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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252952, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355913

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main purpose of this study was to find out a possible association between ABO blood groups or Rh and diabetes mellitus (DM) in the local population of eight (8) different towns of Karachi, Pakistan. For this purpose a survey was carried out in Karachi to have a practical observation of these towns during the period of 9 months from June 2019 to Feb. 2020. Out of eighteen (18) towns of Karachi, samples (N= 584) were collected from only eight (8) Towns of Karachi and gave a code-number to each town. Diabetic group sample was (n1=432) & pre-diabetes sample was (n2 =152). A standard Abbot Company Glucometer for Random Blood Sugar (RBS) and Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) tests, standard blood anti sera were used for ABO/Rh blood type. Health assessment techniques were performed ethically by taking informed consent from all registered subjects. Finally data was analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. In our current study, the comparison of ABO blood groups frequencies between diabetic and pre-diabetic individuals were carried out. The percentage values of blood Group-B as given as: (32% in DM vs. 31% in pre-diabetics), followed by blood Group-O as: (18% in DM vs. 11% in pre-diabetics). Contrary to Group-"B" & "O", blood Group-A and Group-AB were distribution percentage higher pre-diabetic as compared to DM patients, as given as: Group-A (32% in pre-diabetics vs. 26% in DM) & Group-AB (26% in pre-diabetics vs. 24% in diabetic's patients). In addition, percentage distribution of Rh system was also calculated, in which Rh+ve Group was high and more common in DM patients as compared to pre-diabetics; numerically given as: Rh+ve Group (80% in DM vs. 72% in pre-diabetics). Different views and dimensions of the research topic were studied through literature support, some have found no any association and some established a positive association still some were not clear in making a solid conclusion. It is concluded that DM has a positive correlation with ABO blood groups, and people with Group-B have increased susceptibility to DM disease.


Resumo O objetivo principal deste estudo foi descobrir uma possível associação entre grupos sanguíneos ABO ou Rh e diabetes mellitus (DM) na população local de oito (8) diferentes cidades de Karachi, Paquistão. Para tanto, foi realizado um levantamento em Karachi para observação prática dessas cidades durante o período de 9 meses de junho de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020.De dezoito (18) cidades de Karachi, as amostras (N = 584) foram coletadas de apenas oito (8) cidades de Karachi e deram um número-código para cada cidade. A amostra do grupo de diabéticos foi (n1 = 432) e a amostra de pré-diabetes foi (n2 = 152). Um glicômetro padrão da Abbot Company para testes de açúcar no sangue aleatório (RBS) e açúcar no sangue em jejum (FBS), antissoros de sangue padrão foram usados ​​para o tipo de sangue ABO / Rh. As técnicas de avaliação de saúde foram realizadas de forma ética, tomando o consentimento informado de todos os indivíduos registrados. Finalmente, os dados foram analisados ​​pelo SPSS versão 20.0.No presente estudo, foi realizada a comparação das frequências dos grupos sanguíneos ABO entre diabéticos e pré-diabéticos. Os valores percentuais do sangue do Grupo-B são dados como: (32% em DM vs. 31% em pré-diabéticos), seguido pelo sangue do Grupo-O como: (18% em DM vs. 11% em pré-diabéticos). Ao contrário dos Grupos "B" e "O", sangue do Grupo-A e Grupo-AB tiveram distribuição percentual maior de pré-diabéticos em comparação com pacientes com DM, dado como: Grupo-A (32% em pré-diabéticos vs. 26% em DM) e Grupo AB (26% em pré-diabéticos vs. 24% em pacientes diabéticos). Além disso, também foi calculada a distribuição percentual do sistema Rh, no qual o Grupo Rh + ve foi elevado e mais comum em pacientes com DM em comparação aos pré-diabéticos; dados numericamente como: Grupo Rh + ve (80% em DM vs. 72% em pré-diabéticos). Diferentes visões e dimensões do tema de pesquisa foram estudadas com o suporte da literatura, alguns não encontraram nenhuma associação e alguns estabeleceram uma associação positiva, embora alguns não estivessem claros em fazer uma conclusão sólida. Conclui-se que o DM tem correlação positiva com os grupos sanguíneos ABO, e as pessoas com o Grupo B têm maior suscetibilidade à doença DM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , ABO Blood-Group System , Cities
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250179, 2023. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339372

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a non-communicable disease throughout the world in which there is persistently high blood glucose level from the normal range. The diabetes and insulin resistance are mainly responsible for the morbidities and mortalities of humans in the world. This disease is mainly regulated by various enzymes and hormones among which Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a principle enzyme and insulin is the key hormone regulating it. The GSK-3, that is the key enzyme is normally showing its actions by various mechanisms that include its phosphorylation, formation of protein complexes, and other cellular distribution and thus it control and directly affects cellular morphology, its growth, mobility and apoptosis of the cell. Disturbances in the action of GSK-3 enzyme may leads to various disease conditions that include insulin resistance leading to diabetes, neurological disease like Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Fluoroquinolones are the most common class of drugs that shows dysglycemic effects via interacting with GSK-3 enzyme. Therefore, it is the need of the day to properly understand functions and mechanisms of GSK-3, especially its role in glucose homeostasis via effects on glycogen synthase.


