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1.
Infectio ; 26(2): 156-160, Jan.-June 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356262

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La mortalidad por SARS-COV-2 ha disminuido en diferentes países, pero no se ha evaluado si es igual en Colombia, o si se relaciona con las carac terísticas de los pacientes y tratamientos utilizados. Objetivo: Comparar la mortalidad por SARS-COV-2, en dos periodos de tiempo controlando por factores de riesgo asociados con mortalidad. Metodología: Estudio observacional, basado en una cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes con SARS-COV-2 atendidos en el Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Bogotá (Colombia), desde el 19 de marzo al 12 de noviembre, 2020. Se comparó la tasa de mortalidad intrahospitalaria de los pacientes egresados antes y después del 21 de agosto de 2020 (primer pico de mortalidad en Colombia) y se analizó el impacto del momento de atención controlando por comorbilidades, severidad al ingreso y tratamiento recibido, usando un modelo de regresión logística. Resultados: 1399 pacientes (944 antes y 455 después del primer pico de mortalidad) fueron analizados. La tasa de mortalidad intrahospitalaria global fue similar en ambos periodos (17.6% vs 16.3%, p=0.539). En el análisis multivariado se encontró que la atención en el segundo periodo de tiempo se asoció a menor mortalidad (OR 0.66 IC95% 0.47; 0.93, p=0.018), a diferencia del aumento de la misma asociado a la edad (OR 1.06 IC95% 1.05; 1.07, p<0.001), sexo masculino (OR 1.84 IC95% 1.33; 2.54 p<0.001), cirrosis (OR 1.89 IC95% 1.24; 2.88, p=0.003), enfermedad renal (OR 1.36 IC95% 1.00; 1.83, p=0.043) y el uso de dexametasona (OR 1.53 IC95% 1.03; 2.28, p=0.031). Conclusiones: La tasa de mortalidad intrahospitalaria se redujo después del 21 de agosto durante la primera ola de la pandemia en Bogotá, posiblemente asociado a la mejoría en la capacidad de respuesta del sistema de salud en ese momento, o a un menor inoculo viral de los pacientes infectados. Estos hallazgos pueden cambiar con la saturación del sistema de salud.


Abstract Introduction: Mortality secondary to SARS-COV 2 has decreases around the world, however this has not been evaluated in Colombia neither has the correlation between patient characteristics or treatments. Objective: To compare the mortality due to SARS-COV-2, in two periods of time, controlling risk factors associated with mortality. Methodology: Observational retrospective cohort study of patients with SARS- COV-2 treated at the San Ignacio University Hospital in Bogotá (Colombia), from March 19 to November 12, 2020. The in-hospital mortality rate of patients discharged before and after August 21, 2020 (surge mortality in Colombia) was com pared. The impact of the moment of attention was analyzed controlled by comorbidities, severity at admission and treatment received using a bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model. Results: 1399 patients (944 before and 455 after August 21) were analyzed. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was similar at both times (17.6%vs16.3percentage, p=0.539). In the multivariate analysis, it was found that the moment of attention was associated with lower mortality (OR 0.66 95% CI0.47;0.93,p=0.018), in contrast to its increase associated with age (OR 1.06 95% CI 1.05;1.07,p=<0.001), male sex (OR 1.84 95%CI 1.33;2.54,p=<0.001), cirrhosis (OR1.89 95%CI 1.24;2.88, p=0.003), kidney disease (OR 1.36 95% CI1.00;1.83,p=0.043) and the use of dexamethasone (OR1.53 95%CI 1.03;2.28,p=0.031). Conclusions: The in-hospital mortality rate fell after August 21 during the first wave of the pandemic in Bogotá-Colombia, possibly associated with an improvement in response capacity, or a lower viral inoculum of infected patients. These findings may change with the saturation of the health system

2.
Braz. dent. sci ; 25(1): 1-13, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1353764

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to provide evidence for comparing the effectiveness of three different routes of local administration of Dexamethasone on the postoperative pain, edema and trismus following surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar. Material and Methods: Forty-five patients underwent surgical removal of impacted lower third molars and were randomly allocated postoperatively into 3 groups: 8 mg of dexamethasone injected into the submucosa of the vestibule near the surgical site (group I), 8 mg of dexamethasone injected into the pterygomandibular space (group II) and 10 mg of dexamethasone powder applied to the extraction site, after bleeding control (group III). Facial swelling and maximal interincisal opening were measured at preoperatively. Pain was measured by the patient response to a visual analogue scale. Pain perception, Facial edema and trismus were evaluated for one week postoperatively. Results: There was no significant difference between the three groups concerning pain after 1, 2, 5, 7 days of follow up. However, group II showed less pain at 3 and 4 days. The difference between edema measurements was not significant in the three groups at 1, 5, 7 days, though in group I and II edema subsided from day 2. As for trismus, group I and III showed statistically significant lower maximum interincisal opening measurement than group II after two days. Conclusion: Local administration of Dexamethasone through three different routes is beneficial in decreasing postoperative sequelae following third molar surgery. Pterygomandibular space injection of Dexamethasone resulted in earlier resolution of pain, and less facial edema and trismus at the second postoperative day compared to the submucosal injection and transalveolar application. However, at one week the difference in measurements of the three variables between the groups was not significant. (AU)


Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi fornecer evidências para comparar a eficácia de três diferentes vias de administração local de dexametasona na dor pós-operatória, edema e trismo após a remoção cirúrgica do terceiro molar inferior impactado. Material e Métodos: Quarenta e cinco pacientes foram submetidos à remoção cirúrgica de terceiros molares inferiores impactados e distribuídos aleatoriamente no pós-operatório em 3 grupos: 8 mg de dexametasona injetados na submucosa vestíbular próximo ao local da cirurgia (grupo I), 8 mg de dexametasona injetados no espaço pterigomandibular (grupo II) e 10 mg de pó de dexametasona aplicados no local da extração, após o controle do sangramento (grupo III). Edema facial e abertura interincisal máxima foram medidos no pré-operatório. A dor foi medida pela resposta do paciente a uma escala visual analógica. Percepção de dor, edema facial e trismo foram avaliados por uma semana de pós-operatório. Resultados: Não houve diferença significativa entre os três grupos em relação à dor após 1, 2, 5, 7 dias de acompanhamento. No entanto, o grupoII mostrou menos dor em 3 e 4 dias. A diferença entre as medidas de edema não foi significativa nos três grupos em 1, 5, 7 dias, embora nos grupos I e II o edema cedeu a partir do dia 2. Quanto ao trismo, os grupos I e III apresentaram medida de abertura interincisal máxima inferior estatisticamente significativa do que o grupo II depois de dois dias. Conclusão: A administração local de dexametasona por três vias diferentes é benéfica na redução das sequelas pós-operatórias após a cirurgia do terceiro molar. A injeção de dexametasona no espaço pterigomandibular resultou na resolução mais precoce da dor e menos edema facial e trismo no segundo dia de pós-operatório em comparação com a injeção submucosa e a aplicação transalveolar. No entanto, em uma semana, a diferença nas medidas das três variáveis entre os grupos não foi significativa.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Surgery, Oral , Dexamethasone , Molar, Third
3.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 154-160, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928527

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroid switching can reverse abiraterone resistance in some patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Here, we investigated the potential biomarkers for predicting the efficacy of corticosteroid switching during treatment with abiraterone acetate (AA). We retrospectively analyzed 101 mCRPC patients receiving corticosteroid switching from West China Hospital and Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center between January 2016 and December 2018. All cases received AA plus prednisone as first-line therapy during mCRPC. Primary end points were biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) and overall survival (OS). The risk groups were defined based on multivariate analysis. A total of 42 (41.6%) and 25 (24.8%) patients achieved 30% and 50% decline in prostate-specific antigen (PSA), respectively, after corticosteroid switching. The median bPFS and median OS on AA plus dexamethasone were 4.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-6.0) months and 18.8 (95% CI: 16.2-30.2) months, respectively. Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3) expression (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.15, 95% Cl: 1.22-3.80, P = 0.008) and baseline serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP; HR: 4.95, 95% Cl: 2.40-10.19, P < 0.001) were independent predictors of efficacy before corticosteroid switching in the multivariate analysis of bPFS. Only baseline serum ALP >160 IU l-1 (HR: 3.41, 95% Cl: 1.57-7.38, P = 0.002) together with PSA level at switch ≥50 ng ml-1 (HR: 2.59, 95% Cl: 1.22-5.47, P = 0.013) independently predicted poorer OS. Based on the predictive factors in multivariate analysis, we developed two risk stratification tools to select candidates for corticosteroid switching. Detection of serum ALP level, PSA level, and tissue AKR1C3 expression in mCRPC patients could help make clinical decisions for corticosteroid switching.


Subject(s)
Abiraterone Acetate/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Androstenes , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Male , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
4.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2001-2005, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936979

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To eval uate the cost-util ity of regimen containing bortezomib in the treatment of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma in China. METHODS From the perspective of China ’s health system ,Markov model was constructed based on SWOG S 0777 clinical trial. The simulation time limit was 10 years,and the cycle was set with reference to the treatment cycle. Taking quality adjusted life years (QALYs)as the utility index ,the utility and cost were discounted at a discount rate of 5%;the willingness to pay (WTP)threshold was set to be 3 times of China ’s per capita gross domestic product (GDP)in 2021(242 928 yuan/QALY). The incremental cost-utility ratio (ICER)of dexamethasone combined with bortezomib and lenalidomide (VRD) versus dexamethasone combined with lenalidomide (RD)were compared with cost-utility analysis. The sensitivity analysis was performed for the uncertainty of the model. RESULTS Results of baseline analysis showed that VRD regimen could obtain 0.65 more QALYs than RD scheme ,but its treatment cost was 135 782.77 yuan more than RD regimen ,ICER was 206 623.35 yuan/ QALY,which was lower than the WTP threshold set in this study ,VRD regimen was cost-effective. Single factor sensitivity analysis showed that the health utility value in progressive free survival had the greatest impact on the results ,the decrease of utility value would make the ICER higher than the WTP threshold ,and VRD regimen would no longer have advantages. Under the WTP threshold of 3 times of China ’s per capita GDP in 2021,the probability of VRD regimen being cost-effective was 86.5%; with the increase of WTP threshold ,the possibility of VRD regimen becoming more cost-effective than RD regimen would increase. CONCLUSIONS Under the WTP threshold of 3 times of China ’s per capita GDP in 2021,compared with RD regimen,VRD regimen is cost-effective in the treatment of newly diagnosed multiple myelo ma in China.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936149

