobre a aparelhagem e menor conhecimento em relação às técnicas radiográficas, medidas de radioproteção e biossegurança. A câmara portátil foi o ambiente de processamento mais utilizado. Conclusão: Detectou-se que a prática radiológica apresenta problemas diferenciados, sugerindo a necessidade de melhorias na formação e atualização profissionais.(AU)


Aim: To evaluate the theoretical and practical radiological knowledge of dentists in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was applied to 256 randomly selected, registered dentists in Belo Horizonte, focusing on aspects related to theoretical knowledge and radiologic practice. Data were analyzed using frequency and bivariate analyses. Results: Of the respondents, 53.9% had x-ray equipment. Of these, 19.6% did not know what type of device they used. Professionals who had graduated up to 20 years prior showed a greater knowledge about radiographic techniques, the procedures of radioprotection, and biosafety, but showed less knowledge about the characteristics of the instruments they used. On other hand, trained professionals who had graduated more than 21 years prior, demonstrated greater knowledge about the equipment and less knowledge in relation to radiographic techniques, radioprotection, and biosafety. The portable developing chamber proved to be the most widely used processing environment. Conclusion: It could be observed that radiological practice presents specific problems, suggesting the need for improvements in both professional training and post-graduate studies.(AU)


Subject(s)
X-Rays , Dental Offices , Radiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Dentists
8.
Rev. odonto ciênc ; 25(1): 78-82, jan.-mar. 2010. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-874068

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the quality of radiographic images with regard to the time during which the fixing stage was interrupted to allow a preliminary reading of the image in the viewbox. Methods: Radiographs were taken with 130 Insight periapical films, including a step-wedge and lead plate. The films were distributed into 13 groups according to the time taken for reading in a viewbox: 0 (control), 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140 and 150 s. During processing using the temperature-time method, the films in the experimental groups were removed 5 s after immersion in the fixer, placed against the light of a viewbox for the studied times and then re-immersed in the fixer to complete the fixation process. Base-plus-fog density and the densities of the first and last degree of the step-wedge were measured immediately and after six months to calculate the contrast. Results: There were no significant differences with regard to the base-plus-fog density or the contrast values of the experimental groups when compared with the control group. Conclusion: It was concluded that interrupting the radiograph fixation process to read the image in a viewbox does not interfere with the base-plus-fog density or with the radiographic contrast, even six months after they were taken.


Objetivo: Avaliar a qualidade da imagem radiográfica quanto ao tempo de leitura em negatoscópio com interrupção da etapa fixação. Metodologia: Foram radiografados 130 filmes periapicais Insight com um penetrômetro e placa de chumbo. Os filmes foram distribuídos em 13 grupos de acordo com o tempo de leitura em negatoscópio: 0 (controle), 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140 e 150 s. Durante o processamento pelo método temperatura-tempo, nos grupos experimentais, após 5 s de imersão no fixador, os filmes foram removidos, postos contra a luz de um negatoscópio durante os tempos estudados e imersos no fixador para completar o processo de fixação. Foram mensuradas, imediatamente e após seis meses, as densidades base e velamento e as densidades do primeiro e último degrau do penetrômetro para o cálculo do contraste. Resultados: Não houve diferença significativa em relação aos valores de densidade base e velamento e de contraste das radiografias dos grupos experimentais comparando-os com o grupo controle. Conclusão: Concluiu-se que, durante o processamento das radiografias, os tempos de leitura em negatoscópio não interferiram na densidade base e velamento, nem no contraste radiográfico, mesmo após seis meses de seu arquivamento.


Subject(s)
Densitometry , Radiography, Dental/standards , X-Ray Film , Case-Control Studies
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-19199

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was performed to develop the electronic textbook (CD-rom title) about preclinical practice of oral and maxillofacial radiology, using multimedia technology with interactive environment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After comparing the three authoring methods of multimedia, i.e. programming language, multimedia authoring tool and web authoring tool, we determined the web authoring tool as an authoring method of our electronic textbook. Intel Pentium II 350 MHz IBM-compatible personal computer with 128 Megabyte RAM, Umax Powerlook flatbed scanner with transparency unit, Olympus Camedia 1400L digital camera, ESS 1686 sound card, Sony 8 mm Handycam, PC Vision 97 pro capture board, Namo web editor 3.0, Photoshop 3.0, ThumbNailer, RealPlayer 7 basic and RealProducer G2 were used for creating the text document, diagram, figure, x-ray image, video and sound files. We made use of javascripts for tree menu structure, moving text bar, link button and spread list menu and image map etc.. After creating all files and hyperlinking them, we burned out the CD-rom title with all of the above multimedia data, Netscape communicator and plug in program as a prototype. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We developed the dental radiology electronic textbook which has 9 chapters and consists of 155 text documents, 26 figures, 150 x-ray image files, 20 video files, 20 sound files and 50 questions with answers. We expect that this CD-rom title can be used at the intranet and internet environments and continuous updates will be performed easily.


Subject(s)
Burns , CD-ROM , Computer Communication Networks , Internet , Microcomputers , Multimedia , Programming Languages
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