Resumo O diabetes mellitus (DM) é uma doença não transmissível em todo o mundo, na qual existe nível glicêmico persistentemente alto em relação à normalidade. O diabetes e a resistência à insulina são os principais responsáveis ​​pelas morbidades e mortalidades de humanos no mundo. Essa doença é regulada principalmente por várias enzimas e hormônios, entre os quais a glicogênio sintase quinase-3 (GSK-3) é uma enzima principal e a insulina é o principal hormônio que a regula. A GSK-3, que é a enzima-chave, normalmente mostra suas ações por vários mecanismos que incluem sua fosforilação, formação de complexos de proteínas e outras distribuições celulares e, portanto, controla e afeta diretamente a morfologia celular, seu crescimento, mobilidade e apoptose do célula. Perturbações na ação da enzima GSK-3 podem levar a várias condições de doença que incluem resistência à insulina que leva ao diabetes, doenças neurológicas como a doença de Alzheimer e câncer. As fluoroquinolonas são a classe mais comum de drogas que apresentam efeitos disglicêmicos por meio da interação com a enzima GSK-3. Portanto, é necessário hoje em dia compreender adequadamente as funções e mecanismos da GSK-3, principalmente seu papel na homeostase da glicose via efeitos na glicogênio sintase.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insulin Resistance , Diabetes Mellitus , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Glucose , Homeostasis
3.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e225337, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1366230

ABSTRACT

Aim: To elaborate and validate an instrument for Brazilian Portuguese speakers, to assess dentists' knowledge about care of patients with diabetes mellitus (Dental-Diabetes). Methods: Methodological study comprising four stages: a) Elaboration of instrument; b) Content validation (computing Content Validity Index - CVI) based on Expert Committee assessment; c) Pre-test with 30 dentists, followed by assessment of suggestions by Expert Committee; d) Psychometric validation through instrument application in a sample of 127 dentists by means of the web tool e-Surv. Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients were used to evaluate, respectively, internal consistency and reproducibility. Results: The final version of the instrument consists of 22 questions (7 on sociodemographic data and 15 querying dentists' knowledge) and those submitted for validation attained a CVI of 0.95 [95% CI 0.916-0,981], showing satisfactory internal consistency, with 0.794 Cronbach's alpha [95% CI 0.741-0.842] and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.799 [95% CI: 0.746-0.846] between the test and retest scores. Conclusions: Dental-Diabetes is a comprehensive instrument, culturally adequate and validated to assess dentists' knowledge about care of patients with diabetes


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Dentists , Diabetes Mellitus , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results
4.
Rev. urug. enferm ; 17(1): 1-15, jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1367881

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: compreender as adversidades e habilidades adaptativas vivenciadas por pessoas com diabetes mellitus. Metodologia: estudo de caso único com abordagem qualitativa, realizado com pessoas com diabetes, participantes em um grupo de educação em saúde vinculado a um Hospital Universitário da região sul do Brasil. Para coleta de dados, entre maio e junho de 2019, foi aplicada a Escala Problems Areas in Diabetes, cujos dados foram analisados, conforme recomendação de pontuação do instrumento; entrevista semiestruturada e observação participante submetidas à análise de conteúdo. O suporte teórico deste estudo foi a Teoria da Resiliência Aplicada a Sistemas Socioecológicos e estudos que abordam as práticas de autocuidado. Resultados: o caso único inclui cinco participantes. O score médio segundo a Escala Problems Areas in Diabetes foi de 48,0. O score individual indicou elevado impacto emocional relacionado ao viver com diabetes. Dos cinco participantes, três ultrapassaram o score máximo desejável (40 pontos): 81,25; 65; 57,5, 28,75 e 7,5. Da análise de conteúdo emergiram duas categorias: "Desafios para o autocuidado", com destaque à alimentação, tratamento farmacológico e monitorização do diabetes; "Rede de suporte para o enfrentamento das adversidades", com destaque o apoio dos familiares, amigos e profissionais da saúde. Conclusão: o conhecimento das adversidades e habilidades adaptativas das pessoas com diabetes contribui para compreensão do processo de resiliência, práticas de autocuidado e melhores práticas de saúde.


Objetivo: comprender las adversidades y habilidades adaptativas que experimentan las personas con diabetes mellitus. Metodología: estudio de caso único con abordaje cualitativo, realizado con personas con diabetes, participantes de un grupo de educación en salud vinculado a un Hospital Universitario en el sur de Brasil. Para la recolección de datos, entre mayo y junio de 2019 se aplicó la Escala de Áreas de Problemas en Diabetes, cuyos datos fueron analizados de acuerdo con la recomendación de puntaje del instrumento; entrevista semiestructurada y observación participante sometida a análisis de contenido. El soporte teórico de este estudio fue la Teoría de la Resiliencia Aplicada a Sistemas Socioecológicos y estudios que abordan las prácticas de autocuidado. Resultados: el caso único incluyó a cinco participantes. La puntuación media según la Escala de áreas problemáticas en la diabetes fue de 48,0. La puntuación individual indicó un alto impacto emocional relacionado con vivir con diabetes. De los cinco participantes, tres superaron la puntuación máxima deseable (40 puntos): 81,25; sesenta y cinco; 57,5, 28,75 y 7,5. Del análisis de contenido surgieron dos categorías: "Desafíos para el autocuidado", con énfasis en la nutrición, el tratamiento farmacológico y el seguimiento de la diabetes; "Red de apoyo para afrontar la adversidad", destacando el apoyo de familiares, amigos y profesionales de la salud. Conclusión: el conocimiento de la adversidad y las habilidades de adaptación de las personas con diabetes contribuye a la comprensión del proceso de resiliencia, las prácticas de autocuidado y las mejores prácticas de salud.