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effectiveness and feasibility of dexamethasone combined with oxybuprocaine hydrochloride gel on the prevention of postoperative sore throat after nasal endoscopy.@*METHODS@#In the study, 60 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical statuses Ⅰ to Ⅱ, aged 18 to 72 years, scheduled for elective nasal endoscope surgery under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation were randomly divided into dexamethasone combined with oxybuprocaine hydrochloride gel group (G group, n=30) and control group (C group, n=30). The patients in the G group received dexamethasone 0.1 mg/kg before induction and the oxybuprocaine gel was applied to the endotracheal catheter cuff and the front end within 15 cm. The patients in the C group received the same dose of saline and the saline was applied to the endotracheal catheter cuff and the front end within 15 cm. Then, all the patients in the two groups received the same induction and anesthesia maintainance. The operation time, anesthesia time, emergence time, extubation time and departure time were recorded. The intraoperative infusion volume, blood loss volume, propofol, remifentanil, rocuronium dosage were also recorded. The adverse reactions such as intraoperative hypotension, bradycardia and postoperative agitation were recorded. The postoperative sore throat score was recorded at the end of operation and 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h after operation.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the C group, the emergence time [(8.4±3.9) min vs. (10.8±4.7) min], extubation time [(8.8±3.7) min vs. (11.9±4.8) min], and departure time [(20.0±5.3) min vs. (23.0±5.8) min] were significantly shorter, and the propofol dosage [(11.8±1.8) mg/kg vs. (15.9±4.6) mg/kg], remifentanil dosage [(10.9±4.7) μg/kg vs. (14.1±3.6) μg/kg] were significantly less in the G group, and there was no difference of rocuronium dosage in the two groups. Compared with the C group the incidence of intraoperative hypotension [10%(3/30) vs. 30%(9/30)], bradycardia [16.7%(5/30) vs. 20%(6/30)] and postoperative agitation [6.7%(2/30) vs. 23.3%(7/30)] were significantly lower in the C group. The postoperative sore throat score at the end of operation, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h after operation in the G group were significantly lower than in the C group respectively [0 (0, 1) vs. 1 (1, 2), 0 (0, 0) vs. 1 (1, 2), 0 (0, 0) vs. 1 (1, 2), 0 (0, 0) vs. 1 (0.75, 1), 0 (0, 0) vs. 1 (0, 1)].@*CONCLUSION@#Dexamethasone combined with oxybuprocaine hydrochloride gel was effective and feasible on the prevention of postoperative sore throat after nasal endoscopy.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Bradycardia/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Endoscopy/adverse effects , Humans , Hypotension/drug therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Pain/drug therapy , Pharyngitis/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Procaine/analogs & derivatives , Propofol , Remifentanil , Rocuronium , Young Adult
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934824

ABSTRACT

@#Introduction: Post-operative pain following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction remains an important challenge. Steroids are used in various surgical procedures to decrease post-operative nausea, vomiting and pain. However, only a few studies have reported the effect of systemic administration of steroids in controlling postoperative pain after anterior cruciate ligament surgery. Materials and methods: We have conducted a prospective randomised trial with 109 patients divided into two groups to determine if administration of dexamethasone in the perioperative period improves pain in the post-operative period. The patients were divided into two groups: D, treatment (dexamethasone) and P, control placebo (saline). Patients in the D treatment group were given the first dose of 10mg of intravenous dexamethasone intravenously intraoperatively and the second dose on transferring of the patient to the inpatient department. The patients in the placebo P group, were administered normal saline in the perioperative period in a similar manner. Result: Post-operative pain was significantly less in the dexamethasone group at rest and on walking (p<0.001) for the first 24 hours after surgical procedure. Subsequently, the VAS pain scores were almost similar in both groups at 48 and 72 hours. The administration of dexamethasone resulted in less requirement of antiemetic and rescue analgesia medication There was no difference in range of motion and wound complications rate during the follow-up period at six months. No adverse side effect, like osteonecrosis of the hip, was detected. Conclusion: The pain following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is severe during the first 24 hours and perioperative administration of dexamethasone can decrease the post-operative pain substantially.

