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1.
Infectio ; 26(2): 156-160, Jan.-June 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356262

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La mortalidad por SARS-COV-2 ha disminuido en diferentes países, pero no se ha evaluado si es igual en Colombia, o si se relaciona con las carac terísticas de los pacientes y tratamientos utilizados. Objetivo: Comparar la mortalidad por SARS-COV-2, en dos periodos de tiempo controlando por factores de riesgo asociados con mortalidad. Metodología: Estudio observacional, basado en una cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes con SARS-COV-2 atendidos en el Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Bogotá (Colombia), desde el 19 de marzo al 12 de noviembre, 2020. Se comparó la tasa de mortalidad intrahospitalaria de los pacientes egresados antes y después del 21 de agosto de 2020 (primer pico de mortalidad en Colombia) y se analizó el impacto del momento de atención controlando por comorbilidades, severidad al ingreso y tratamiento recibido, usando un modelo de regresión logística. Resultados: 1399 pacientes (944 antes y 455 después del primer pico de mortalidad) fueron analizados. La tasa de mortalidad intrahospitalaria global fue similar en ambos periodos (17.6% vs 16.3%, p=0.539). En el análisis multivariado se encontró que la atención en el segundo periodo de tiempo se asoció a menor mortalidad (OR 0.66 IC95% 0.47; 0.93, p=0.018), a diferencia del aumento de la misma asociado a la edad (OR 1.06 IC95% 1.05; 1.07, p<0.001), sexo masculino (OR 1.84 IC95% 1.33; 2.54 p<0.001), cirrosis (OR 1.89 IC95% 1.24; 2.88, p=0.003), enfermedad renal (OR 1.36 IC95% 1.00; 1.83, p=0.043) y el uso de dexametasona (OR 1.53 IC95% 1.03; 2.28, p=0.031). Conclusiones: La tasa de mortalidad intrahospitalaria se redujo después del 21 de agosto durante la primera ola de la pandemia en Bogotá, posiblemente asociado a la mejoría en la capacidad de respuesta del sistema de salud en ese momento, o a un menor inoculo viral de los pacientes infectados. Estos hallazgos pueden cambiar con la saturación del sistema de salud.


Abstract Introduction: Mortality secondary to SARS-COV 2 has decreases around the world, however this has not been evaluated in Colombia neither has the correlation between patient characteristics or treatments. Objective: To compare the mortality due to SARS-COV-2, in two periods of time, controlling risk factors associated with mortality. Methodology: Observational retrospective cohort study of patients with SARS- COV-2 treated at the San Ignacio University Hospital in Bogotá (Colombia), from March 19 to November 12, 2020. The in-hospital mortality rate of patients discharged before and after August 21, 2020 (surge mortality in Colombia) was com pared. The impact of the moment of attention was analyzed controlled by comorbidities, severity at admission and treatment received using a bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model. Results: 1399 patients (944 before and 455 after August 21) were analyzed. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was similar at both times (17.6%vs16.3percentage, p=0.539). In the multivariate analysis, it was found that the moment of attention was associated with lower mortality (OR 0.66 95% CI0.47;0.93,p=0.018), in contrast to its increase associated with age (OR 1.06 95% CI 1.05;1.07,p=<0.001), male sex (OR 1.84 95%CI 1.33;2.54,p=<0.001), cirrhosis (OR1.89 95%CI 1.24;2.88, p=0.003), kidney disease (OR 1.36 95% CI1.00;1.83,p=0.043) and the use of dexamethasone (OR1.53 95%CI 1.03;2.28,p=0.031). Conclusions: The in-hospital mortality rate fell after August 21 during the first wave of the pandemic in Bogotá-Colombia, possibly associated with an improvement in response capacity, or a lower viral inoculum of infected patients. These findings may change with the saturation of the health system

2.
Braz. dent. sci ; 25(1): 1-13, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1353764

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to provide evidence for comparing the effectiveness of three different routes of local administration of Dexamethasone on the postoperative pain, edema and trismus following surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar. Material and Methods: Forty-five patients underwent surgical removal of impacted lower third molars and were randomly allocated postoperatively into 3 groups: 8 mg of dexamethasone injected into the submucosa of the vestibule near the surgical site (group I), 8 mg of dexamethasone injected into the pterygomandibular space (group II) and 10 mg of dexamethasone powder applied to the extraction site, after bleeding control (group III). Facial swelling and maximal interincisal opening were measured at preoperatively. Pain was measured by the patient response to a visual analogue scale. Pain perception, Facial edema and trismus were evaluated for one week postoperatively. Results: There was no significant difference between the three groups concerning pain after 1, 2, 5, 7 days of follow up. However, group II showed less pain at 3 and 4 days. The difference between edema measurements was not significant in the three groups at 1, 5, 7 days, though in group I and II edema subsided from day 2. As for trismus, group I and III showed statistically significant lower maximum interincisal opening measurement than group II after two days. Conclusion: Local administration of Dexamethasone through three different routes is beneficial in decreasing postoperative sequelae following third molar surgery. Pterygomandibular space injection of Dexamethasone resulted in earlier resolution of pain, and less facial edema and trismus at the second postoperative day compared to the submucosal injection and transalveolar application. However, at one week the difference in measurements of the three variables between the groups was not significant. (AU)


Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi fornecer evidências para comparar a eficácia de três diferentes vias de administração local de dexametasona na dor pós-operatória, edema e trismo após a remoção cirúrgica do terceiro molar inferior impactado. Material e Métodos: Quarenta e cinco pacientes foram submetidos à remoção cirúrgica de terceiros molares inferiores impactados e distribuídos aleatoriamente no pós-operatório em 3 grupos: 8 mg de dexametasona injetados na submucosa vestíbular próximo ao local da cirurgia (grupo I), 8 mg de dexametasona injetados no espaço pterigomandibular (grupo II) e 10 mg de pó de dexametasona aplicados no local da extração, após o controle do sangramento (grupo III). Edema facial e abertura interincisal máxima foram medidos no pré-operatório. A dor foi medida pela resposta do paciente a uma escala visual analógica. Percepção de dor, edema facial e trismo foram avaliados por uma semana de pós-operatório. Resultados: Não houve diferença significativa entre os três grupos em relação à dor após 1, 2, 5, 7 dias de acompanhamento. No entanto, o grupoII mostrou menos dor em 3 e 4 dias. A diferença entre as medidas de edema não foi significativa nos três grupos em 1, 5, 7 dias, embora nos grupos I e II o edema cedeu a partir do dia 2. Quanto ao trismo, os grupos I e III apresentaram medida de abertura interincisal máxima inferior estatisticamente significativa do que o grupo II depois de dois dias. Conclusão: A administração local de dexametasona por três vias diferentes é benéfica na redução das sequelas pós-operatórias após a cirurgia do terceiro molar. A injeção de dexametasona no espaço pterigomandibular resultou na resolução mais precoce da dor e menos edema facial e trismo no segundo dia de pós-operatório em comparação com a injeção submucosa e a aplicação transalveolar. No entanto, em uma semana, a diferença nas medidas das três variáveis entre os grupos não foi significativa.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Surgery, Oral , Dexamethasone , Molar, Third
3.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 38(4): 608-614, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365941