Objective: to understand the adversities and adaptive skills experienced by people with diabetes mellitus. Method: single-case study with qualitative approach, carried out with people with diabetes, participating in a health education group linked to a University Hospital in the south of Brazil. For data collection, between May and June 2019, the Problems Areas in Diabetes Scale was applied, with analysis according to the instrument's scoring recommendation; semi-structured interview and participant observation submitted to content analysis. The theoretical support of this study was the Theory of Resilience Applied to Socio-ecological Systems and studies related to self-care practices. Results: the single-case included five participants. The average score according to the Problems Areas in Diabetes Scale was 50.75, the individual score indicated a high emotional impact related to living with diabetes. Of the five participants, three exceeded the maximum desirable score (40 points): 81.25; 67.5; 65; 32.5 and 7.5. From the content analysis, two categories emerged: "Challenges for self-care", with emphasis on food, pharmacological treatment and monitoring of diabetes; "Support network for coping with adversity", with emphasis on the support of family members, friends and health professionals. Conclusion: the knowledge of adversities and adaptive skills of people with diabetes contributes to understanding the resilience process, self-care practices and best health practices.


Subject(s)
Humans , Self Care , Social Support , Brazil , Diabetes Mellitus , Resilience, Psychological
5.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(2): 85-88, Mar-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365681

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: There is an annual increase in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) incidence in middle-aged people. Aerobic exercise is known to influence glucose metabolic pathways positively. Few studies concerning calisthenic aerobic exercise and its influence on elderly patients with T2DM. Objective: To measure the therapeutic effect of calisthenic exercise in obese Middle-aged people with T2DM. Methods: A total of 86 patients with T2DM were selected from the physical examination of employees of the same unit. They were randomly divided into the exercise group and the control group. The exercise intervention lasted for 16 weeks, with sessions held 3-5 times per week, varying from 60 to 90 minutes per session. The markers evaluated were defined according to the literature and statistically verified. Results: After 16 weeks of calisthenic exercise intervention, compared to the control group or before the experiment, we observed significant reductions in variables VFA (visceral fat area), FPG (fasting glucose), Fins (fasting insulin), HOMA-IR (homeostasis model evaluation of insulin resistance), 2hPBG (postprandial two hours glucose) and HbAlc (hemoglobin Alc) of the exercise group were significantly reduced (P<0.01). Conclusion: Calisthenic exercise intervention can reduce the levels of VFA, FPG. FIns, HOMA-HR, 2hPBG and HbAlc in patients with T2DM. It was also found to reduce the visceral fat content of obese elderly patients with T2DM, reducing obesity risks. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução: Há um aumento anual na incidência de diabetes tipo 2 (T2DM) nas pessoas de meia idade. O exercício aeróbico é conhecido por influenciar positivamente as vias metabólicas da glicose. Porém há poucos estudos sobre o exercício aeróbico calistênico e sua influência em pacientes entre 40 a 60 anos com T2DM. Objetivo: Medir o efeito terapêutico do exercício calistênico em pacientes de meia idade com obesidade e T2DM. Métodos: Um total de 86 pacientes com T2DM foram selecionados a partir do exame físico dos funcionários da mesma unidade. Eles foram divididos aleatoriamente entre o grupo de exercícios e o grupo de controle. A intervenção do exercício durou 16 semanas, com sessões realizadas de 3 a 5 vezes por semana, variando de 60 a 90 minutos por sessão. Os marcadores avaliados foram definidos de acordo com a literatura e verificados estatisticamente. Resultados: Após 16 semanas de intervenção de exercício aeróbico calistênico, em comparação ao grupo controle ou antes do experimento, observamos reduções significativas nas variáveis VFA (área de gordura visceral), FPG (glicose de jejum), Fins (insulina em jejum), HOMA-IR (avaliação do modelo de homeostase de resistência à insulina), 2hPBG (glicose pós-prandial de duas horas) e HbAlc (hemoglobina Alc) do grupo exercício foram significativamente reduzidas (P<0,01). Conclusão: A intervenção de exercício aeróbico calistênico pode reduzir os níveis de VFA, FPG. FIns, HOMA-HR, 2hPBG e HbAlc em pacientes com T2DM. Também foi constatado que reduz o conteúdo de gordura visceral de pacientes idosos obesos com T2DM, reduzindo os riscos de obesidade. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: Cada año aumenta la incidencia de la diabetes tipo 2 (T2DM) en personas de mediana edad. Se sabe que el ejercicio aeróbico influye positivamente en las vías metabólicas de la glucosa. Pero hay pocos estudios sobre el ejercicio aeróbico calisténico y su influencia en pacientes de 40-60 años con T2DM. Objetivo: Medir el efecto terapéutico del ejercicio calisténico en pacientes de mediana edad con obesidad y T2DM. Métodos: Se seleccionó un total de 86 pacientes con T2DM a partir de la exploración física de los empleados de la misma unidad. Se dividieron aleatoriamente entre el grupo de ejercicio y el grupo de control. La intervención de ejercicios duró 16 semanas, con sesiones realizadas de 3 a 5 veces por semana, de 60 a 90 minutos por sesión. Los marcadores evaluados se definieron según la literatura y se verificaron estadísticamente. Resultados: Después de 16 semanas de intervención de ejercicio aeróbico calisténico, en comparación con el grupo de control o antes del experimento, observamos reducciones significativas en las variables VFA (área de grasa visceral), FPG (glucosa en ayunas), Fins (insulina en ayunas), HOMA-IR (evaluación del modelo de homeostasis de resistencia a la insulina), 2hPBG (glucosa postprandial de dos horas) y HbAlc (hemoglobina Alc) del grupo de ejercicio se redujeron significativamente (P<0,01). Conclusión: La intervención de ejercicio aeróbico calisténico puede reducir los niveles de AGV, FPG. FIns, HOMA-HR, 2hPBG y HbAlc en pacientes con T2DM. También se ha comprobado que reduce el contenido de grasa visceral en pacientes ancianos obesos con T2DM, reduciendo el riesgo de obesidad. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