7.
Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 13-18, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932017

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the efficiency, safety and complication of 0.7 mg dexamethasone sustained release agent (Ozurdex ?) vitreous cavity implantation for macular edema secondary to vitrectomy. Methods:A total of 15 patients (16 eyes) were included in this retrospective case series study. There were 7 males (8 eyes) and 8 females (8 eyes). Age ranged from 47 to 72 years old with an average age of (60.2±8.6)years. Among them, 8 cases were diabetic retinopathy (6 cases combined cataract surgery). 4 cases were silicone oil removal after retinal detachment surgery (all combined cataract surgery). 2 cases were epi-macular membrane (all combined with cataract surgery) and 1 case was vitreous hemorrhage (combined with cataract surgery). Ozurdex ? was implanted for macular edema after vitrectomy. The number of implantation was from 1 to 3 times (mean 1.67 times). The follow-up time was from 3 to 12 months, with an average of (7.33±3.50)months. Results:The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was improved in 10 cases (11 eyes), unchanged in 4 cases and decreased in 1 case within 3 months after Ozurdex ? implantation in the 15 cases (16 eyes). The macular edema was significantly improved in all cases. The central macular thickness (CMT) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) was from 350 to 1 370 γm before surgery with average thickness (621.60±235.48)γm, and the CMT postoperative was 118 to 556 γm with average thickness (269.87±118.14)γm, with statistically significant difference ( P<0.001). Cataract was not progressive after Ozurdex ? implantation. Macular edema was recurrent in 7 cases after first implantation and stable for additional 1-2 injections. Intraocular pressure elevation occurred in 3 cases 1 to 2 months after implantation with the highest intraocular pressure of 36 mmHg, which were controlled by local anti-glaucoma eye drops. Drugs entered into the anterior chamber in 2 cases and was taken out in 1 case. Conclusions:The efficiency of Ozurdex ? vitreous cavity implantation is definite and the complications are controllable, so it is a safe and effective method to treat macular edema after vitrectomy.

8.
International Eye Science ; (12): 1717-1721, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942848

ABSTRACT

AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of dexamethasone intravitreal implant combined with anti-VEGF drug and anti-VEGF drug monotherapy in the treatment of macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion(RVO-ME).METHODS: A total of 133 patients(133 eyes)diagnosed with central retinal vein occlusion(CRVO)or branch vein occlusion(BRVO)secondary to macular edema in the Xiamen Eye Center of Xiamen University from June 2019 to December 2020, including 48 patients with CRVO-ME and 85 patients with BRVO-ME were analyzed. All patients were randomly assigned to monotherapy or combination therapy. The monotherapy group(66 eyes)received a monthly injection of conbercept for consecutive 3mo, followed by monthly follow-up visits; The combination therapy group(67 eyes)received once intravitreal dexamethasone implantation, and conbercept was injected once 1wk later, followed by monthly follow-up visits.All patients in the two treatment groups were evaluated at baseline and every subsequent visit until 6mo after treatment with the best corrected visual acuity(BCVA), macular central retinal thickness(CRT), and injection times of conbercept and ocular and systemic adverse events associated with intravitreal injection therapy were recorded.RESULTS: At 1, 2, 3 and 6mo after treatment, the BCVA and CRT in both groups were significantly improved than before.But there was no significant difference in the improvement of BCVA and CRT(P &#x003E;0.05). From the initial intravitreal injection to 6mo, the injection times of the monotherapy group and the combination therapy group were 3.56±0.12 and 2.96±0.17 times, respectively. The injection times of the combination therapy group were significantly lower than those of the monotherapy group(P=0.004). Both the incidences of intraocular hypertension and cataract in the combination therapy group were higher than those in the anti-VEGF monotherapy group.CONCLUSION: dexamethasone intravitreal implant combined with anti-VEGF drugs is an effective method for the treatment of RVO-ME, with significantly improved visual acuity and significantly lower CRT; The combined treatment regimen can reduce the times of injections and achieve similar results to anti-VEGF drug monotherapy. However, monitoring of intraocular pressure and cataract progression is required.

9.
International Eye Science ; (12): 500-504, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920441

ABSTRACT

@#AIM: To investigate the efficacy of anti-inflammatory treatment and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)treatment on different types of macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion(RVO-ME).<p>METHODS: The clinical data of RVO-ME patients who were treated in the Department of Ophthalmology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from 2019-06/2020-12 were retrospectively collected. A total of 108 cases(108 eyes)of RVO-ME patients were collected, including 52 cases(52 eyes)with cystoid macular edema(CME), 38 cases(38 eyes)with macular edema with serous retinal detachment(SRD), and 18 cases(18 eyes)with diffuse retinal thickening(DRT). Patients with various types of ME were further classified into anti-VEGF group and anti-inflammatory group. The observation metrics such as best corrected visual acuity(BCVA)and foveal thickness(CMT)before and 3mo after surgery were collected and compared in each group.<p>RESULTS: There was no difference in baseline data between the anti-VEGF group and the anti-inflammatory group in all types of ME patients(all P>0.05). Patients with CME in the anti-VEGF group in BCVA, CMT, and the sum of CME diameter after operation were different from that before operation(Z= -4.463, -4.541, -4.541, all P<0.001); the postoperative BCVA, CMT, and the sum of CME diameter in the anti-inflammatory group were significantly different from those before operation(Z= -3.743, -4.345, -4.372, all P<0.001); and there was no difference between the anti-VEGF group and the anti-inflammatory group in the postoperative CMT and the sum of CME diameter(Z= -1.017, -0.968, all P>0.05), but there was a difference in BCVA after operation in two groups(Z= -1.978, P<0.05). SRD patients in the anti-VEGF group had differences in postoperative BCVA, CMT, and SRD heights compared with preoperative ones(Z= -4.111, -4.198, -4.198, all P<0.01); the BCVA, CMT, and SRD height in the anti-inflammatory group after operation were different from those before operation(Z= -3.410, -3.408, -3.408, all P<0.05); and there was no difference in BCVA and CMT between the two groups after operation(Z= -0.857, -1.030, all P>0.05), but the postoperative SRD height in the anti-inflammatory group was significantly lower than that in the anti-VEGF group(Z= -2.117, P<0.05). DRT patients in the anti-VEGF group were significantly different in BCVA and CMT after operation compared with preoperative ones(Z= -2.207, -2.521, all P<0.05), and in the anti-inflammatory group after injection, BCVA and CMT were significantly different from preoperative ones(Z= -2.207, -2.521, all P<0.05). There were differences in BCVA and CMT after injection in the anti-inflammatory group compared with those before operation(Z= -2.207, -2.803, all P<0.05). There was no difference in postoperative BCVA and CMT between the two groups(Z= -0.359, -0.845, all P>0.05). <p>CONCLUSION: Anti-inflammatory and anti-VEGF treatments are effective for all kinds of ME in improving vision and reducing CMT. Anti-VEGF treatment is superior to anti-inflammatory treatment in improving BCVA of CME patients and is inferior to anti-inflammatory in decreasing SRD thickness of SRD patients.