ABSTRACT

Resumen Con el objetivo de evaluar las tendencias en el uso de fármacos en pacientes con la COVID-19 de un hospital del Perú durante la primera ola de la pandemia se realizó un estudio retrospectivo entre abril y septiembre del 2020. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de pacientes hospitalizados por neumonía por COVID-19 en el Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo (Lima, Perú). De un total de 3103 pacientes, se incluyeron 381 historias clínica (77,4% varones y mediana de edad de 44 años). Se observó un incremento del uso de cuatro fármacos prehospitalarios (azitromicina, ivermectina, corticoides y ceftriaxona), y una disminución del uso de seis fármacos intrahospitalarios (ceftriaxona, azitromicina, hidroxicloroquina, ivermectina, pulso de corticoides y anticoagulación profiláctica); además, el uso de anticoagulación intrahospitalaria aumentó. Estos hallazgos sugieren que el manejo de la COVID-19 varió durante la primera ola de la pandemia, aumentando el uso de fármacos prehospitalarios y disminuyendo el uso de fármacos intrahospitalarios.


Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacological trends in patients with COVID-19 from a hospital in Peru during the first wave of the pandemic. Retrospective study conducted between April and September 2020. The medical records of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia at the Dos de Mayo National Hospital (Lima, Peru) were reviewed. Of a total of 3103 patients, 381 medical records were included (77.4% male, median age: 44 years). The use of four prehospital drugs increased (azithromycin, ivermectin, corticosteroids, and ceftriaxone), while the in-hospital use of six drugs (ceftriaxone, azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, corticosteroid pulse, and prophylactic anticoagulation) decreased and in-hospital anticoagulation use decreased. These findings suggest that the management of COVID-19 has varied during the first wave of the pandemic, typically increasing prehospital drug use and decreasing inpatient use.

4.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385845

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La exodoncia de terceros molares incluidos conlleva la mayoría de las veces un cuadro inflamatorio agudo, dolor postoperatorio y trismus. En la actualidad, se han propuesto diversos protocolos farmacológicos con el fin de prevenir estas complicaciones, donde los más utilizados son los analgésicos y corticoides. Comparar Dexametasona y Ketoprofeno endovenoso previo a la cirugía de terceros molares mandibulares incluidos, en el control del edema, dolor y trismus. Se realizó un estudio experimental, analítico de corte transversal, autorizado por el comité de ética de la Universidad Andrés Bello. Se escogieron 30 sujetos que requerían exodoncia de terceros molares mandibulares incluidos, de forma aleatoria 15 sujetos recibieron Dexametasona 4 mg endovenoso y 15 Ketoprofeno 200 mg endovenoso 30 minutos antes de la intervención. El procedimiento quirúrgico fue estandarizado, se evaluó el edema facial, trismus y dolor postquirúrgico a los 2 y 7 días terminada la cirugía. Se presentó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa solo en 2 mediadas faciales, de las 5 tomadas, al comparar el porcentaje de edema a los 7 días postoperatorias entre ambos grupos experimentales. La mayoría del grupo Dexametasona presentó un edema de mayor volumen en comparación al grupo Ketoprofeno. En relación al dolor y trismus, sólo se observan diferencias significativas en la intensidad del dolor evaluada a los 7 días, siendo mayor en el grupo Ketoprofeno. En las otras variables medidas, la presencia de odontosección en la cirugía generó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa, siendo mayor el edema en los que se les realizó odontosección. Esta diferencia se vio principalmente en el grupo Ketoprofeno evaluado a los 2 días postoperatorios. El uso de cualquiera de los 2 fármacos está bien indicado para aliviar el dolor e inflamación en este tipo de cirugía. Pese a que el grupo tratado con Dexametasona presentó menor dolor, no fue una diferencia significativa en comparación al grupo con Ketoprofeno.


ABSTRACT: The extraction of included third molars most of the time involves an acute inflammatory picture, postoperative pain and trismus. At present, various pharmacological protocols have been proposed in order to prevent these complications, where the most widely used are analgesics and corticosteroids. Compare Dexamethasone and Ketoprofen used intravenously prior to surgery of mandibular third molars included, in the control of edema, pain and trismus. An experimental, analytical, cross- sectional study was carried out, authorized by the ethics committee of the Andrés Bello University. Thirty subjects who required extraction of included mandibular third molars were chosen, 15randomly received intravenous Dexamethasone 4 mg and 15 intravenous Ketoprofen 200 mg 30 minutes before the intervention. The surgical procedure was standardized, facial edema, trismus and postoperative pain were evaluated at 2 and 7 days after the surgery. There was a statistically significant difference only in 2 facial measures, of the 5 taken, when comparing the percentage of edema at 7 postoperative days between both experimental groups. Most of the Dexamethasone group had a larger volume ede- ma compared to the Ketoprofen group. In relation to pain and trismus, significant differences were only observed in the intensity of pain evaluated at 7 days, being greater in the Ketoprofen group. In the other variables measured, the presence of a dental section in the surgery generated a statistically significant difference, with the edema being greater in those who underwent a dental section. This difference was mainly seen in the Ketoprofen group evaluated at 2 postoperative days. The use of any of the 2 drugs is well indicated to alleviate the pain and inflammation of the patient generated by the trauma caused by this type of surgery. Although the group treated with Dexamethasone presented less pain, it was not a significant difference compared to the group with Ketoprofen.

