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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(2): 85-88, Mar-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365681

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: There is an annual increase in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) incidence in middle-aged people. Aerobic exercise is known to influence glucose metabolic pathways positively. Few studies concerning calisthenic aerobic exercise and its influence on elderly patients with T2DM. Objective: To measure the therapeutic effect of calisthenic exercise in obese Middle-aged people with T2DM. Methods: A total of 86 patients with T2DM were selected from the physical examination of employees of the same unit. They were randomly divided into the exercise group and the control group. The exercise intervention lasted for 16 weeks, with sessions held 3-5 times per week, varying from 60 to 90 minutes per session. The markers evaluated were defined according to the literature and statistically verified. Results: After 16 weeks of calisthenic exercise intervention, compared to the control group or before the experiment, we observed significant reductions in variables VFA (visceral fat area), FPG (fasting glucose), Fins (fasting insulin), HOMA-IR (homeostasis model evaluation of insulin resistance), 2hPBG (postprandial two hours glucose) and HbAlc (hemoglobin Alc) of the exercise group were significantly reduced (P<0.01). Conclusion: Calisthenic exercise intervention can reduce the levels of VFA, FPG. FIns, HOMA-HR, 2hPBG and HbAlc in patients with T2DM. It was also found to reduce the visceral fat content of obese elderly patients with T2DM, reducing obesity risks. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução: Há um aumento anual na incidência de diabetes tipo 2 (T2DM) nas pessoas de meia idade. O exercício aeróbico é conhecido por influenciar positivamente as vias metabólicas da glicose. Porém há poucos estudos sobre o exercício aeróbico calistênico e sua influência em pacientes entre 40 a 60 anos com T2DM. Objetivo: Medir o efeito terapêutico do exercício calistênico em pacientes de meia idade com obesidade e T2DM. Métodos: Um total de 86 pacientes com T2DM foram selecionados a partir do exame físico dos funcionários da mesma unidade. Eles foram divididos aleatoriamente entre o grupo de exercícios e o grupo de controle. A intervenção do exercício durou 16 semanas, com sessões realizadas de 3 a 5 vezes por semana, variando de 60 a 90 minutos por sessão. Os marcadores avaliados foram definidos de acordo com a literatura e verificados estatisticamente. Resultados: Após 16 semanas de intervenção de exercício aeróbico calistênico, em comparação ao grupo controle ou antes do experimento, observamos reduções significativas nas variáveis VFA (área de gordura visceral), FPG (glicose de jejum), Fins (insulina em jejum), HOMA-IR (avaliação do modelo de homeostase de resistência à insulina), 2hPBG (glicose pós-prandial de duas horas) e HbAlc (hemoglobina Alc) do grupo exercício foram significativamente reduzidas (P<0,01). Conclusão: A intervenção de exercício aeróbico calistênico pode reduzir os níveis de VFA, FPG. FIns, HOMA-HR, 2hPBG e HbAlc em pacientes com T2DM. Também foi constatado que reduz o conteúdo de gordura visceral de pacientes idosos obesos com T2DM, reduzindo os riscos de obesidade. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: Cada año aumenta la incidencia de la diabetes tipo 2 (T2DM) en personas de mediana edad. Se sabe que el ejercicio aeróbico influye positivamente en las vías metabólicas de la glucosa. Pero hay pocos estudios sobre el ejercicio aeróbico calisténico y su influencia en pacientes de 40-60 años con T2DM. Objetivo: Medir el efecto terapéutico del ejercicio calisténico en pacientes de mediana edad con obesidad y T2DM. Métodos: Se seleccionó un total de 86 pacientes con T2DM a partir de la exploración física de los empleados de la misma unidad. Se dividieron aleatoriamente entre el grupo de ejercicio y el grupo de control. La intervención de ejercicios duró 16 semanas, con sesiones realizadas de 3 a 5 veces por semana, de 60 a 90 minutos por sesión. Los marcadores evaluados se definieron según la literatura y se verificaron estadísticamente. Resultados: Después de 16 semanas de intervención de ejercicio aeróbico calisténico, en comparación con el grupo de control o antes del experimento, observamos reducciones significativas en las variables VFA (área de grasa visceral), FPG (glucosa en ayunas), Fins (insulina en ayunas), HOMA-IR (evaluación del modelo de homeostasis de resistencia a la insulina), 2hPBG (glucosa postprandial de dos horas) y HbAlc (hemoglobina Alc) del grupo de ejercicio se redujeron significativamente (P<0,01). Conclusión: La intervención de ejercicio aeróbico calisténico puede reducir los niveles de AGV, FPG. FIns, HOMA-HR, 2hPBG y HbAlc en pacientes con T2DM. También se ha comprobado que reduce el contenido de grasa visceral en pacientes ancianos obesos con T2DM, reduciendo el riesgo de obesidad. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

2.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 12(6): 1173-1177, dez. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1369152

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar a qualidade de vida de pessoas com diabetes mellitus seis meses após o término da participação em programa educativo. Método: estudo descritivo de abordagem quantitativa desenvolvido com 32 pessoas com diabetes mellitus acompanhadas no ambulatório de um hospital universitário de Sergipe. Para a coleta de dados foram utilizados três instrumentos, um para a caracterização sociodemográfica e clínica e dois para avaliação da qualidade de vida, o Whoqol-bref e o B-PAID. Resultados: Houve declínio da qualidade de vida, sobretudo nos domínios Relações sociais e Ambiente e aumento do sofrimento em viver com o diabetes. Foi observada correlação positiva e estatisticamente significativa entre o sexo e a medida de qualidade de vida WhoqoL-bref, com os homens tendo apresentado melhor avaliação. Conclusão: O declínio da qualidade de vida e o aumento do sofrimento em viver com o diabetes podem estar associados ao término das atividades do programa de educação em saúde. (AU)