10.
International Eye Science ; (12): 383-387, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920404

ABSTRACT

@#AIM: To explore the therapeutic effects and safety of dexamethasone intravitreal implant(DEX)on non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy(NAION), and responses to the different course of disease.<p>METHODS: Totally 70 patients(70 eyes)in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University diagnosed with NAION from January 2018 to December 2020 were obtained retrospectively as combination treatment group and routine treatment group. 35 patients(35 eyes)in each group received usual care(methylprednisolne pluse therapy, microcirculation improvement and neurotrophic treatment), and combination treatment group also received a dexamethasone intravitreal implant. The best corrected visual acuity(BCVA), mean damage(MD)and pattern standard deviation(PSD)of the visual field, mean thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFL)and intraocular pressure(IOP)were compared between the two groups, and two groups with a different course of disease before and 3mo after treatment.<p>RESULTS: BCVA and MD improved in both groups at 3mo after treatment(<i>P</i><0.05). The PSD in the combination treatment group was not significantly different before and after treatment(<i>P</i>>0.05). The PSD at 3mo after treatment in the routine treatment group was worse than before treatment(<i>P</i><0.05). BCVA, MD, and PSD in the combination treatment group had better improvement than in the routine treatment group at 3mo after treatment(<i>P</i><0.05). Visual acuity improvement rate in the combination treatment group was higher than in the routine treatment group at 3mo after treatment(<i>P</i><0.05). There was no obvious difference in RNFL thickness between the two groups(<i>P</i>>0.05). BCVA, PSD and effective rate in the combination treatment group had better improvement than in the routine treatment group in disease course ≤ 15d at 3mo after treatment(<i>P</i><0.05), and no apparent difference in the group of disease course > 15d(<i>P</i>>0.05). There was a mild and controllable increase in IOP in the combination treatment group compared to routine treatment group.<p>CONCLUSION: Dexamethasone intravitreal implant can promote BCVA and the recovery of visual function for the long term. It is deemed safe and effective in treating NAION, with better therapeutic effects within 2wk after onset.

11.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 38(4): 608-614, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365941

ABSTRACT

Resumen Con el objetivo de evaluar las tendencias en el uso de fármacos en pacientes con la COVID-19 de un hospital del Perú durante la primera ola de la pandemia se realizó un estudio retrospectivo entre abril y septiembre del 2020. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de pacientes hospitalizados por neumonía por COVID-19 en el Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo (Lima, Perú). De un total de 3103 pacientes, se incluyeron 381 historias clínica (77,4% varones y mediana de edad de 44 años). Se observó un incremento del uso de cuatro fármacos prehospitalarios (azitromicina, ivermectina, corticoides y ceftriaxona), y una disminución del uso de seis fármacos intrahospitalarios (ceftriaxona, azitromicina, hidroxicloroquina, ivermectina, pulso de corticoides y anticoagulación profiláctica); además, el uso de anticoagulación intrahospitalaria aumentó. Estos hallazgos sugieren que el manejo de la COVID-19 varió durante la primera ola de la pandemia, aumentando el uso de fármacos prehospitalarios y disminuyendo el uso de fármacos intrahospitalarios.


Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacological trends in patients with COVID-19 from a hospital in Peru during the first wave of the pandemic. Retrospective study conducted between April and September 2020. The medical records of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia at the Dos de Mayo National Hospital (Lima, Peru) were reviewed. Of a total of 3103 patients, 381 medical records were included (77.4% male, median age: 44 years). The use of four prehospital drugs increased (azithromycin, ivermectin, corticosteroids, and ceftriaxone), while the in-hospital use of six drugs (ceftriaxone, azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, corticosteroid pulse, and prophylactic anticoagulation) decreased and in-hospital anticoagulation use decreased. These findings suggest that the management of COVID-19 has varied during the first wave of the pandemic, typically increasing prehospital drug use and decreasing inpatient use.