5.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 21(4): 6-13, out.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1391244

ABSTRACT

Complicações pós-operatórias como edema, dor e trismo são comuns em cirurgias orais. Terapias, como o uso de analgésicos e anti-inflamatórios, são indicadas para estas complicações. No entanto, intervenções pré-operatórias podem ser alternativas. Desta forma, o presente estudo avaliou o efeito da dexametasona no edema, intensidade de dor e abertura de boca (trismo) no pós-operatório de retirada de terceiros molares inferiores. Pacientes (n=14, 9 mulheres) foram incluídos em um estudo clínico, cruzado, cego, randomizado, placebo-controlado e boca dividida. Pacientes receberam aleatoriamente medicação preemptiva (dexametasona 8mg, intramuscular, músculo masseter) ou placebo (soro fisiológico) uma hora antes da primeira cirurgia. O procedimento contralateral foi realizado 21 dias após. Avaliou se o edema e a abertura bucal nos momentos pré-operatórios e no 3º e 7º dias pós-operatórios, além de dor espontânea (imediatamente, 2 e 24 horas, 3 dias e 7 dias). Os dados foram analisados usando anova de medidas repetidas seguida do teste post hoc LSD de Fisher. Comparado ao placebo, a medicação reduziu edema (3 dias), dor (2 e 24 horas) e trismo (3 dias). Os resultados sugerem que o uso preemptivo da dexametasona intramuscular é capaz de aumentar o bem-estar dos pacientes submetidos a cirurgias orais, tendo o potencial de reduzir os custos pós-operatórios... (AU)


Postoperative complications such as edema, pain, and trismus are common in oral surgery. Therapies, such as the use of painkillers and anti inflammatory drugs, are indicated for the reversal of these complications. However, preoperative (preemptive) interventions can be alternatives. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone on edema, pain intensity, and mouth opening (trismus) in the postoperative period of removal of impacted lower third molars. Patients (n = 14, 9 women) were included in a clinical, crossover, blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, and divided mouth study. Preemptive mediation (dexamethasone 8mg, intramuscular, masseter muscle) or placebo (saline) was randomly given before the first surgery. The contralateral procedure was performed 21 days later. In the postoperative period, edema, mouth opening (preoperative, 3 and 7 days), and spontaneous pain (immediately, 2 and 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days) were analyzed. The data were analyzed using the one-way repeated measures ANOVA followed by Fisher's LSD post hoc. Compared to placebo, the medication reduced edema (3 days), pain (2 and 24 hours), and trismus (3 days). The results suggest that the preemptive use of dexamethasone is able to increase the well-being of patients undergoing oral surgeries, with the potential to reduce postoperative costs... (AU)


Las complicaciones posoperatorias como hinchazón, dolor y trismo son comunes en las cirugías orales. Las terapias, como el uso de analgésicos y antiinflamatorios, están indicadas para estas complicaciones. Sin embargo, las intervenciones preoperatorias pueden ser alternativas. Así, el presente estudio evaluó el efecto de la dexametasona sobre el edema, la intensidad del dolor y la apertura de la boca (trismo) en el postoperatorio de remoción del tercer molar inferior. Los pacientes (n = 14, 9 mujeres) se incluyeron en un estudio clínico, cruzado, ciego, aleatorizado, controlado con placebo y de boca dividida. Los pacientes recibieron aleatoriamente medicación preventiva (8 mg de dexametasona, intramuscular, músculo masetero) o placebo (solución salina) una hora antes de la primera cirugía. El procedimiento contralateral se realizó 21 días después. Se evaluó el edema y la apertura de la boca en el preoperatorio y en el tercer y séptimo días postoperatorios, además del dolor espontáneo (inmediato, 2 y 24 horas, 3 días y 7 días). Los datos se analizaron utilizando anova de medidas repetidas seguido de la prueba post hoc de LSD de Fisher. En comparación con el placebo, el medicamento redujo el edema (3 días), el dolor (2 y 24 horas) y el trismo (3 días). Los resultados sugieren que el uso preventivo de dexametasona intramuscular puede aumentar el bienestar de los pacientes sometidos a cirugía oral, con el potencial de reducir los costos posoperatorios... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Pain , Pain, Postoperative , Postoperative Complications , Postoperative Period , Surgery, Oral , Trismus , Dexamethasone , Molar, Third , Pain Measurement , Edema , Analgesics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Molar , Molar, Third/surgery
6.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(2): 140-142, Mar.-Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280115

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This report aims to describe the effectiveness of a unilateral intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex®) used for the treatment of cystoid macular edema in a patient with recurrent intermediate uveitis. Bearing in mind the adverse effects of the prolonged use of systemic corticosteroids, the objective here was to provide a less damaging form of intervention, and also to demonstrate the safety of the dexamethasone implant for patients who fail to respond to conventional treatment. In the present case, there was bilateral improvement in retinal anatomy and function with use of the unilateral intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex®).


RESUMO Neste estudo, o objetivo foi descrever, a partir de um relato de caso, a eficácia do uso de implante de dexametasona intravítrea (Ozurdex®) unilateral, para o tratamento de edema macular cistoide, em um paciente com quadro de uveíte intermediária recorrente, visando uma terapêutica menos lesiva, diante dos efeitos colaterais do uso prolongado de corticoesteroides sistêmicos, demonstrando também a segurança desse tratamento alternativo para aqueles pacientes que se apresentam refratários a terapêutica tradicional. No caso relatado, vale ressaltar a melhora bilateral da anatomia e função retiniana com o implante unilateral de dexametasona intravítrea (Ozurdex®).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Uveitis, Intermediate/complications , Macular Edema/etiology , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Visual Acuity , Uveitis, Intermediate/diagnosis , Macular Edema/diagnosis , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Drug Implants/administration & dosage , Intravitreal Injections
8.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO6177, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345972