6.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(1): 59-61, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357119

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), accounts for more than 90% of the total number of diabetes mellitus cases and often occurs in middle-aged and elderly people. Objective: To investigate the effect of exercise intervention on insulin resistance in obese type 2 diabetes patients. Methods: Eighty-six obese diabetic patients were screened as experimental subjects in physical examinations and randomly divided into observation and control groups. Visceral fat volume, fasting blood glucose, and fasting insulin of all subjects were measured before and after completion of the 6-month experimental implementation. The insulin resistance was calculated for both groups and the values for each indicator were compared statistically between groups. Results: Control of body weight, body mass index, blood glucose, blood lipids and insulin resistance index were better in the observation group than in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Basal intervention with quantitative exercise can significantly improve insulin resistance in obese type 2 diabetes patients and the effect is better than treatment with diet and conventional exercise. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução: O diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (T2DM), também conhecido como diabetes mellitus não insulino-dependente (NIDDM), é responsável por mais de 90% do total de casos de diabetes mellitus e, com frequência ocorre em pessoas de meia-idade e idosos. Objetivo: Investigar o efeito da intervenção com exercícios sobre a resistência à insulina em pacientes obesos com diabetes tipo 2. Métodos: Oitenta e seis pacientes diabéticos obesos foram selecionados como participantes experimentais em exames físicos e foram divididos randomicamente em grupos de observação e controle. Gordura visceral, glicose e insulina sanguíneas em jejum de todos os indivíduos foram medidas antes e depois do término do experimento de seis meses. A resistência à insulina foi calculada para ambos os grupos e os valores de cada indicador foram comparados estatisticamente entre os grupos. Resultados: O controle de peso, índice de massa corporal, glicose e lípides sanguíneos e o índice de resistência à insulina foram melhores no grupo observação do que no grupo controle, e a diferença foi estatisticamente significativa (P < 0,05). Conclusões: A intervenção basal com exercícios quantitativos pode melhorar significativamente a resistência à insulina em pacientes obesos com diabetes tipo 2 e seu efeito é melhor do que a dieta e a terapia com exercícios convencionais. Nível de Evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - Investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DMT2), también conocida como diabetes mellitus no insulinodependiente (DMNID), representa más del 90% de todos los casos de diabetes mellitus y suele afectar a personas de mediana edad y ancianos. Objetivo: Investigar el efecto de la intervención con ejercicios sobre la resistencia a la insulina en pacientes obesos con diabetes tipo 2. Métodos: Se seleccionaron 86 pacientes diabéticos obesos como participantes experimentales en exámenes físicos y se dividieron aleatoriamente en grupos de observación y control. Se midieron la grasa visceral, la glucosa y la insulina en ayunas de todos los individuos antes y después de finalizar el experimento de seis meses. Se calculó la resistencia a la insulina en ambos grupos y se compararon estadísticamente los valores de cada indicador entre los grupos. Resultados: El control del peso, el índice de masa corporal, la glucosa y los lípidos en la sangre y el índice de resistencia a la insulina fueron mejores en el grupo de observación que en el grupo de control, y la diferencia fue estadísticamente significativa (P < 0,05). Conclusiones: La intervención inicial con ejercicios cuantitativos puede mejorar significativamente la resistencia a la insulina en pacientes obesos con diabetes tipo 2 y su efecto es mejor que la dieta y la terapia con ejercicios convencionales. Nivel de Evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - Investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

8.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 95-106, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356307