Objective: To evaluate the quality of life of people with diabetes mellitus six months after the end of their participation in an educational program. Methods: A descriptive study with a quantitative approach developed with 32 people with diabetes mellitus monitored at the outpatient clinic of a university hospital in Sergipe. For data collection, three instruments were used, one for the sociodemographic and clinical characterization and two for the assessment of quality of life. Results: There was a decline in the quality of life, especially in the Social Relationship and Environment domains and an increase in the suffering of living with diabetes. A positive and statistically significant correlation was observed between gender and the quality of life measure, with men having a better evaluation. Conclusion: The decline in quality of life and the increase in suffering in living with diabetes may be associated with the termination of activities in the health education program. (AU)


Objetivo: Evaluar la calidad de vida de personas con diabetes mellitus a los seis meses de finalizar su participación en un programa educativo. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo con abordaje cuantitativo desarrollado con 32 personas con diabetes mellitus monitorizadas en la consulta externa de un hospital universitario de Sergipe. Para la recolección de datos se utilizaron tres instrumentos, uno para la caracterización sociodemográfica y clínica y dos para la evaluación de la calidad de vida. Resultados: Hubo una disminución en la calidad de vida, especialmente en los dominios de Relaciones Sociales y Medio Ambiente y un aumento en el sufrimiento de vivir con diabetes. Se observó una correlación positiva y estadísticamente significativa entre el sexo y la medida de calidad de vida siendo los hombres quienes obtuvieron una mejor evaluación. Conclusión: El deterioro de la calidad de vida y el aumento del sufrimiento al vivir con diabetes pueden estar asociados con el final de las actividades del programa de educación para la salud. (AU)


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Quality of Life , Health Education
3.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354943

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las complicaciones por diabetes tipo 2 (DT2) están incrementando la demanda de servicios especializados en la Seguridad Social Peruana por lo que se torna necesario determinar la magnitud y factores asociados a complicación crónica por DT2 en esta población. Material y Métodos: Estudio transversal-analítico basado en 7875 registros de pacientes con DT2 ≥ 18 años atendidos por consulta externa durante 2016-2017 y notificados en el Sistema de Vigilancia de Diabetes Mellitus de EsSalud. Se evaluaron variables sociodemográficas, clínicas y de comorbilidad mediante un análisis bivariado y un modelo de regresión de Poisson con varianza robusta para determinar la razón de prevalencia a complicación crónica por DT2. Resultados: La complicación microvascular de DT2 estuvo asociado a sexo masculino (RP=1,25; 95%IC: 1,10-1,42; p<0,01), HbA1c>9,0% (RP=1,25; 95%IC: 1,08-1,46; p<0,01), hipertensión arterial (RP=1,30; 95%IC: 1,14-1,49; p<0,01), anemia (RP=1,57; 95%IC: 1,31-1,88; p<0,01), enfermedad tiroidea (RP=1,48; 95%IC: 1,07-2,03; p=0,02), cáncer (RP=1,70; 95%IC: 1,26-2,30; p<0,01) e hígado graso (RP=1,78; 95%IC: 1,28-2,48; p<0,01). El recibir educación para el autocuidado de DT2 mostró asociación negativa con complicación microvascular (RP=0,84; 95%IC: 0,73-0,96; p<0,01). La complicación macrovascular de DT2 estuvo asociado a sexo masculino (RP=1,52; 95%IC: 1,21-1,91; p<0,01), hipertensión arterial (RP=2,72; 95%IC: 1,90-3,91; p<0,01), anemia (RP=1,98; 95%IC: 1,33-2,95; p<0,01) e hígado graso (RP=1,92; 95%IC: 1,03-3,62; p=0,04), mientras que la educación en DT2 mostró asociación negativa (RP=0,47; 95%IC: 0,36-0,61; p<0,01). Conclusiones: La educación en DT2 mostró asociación consistentemente con ausencia de complicación micro y macrovascular, sugiriendo ser un importante factor preventivo. Consideramos necesario evaluar el impacto de la educación mediante diseños apropiados.


Background: Type 2 diabetes (DT2) complications has been increased the demand for specialized services in Peruvian Social Security(EsSalud), so it is necessary to determine the magnitude and factors associated with chronic complication due to DT2 in this population. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study based on 7875 patients with DT2≥18 years attended by ambulatory care during 2016-2017, notified in the Diabetes Mellitus Surveillance System of EsSalud. Sociodemographic, clinical and comorbidity variables were evaluated using a bivariate analysis and Poisson regression model with robust variance to determine the prevalence ratio of chronic complication due to DT2. Results: The microvascular complication of DT2 was associated with male sex (PR=1.25; 95% CI:1.10-1.42; p<0.01), HbA1c>9.0% (PR=1.25; 95% CI:1.08-1.46; p<0.01), hypertension (PR=1.30; 95% CI: 1.14-1.49; p<0.01), anemia (PR=1.57; 95% CI: 1.31-1.88; p <0.01), thyroid disease (PR=1.48; 95% CI:1.07-2.03; p=0.02), cancer (PR=1.70; 95% CI: 1.26-2.30; p<0.01) and fatty liver (PR=1.78; 95% CI:1.28-2.48; p<0.01). Receiving education for DT2 self-care showed a negative association with microvascular complication (RR=0.84; 95% CI:0.73-0.96; p<0.01). DT2 ́s macrovascular complication was associated with male sex (PR=1.52; 95% CI:1.21-1.91; p <0.01), arterial hypertension (PR=2.72; 95% CI:1.90-3.91; p <0.01), anemia (PR=1.98; 95% CI:1.33-2.95; p<0.01) and fatty liver (PR=1.92; 95% CI:1.03-3.62; p=0.04), while education in DT2 showed a negative association (PR=0.47; 95% CI: 0.36-0.61; p <0,01). Conclusions: Education in DT2 showed an association consistently with the absence of micro and macrovascular complications, suggesting that it is an important preventive factor. We consider it necessary to evaluate the impact of education through appropriate designs.