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate patients with complete response of oral chronic graft-versus-host disease to immunosuppressive treatment. Methods A total of 29 patients submitted to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with oral chronic graft-versus-host disease, were enrolled in this retrospective study, from September 2012 to February 2018. Patients were treated with combined topical dexamethasone solution and topical tacrolimus ointment, combined topical dexamethasone and topical tacrolimus, systemic immunosuppressive medication, and topical dexamethasone only. Results The mean time of complete response of lichenoid lesions, erythema, and ulcers using dexamethasone and systemic immunosuppressive medication was of 105, 42 and 42 days, respectively (p=0.013).When we associated dexamethasone, tacrolimus and systemic immunosuppressive medication, the mean time of complete response of lichenoid lesions, erythema and ulcers was of 91,84 and 77 days (p=0.011). When dexamethasone was used alone, the mean time of complete response of lichenoid lesions, erythema and ulcers was 182, 140, 21 days, respectively (p=0.042). Conclusion Our study shows that lichenoid lesions require more time to heal. Notably, lichenoid lesions tend to respond better to dexamethasone combined with tacrolimus and systemic immunosuppressive medication, whereas erythema and ulcers respond better to dexamethasone combined with systemic immunosuppressive medication and dexamethasone only, respectively.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar os pacientes com resposta completa da doença do enxerto contra hospedeiro crônica oral ao tratamento com imunossupressor. Métodos Vinte e nove pacientes submetidos ao transplante alogênico de células tronco hematopoiéticas, com doença do enxerto contra hospedeiro crônica oral, foram incluídos neste estudo retrospectivo, de setembro de 2012 a fevereiro de 2018. Os pacientes foram tratados com dexametasona para bochecho associada ao tacrolimo pomada, dexametasona para bochecho associada ao tacrolimo tópico, tratamento imunossupressor sistêmico, e dexametasona tópica apenas. Resultados O tempo médio para resposta completa das lesões liquenoides, eritema e ulcerações usando dexametasona e imunossupressor sistêmico foi de 105, 42 e 42 dias, respectivamente (p=0,013). Quando a dexametasona estava associada ao tacrolimo e a medicação imunossupressora sistêmica, o tempo médio para resposta completa das lesões liquenóides, eritema e ulcerações foi de 91, 84 e 77 dias (p=0,011). Quando foi utilizada apenas dexametasona, o tempo médio para resposta completa das lesões liquenoides, eritema e ulcerações foi de 182, 140 e 21 dias, respectivamente (p=0,042). Conclusão Nosso estudo mostra que as lesões liquenoides requerem mais tempo para cicatrização completa. É notável que as lesões liquenoides tendem a responder melhor ao tratamento da dexametasona combinada com o tacrolimo e o imunossupressor sistêmico. Já o eritema e as ulcerações respondem melhor à dexametasona combinada com medicação imunossupressora sistêmica, e dexametasona apenas, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Graft vs Host Disease/drug therapy , Mouth Diseases , Chronic Disease , Retrospective Studies , Tacrolimus , Immunosuppressive Agents
9.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 13(Suplemento COVID-19): 1-2, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1177597

ABSTRACT

La dexametasona es, en la actualidad, uno de los pocos tratamientos que ha demostrado ser efectivo en los pacientes con neumonía moderada o grave por el nuevo coronavirus 2019. Una dosis de 6 mg/día de dexametasona base durante 10 días ha demostrado disminuir de manera significativa la mortalidad en estos pacientes. En Argentina, existen diferentes presentaciones comerciales de dexametasona para la administración por vía intravenosa, que contienen distintas sales (dexametasona fosfato sódico y dexametasona fostato ácido). Por este motivo, es importante conocer cuál es la equivalencia de estas presentaciones en relación con la dexametasona base, con el objetivo de asegurar la administración de la dosis de 6 mg/día que demostró disminuir la mortalidad


Subject(s)
Argentina , Dexamethasone , Mortality , Coronavirus Infections
10.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 588-594, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155777

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: In shoulder arthroscopy, on an outpatient basis, the patient needs a good control of the postoperative pain that can be achieved through regional blocks. Perineural dexamethasone may prolong the effect of these blocks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of perineural dexamethasone on the prolongation of the sensory block in the postoperative period for arthroscopic shoulder surgery in outpatient setting. Methods: After approval by the Research Ethics Committee and informed consent, patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia and ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block were randomized into Group D - blockade performed with 30 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine with vasoconstrictor and 6 mg (1.5 mL) of dexamethasone and Group C - 30 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine with vasoconstrictor and 1.5 mL of 0.9% saline. The duration of the sensory block was evaluated in 4 postoperative moments (0, 4, 12 and 24 hours) as well as the need for rescue analgesia, nausea and vomiting incidence, and Visual Analog Pain Scale (VAS). Results: Seventy-four patients were recruited and 71 completed the study (Group C, n = 37; Group D, n = 34). Our findings showed a prolongation of the mean time of the sensitive blockade in Group D (1440 ± 0 min vs. 1267 ± 164 min, p < 0.001). It was observed that Group C had a higher mean pain score according to VAS (2.08 ± 1.72 vs. 0.02 ± 0.17, p < 0.001) and a greater number of patients (68.4% vs. 0%, p < 0.001) required rescue analgesia in the first 24 hours. The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Perineural dexamethasone significantly prolonged the sensory blockade promoted by levobupivacaine in interscalene brachial plexus block, reduced pain intensity and rescue analgesia needs in the postoperative period.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Na artroscopia de ombro em regime ambulatorial, o paciente necessita de um bom controle da dor pós-operatória, que pode ser conseguido por meio de bloqueios regionais. A dexametasona perineural pode prolongar o efeito desses bloqueios. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da dexametasona perineural quanto ao prolongamento do bloqueio sensitivo no período pós-operatório para cirurgia artroscópica de ombro em regime ambulatorial. Métodos: Após aprovação do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa e consentimento informado, foram incluídos no estudo pacientes submetidos a cirurgia artroscópica de ombro sob anestesia geral e bloqueio de plexo braquial interescalênico guiado por ultrassonografia. Eles foram randomizados nos Grupo D - bloqueio com 30 mL de levobupivacaína 0,5% com vasoconstritor e 6 mg (1,5 mL) de dexametasona, e Grupo C - bloqueio com 30 mL de levobupivacaína 0,5% com vasoconstritor e 1,5 mL solução salina. A duração do bloqueio sensitivo foi avaliada em quatro momentos pós-operatórios (0, 4, 12 e 24 horas), assim como a necessidade de analgesia de resgate, incidência de náuseas e vômitos e Escala Visual Analógica de Dor (EVA). Resultados: Setenta e quatro pacientes foram randomizados e 71 completaram o estudo (Grupo C, n = 37; Grupo D, n = 34). Observou-se um prolongamento do tempo médio de bloqueio sensitivo no Grupo D (1440 ± 0 min vs. 1267 ± 164 min; p< 0,001). Pacientes do Grupo C apresentaram maior média de escore de dor de acordo com a EVA (2,08 ± 1,72vs. 0,02 ± 0,17; p< 0,001) e um maior número de pacientes solicitou analgesia de resgate nas primeiras 24 horas (68,4%vs.0%; p< 0,001). A incidência de náuseas e vômitos não foi estatisticamente significante. Conclusão: A dexametasona perineural prolongou significativamente o bloqueio sensitivo da levobupivacaína no bloqueio de plexo braquial interescalênico, reduziu a intensidade de dor e a necessidade de analgesia de resgate pelo paciente no período pós-operatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Arthroscopy/methods , Shoulder Joint/surgery , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Brachial Plexus Block/methods , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Pain, Postoperative/diagnosis , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Arthroscopy/adverse effects , Time Factors , Vasoconstrictor Agents/administration & dosage , Pain Measurement , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/epidemiology , Saline Solution/administration & dosage , Levobupivacaine , Analgesia , Anesthetics, Local , Middle Aged
11.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(3): e629, sept.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138880