12.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(6): 657-661, Nov.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352289

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Considering the disruptions imposed by lockdowns and social distancing recommendations, coupled with overwhelmed healthcare systems, researchers worldwide have been exploring drug repositioning strategies for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). OBJECTIVE: To compile results from randomized clinical trials on the effect of dexamethasone, compared with standard treatment for management of SARS-CoV-2. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines in a Brazilian public university. METHODS: We sought to compile data from 6724 hospitalized patients with confirmed or suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Treatment with dexamethasone significantly reduced mortality within 28 days (risk ratio, RR: 0.89; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.82-0.97). Dexamethasone use was linked with being discharged alive within 28 days (odds ratio, OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.07-1.33). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that dexamethasone may significantly improve the outcome among hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated severe respiratory complications. ­Further studies need to consider both dose-dependent administration and outcomes in early and later stages of the disease. PROSPERO platform: CRD42021229825.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control
13.
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 21(4): 6-13, out.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1391244

ABSTRACT

Complicações pós-operatórias como edema, dor e trismo são comuns em cirurgias orais. Terapias, como o uso de analgésicos e anti-inflamatórios, são indicadas para estas complicações. No entanto, intervenções pré-operatórias podem ser alternativas. Desta forma, o presente estudo avaliou o efeito da dexametasona no edema, intensidade de dor e abertura de boca (trismo) no pós-operatório de retirada de terceiros molares inferiores. Pacientes (n=14, 9 mulheres) foram incluídos em um estudo clínico, cruzado, cego, randomizado, placebo-controlado e boca dividida. Pacientes receberam aleatoriamente medicação preemptiva (dexametasona 8mg, intramuscular, músculo masseter) ou placebo (soro fisiológico) uma hora antes da primeira cirurgia. O procedimento contralateral foi realizado 21 dias após. Avaliou se o edema e a abertura bucal nos momentos pré-operatórios e no 3º e 7º dias pós-operatórios, além de dor espontânea (imediatamente, 2 e 24 horas, 3 dias e 7 dias). Os dados foram analisados usando anova de medidas repetidas seguida do teste post hoc LSD de Fisher. Comparado ao placebo, a medicação reduziu edema (3 dias), dor (2 e 24 horas) e trismo (3 dias). Os resultados sugerem que o uso preemptivo da dexametasona intramuscular é capaz de aumentar o bem-estar dos pacientes submetidos a cirurgias orais, tendo o potencial de reduzir os custos pós-operatórios... (AU)


Postoperative complications such as edema, pain, and trismus are common in oral surgery. Therapies, such as the use of painkillers and anti inflammatory drugs, are indicated for the reversal of these complications. However, preoperative (preemptive) interventions can be alternatives. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone on edema, pain intensity, and mouth opening (trismus) in the postoperative period of removal of impacted lower third molars. Patients (n = 14, 9 women) were included in a clinical, crossover, blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, and divided mouth study. Preemptive mediation (dexamethasone 8mg, intramuscular, masseter muscle) or placebo (saline) was randomly given before the first surgery. The contralateral procedure was performed 21 days later. In the postoperative period, edema, mouth opening (preoperative, 3 and 7 days), and spontaneous pain (immediately, 2 and 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days) were analyzed. The data were analyzed using the one-way repeated measures ANOVA followed by Fisher's LSD post hoc. Compared to placebo, the medication reduced edema (3 days), pain (2 and 24 hours), and trismus (3 days). The results suggest that the preemptive use of dexamethasone is able to increase the well-being of patients undergoing oral surgeries, with the potential to reduce postoperative costs... (AU)


Las complicaciones posoperatorias como hinchazón, dolor y trismo son comunes en las cirugías orales. Las terapias, como el uso de analgésicos y antiinflamatorios, están indicadas para estas complicaciones. Sin embargo, las intervenciones preoperatorias pueden ser alternativas. Así, el presente estudio evaluó el efecto de la dexametasona sobre el edema, la intensidad del dolor y la apertura de la boca (trismo) en el postoperatorio de remoción del tercer molar inferior. Los pacientes (n = 14, 9 mujeres) se incluyeron en un estudio clínico, cruzado, ciego, aleatorizado, controlado con placebo y de boca dividida. Los pacientes recibieron aleatoriamente medicación preventiva (8 mg de dexametasona, intramuscular, músculo masetero) o placebo (solución salina) una hora antes de la primera cirugía. El procedimiento contralateral se realizó 21 días después. Se evaluó el edema y la apertura de la boca en el preoperatorio y en el tercer y séptimo días postoperatorios, además del dolor espontáneo (inmediato, 2 y 24 horas, 3 días y 7 días). Los datos se analizaron utilizando anova de medidas repetidas seguido de la prueba post hoc de LSD de Fisher. En comparación con el placebo, el medicamento redujo el edema (3 días), el dolor (2 y 24 horas) y el trismo (3 días). Los resultados sugieren que el uso preventivo de dexametasona intramuscular puede aumentar el bienestar de los pacientes sometidos a cirugía oral, con el potencial de reducir los costos posoperatorios... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Pain , Pain, Postoperative , Postoperative Complications , Postoperative Period , Surgery, Oral , Trismus , Dexamethasone , Molar, Third , Pain Measurement , Edema , Analgesics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Molar , Molar, Third/surgery
14.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385845