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular impairment, increasing the rates of atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic events. Additionally, adverse kidney events are directly linked with T2DM and cardiovascular diseases. In this context, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have demonstrated both cardioprotective and renoprotective effects in patients with or without T2DM. Therefore, the present meta-analysis aims to evaluate cardiovascular outcomes involving SGLT2i as monotherapy or other add-on antidiabetic agents (ADA) in patients with or without T2DM. Objetive: The present meta-analysis aims to evaluate cardiovascular outcomes involving SGLT2i as monotherapy or add-on other ADA in patients with or without T2DM. Methods: The entrance criteria to SGLT2i studies were: describing any data regarding cardiovascular effects; enrolling more than 1,000 participants; being approved by either the FDA or the EU, and having available access to the supplementary data. The trial had to exhibit at least one of the following results: major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure, cardiovascular death, hospitalization for heart failure, renal or cardiovascular adverse events, or non-cardiovascular death. The significance level of 0.05 was adopted in the statistical analysis. Results: Nine trials with a total of 76,285 participants were included in the meta-analysis. SGLT2i reduced MACE (RR 0.75, 95% CI [0.55-1.01]), cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure (RR 0.72, 95% CI [0.55-0.93]), cardiovascular death (RR 0.66, 95% CI [0.48-0.91]), hospitalization for heart failure (RR 0.58, 95% CI [0.46-0.73]), renal or cardiovascular adverse events (RR 0.55, 95% CI [0.39-0.78]), and non-cardiovascular death (RR 0.88, 95% CI [0.60-1.00]). Conclusions: Conjunction overall data suggests that these drugs can minimize the risk of cardiovascular events, thus decreasing mortality in patients, regardless of the presence of T2DM.

10.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 82(1): 28-34, feb. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365125

ABSTRACT

Resumen El objetivo del trabajo fue estimar la prevalencia de diabetes mellitus (DM) entre los pacientes con COVID-19, explorar factores asociados y describir la evolución clínica de aquellos hospitalizados. Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal que incluyó adultos positivos para COVID-19 entre 12/03/2020 y 15/10/2020, en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. De un total de 6009 personas con COVID-19, 408 presentaron diagnóstico previo de DM, arrojando una prevalencia de 6% (IC95% 6-7%), con mayor prevalencia asociada a la edad (12% en ≥ 60 años y 3% en < 60 años; p = 0.01). La mortalidad intrahospitalaria fue 6% (IC95% 6-7), siendo 15% en DM y 6% en no diabéticos (p < 0.01). Los factores asociados a la DM fueron variables, cardiovasculares, sexo masculino, hipertensión arterial, tabaquismo, insuficiencia renal crónica, insuficiencia cardíaca, enfermedad coronaria previa; y variables clínicas de fragilidad como edad, demencia e institucionalización previa (todas con p < 0.01). Solo el 23% (96/408) de los DM tuvo una medición de HbA1c en los últimos 3 meses y el 76% en el último año, con un promedio 8.6%, y un 25% en meta (HbA1c ≥ 7%). El manejo fue mayoritariamente intrahospitalario (59%), con un promedio de estadía hospitalaria de 12 días, con las siguientes complicaciones durante la hospitalización: 6% presentó un valor de hipoglucemia (< 70 mg/dl), 42% requirió oxigenoterapia, el 19% pasó a unidad cerrada, 15% requirió ARM (media de 11 días), y 25% (IC95% 20-31%) de mortalidad (promedio de 82 años).


Abstract The main objective was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) among patients with COVID-19, to explore associ ated factors; and to describe clinical evolution of hospitalized patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted, which included adults confirmed with COVID-19 between 03/12/2020 and 10/15/2020, at Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. From 6009 people with COVID-19, 408 had previous diagnosis of DM, yielding a prevalence of 6% (95%CI 6-7), higher prevalence was associated with age (12% in ≥ 60 years and 3% in < 60 years; p = 0.01). In-hospital mortality was 6% (95%CI 6-7), being 15% in DM and 6% compared in non-diabetics (p < 0.01). As sociated factors with DM were cardiovascular variables such as male sex, hypertension, smoking, chronic renal failure, heart failure, previous coronary disease; and clinical variables proxy of frailty such as: age, dementia and previous institutionalization (all with p < 0.01). Only 23% (96/408) of DM had an HbA1c measurement in the last 3 months and 76% in the last year, with an average 8.6%, and 25% in goal (HbA1c ≤ 7%). Management was mostly in-hospital (59%), with an average hospital stay of 12 days, with the following complications during hospitalization: 6% presented a hypoglycemic value (< 70 mg/dl), 42% required oxygen therapy, 19 % went to intensive care unit, 15% required invasive mechanical ventilation (mean 11 days), and 25% (95%CI 20-31) of in-hospital mortality (mean 82 years).

11.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(2): 199-206, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366037

ABSTRACT

Abstract BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are frequent complaints from individuals with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Dyspepsia is a universal clinical symptom and is among the most common GI complaints observed in the general population, but its prevalence in the population with NAFLD has not been previously investigated. OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of functional dyspepsia (FD) between patients with NAFLD and controls without liver disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at the Outpatient Liver Clinic, University Hospital, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. METHODS: We included 96 NAFLD patients and 105 controls without liver disease. All participants were assessed for GI symptoms in accordance with the Rome III criteria. Evaluation methods included a questionnaire for FD (validated in Brazil), laboratory tests and upper GI endoscopy. RESULTS: Mean age and sex were similar between the groups. The NAFLD group presented higher frequency of proton-pump inhibitor usage (31.3% vs 4.8%; P < 0.001) and prevalence of FD (25.0% versus 12.4%; P = 0.021). The symptom frequencies were as follows: postprandial distress, 22.9% versus 11.4% (P = 0.030); postprandial fullness, 18.8% versus 10.5% (P = 0.095); early satiation, 8.3% versus 5.7% (P = 0.466); and epigastric pain or burning, 18.8% versus 5.7% (P = 0.004), in NAFLD patients and controls, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that female sex (odds ratio, OR 6.97; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.51-32.12; P = 0.013) and NAFLD diagnosis (OR 2.45; 95% CI: 1.14-5.27; P = 0.021) were independently associated with FD occurrence. CONCLUSION: FD occurs more frequently in individuals with NAFLD than in controls without hepatic disease.