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las náuseas y vómitos posoperatorios son una secuela no deseada durante la etapa de recuperación anestésica. Objetivo: Evaluar la utilidad de la dexametasona en comparación con el ondansetrón para la prevención de las náuseas y vómitos posoperatorios después de procedimientos quirúrgicos ginecológicos mayores, bajo anestesia general orotraqueal. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional analítico, prospectivo, en 84 pacientes mayores de 19 años, en el Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Miguel Enríquez desde octubre de 2018 hasta septiembre de 2019, divididas de forma secuencial, en orden de llegada a la unidad quirúrgica, en dos grupos. Al grupo 1 se le administró dexametasona (4 mg endovenosa); al grupo 2 (4 mg de ondansetrón), 30 min antes de finalizar la cirugía. Resultados: Predominó de forma significativa el riesgo medio de náuseas y vómitos posoperatorios en los pacientes con edades comprendidas entre 41 y 50 años. Predominó la condición de excelente y buena (pgt;0,05) en cuanto a la efectividad del tratamiento profiláctico. La cefalea prevaleció de forma significativa en el grupo 2. La mayor parte de las pacientes no presentó eventos adversos. Conclusiones: El ondansetrón y la dexametasona son útiles para la profilaxis de las náuseas y vómitos posoperatorios en pacientes intervenidas de cirugía mayor ginecológica, bajo anestesia general orotraqueal por lo que se considera un tratamiento seguro, con eventos adversos leves y de fácil control(AU)


Introduction: Postoperative nausea and vomiting are an unwanted sequel during the anesthetic recovery stage. Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of dexamethasone compared with ondansetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after major gynecological surgical procedures, under general orotracheal anesthesia. Method: A prospective, analytical and observational study was carried out with 84 patients older than 19 years of age, at Miguel Enríquez Hospital Clinical-Surgical Hospital, from October 2018 to September 2019, divided sequentially, in order of arrival at the surgical unit, into two groups. The group 1 was administered dexamethasone (4 mg intravenously), and the group 2 was administered ondansetron (4 mg), 30 min before the end of the surgery. Results: The average risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting prevailed significantly among patients aged 41-50 years. Excellent and good conditions predominated (pgt;0.05) in terms of effectiveness of prophylactic treatment. Headache prevailed significantly in the group 2. Most of the patients did not present adverse events. Conclusions: Ondansetron and dexamethasone are useful for postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis among patients who received major gynecological surgery, under general orotracheal anesthesia, a reason why it is considered a safe treatment, with mild adverse events and easy control(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Ondansetron/therapeutic use , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/drug therapy , Anesthesia, General , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/prevention & control
12.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 12(supl.1): 15-15, oct. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155726

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN la publicación reciente de los resultados preliminares de un ensayo aleatorizado multicéntrico, que informan sobre la efectividad del tratamiento con dexametasona en pacientes con infección grave por SARS-CoV-2, plantea la necesidad de hacer una revisión de la literatura e identificar y valorar de manera crítica la evidencia sobre la efectividad y seguridad de esta intervención. METODOS: se realizó una búsqueda amplia, no sistemática. Se utilizó la metodología GRADE para la evaluación de la certeza en la evidencia incluida. Se conformó un equipo multidisciplinario para elaborar un informe de evaluación de tecnología sanitaria. RESULTADOS el uso de glucocorticoides (dexametasona en dosis de 6 mg/día por 10 días) en pacientes con neumonía por SARS-CoV-2 mostró reducir la mortalidad global a los 28 días (riesgo relativo [RR]: 0,83; intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 0,75-0,93), con un número necesario a tratar (NNT) de 33 (confianza alta). En pacientes con neumonía grave con requerimientos de asistencia ventilatoria mecánica (AVM) se observó una disminución de la mortalidad (RR: 0,64; IC95%: 0,51-0,81; NNT: 8,5) (confianza moderada). En pacientes con neumonía grave con requerimientos de oxígeno sin AVM también se informa una reducción de la mortalidad (RR: 0,82; IC95%: 0,72-0,94) (confianza moderada). En pacientes con neumonía sin requerimientos de oxígeno (RR: 1,19; IC95%: 0,91-1,55) no se evidenció beneficio con el uso de esta intervención (confianza baja). No se describieron efectos adversos en los pacientes críticos con el uso de corticoides en las dosis utilizadas. DISCUSIÓN se recomienda la administración de dexametasona en dosis de 6 mg/día (dosis bajas) durante 10 días en los pacientes con neumonía grave por SARS-CoV-2 y requerimientos de oxigenoterapia o AVM.


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION the recent publication of the preliminary results of a multicenter randomized trial reporting the effectiveness of dexamethasone treatment in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection; raises the need to conduct a literature review, identify and critically assess the evidence on the effectiveness and safety of this intervention. METHODS a broad, non-systematic search was carried out. The GRADE methodology was used to assess the certainty of the included evidence. A multidisciplinary team was formed to carry out a Health Technology Assessment report. RESULTS the use of glucocorticoids (dexamethasone 6 mg/day for 10 days) in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia will reduce global mortality at 28 days, (RR 0.83,95% CI 0.75 to 0.93), with a number necessary to treat (NNT) of 33, (High confidence). In patients with severe pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation (MV), a decrease in mortality was reported (RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.81, NNT 8.5) (Moderate confidence). In patients with severe pneumonia with oxygen requirements without MV, it reports a reduction in mortality (RR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.94), (Moderate confidence). The adverse effects of corticosteroids in critically ill patients have not been described with these doses used. DISCUSSION the administration of dexamethasone 6 mg/day (low doses) for 10 days is recommended in patients with SARS-CoV-2 associated severe pneumonia and oxygen or mechanical ventilation requirements.

13.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1398-1404, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134455

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The objective of this study were bone defect complications that occur due to traumas or infections. Bone grafts are required to provide support, fill gaps and improve biological repair in skeletal damage. Dexamethasone plays role in calcium signaling modulation and used in diseases. Aim of this study was to evaluate osteonectin and osteopontin expressions in new bone development after dexamethasone application on tibial bone defects. Rats were divided into defect, defect+graft and defect+graft+dexamethasone treated groups. Tibial bone defect created, and rats were kept immobile for 28 days. Alloplastic material was placed in defect area in second and group third groups. 2.5 mg/kg Dex and normal saline were injected to dexamethasone and defect groups twice a week for 56 days. Inflammation and congestion were increased in defect and defect+graft groups. Defect+graft+dexamethasone group; increased number of osteoblast and osteocyte cells, dense bone matrix, formation of new bone trabeculae was observed. Defect+graft group; osteonectin expression in graft regions, osteoblast cells, some connective tissue cells and fibers were seen whereas in defect+graft+dexamethasone group; osteopontin expression in osteoblast and osteocyte cells of new bone trabeculae were observed. Dexamethasone may lead to formation of new bone trabeculae into the graft material resulting in increased osteoconduction and osteoinductive effect for differentiation of osteon.