4.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 29(3): 160-165, 04-oct-2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1357930

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en México, la diabetes es un reto para los servicios de salud, sin embargo existe un vacío en la perspectiva de los varones acerca de su experiencia con la enfermedad. Objetivo: describir la experiencia de un hombre adulto mexicano en torno al control de la glucosa. Metodología: estudio cualitativo exploratorio, con enfoque de relato de vida en un hombre de 52 años, con glicemias estables. La recolección de información fue mediante entrevistas a profundidad, observación directa y notas de campo. El análisis fue temático desde la propuesta de De Souza Minayo. Resultados: la experiencia se conforma por un desgarramiento del cuerpo, aprender a sentirse bien y cambios en el estilo de vida, que en conjunto propician la selección de alimentos, la actividad física diaria y el consumo de medicamentos. Conclusiones: las experiencias de aprender a sentirse bien y evitar el daño corporal; impulsan hábitos o costumbres en salud que pueden ser referentes para la práctica en materia de educación en salud a los hombres.


Introduction: In Mexico, diabetes is a health challenge, but there is a gap in the perspective of men regarding their experience with the disease. Objective: To describe the experience of a Mexican adult man regarding glucose control. Methods: Qualitative exploratory study with a life story approach in a 52-year-old man with stable blood glucose levels. The information gathering was through in-depth interviews, direct observation, and field notes. The analysis was thematic since De Souza Minayo's proposal. Results: The experience is shaped by a tearing of the body, learning to feel good and changes in lifestyle, which together promote food selection, daily physical activity and the consumption of medications. Conclusions: The experiences of learning to feel good and avoid bodily harm; They promote health habits or customs that can be references for the practice of health education for men.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Patient Preference , Life Change Events , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Glycemic Control , Health Services , Mexico
5.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(5): 404-409, sep.-oct. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357206

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La enfermedad cardiovascular en mujeres ha sido un apartado con diversas investigaciones que han intentado llegar a los factores de riesgo más determinantes o las vías moleculares más específicas para explicar el riesgo aumentado que poseen las mujeres respecto a los hombres. Objetivo: Dar una visión global de esta situación al lector, involucrando especialmente aquella población de mujeres que padece diabetes mellitus tipo 2, cuya condición es un factor de riesgo independiente para el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, de gran costo y morbimortalidad mundiales. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en PubMed y Google Scholar con términos MeSH y términos comunes y se obtuvieron algunas referencias cruzadas a criterio de los autores. Conclusiones: Es necesario implementar en la práctica médica diaria un contexto específico de prevención de riesgo cardiovascular mediante programas de educación continuada o por medio de las entidades prestadoras de servicios de salud para evitar la progresión de enfermedad cardiovascular en las mujeres diabéticas antes de llegar a desenlaces mayores y potencialmente fatales.


Abstract Introduction: Cardiovascular disease in woman has been an issue with plenty of investigations towards the finding of the most determinant risk factors o the specific molecular paths to explain the increased risk in women compared to men. Objective: To give to the reader a global vision of this situation, involving specially the type 2 diabetes mellitus woman population, whose condition is an independent risk factor to the development of the cardiovascular disease with great cost and morbidity and mortality worldwide. Methods: A PUBMED and Google Scholar search was performed with MeSH and common terms and were obtained some cross-references at the discretion of the authors. Conclusions: It is necessary to implement a specific context of cardiovascular risk prevention in daily medical practice through continuing education programs or through health service providers to prevent the progression of cardiovascular disease in diabetic women before reaching major outcomes and potentially fatal.

6.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(5): 421-430, sep.-oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357208

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La dinámica no lineal de la regulación autonómica cardiovascular a partir de la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca no ha sido previamente estudiada en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 mediante la prueba del peso sostenido como inductor de hiperreactividad cardiovascular. Objetivo: Determinar las variaciones en la dinámica no lineal de la regulación autonómica cardiovascular durante la prueba del peso sostenido en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Método: Estudio cuasiexperimental, antes-después, con grupo control, realizado en junio-agosto de 2018 en la Facultad No. 1 de Medicina de Santiago de Cuba. Se trabajó con 15 pacientes que padecían diabetes mellitus tipo 2 sin otra enfermedad asociada y 15 sujetos sanos, a quienes se les aplicó la prueba del peso sostenido. Resultados: En los pacientes con diabetes mellitus, al realizar la prueba del peso sostenido se produjo un aumento significativo en la presión arterial sistólica, diastólica y media, y en la frecuencia cardiaca. En la entropía muestral, parámetro que evalúa la adaptabilidad de los sistemas, se produjo una disminución significativa (2.28 ± 0.33 vs. 1.83 ± 0.47 ms; p = 0.003143). El valor del estadístico C de la entropía muestral en estado basal quedó establecido en 0.973, siendo la variable con mayor capacidad predictiva. Conclusiones: Durante la prueba del peso sostenido en los pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 se produjo una disminución de la complejidad de la regulación autonómica cardiovascular; la entropía muestral basal constituyó el indicador de mayor eficacia en la identificación de alteraciones autonómicas cardiovasculares.


Abstract Introduction: The analysis of non-linear dynamics of cardiovascular autonomic regulation based on heart rate variability has not been previously studied in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using the sustained weight test as an inducer of cardiovascular hyperreactivity. Objective: To determine the variations in the non-linear dynamics of cardiovascular autonomic regulation during the sustained weight test in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: A quasi-experimental, before-after study with a control group, from June-August 2018, at the No. 1 School of Medicine in Santiago de Cuba. We worked with 15 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus without other associated disease and 15 healthy subjects, to whom the sustained weight test was applied. Results: In patients with diabetes mellitus, when performing the sustained weight test, there was a significant increase in the hemodynamic parameters TAS, TAD, TAM and FC. In the sample entropy, a parameter that evaluates the adaptability of the systems, there is a significant decrease (2.28 ± 0.33 vs. 1.83 ± 0.47 ms; p = 0.003143). The value of the C statistic of the sample entropy at baseline was established at 0.973, being the variable with the highest predictive capacity. Conclusions: In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus during the sustained weight test, there was a decrease in the complexity of cardiovascular autonomic regulation, the basal sample entropy was the indicator of greater efficacy in the identification of cardiovascular autonomic alterations.