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La exodoncia de terceros molares incluidos conlleva la mayoría de las veces un cuadro inflamatorio agudo, dolor postoperatorio y trismus. En la actualidad, se han propuesto diversos protocolos farmacológicos con el fin de prevenir estas complicaciones, donde los más utilizados son los analgésicos y corticoides. Comparar Dexametasona y Ketoprofeno endovenoso previo a la cirugía de terceros molares mandibulares incluidos, en el control del edema, dolor y trismus. Se realizó un estudio experimental, analítico de corte transversal, autorizado por el comité de ética de la Universidad Andrés Bello. Se escogieron 30 sujetos que requerían exodoncia de terceros molares mandibulares incluidos, de forma aleatoria 15 sujetos recibieron Dexametasona 4 mg endovenoso y 15 Ketoprofeno 200 mg endovenoso 30 minutos antes de la intervención. El procedimiento quirúrgico fue estandarizado, se evaluó el edema facial, trismus y dolor postquirúrgico a los 2 y 7 días terminada la cirugía. Se presentó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa solo en 2 mediadas faciales, de las 5 tomadas, al comparar el porcentaje de edema a los 7 días postoperatorias entre ambos grupos experimentales. La mayoría del grupo Dexametasona presentó un edema de mayor volumen en comparación al grupo Ketoprofeno. En relación al dolor y trismus, sólo se observan diferencias significativas en la intensidad del dolor evaluada a los 7 días, siendo mayor en el grupo Ketoprofeno. En las otras variables medidas, la presencia de odontosección en la cirugía generó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa, siendo mayor el edema en los que se les realizó odontosección. Esta diferencia se vio principalmente en el grupo Ketoprofeno evaluado a los 2 días postoperatorios. El uso de cualquiera de los 2 fármacos está bien indicado para aliviar el dolor e inflamación en este tipo de cirugía. Pese a que el grupo tratado con Dexametasona presentó menor dolor, no fue una diferencia significativa en comparación al grupo con Ketoprofeno.


ABSTRACT: The extraction of included third molars most of the time involves an acute inflammatory picture, postoperative pain and trismus. At present, various pharmacological protocols have been proposed in order to prevent these complications, where the most widely used are analgesics and corticosteroids. Compare Dexamethasone and Ketoprofen used intravenously prior to surgery of mandibular third molars included, in the control of edema, pain and trismus. An experimental, analytical, cross- sectional study was carried out, authorized by the ethics committee of the Andrés Bello University. Thirty subjects who required extraction of included mandibular third molars were chosen, 15randomly received intravenous Dexamethasone 4 mg and 15 intravenous Ketoprofen 200 mg 30 minutes before the intervention. The surgical procedure was standardized, facial edema, trismus and postoperative pain were evaluated at 2 and 7 days after the surgery. There was a statistically significant difference only in 2 facial measures, of the 5 taken, when comparing the percentage of edema at 7 postoperative days between both experimental groups. Most of the Dexamethasone group had a larger volume ede- ma compared to the Ketoprofen group. In relation to pain and trismus, significant differences were only observed in the intensity of pain evaluated at 7 days, being greater in the Ketoprofen group. In the other variables measured, the presence of a dental section in the surgery generated a statistically significant difference, with the edema being greater in those who underwent a dental section. This difference was mainly seen in the Ketoprofen group evaluated at 2 postoperative days. The use of any of the 2 drugs is well indicated to alleviate the pain and inflammation of the patient generated by the trauma caused by this type of surgery. Although the group treated with Dexamethasone presented less pain, it was not a significant difference compared to the group with Ketoprofen.

15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(9): 1299-1304, Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351491