RESUMEN: Los defectos óseos son complicaciones que ocurren debido a traumas o infecciones. Se requieren injertos óseos para proporcionar apoyo, llenar los espacios y mejorar la reparación biológica en el hueso dañado. La dexametasona desempeña un papel importante en la modulación de la señalización del calcio y se usa en enfermedades. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las expresiones de osteonectina y osteopontina en el desarrollo óseo después de la aplicación de dexametasona en defectos óseos tibiales. Las ratas se dividieron en grupos: defecto, defecto + injerto y defecto + injerto + grupos tratados con dexametasona. Se creó un defecto óseo tibial, y las ratas se mantuvieron inmóviles durante 28 días. El material aloplástico se colocó en el área del defecto en el segundo y tercer grupo. Se inyectaron 2,5 mg / kg de dexametasona y solución salina normal a grupos de defectos dos veces por semana durante 56 días. La inflamación y la congestión aumentaron en los grupos de defectos y defectos + injerto; En el grupo defecto + injerto + grupo tratado con dexametasona se observó un aumento en el número de osteoblastos y osteocitos, de matriz ósea densa y en la formación de nuevas trabéculas óseas. En el grupo defecto + grupo de injerto se observó la expresión de osteonectina en las áreas de injerto, osteoblastos, algunas células y fibras de tejido conectivo, mientras que en el grupo defecto + injerto + dexametasona se observó la expresión de osteopontina en osteoblastos y osteocitos y formación de nuevas trabéculas óseas . En conclusión la dexametasona puede conducir a la formación de nuevas trabéculas óseas en el material de injerto, lo que resulta en un aumento de la osteoconducción y un efecto osteoinductivo para la diferenciación del osteón.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Tibia/surgery , Tibia/drug effects , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Bone Transplantation , Tibia/pathology , Bone Regeneration , Immunohistochemistry , Osteonectin/physiology , Bone Remodeling , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Osteopontin/physiology
14.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 354-362, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138502

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: A infecção causada pelo coronavírus da síndrome respiratória aguda grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disseminou-se por todo o mundo e foi categorizada como pandemia. As manifestações mais comuns da infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2 (doença pelo coronavírus 2019 - COVID-19) se referem a uma pneumonia viral com graus variáveis de comprometimento respiratório e até 40% dos pacientes hospitalizados, que podem desenvolver uma síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. Diferentes ensaios clínicos avaliaram o papel dos corticosteroides na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo não relacionada com COVID-19, obtendo resultados conflitantes. Delineamos o presente estudo para avaliar a eficácia da administração endovenosa precoce de dexametasona no número de dias vivo e sem ventilação mecânica nos 28 dias após a randomização, em pacientes adultos com quadro moderado ou grave de síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo causada por COVID-19 provável ou confirmada. Métodos: Este é um ensaio pragmático, prospectivo, randomizado, estratificado, multicêntrico, aberto e controlado que incluirá 350 pacientes com quadro inicial (menos de 48 horas antes da randomização) de síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo moderada ou grave, definida segundo os critérios de Berlim, causada por COVID-19. Os pacientes elegíveis serão alocados de forma aleatória para tratamento padrão mais dexametasona (Grupo Intervenção) ou tratamento padrão sem dexametasona (Grupo Controle). Os pacientes no Grupo Intervenção receberão dexametasona 20mg por via endovenosa uma vez ao dia, por 5 dias, e, a seguir, dexametasona por via endovenosa 10mg ao dia por mais 5 dias, ou até receber alta da unidade de terapia intensiva, o que ocorrer antes. O desfecho primário será o número de dias livres de ventilação mecânica nos 28 dias após a randomização, definido como o número de dias vivo e livres de ventilação mecânica invasiva. Os desfechos secundários serão a taxa de mortalidade por todas as causas no dia 28, a condição clínica no dia 15 avaliada com utilização de uma escala ordinal de seis níveis, a duração da ventilação mecânica desde a randomização até o dia 28, a avaliação com o Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score após 48 horas, 72 horas e 7 dias, e o número de dias fora da unidade de terapia intensiva nos 28 dias após a randomização.


Abstract Objective: The infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads worldwide and is considered a pandemic. The most common manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection (coronavirus disease 2019 - COVID-19) is viral pneumonia with varying degrees of respiratory compromise and up to 40% of hospitalized patients might develop acute respiratory distress syndrome. Several clinical trials evaluated the role of corticosteroids in non-COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome with conflicting results. We designed a trial to evaluate the effectiveness of early intravenous dexamethasone administration on the number of days alive and free of mechanical ventilation within 28 days after randomization in adult patients with moderate or severe acute respiratory distress syndrome due to confirmed or probable COVID-19. Methods: This is a pragmatic, prospective, randomized, stratified, multicenter, open-label, controlled trial including 350 patients with early-onset (less than 48 hours before randomization) moderate or severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, defined by the Berlin criteria, due to COVID-19. Eligible patients will be randomly allocated to either standard treatment plus dexamethasone (Intervention Group) or standard treatment without dexamethasone (Control Group). Patients in the intervention group will receive dexamethasone 20mg intravenous once daily for 5 days, followed by dexamethasone 10mg IV once daily for additional 5 days or until intensive care unit discharge, whichever occurs first. The primary outcome is ventilator-free days within 28 days after randomization, defined as days alive and free from invasive mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes are all-cause mortality rates at day 28, evaluation of the clinical status at day 15 assessed with a 6-level ordinal scale, mechanical ventilation duration from randomization to day 28, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score evaluation at 48 hours, 72 hours and 7 days and intensive care unit -free days within 28.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/virology , Time Factors , Prospective Studies , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pandemics , Organ Dysfunction Scores , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1032-1038, Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124893

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to examine the histological changes i.e. morphology and biometry of immune organs (thymus, spleen and bursa cloacalis or «Fabricius¼) of broilers in response to dietary dexamethasone (DEX). The day old chicks were obtained from the commercial hatchery and randomly divided into two groups i.e. control and experimental or treated group. The control group was reared on commercial broiler ration and the experimental group (n=25) was maintained on commercial broiler ration with corticosteroid (Dexamethasone-Decason, BP 0.5 mg, Opsonin @ 7 mg/kg feed). Samples (bursa cloacalis, spleen, and thymus) were collected from the ten control and ten experimental broilers at 14 and 28 days of experiment; then tissues were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. The biometric measurements of the samples were performed by the calibrated stage micrometer. Finally, the obtained data were analyzed using GraphPad Prism 8 software. In DEX treated group, the morphology of thymus, spleen and bursa cloacalis did not show any abnormal alterations. But their development rate was slower on visual inspection in DEX treated group. The length and width of bursal follicle of bursa cloacalis, thymic lobule of thymus and white pulp of spleen were statistically consisted but numerically decreased in DEX treated group than the control. The present findings suggested that DEX does not affect the histological architectures of immune organs except causing developmental arrest. Numerical decrease in the biometry of immune organs indicates that DEX causes apoptosis of immune cells in lymphoid organs of broiler.