7.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(5): 454-461, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339209

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare corneal structure and endothelial morphological changes after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery between type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic patients and to determine the preoperative and intraoperative factors that may predict greater endothelial cell density loss. Methods: Forty-five diabetic pa­tients (45 eyes) and 43 controls (43 eyes) with age-related cataract were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Corneal (thickness and volume) and anterior segment parameters were measured by Scheimpflug tomography; endothelial cell density and morphology (coefficient of variation of cell size, hexagonal cells) were recorded using noncontact specular microscopy. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and at one and six months after surgery. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between demographic, clinical, ocular, and intraoperative parameters and postoperative endothelial cell density changes at six months. Results: Significant postoperative endothelial cell loss occurred one month after surgery in both groups (p<0.001), which remained stable until month 6; there were no differences between patients with and without diabetes mellitus at any time point. The mean postoperative central corneal thickness at one and six months did not change significantly from the mean preoperative value in either group (p>0.05). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that older age (p=0.042) and higher cataract grades (p=0.001) were significantly associated with greater endothelial cell density reduction at six-month follow-up. Conclusion: This study showed that older age and denser cataracts might be associated with greater endothelial cell density reduction after cataract surgery. Other factors, such as diabetes mellitus and preoperative anterior segment parameters, did not influence postoperative changes in endothelial cell density.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar a estrutura da córnea e as alterações mor­fológicas endoteliais após cirurgia de catarata por facoemulsificação sem intercorrências entre pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 e não diabéticos; e determinar quais fatores pré e intra-operatórios relacionados com a maior redução da densidade celular endotelial. Métodos: Quarenta e cinco diabéticos (45 olhos) e 43 (43 olhos) controlos com catarata relacionada à idade foram incluídos neste estudo observacional prospectivo. Os parâmetros da córnea (espessura e volume) e do segmento anterior foram medidos pela tomografia Scheimpflug; a densidade e morfologia celular endotelial (coeficiente de variação do tamanho das células, células hexagonais) foram registrados usando microscopia especular não contato. Os pacientes foram avaliados no pré-operatório, 1 e 6 meses após a cirurgia. Foi realizada uma análise de regressão linear uni e multivariada para avaliar a relação entre os parâmetros demográficos, clínicos, oculares e intra-operatórios com a redução da densidade celular endotelial aos 6 meses. Resultados: Nos dois grupos houve uma perda significativa de células endoteliais ao 1º mês pós-ope­ratório (p<0,001), que permaneceu estável até ao 6º mês; sem diferenças estatisticas entre os grupos diabetes mellitus e não diabetes mellitus em qualquer avaliação. A espessura média da córnea no pós-operatório central aos 1 e 6 meses não mudou significativamente em relação ao valor médio pré-operatório nos dois grupos (p>0.05). A análise de regressão multivariada linear mostrou que a idade avançada (p=0.042) e os graus mais elevados de catarata (p=0.001) foram significativamente associados à maior redução densidade celular endotelial aos 6 meses de seguimento. Conclusão: Este estudo mostrou que a idade avançada e as cataratas mais densas podem predispor a uma maior redução densidade celular endotelial após a cirurgia de catarata. Outros fatores, como diabetes mellitus e parâmetros pré-operatórios do segmento anterior, não influenciaram significativamente as alterações pós-operatórias da densidade celular endotelial.

8.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(3): 311-314, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288589

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia. It is a metabolic syndrome in which blood sugar levels increase due to defects in insulin secretion or impaired function, or even both defects. Object To understand the effect of diabetic patients in controlling blood sugar through physical exercise, the paper analyzes the correlation between the exercise status and physiological indicators of diabetic patients in our hospital. Methods We randomly selected 41 diabetic patients and monitored their exercise. At the same time, we check the physiological indicators of the patients after the exercise is completed and analyze the control of blood sugar by sports. Results After healthy physical exercise, the blood sugar level of diabetic patients tended to stabilize, and the glycosylated hemoglobin level decreased. The blood sugar levels of patients who did not participate in healthy physical exercises were not stable, and their glycosylated hemoglobin levels did not improve. Conclusion Healthy sports is a simple, easy, safe and effective adjuvant therapy for the prevention and treatment of diabetes, and it is worthy of clinical promotion. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução O diabetes é uma doença metabólica caracterizada por hiperglicemia. É uma síndrome metabólica em que os níveis de açúcar no sangue aumentam devido a defeitos na secreção de insulina ou função prejudicada, ou mesmo ambos os defeitos. Objetivo Para compreender os pacientes diabéticos no controle da glicemia por meio do exercício físico, o artigo analisa a correlação entre o estado de exercício e os indicadores fisiológicos de pacientes diabéticos em nosso hospital. Métodos Selecionamos aleatoriamente 41 pacientes diabéticos e monitoramos seus exercícios. Ao mesmo tempo, verificamos os indicadores fisiológicos dos pacientes após a realização do exercício e analisamos o controle da glicemia pelo esporte. Resultados Após exercícios físicos saudáveis, o nível de açúcar no sangue de pacientes diabéticos tendeu a se estabilizar e o nível de hemoglobina glicosilada diminuiu. Os níveis de açúcar no sangue dos pacientes que não praticavam exercícios físicos saudáveis não foram estáveis e os níveis de hemoglobina glicosilada não melhoraram. Conclusão O esporte saudável é uma terapia adjuvante simples, fácil, segura e eficaz para a prevenção e tratamento do diabetes e merece divulgação clínica. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción la diabetes es una enfermedad metabólica caracterizada por hiperglucemia. Es un síndrome metabólico en el que los niveles de azúcar en sangre aumentan debido a defectos en la secreción de insulina o función alterada, o incluso a ambos defectos. Objeto Para comprender a los pacientes diabéticos en el control de la glucemia a través del ejercicio físico, el trabajo analiza la correlación entre el estado de ejercicio y los indicadores fisiológicos de los pacientes diabéticos en nuestro hospital. Métodos Seleccionamos aleatoriamente a 41 pacientes diabéticos y monitoreamos su ejercicio. Al mismo tiempo, verificamos los indicadores fisiológicos de los pacientes una vez finalizado el ejercicio y analizamos el control del azúcar en sangre mediante los deportes. Resultados Después de un ejercicio físico saludable, el nivel de azúcar en sangre de los pacientes diabéticos tendió a estabilizarse y el nivel de hemoglobina glicosilada disminuyó. Los niveles de azúcar en sangre de los pacientes que no participaron en ejercicios físicos saludables no fueron estables y sus niveles de hemoglobina glicosilada no mejoraron. Conclusión El deporte saludable es una terapia adyuvante simple, fácil, segura y eficaz para la prevención y el tratamiento de la diabetes y es digno de promoción clínica. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Exercise/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood
9.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(3): 340-348, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340124