12.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 58-67, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364311

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) causes maternal and infant morbidity. Periodontitis is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate periodontal status, prematurity and associated factors in pregnant women with and without GDM. Subjects and methods: This observational cross-sectional study included 80 pregnant women with GDM (G1 = 40) and without GDM (G2 = 40). Demographic and socioeconomic status, systemic and periodontal health condition, prematurity and newborns' birth weight were analyzed. For bivariate analysis, Mann-Whitney U-test, t test and Chi-squared test were used. Binary logistic regression analyzed independent variables for periodontitis and prematurity (p < 0.05). Results: Patients from G1 presented lower socioeconomic status, higher weight and body mass index (BMI). Prematurity (G1 = 27.5%; G2 = 2.5%; p < 0.05) and severe periodontitis percentages (G1 = 22.5%; G2 = 0; p = 0.001) were higher in G1 than in G2. Logistic regression analysis showed that household monthly income (OR = 0.65; 95% CI 0.48-0.86; p = 0.003) and maternal BMI (adjusted OR = 1.12; 95% CI 1.01-1.25; p = 0.028) were significant predictors of periodontitis during the third trimester of pregnancy. Presence of GDM remained in the final logistic model related to prematurity (adjusted OR = 14.79; 95% CI 1.80-121.13; p = 0.012). Conclusions: Pregnant women with GDM presented higher severity of periodontitis, lower socioeconomic status, higher overweight/obesity and a 10-fold higher risk of prematurity. Socioeconomic-cultural status and BMI were significant predictors for periodontitis, and GDM was a predictor to prematurity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Periodontitis/complications , Periodontitis/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Birth Weight , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
13.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 40-49, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364307

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To describe the oral health profile and evaluate the impact of tooth loss on diet quality and glycemic control among 66 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) treated in an endocrinology outpatient clinic at a teaching hospital. Materials and methods: Questionnaires about diabetes self-care (SDSCA), masticatory ability, diet quality, anxiety level about dental treatment, and oral health were applied. Laboratory tests were retrieved from medical records or newly collected samples. Results: The presence of fewer than 21 teeth was associated with an unsatisfactory self-perceived masticatory ability (r = 0.44; p = 0.007). Most participants reported not having received guidance on oral health from their endocrinologists (81.8%) and having had the last visit to the dentist 2 years or more before the study (36.8%). The mean HbA1c level in the group with fewer than 21 teeth was comparable to that in the group with functional dentition (8.9 ± 1.5 and 8.7 ± 1.6%, respectively; p = 0.60). Conclusion: Adults with T2DM have a high prevalence of tooth loss and lack of information about oral hygiene care. Our results reinforce the need for more effective communication between medical and dental care teams.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Self Care , Oral Health , Diet , Glycemic Control
14.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 217-221, Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365360

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at the oral health problems of elderly patients with diabetes. A training course of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine was constructed, helping patients improve their oral health quality of life. METHODS: A randomized controlled prospective experimental study was conducted. A total of 190 elderly patients were divided randomly into an observation group and a control group with 95 cases in each. The control group received regular health education, while the observation group was based on the control group to implement the integrated experiential learning of traditional Chinese and Western medicine in small groups. The oral health knowledge, attitude, behavior, and blood glucose control status along with the oral health quality of life of the two groups were compared before the intervention and at 3-month postintervention. RESULTS: Three months after the intervention, the fasting blood glucose control and the 2-h postprandial blood glucose/glycosylated hemoglobin levels in the observation group were significantly better than in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). The oral health quality of life in the observation group was significantly better than in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The small-group experiential learning model of integrated Chinese and Western medicine can promote the transformation of knowledge-beliefs-behaviors in elderly patients with diabetes, which is conducive to controlling blood sugar levels and improving the quality of oral health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Oral Health , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Quality of Life , China , Prospective Studies , Problem-Based Learning , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
15.
Rev. eletrônica enferm ; 24: 1-8, 18 jan. 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1363040

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar aplicativos em plataformas móveis voltados à promoção de cuidados com o pé de diabéticos quanto à usabilidade e recursos disponíveis. Método: Revisão de escopo de aplicativos móveis disponíveis em lojas virtuais realizada em janeiro de 2021. Os aplicativos inclusos foram baixados e instalados em um aparelho smartphone. A avaliação de sua usabilidade foi mensurada por meio do questionário System Usability Scale e Smartphone Usability questionnaiRE. Resultados: Oito aplicativos foram elegíveis com data de desenvolvimento entre 2015 e 2020, sete eram exclusivos do Android. A usabilidade pelo Smartphone Usability questionnaiRE foi de nível 50 (1), nível 70 (1) e nível 80 (6). Já pelo System Usability Scale, nenhum dos aplicativos atingiu escore de corte. Conclusão: A avaliação dos aplicativos possibilitou a descrição e conhecimento das funcionalidades, recursos e usabilidade. Identificou-se a escassez de aplicativos para a promoção dos cuidados com os pés.