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of dexamethasone in dialysis patients with COVID-19 and whether it predicts mortality. METHODS: This is a comparative cross-sectional study of 113 consecutive patients with COVID-19 with severe pneumonia signs. The patients were divided into two groups according to the use of dexamethasone treatment: group 1 (n=45) included patients who were treated with dexamethasone and group 2 (n=68) who did not receive dexamethasone. RESULTS: The mean age of both groups was 67.0±10.6 and 67.2±13.0 years, respectively (p=0.947). With respect to demographic and laboratory findings, there were no significant differences between the two groups (p>0.05). The hospitalization time of patients in group 1 was longer than that in group 2 (11 [7-17] days vs. 8 [5.3-14] days, p=0.093]. The 28-day survival rate was 54.2% in the group receiving dexamethasone treatment and 79.5% in the group not receiving dexamethasone treatment (p=0.440). CONCLUSION: Dexamethasone did not reduce mortality rates and the requirement for intensive care unit in dialysis patients with COVID-19. Larger prospective randomized clinical trials are required to associate personalized medicine with the corticosteroid treatment to select suitable patients who are more likely to show a benefit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , Prognosis , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Middle Aged
16.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 52-58, July. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis attacks approximately 10% of the population worldwide. Sika Deer (Cervus nippon), one of China's precious traditional medicinal animals, has been widely recorded in ancient Chinese medical books and claimed for centuries to have numerous medical benefits including bone strengthening. This study aimed to find the use of Sika Deer bone in treating osteoporosis according to traditional records and to investigate the protective effect of Sika Deer bone polypeptide extract on glucocorticoidinduced osteoporosis (GIOP) in rats. RESULTS: Sika Deer bone polypeptide extract could increase serum Ca2+ and BGP, decrease serum P3+, ALP, PTH, and CT, but had no effect on serum NO in rats with GIOP. The immunohistochemical iNOS results of the rats' distal femur were negative in each group. Besides the model group, the eNOS color reaction in osteoblasts was strongly positive in the other three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Sika Deer bone polypeptide extract can improve pathological changes in the microstructure and stimulate the expression of eNOS in osteoblasts. The protective effect on bone might be mediated by eNOS-dependent NO generation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Peptides/pharmacology , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Deer , Osteoblasts , Dexamethasone , Rats, Wistar , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/drug effects
17.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(2): 140-142, Mar.-Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280115

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This report aims to describe the effectiveness of a unilateral intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex®) used for the treatment of cystoid macular edema in a patient with recurrent intermediate uveitis. Bearing in mind the adverse effects of the prolonged use of systemic corticosteroids, the objective here was to provide a less damaging form of intervention, and also to demonstrate the safety of the dexamethasone implant for patients who fail to respond to conventional treatment. In the present case, there was bilateral improvement in retinal anatomy and function with use of the unilateral intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex®).


RESUMO Neste estudo, o objetivo foi descrever, a partir de um relato de caso, a eficácia do uso de implante de dexametasona intravítrea (Ozurdex®) unilateral, para o tratamento de edema macular cistoide, em um paciente com quadro de uveíte intermediária recorrente, visando uma terapêutica menos lesiva, diante dos efeitos colaterais do uso prolongado de corticoesteroides sistêmicos, demonstrando também a segurança desse tratamento alternativo para aqueles pacientes que se apresentam refratários a terapêutica tradicional. No caso relatado, vale ressaltar a melhora bilateral da anatomia e função retiniana com o implante unilateral de dexametasona intravítrea (Ozurdex®).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Uveitis, Intermediate/complications , Macular Edema/etiology , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Visual Acuity , Uveitis, Intermediate/diagnosis , Macular Edema/diagnosis , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Drug Implants/administration & dosage , Intravitreal Injections
19.
International Eye Science ; (12): 1984-1986, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887399

ABSTRACT

@#AIM: To investigate the efficacy of dexamethasone implant injection in the treatment of persistent diabetic macular edema(DME).<p>METHODS: The clinical data of 30 DME patients(30 eyes)after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor(anti-VEGF)agents from June 2019 to January 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had underwent intravitreal injection of DEX. Best corrected visual acuity(BCVA), intraocular pressure(IOP), central macular thickness(CMT)and adverse events were recorded.<p>RESULTS:BCVA(LogMAR)was significantly improved from(0.86±0.47)to(0.57±0.53, 0.42±0.48, 0.43±0.26, 0.45±0.66 and 0.51±0.37)at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6mo after treatment. CMT improved significantly from baseline(495.64±107.23)μm to(412.57±74.55, 370.21±23.83, 371.53±52.66, 373.28±68.49, 389.35±95.61)μm 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6mo post-injection. The drug reached its peak efficacy 2mo after administration. 4 eyes were given repeated injection at 3mo, 5 eyes were given at 5mo and 2 eyes were given at 6mo following the primary injection. Cataract progression was showed in 1 case. 4 patients demonstrated IOP levels above 22mmHg and were mostly controllable by IOP-lowering medications. None of patients showed any adverse events at 6mo of follow-up.<p>CONCLUSION: Dexamethasone implant injection showed significant BCVA and CMT improvement. DEX injection may be utilized as an effective DME therapy for patients who are persistent after anti-VEGF treatment.

20.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887171

ABSTRACT

The development of therapeutic agents is important for controlling emerging infectious diseases. However, looking back into our experiences for the last three decades, there were no effective treatments at the beginning of the pandemics. Generally, the first step to develop therapeutic agents for emerging infectious diseases is to search for already existing agents that might have therapeutic effects, and so did with COVID-19. Many candidates have been examined with hopes of success for the past year. Up to now, only two agents, remdesivir and dexamethasone, which were anti-viral and anti-inflammatory agents, respectively, were approved as therapeutic agents. The two drugs are approved based on the results of clinical trials performed overseas and not in Japan. Though many other candidate drugs have been proposed and clinical trials have been carried out in Japan, few studies have reached clear conclusions. The reasons for these ineffective study-progress are not clear, but it appears that high hurdles may exist for doctors to participate in RCTs, probably due to the lack of human resources that can be invested in implementing RCTs. Based on the lessons learned from this pandemic, to proceed RTCs effectively, a new organization with the role of a command tower to manage and support RCTs is eagerly awaited.

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