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: GFR is estimated by using creatinine and cystatin C to determine renal dysfunction. Our aim was to evaluate estimated GFR (eGFR) based on cystatin C in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods: Study group included 52 controls (46% male, age: 54.5±12.4) and 101 diabetic patients (46.5% male, age: 58.2±11). The diabetics were divided into three subgroups according to 24-hour urine albumin: normal to mildly increased (A1) (n=51), moderately increased (A2) (n=25), severely increased (A3) (n=25) albuminuria. Creatinine clearance (CrCl) was determined. Correlations between CrCl and eGFRs estimated according to the CKD-EPI, MDRD, and Cockcroft-Gault (CG) formulas, and ROC curves were evaluated. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0. Results: Only CKD-EPI-cys eGFR was significantly lower in the A1 group than the controls (p=0.021). All GFRs were lower in the A3 group than the control (CKD-EPI-cr, MDRD, CKD-EPI-cys, CKD-EPI-cr-cys: p=0.0001, CG and CrCl: p=0.001) and A1 (for all GFRs p=0.0001) groups. CKD-EPI-cr (p=0.004), MDRD (p=0.01), CG (p=0.037), CKD-EPI-cys (p=0.033), and CKD-EPI-cr-cys (p=0.016) eGFRs in the A2 group were significantly different from the A1 group. All eGFRs showed a moderate correlation with CrCl in the A1group (CKD-EPI-cr and CKD-EPI-cr-cys: r=0.49, p=0.0001, MDRD: r=0.44, p=0.001, CG r=0.48, p=0.0001: CKD-EPI-cys r=0.40, p=0.004). The area under the CKD-EPI-cys ROC curve was the highest and found to be 0.847 (95%CI 0.763-0.931, p=0.0001). Conclusions: Our results showed that the CKD-EPI-cys eGFR can be useful in detecting the early stage of DN and more predictive than the others for prediction of DN.


Resumo Introdução: A TFG é estimada usando creatinina e cistatina C para determinar a disfunção renal. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar a TFG estimada (TFGe) com base na cistatina C em pacientes com diabetes do tipo 2 com nefropatia diabética (ND). Métodos: O grupo de estudo incluiu 52 controles (46% homens, idade: 54,5±12,4) e 101 pacientes diabéticos (46,5% homens, idade: 58,2±11). Os diabéticos foram divididos em três subgrupos de acordo com a albumina na urina de 24 horas: albuminúria normal a levemente aumentada (A1) (n=51), moderadamente aumentada (A2) (n=25) e severamente aumentada (A3) (n=25). Foi determinado o clearance de creatinina (Clcr). As correlações entre Clcr e TFGe calculadas de acordo com as fórmulas CKD-EPI, MDRD, e Cockcroft-Gault (CG), e as curvas ROC foram avaliadas. Os dados foram analisados usando o SPSS 22.0. Resultados: Somente a TFGe CKD-EPI-cis foi significativamente menor no grupo A1 do que nos controles (p=0,021). Todas as TFGs foram mais baixas no grupo A3 do que no grupo controle (CKD-EPI-cr, MDRD, CKD-EPI-cis, CKD-EPI-cr-cis: p=0,0001, CG e Clcr: p=0,001) e no grupo A1 (para todas as TFGs p=0,0001). As TFGes CKD-EPI-cr (p=0,004), MDRD (p=0,01), CG (p=0,037), CKD-EPI-cis (p=0,033), e CKD-EPI-cr-cis (p=0,016) no grupo A2 foram significativamente diferentes do grupo A1. Todas as TFGes mostraram uma correlação moderada com Clcr no grupo A1 (CKD-EPI-cr e CKD-EPI-cr-cis: r=0,49, p=0,0001, MDRD: r=0,44, p=0,001, CG r=0,48, p=0,0001: CKD-EPI-cis r=0,40, p=0,004). A área sob a curva ROC CKD-EPI-cis foi a mais alta e foi considerada 0,847 (95%IC 0,763-0,931, p=0,0001). Conclusões: Nossos resultados mostraram que a TFGe CKD-EPI-cis pode ser útil na detecção do estágio inicial de ND e com maior valor de predição do que as outras para a predição da ND.

10.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(4): 313-321, 01/07/2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359020

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la relación de los indicadores antropométricos y de composición corporal, con la evolución de la enfermedad renal en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 sigue siendo controversial. Objetivo: identificar la asociación de los indicadores de la enfermedad renal con indicadores de control metabólico y antropométricos en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2. Material y métodos: se realizó un estudio transversal analítico en 395 pacientes del primer nivel de atención. La glucosa, hemoglobina glucosilada (HbA1c), perfil de lípidos y creatina se midió en ayuno. La enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) se consideró cuando la excreción de albumina urina- ria (EAU) > 30 mg/g y con la reducción del nivel de la tasa de filtrado glomerular < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, utilizando la ecuación CKD-EPI. Se midió el peso y circunferencia de cintura, así como la composición corporal a través de bioimpedancia. Resultados: un 17% de la población presentó ERC con alteración de la EAU y 6.6% con una TFG reducida. Un mayor tiempo de diagnóstico de la enfermedad, mayor nivel de HbA1c y menor nivel grasa corporal se asoció a una EAU > 30 mg/g, (p < 0.05). La disminución de la TFG (< 60 mL/ min/1.73 m2) se asoció con mayor edad, ser mujer, tener mayor circunferencia de cintura y menor porcentaje de grasa corporal (p < 0.05). Conclusiones: un mayor nivel de circunferencia de cintura y menor porcentaje de grasa corporal se asocian a mayor evolución de la ERC en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2. El descontrol glucémico se identificó en pacientes con mayor excreción de albumina urinaria.