Objective: To analyze applications on mobile platforms aimed at promoting diabetic foot care in terms of usability and available resources. Method: Scoping review of mobile applications available in online stores performed in January 2021. The applications included were downloaded and installed on a smartphone device. The evaluation of their usability was measured using the System Usability Scale and the Smartphone Usability questionnaiRE. Results: Eight applications were eligible, their development date was between 2015 and 2020, and seven were exclusive to Android. Usability by the Smartphone Usability questionnaiRE was level 50 (1), level 70 (1) and level 80 (6). As for the System Usability Scale, none of the applications reached a cutoff score. Conclusion: The evaluation of applications enabled the description and knowledge of functionalities, resources and usability. The scarcity of applications to promote foot care was identified.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Health Communication , Health Promotion/statistics & numerical data
16.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 5(1): 26-32, ene. 28, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1354409

ABSTRACT

El tabaquismo es considerado un factor desencadenante de las principales enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT), como enfermedades cardiovasculares, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, cáncer de pulmón, diabetes mellitus, insuficiencia renal, entre otras; así también, el tabaquismo se considera la principal causa de muerte que se puede prevenir a nivel mundial. En un estudio llevado a cabo en El Salvador se mencionan las principales ENT con antecedente de tabaquismo en el 2016, entre las que se encontraron la enfermedad isquémica del corazón, la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, infecciones respiratorias, cáncer de pulmón, diabetes mellitus (DM), enfermedad cardiovascular hemorrágica, enfermedad hipertensiva y otras enfermedades cardiovasculares5. En este sentido, existe evidencia de una posible relación del tabaquismo con principales diagnósticos de ENT en el país; sin embargo, es necesario actualizar la información científica y estimar esta relación, sobre todo en grupos de personas que asisten a consulta en los principales centros de salud del primer nivel de atención en el país


Smoking is considered a triggering factor for the main noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), such as cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, diabetes mellitus, kidney failure, among others; Likewise, smoking is considered the main cause of death that can be prevented worldwide. In a study carried out in El Salvador, the main NCDs with a history of smoking in 2016 are mentioned, among which are ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory infections, lung cancer, diabetes mellitus (DM), hemorrhagic cardiovascular disease, hypertensive disease and other cardiovascular diseases5. In this sense, there is evidence of a possible relationship between smoking and the main diagnoses of NCDs in the country; however, it is necessary to update the scientific information and estimate this relationship, especially in groups of people who attend consultations in the main health centers of the first level of care in the country


Subject(s)
Tobacco Use Disorder , Smoking , Disease , Noncommunicable Diseases , Primary Health Care , Cardiovascular Diseases , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Diabetes Mellitus
17.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 5(1): 33-42, ene. 28, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1354418

ABSTRACT

La diabetes mellitus es una de las enfermedades crónicas endémicas no transmisibles que debido a su alta frecuencia se ha llegado a posicionar entre las principales enfermedades que afectan a cientos de millones de personas en todo el mundo, con incidencia, morbilidad y mortalidad en aumento. La información sobre atenciones ambulatorias, disponible en el Departamento de Actuariado y Estadística del Instituto Salvadoreño del Seguro Social (ISSS), indica que en 2019 se brindaron 4 871 908 consultas y 170 230 fueron por diabetes mellitus (3,5 %). El 60,7 % de las atenciones (103 429) se brindaron a mujeres. Debido a la magnitud y proporciones de la diabetes en esta población, se hace necesario realizar en el ISSS investigaciones para actualizar la situación de su condición y que al mismo tiempo permita saber el origen de estas personas. El objetivo principal del estudio consiste en definir las características epidemiológicas y clínicas de pacientes diabéticos manejados de manera ambulatoria.


Diabetes mellitus is one of the chronic endemic noncommunicable diseases that, due to its high frequency, has come to position itself among the main diseases that affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide, with increasing incidence, morbidity and mortality. The information on outpatient care, available at the Department of Actuarial Science and Statistics of the Salvadoran Social Security Institute (ISSS), indicates that in 2019, 4,871,908 consultations were provided and 170,230 were for diabetes mellitus (3.5%). 60.7% of the services (103,429) were provided to women. Due to the magnitude and proportions of diabetes in this population, it is necessary to carry out research at the ISSS to update the situation of their condition and at the same time allow knowing the origin of these people. The main objective of the study is to define the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of diabetic patients managed on an outpatient basis


Subject(s)
Outpatients , Social Security , Diabetes Mellitus , Ambulatory Care , Noncommunicable Diseases , Chronic Disease , Incidence
18.
Rev. eletrônica enferm ; 24: 1-9, 18 jan. 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1358259