El estudio se realizó para examinar los cambios histológicos, es decir, la morfología y la biometría de los órganos inmunes (timo, bazo y bolsa cloacal) de pollos de engorde en respuesta a la dexametasona en la dieta (DEX). Los pollitos de un día se obtuvieron de un criadero comercial y se dividieron aleatoriamente en dos grupos, control y experimental. El grupo control se crió con una ración comercial de pollos de engorde y el grupo experimental (n = 25) se mantuvo con una ración comercial de pollos de engorde con corticosteroides (DexamethasoneDecason, BP 0,5 mg, Opsonin @ 7 mg/kg). Se recogieron muestras (bolsa cloacal, bazo y timo) de los diez pollos del grupo control y diez del grupo de engorde experimental, a los 14 y 28 días de experimento. Luego, los tejidos se tiñeron con hematoxilina y eosina. Las mediciones biométricas de las muestras fueron realizadas con un micrómetro calibrado. Finalmente, los datos obtenidos se analizaron utilizando el software GraphPad Prism 8. En el grupo tratado con DEX, la morfología del timo, el bazo y la bolsa cloacal no mostraron alteraciones anormales. Pero su tasa de desarrollo fue más lenta en la inspección visual en el grupo tratado con DEX. La longitud y el ancho del folículo bursal de la bolsa cloacal, el lóbulo tímico del timo y la pulpa blanca del bazo fueron estadísticamente consistentes, pero disminuyeron numéricamente en el grupo tratado con DEX en relación al control. Los hallazgos actuales sugirieron que DEX no afecta la arquitectura histológica de los órganos inmunes, excepto que causa una detención del desarrollo. La disminución numérica en la biometría de los órganos inmunes indica que DEX provoca apoptosis de las células inmunes en los órganos linfoides de los pollos de engorde.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Immune System/drug effects , Spleen/drug effects , Thymus Gland/drug effects , Chickens , Cloaca/drug effects
16.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 12(Suplemento Covid-19): 1-8, 23 de Julio 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1140653

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la publicación reciente de los resultados preliminares de un ensayo aleatorizado multicéntrico, que informan sobre la efectividad del tratamiento con dexametasona en pacientes con infección grave por SARS-CoV-2, plantea la necesidad de hacer una revisión de la literatura e identificar y valorar de manera crítica la evidencia sobre la efectividad y seguridad de esta intervención. METODOS: se realizó una búsqueda amplia, no sistemática. Se utilizó la metodología GRADE para la evaluación de la certeza en la evidencia incluida. Se conformó un equipo multidisciplinario para elaborar un informe de evaluación de tecnología sanitaria. RESULTADOS: el uso de glucocorticoides (dexametasona en dosis de 6 mg/día por 10 días) en pacientes con neumonía por SARS-CoV-2 mostró reducir la mortalidad global a los 28 días (riesgo relativo [RR]: 0,83; intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 0,75-0,93), con un número necesario a tratar (NNT) de 33 (confianza alta). En pacientes con neumonía grave con requerimientos de asistencia ventilatoria mecánica (AVM) se observó una disminución de la mortalidad (RR: 0,64; IC95%: 0,51-0,81; NNT: 8,5) (confianza moderada). En pacientes con neumonía grave con requerimientos de oxígeno sin AVM también se informa una reducción de la mortalidad (RR: 0,82; IC95%: 0,72-0,94) (confianza moderada). En pacientes con neumonía sin requerimientos de oxígeno (RR: 1,19; IC95%: 0,91-1,55) no se evidenció beneficio con el uso de esta intervención (confianza baja). No se describieron efectos adversos en los pacientes críticos con el uso de corticoides en las dosis utilizadas. DISCUSIÓN: se recomienda la administración de dexametasona en dosis de 6 mg/día (dosis bajas) durante 10 días en los pacientes con neumonía grave por SARS-CoV-2 y requerimientos de oxigenoterapia o AVM.


Subject(s)
Argentina , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Dexamethasone , Coronavirus Infections
17.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(3): 242-245, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131596

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This report describes the therapeutic effects and outcomes of an accidental injection of an intralenticular sustained-release dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex®) in three patients with diabetic macular edema. All three patients underwent accidental injections of sustained-release intravitreal dexamethasone implants into the crystalline lens by the same surgeon. After the accidental injection of Ozurdex® into the crystalline lens, a remarkable reduction in the macular edema and an improvement in visual acuity were observed, suggesting that a positive outcome can be achieved without immediate surgery.


RESUMO Este estudo descreve os efeitos terapêuticos e os resultados de uma injeção acidental de implante intralenticular de dexametasona de liberação sustentada (Ozurdex®) em três pacientes com edema macular diabético. Todos os três pacientes foram submetidos a injeções acidentais de implantes intravítreos de dexametasona de liberação sustentada na lente do cristalino pelo mesmo cirurgião. Após a injeção acidental de Ozurdex® na lente do cristalino, observou-se uma redução notável no edema macular e uma melhora na acuidade visual, sugerindo que um resultado positivo pode ser alcançado sem cirurgia imediata.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dexamethasone , Macular Edema , Diabetic Retinopathy , Lens, Crystalline , Drug Implants , Intravitreal Injections , Glucocorticoids
18.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(3): 246-249, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131591

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The intravitreal dexamethasone implant is a sustained-release anti-inflammatory drug system that releases 0.7 mg of dexamethasone into the vitreous cavity. The following case report describes a rare complication: accidental injection of the dexamethasone implant into the crystalline lens. A 73-year-old woman was diagnosed with central retina vein occlusion and cystoid macular edema. Initial tSreatment included three monthly intravitreal doses of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment, which was not successful. Treatment was then modified to an intravitreal dexamethasone implant. Ten weeks later, the implant was observed in the posterior cortex of the crystalline lens. Because no improvement had occurred, the patient underwent phacoemulsification surgery, during which part of the lens migrated into the vitreous cavity. Therefore, 23-gauge pars plana complete vitrectomy was performed with trans-surgical administration of intravitreal aflibercept. Crystalline lens injury due to an intravitreal dexamethasone implant is a rare complication and typically results from the injection procedure. Immediate surgical or conservative approaches should be considered on an individual basis.