Background: The relationship of anthropometric and body composition indicators with the evolution of kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes, is still inconsistent. Objective: To identify the association of indicators of kid- ney disease with indicators of metabolic and anthropometric control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Material and methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was carried out in 395 patients of the first level of care. The glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), creatinine and lipid profile were measured. The kidney disease (CKD) was made when urinary albumin excretion (UAE) > 30 mg/g and with a reduction in the level of glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, using the CKD-formula. Weight and waist circumference were measured, as well as the body composition through bioimpedance. Results: Seventeen percent of the population has a diagnosed with CKD with alteration of the UAE and 6.6% had a reduced GFR. A longer time of diagnosis of the diabetes, hig- her HbA1c level and body fat were associated with an UAE > 30 mg/g, (p < 0.05). The decline in GFR (< 60 mL/min/ 1.73 m2) was associated with older age, being a woman, greater waist circumference, and a higher percentage of body fat (p < 0.05). Conclusions: A higher level of waist circumference and a lower percentage of body fat are associated with a greater evolution of chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. Glycemic uncontrol is identified in patients with high urinary albumin excretion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anthropometry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Primary Health Care , Association , Blood Chemical Analysis
11.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(4): 264-273, 01/07/2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358343

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en México existe un 50% de pacientes metabólicamente descontrolados, por lo que en 2008 se implementó el programa de atención al paciente diabético del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (DiabetIMSS), el cual utiliza estrategias para la prevención y atención integral de la población mediante sesiones educativas para lograr un control metabólico a largo plazo. Objetivo: identificar el control metabólico de los pacientes diabéticos posterior al egreso del programa DiabetIMSS. Material y métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal, ambispectivo en 242 pacientes obtenidos por muestreo no probabilístico por cuota con diagnóstico CIE- 10 de DM2 con ≥ 1 año de egreso de DiabetIMSS. Análisis estadístico con Chi cuadrada. Resultados: grupo 1 con ≤ 2 años de egreso y grupo 2 con> 2 años. Grupo 1 con descontrol metabólico en 79% de los pacientes y grupo 2 en 81%; en ambos predominó la hiperglucemia con 64 y 57% y TA normal con 82.8 y 88.1%, respectivamente. La prevalencia de dislipidemia fue de 65.7 y 70.6% en ambos casos. La obesidad se relacionó a dislipidemia (74.4%), HTA (54.4%) e hiperglucemia (69.1%). Conclusión: se encontró mal control metabólico en pacientes diabéticos posterior al egreso de DiabetIMSS.


Background: In Mexico there are 50% patients that have metabolic decontrol so in 2008 the Program of Attention for the Diabetic Patient of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (DiabetIMSS) was implemented, that it uses strategies for prevention and integral attention for the people by educative session's to achieve a metabolic control in the long term. Objective: To identify the metabolic control of diabetic patients after ending the educational program DiabetIMSS. Material and methods: Observational, descriptive, transverse, ambispective study in 242 patients selected by nonprobabilistic sampling by quota with a diagnosis of ICD 10 of DM2 with ≥ 1 year of discharge from DiabetIMSS. Statistical analysis with Chi square. Results: Group 1 with ≤ 2 years of discharge and group 2 with > 2 years. Group 1 with metabolic decontrol in 79%, and group 2 with 81%; in both, hyperglycemia predominated with 64% and 57% and normal BP with 82.8% and 88.1% respectively. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 65.7% and 70.6% in both cases. Obesity it´s related to dyslipidemia (74.4%), HTA (54.4%) and glycemic uncontrol (69.1%). Conclusion: Poor metabolic control was found in diabetic patients after ending DiabetIMSS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Strategies , Comprehensive Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Health Promotion , Patients , Cross-Sectional Studies , Patient Care , Mexico
12.
Rev. Finlay ; 11(2): 182-188, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340759

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento: la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 es una enfermedad crónica muy frecuente. Sus características y comorbilidades asociadas son bien conocidas, no obstante, la repuesta de los pacientes a los tratamientos convencionales no siempre es efectiva. Se requiere ampliar el conocimiento de las características particulares de cada paciente para lograr un manejo individualizado. Objetivo: describir las características sociodemográficas y patológicas de pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 atendidos en un centro médico de Chota, Perú. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo, en 102 pacientes atendidos en el centro médico de salud de Chota en Perú efectuado durante febrero y marzo del 2015. Las características sociodemográficas y patológicas fueron las variables analizadas y se identificaron en una ficha de recolección de datos. Se describieron frecuencias absolutas, relativas, medidas de tendencia central, de dispersión e intervalos de confianza para proporciones al 95 %. Resultados: el 81,4 % de los pacientes estaban casados, se desempeñaban como profesores en actividad o cesantes (52,0 %), con una edad promedio de 59 años (58,9 % de varones ≥ 60 años y 56,5 % de mujeres entre 30 y 59 años), en tratamiento con glibenclamida + metformina (55,8 %) y dieta + ejercicio (75,5 %), con un tiempo de enfermedad promedio de 6,6 años (56,6 % de mujeres y 41,1 % de varones ≤ 5 años). Conclusión: los pacientes con DM2 en su mayoría eran casados, profesores, con edad promedio de 59 años, en tratamiento con glibenclamida + metformina y dieta + ejercicio, presentaban la enfermedad por 6,6 años como promedio.


ABSTRACT Background: type 2 diabetes mellitus is a very frequent chronic disease. Its characteristics and associated comorbidities are well known, however, the response of patients to conventional treatments is not always effective. It is necessary to increase the patients' particular characteristics knowledge to achieve individualized management. Objective: to describe the sociodemographic and pathological characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated in Chota medical center, Peru. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study was carried out in 102 patients treated at the Chota medical health center in Peru, carried out during February and March 2015. Sociodemographic and pathological characteristics were the variables analyzed and were identified in a medical record data collection. Absolute and relative frequencies, measures of central tendency, dispersion and confidence intervals for proportions at 95 % were described. Results: 81.4 % of the patients were married, worked as teachers in activity or unemployed (52.0 %), with an average age of 59 years old (58.9 % of men ≥60 years and 56.5 % of women between 30 and 59 years old), in treatment with glibenclamide + metformin (55.8 %) and diet + exercise (75.5 %), with an illness average time of 6.6 years (56.6 % of women and 41.1 % of males ≤ 5 years). Conclusion: the majority of patients with DM2 were married, teachers, with an average age of 59 years old, on treatment with glibenclamide + metformin and diet + exercise, they suffer from the disease for an average of 6.6 years.