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar estudos sobre a saúde mental de pessoas com diabetes no período da pandemia de COVID-19. Método:Revisão integrativa da literatura, com busca e seleção nas bases de dados MEDLINE via PubMed®, CINAHL-Ebsco, Web of Science, Embase, PsycINFO e Cochrane. Foram incluídos sete estudos primários, disponíveis na íntegra, sem delimitação temporal ou de idioma. Resultados: A pandemia da COVID-19 impactou negativamente na saúde mental de pessoas com diabetes, prevalecendo o desenvolvimento e a intensificação dos sintomas de ansiedade, depressão e estresse. Outros desfechos avaliados evidenciaram associação entre as medidas de isolamento adotadas para controle da infecção, o sofrimento psicológico e a presença de preocupações. Conclusão: Foi evidenciado que a pandemia da COVID-19 afetou substancialmente a saúde mental de indivíduos com diabetes, sendo o distanciamento social, o medo do contágio, os distúrbios do sono e da alimentação e as preocupações com familiares determinantes para maior prevalência de sofrimento mental


Objective: To analyze studies on the mental health of people with diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Method:Integrative literature review with search and selection in the following databases: MEDLINE via PubMed®, CINAHL-Ebsco, Web of Science, Embase, PsycINFO and Cochrane. Seven primary studies available in full without temporal or language delimitation were included. Results: The COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted the mental health of people with diabetes. The development and intensification of anxiety, depression and stress symptoms prevailed. Other outcomes evaluated showed an association between the isolation measures adopted to control the infection, psychological distress and the presence of concerns.Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic substantially affected the mental health of individuals with diabetes. Social distancing, fear of contagion, sleep and eating disorders and concerns with family members were determinants of a higher prevalence of mental suffering.


Subject(s)
Mental Health , Diabetes Mellitus/psychology , Psychiatric Nursing , Pandemics
19.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368376

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivo: Diante da alta prevalência do Diabetes Mellitus, o estudo se propõe a identificar os fatores associados ao maior risco de desenvolver úlceras nos membros inferiores. Métodos: O trabalho foi exploratório-descritivo, transversal e com abordagem quantitativa. A amostra foi composta por pacientes com Diabetes acima de 18 anos de um serviço de saúde particular e um público. A coleta de dados ocorreu através de anamnese, exame físico e procura em prontuário. A análise estatística foi realizada pelo Programa SPSS 20.0. Resultados: Obteve-se 102 participantes no estudo, destes, 67,6% apresentaram critérios diagnósticos para Polineuropatia Simétrica Distal. Os fatores associados ao risco de ulceração foram: o envelhecimento, a maior duração da Diabetes, hipertensão, doença arterial periférica e a presença de sintomas típicos da Polineuropatia. Conclusão: É necessário investir na prevenção de úlceras em indivíduos com Diabetes através de educação em saúde e acompanhamento por profissionais da saúde. (AU)


ABSTRACT: Objective: Given the high prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus, the study aims to identify the factors associated with a higher risk of developing ulcers in the lower limbs. Methods: The work was exploratory-descriptive, transversal and with a quantitative approach. The sample consisted of patients with Diabetes over 18 years of age from a private and a public health service. Data collection occurred through anamnesis, physical examination and search in medical records. Statistical analysis was perform using the SPSS 20.0 program. Results: 102 study participants were obtained, of wich 67,6% had diagnostic criteria for Distal Symmetric Polyneuropathy. Factors associated with the risk of ulceration were: aging, longer duration of diabetes, hypertension, peripheral arterial disease and the presence of typical symptoms of polyneuropathy. Conclusion: It is necessary to invest in the prevention of ulcers in individuals with Diabetes, through health education and monitoring by health professionals. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Polyneuropathies , Foot Ulcer , Diabetic Foot , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Neuropathies
20.
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 43: 1-14, 20220101.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369955

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The present study aimed to assess the short- and long-term outcomes of a clinical service provided by a pharmacist structured in a primary healthcare center (PHC) in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Methods: A longitudinal-type study was conducted. Data were collected from pharmacotherapy follow-up (PTF) records from the Pharmaceutical Care Unit of the PHC Dr. Anastácio Magalhães. The PTF was provided to patients diagnosed with hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. Two groups were formed: records of patients who intended to undergo six months or more of PTF (PTF group) and those who opted not to go through with it after the first session (control). In addition, new blood pressure and glucose measurements were obtained after invitation by phone call at least six months after the completion of the PTF to assess maintenance of the benefits gained. The control patients were invited for this new data collection as well for comparison purposes. Research Ethics Committee approval protocol no. 329.717. Results: A total of 224 patients were considered, 109 in the complete PTF group and 115 in the control group, where the following main results were obtained: systolic pressure (mean ± SD) went from 139.43±20.6 to 128.31±16.03 mmHg; diastolic pressure, from 82.45±11.44 to 77.68±9.21 mmHg; blood glucose, from151.78±75.8 to 121.39±47.56 mg/dL; and cardiovascular risk, from 21.59±9.42 to 18.95±9.06%. In comparison, the control group did not show significant changes on the above parameters. In the post-PTF analysis, the benefits gained tended to be maintained even at least six months after its conclusion. Conclusions: Thus, the findings of the present study suggest that the provision of the clinical pharmaceutical service assessed at the primary healthcare level offers benefits to patients who attended it for at least six months. Furthermore, the data also suggest that these benefits are maintained in the long term.

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