RESUMO O implante intravítreo de dexametasona é um sistema anti-inflamatório de liberação sustentada que libera 0,7 mg de dexametasona na cavidade vítrea. O relato de caso a seguir descreve uma complicação rara: injeção acidental do implante de Dexametasona no cristalino. Uma mulher de 73 anos foi diagnosticada com oclusão da veia central da retina e edema macular cistóide. O tratamento inicial incluiu três doses intravítreas mensais de tratamento com fator de crescimento endothelial anti-vascular, que não tiveram sucesso. O tratamento foi então mudado para um implante intravítreo de dexametasona. Dez semanas depois, o implante foi observado no córtex posterior do cristalino. Como não houve melhora, a paciente foi submetida à cirurgia de facoemulsificação, durante a qual parte do cristalino migrou para a cavidade vítrea. Portanto, foi realizada vitrectomia completa via pars plana 23-gauge com administração de aflibercepte intravítreo durante a cirurgia. Lesões no cristalino devido a implantes intravítreos de dexametasona são uma complicação rara e geralmente resulta do procedimento de injeção. Abordagens cirúrgicas ou conservadoras imediatas devem ser consideradas caso a caso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Dexamethasone , Drug Implants , Glucocorticoids , Lens, Crystalline , Visual Acuity , Intravitreal Injections
19.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(4): 266-270, Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135618

ABSTRACT

The induction of labor aims to concentrate births to follow up better the parturient and the first care to the neonates. However, even if the labor induction technique with dexamethasone administration has been successfully described since the late 1970s, few studies report the technique of birth development and neonatal vitality in Santa Inês sheep. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of dexamethasone use in two doses (8 and 16mg) in labor induction of Santa Inês ewes at 145 days of gestation and to evaluate its effects on the birth characteristics. In this study, 58 ewes were used, raised in an extensive system in the experimental farms of UFBA, with confirmation pregnancy after fixed-time artificial insemination or controlled breeding. These female ewes were separated into three groups according to the dose of dexamethasone administered (G1 = 0mg, G2 = 8mg, and G3 = 16mg). From these births, 79 lambs were born. This study analyzed the period from induction of labor to birth, fetal presentation at birth, the weight of the placenta, and the period for placenta expulsion. The data were analyzed by the Statistical Analysis System (SAS v.9.1.3®, 2002), and the significance level considered for all analyzes was 5%. Births of induced groups occurred on average at 48.4±22.17 hours after induction, while the females with non-induced labor gave birth 131.96±41.9 hours on average after the placebo application (P<0.05), confirming the efficiency of both doses for induction of labor. The period from induction to birth did not differ (P>0.05) between the doses used. There were no differences in delivery about the fetal static relation, time to placental attachment, and weight. With this study, it can be concluded that the induction at 145 days of gestation with eight or 16mg of dexamethasone is a useful technique and does not alter the labor in Santa Inês sheep.(AU)


A indução do parto visa concentrar os nascimentos para melhor acompanhamento das parturientes e primeiros cuidados aos neonatos. Contudo, mesmo que a técnica de indução de parto, com administração de dexametasona, tenha sido descrita com sucesso desde o final da década de 70, existem estudos escassos que relatam a influência desta técnica sobre o parto em ovinos da raça Santa Inês. Dessa forma, o objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a eficácia da dexametasona em duas doses (8 e 16mg), para a indução do parto de ovelhas Santa Inês com 145 dias de gestação e avaliar os seus efeitos nas características de desencadeamento e finalização do parto. Para este estudo foram utilizadas 58 ovelhas, criadas em sistema extensivo nas fazendas experimentais da UFBA, com prenhez confirmada após inseminação artificial em tempo fixo ou monta controlada. Essas fêmeas foram separadas em três grupos, de acordo com a dose de dexametasona administrada (G1 = 0mg, G2 = 8mg e G3 = 16mg). Destes partos nasceram 79 cordeiros. Foram avaliados o período em horas da indução do parto aos nascimentos, a apresentação fetal ao nascimento, assim como o peso da placenta e o período para o delivramento. Os dados foram analisados pelo pacote estatístico Statistical Analysis System (SAS v.9.0®, 2002) sendo considerado para todas as análises o nível de significância de 5%. Os nascimentos dos grupos induzidos ocorreram em média com 48,4±22,1 horas após a indução, enquanto que as fêmeas com parto não induzido pariram em média 131,96±41,9 horas após aplicação do placebo (P<0,05), confirmando a eficácia de ambas as doses para indução do parto. O período da indução até o parto não diferiu (P>0,05) entre as doses utilizadas. Não ocorreram diferenças no parto em relação à estática fetal, tempo para o delivramento e peso da placenta nos diferentes grupos. Com este estudo, conclui-se que a indução de parto em ovelhas aos 145 dias de gestação com oito e 16 mg de dexametasona é uma técnica eficaz e que não altera o trabalho de parto nas ovelhas da raça Santa Inês.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Dexamethasone , Sheep , Labor, Induced/methods , Labor, Induced/veterinary
20.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(1): 73-75, Jan.-Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088954

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We describe three patients who had previous heart diseases and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy with clinically significant diabetic macular edema. They underwent unilateral dexamethasone intravitreal implantation. Without ophthalmological treatment in the fellow eye, patients showed marked bilateral improvement in best-corrected visual acuity, optical coherence images, and macular thickness values. These findings provide evidence of the bilateral effect of dexamethasone intravitreal implantation, which may be clinically useful in patients for whom the systemic effects of the drug may affect their general health.


RESUMO Descrevemos três pacientes que tiveram doenças cardíacas prévias e retinopatia diabética não proliferativa com edema macular diabético clinicamente significativo. Eles foram submetidos a implante intravítreo de dexametasona unilateral. Sem tratamento oftalmológico no olho contralateral, os pacien tes apresentaram uma melhora bilateral significativa na melhor acuidade visual corrigida, nas imagens de coerência óptica e nos valores da espessura macular. Esses achados fornecem evidências sobre o efeito bilateral do implante intravítreo de dexametasona, que pode ser clinicamente útil em pacientes para os quais os efeitos sistêmicos da droga possam afetar a saúde geral do paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Diabetic Retinopathy/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Visual Acuity , Macular Edema/physiopathology , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Retinopathy/physiopathology , Drug Implants , Intravitreal Injections
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