13.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 9(1): 1-18, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284378

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la obesidad es una enfermedad crónica que conlleva a la aparición de enfermedades cardiovasculares y diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2). Pacientes con sobrepeso, obesidad o DM2 presentan generalmente un perfil lipídico con niveles sanguíneos elevados de colesterol, triglicéridos, LDL (lipoproteínas de baja densidad) y VLDL-c (lipoproteínas de muy baja densidad unidas al colesterol) y niveles bajos de HDL-c (lipoproteínas de alta densidad). Pseudocereales como Amaranthus caudatus (Amaranto), Chenopodium quinoa (Quinua) y Lupinus mutabilis (Tarwi) presentes en la región Andina de Bolivia, tienen propiedades potencialmente nutracéuticas, con un alto contenido de macronutrientes y diversos fitoquímicos con actividad biológica como alcaloides de quinolizidina, saponinas, triterpenos y γ-conglutina. OBJETIVO: determinar el efecto del consumo de un producto natural elaborado a base de granos de Amaranto, Quinua y Tarwi (AQT), sobre el perfil lipídico en pacientes con obesidad y DM2. MÉTODO: estudio clínico preliminar controlado, prospectivo, doble ciego y cruzado realizado en el Área de Farmacología del Instituto de Investigaciones Fármaco Bioquímicas de la Facultad de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Bioquímicas de la Universidad Mayor de San Andrés. RESULTADOS: el consumo de un producto elaborado a base de harinas de Amaranto, Quinua y Tarwi (AQT) durante 3 meses, promovió la disminución significativa de colesterol, triglicéridos, LDL y VLDLc en pacientes diabéticos (DM2) con sobrepeso (IMC>25), sin embargo, los niveles de HDL-c no sufrieron cambios significativos. CONCLUSIÓN: por tanto, el producto AQT tiene efectos beneficiosos sobre el perfil lipídico en pacientes con sobrepeso u obesidad y con riesgo de padecer enfermedades cardiovasculares y DM2.


INTRODUCTION: obesity is a chronic disease that leads to the onset of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Overweight, obese or T2DM patients generally have a lipid profile with high blood levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and VLDL-c (very low-density lipoprotein) and low levels of HDL-c (high-density lipoprotein of cholesterol). Pseudocereals such as Amaranthus caudatus (Amaranth), Chenopodium quinoa (Quinoa) and Lupinus mutabilis (Tarwi) present in the Andean region of Bolivia, have potentially nutraceutical properties, with a high content of macronutrients and various phytochemicals with biological activity such as quinolizidine alkaloids, saponins, triterpenes and γ-conglutin. OBJECTIVE: to determine the effect due to natural product intake made with Amaranth, Quinoa and Tarwi (AQT) on the lipid profile in patients with obesity and T2DM. METHOD: controlled, prospective, double blinded and crossed Preliminary Clinical Assay, performed in the Pharmacology Area of Instituto de Investigaciones Fármaco Bioquímicas from Facultad de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Bioquímicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés. RESULTS: the intake of a product made from Amaranth, Quinoa and Tarwi (AQT) flour for 3 months, promoted a significant decrease in cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL-c in overweight diabetic patients (DM2) (BMI> 25) However, HDL-c levels did not undergo significant changes. CONCLUSION: therefore, the AQT product has beneficial effects on the lipid profile in patients who are overweight or obese and at risk of cardiovascular disease and T2DM.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Triticum , Amaranthus , Chenopodium quinoa , Lipids , Obesity
14.
Notas enferm. (Córdoba) ; 20(37): 5-14, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1283101

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Severo Coronavirus 2 es el agente causal de la COVID-19, una enfermedad emergente pandémica que requiere cuidados de enfermería basados en el proceso de enfermería desde el autocuidado. Objetivo: Aplicar el proceso de enfermería desde la perspectiva teórica del autocuidado a un adulto mayor con diagnóstico de diabetes tipo 2 hospitalizado por complicaciones de la COVID-19. Métodos: estudio de caso con Proceso de Enfermería a adulto mayor con COVID-19, para valoración se utilizó una cédula basada en conceptos de la Teoría General del Déficit de autocuidado de Orem, escala de ansiedad de Halminton y escala de riesgo de caídas, para la deducción diagnóstica, resultados e intervenciones se utilizó la taxonomía NANDA 2018-2020, clasificación de Resultados NOC, guías de práctica clínica y la clasificación de intervenciones NIC, respectivamente. Resultados: se identificaron 8 diagnósticos de enfermería, de los cuales, 4 son reales, 3 de riesgo, 1 de promoción a la salud. Se elaboraron 8 planes de cuidados con enfoque de educación para la salud e intervenciones con criterios de resultados del NOc e intervenciones de enfermería basadas en NIC y 4 Guías de práctica clínica sobre las respuestas humanas prioritarias; deterioro del intercambio de gases, diarrea, ansiedad y riesgo de glicemia inestable. Conclusiones: el Proceso de Enfermería vinculado con la teoría de Dorothea Orem permitió mejorar las prácticas de autocuidado y por consiguiente el autocontrol de la enfermedad respiratoria y metabólica en el adulto mayor[AU]


introduction: the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 is the causal agent of COVID-19, an emerging pandemic disease that requires nursing care based on the nursing process from self-care. Objective: to apply the nursing process from the theoretical perspective of self-care to an older adult diagnosed with type 2 diabetes hospitalized for complications of COVID-19. Methods: case study with the Nursing Process of an elderly person with COVID-19, for assessment a card based on concepts of the General Theory of Deficit of Orem's self-care deficit, Halminton anxiety scale and risk of falls scale was used. For the diagnostic deduction, results and interventions, the 2018-2020NANDA taxonomy, NOC Results classification, clinical practice guidelines and the NIC intervention classification were used, respectively. Results: Eight nursing diagnoses were identified, of which 4 are real, 3 of risk, 1 of health promotion. 8 care plans were developed with a focus on health education and interventions with NOCresults criteria and NIC-based nursing interventions and 4 clinical practice guidelines on priority human responses; impaired gas exchange, diarrhea, anxiety and risk of unstable blood glucose. Conclusions: the Nursing Process linked to Dorothea Orem's theory allowed to improve self-care practices and consequently the self-control of respiratory and metabolic disease in the elderly[AU]


a Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave Coronavírus 2 é o agente causal da COVID-19, uma doença pandêmica emergente que requer cuidados de enfermagem baseados no processo de enfermagem a partir do autocuidado. Objetivo: aplicar o processo de enfermagem na perspectiva teórica do autocuidado a um idoso com diagnóstico de diabetes tipo 2 internado por complicações do COVID-19. Métodos: estudo de caso com o Processo de Enfermagem de uma pessoa idosa com COVID-19, para avaliação de uma ficha baseada nos conceitos da Teoria Geral do Déficit do Déficit de Autocuidado de Orem, Escala de Ansiedade Halminton e Escala de Risco de Quedas. Dedução diagnóstica, resultados e intervenções, a taxonomia NANDA2018-2020, classificação de resultados NOC, diretrizes de prática clínica e a classificação de intervenção NIC foram usados, respectivamente. Resultados: foram identificados 8 diagnósticos de enfermagem, sendo 4 reais, 3 de risco, 1 de promoção da saúde. 8 planos de cuidados foram desenvolvidos com foco em educação em saúde e intervenções com critérios de resultados NIC e intervenções de enfermagem baseadas em NIC e 4 diretrizes de prática clínica em respostas humanas prioritárias; alteração das trocas gasosas, diarreia, ansiedade e risco de glicose sanguínea instável. Conclusões: o Processo de Enfermagem atrelado à teoria de Dorothea Orem permitiu aprimorar as práticas de autocuidado e consequentemente o autocontrole das doenças respiratórias e metabólicas em idosos[AU]


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety , Self Care , Nursing Diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , COVID-19 , Nursing Care , Nursing Process , Case Reports
15.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(3): 305-314, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285150

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To study the association of SLC16A11 gene variants with obesity and metabolic markers in nondiabetic Chilean adults. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study included 263 non-diabetic adults. The genotype of the rs75493593 polymorphism of SLC16A11 gene was performed by real-time PCR. It's association with adiposity markers (body weight, BMI, waist circumference and fat mass percentage), metabolic markers (glucose, insulin, HOMAIR, leptin, total cholesterol, LDLc, HDLc, triglycerides, ALT, GGT and hsCRP) and blood pressure was analyzed by linear regression. Results: The minor allele (T) of the SLC16A11 gene (rs75493593) has a frequency of 29.7% among Chileans. Risk genotypes (GT and TT) were associated with a significant 1.49 mU/l increase in plasmatic insulin for each copy of the minor allele (95% CI: 0.12, 2.87, p < 0.05). This association remained significant after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, physical activity and smoking (1.36 mU/l, 95% CI: 0.16, 2.58 p < 0.05), but was lost when BMI was included as a confounding factor. Higher BMI was also significantly associated with polymorphic genotypes in SLC16A11, independent of socio-demographic variables. Conclusion: The minor allele of the SLC16A11 gene (T) is highly prevalent among Chileans and is associated with increased insulin and BMI in nondiabetic individuals. These findings suggest that the genetic variant in SLC16A11 is not only associated with type 2 diabetes as previously shown in Mexicans, but is also related to early metabolic alterations in healthy subjects that may lead to type 2 diabetes.

16.
rev. cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 12(2): e2057, mayo 1, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1341812

ABSTRACT

Resumo Introdução Apesar de haver elucidação científica sobre diversos fatores intervenientes na adesão ao autocuidado em diabetes, lacunas ainda existem, principalmente em relação aos comportamentos de autocuidado entre pessoas com perfis socioeconômicos distintos. O objetivo do estudo foi identificar a adesão ao autocuidado em diabetes e correlações com fatores sociodemográficos, clínicos e psicossociais, entre usuários do sistema de saúde suplementar, em São Paulo. Materiais e Métodos Estudo transversal, com 214 participantes com diabetes tipo 2, que utilizou as versões brasileiras dos: The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities; Diabetes Attitudes Questionnaire e Diabetes Empowerment Scale. Utilizou-se um modelo de regressão múltipla (método Stepwise Backward) para delinear as correlações entre as variáveis. Resultados Os participantes revelaram adesão moderada ao autocuidado global. Ser mulher, casada/em união estável, aposentada, com maior tempo de diagnóstico e atitude mais positiva frente o diabetes explicaram 93,0% da variância do autocuidado global. Discussão O estudo é inédito ao caracterizar o autocuidado em diabetes entre usuários do sistema de saúde suplementar no Brasil. Os resultados semelhantes a estudos nacionais e internacionais sugerem que, dada a complexidade da doença, o autocuidado com o diabetes é constantemente negligenciado e requer maior capacitação dos profissionais de saúde para lidar com os aspectos psicossociais associados. Conclusão Os resultados sugerem que as intervenções educativas para promover o autocuidado sejam desenhadas levando em consideração o perfil sociodemográfico e clínico dos participantes e considerem a promoção da autoeficácia para diminuir a atitude negativa frente o diabetes.


Abstract Introduction Although science has discovered several factors involved in diabetes self-care, there are still some gaps especially regarding self-care behaviors among people with different socioeconomic statuses. The objective of this study is to identify adherence to diabetes self-care and its correlation with sociodemographic, clinical and psychosocial factors among users of the supplementary health system in Sao Paulo. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 214 participants who had type 2 diabetes by using the Brazilian versions of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Measure, Diabetes Attitudes Scale and Diabetes Empowerment Scale. A multiple linear regression model (backward stepwise regression) was used to delineate the correlations between variables. Results Participants showed moderate adherence to general self-care. Factors such as being a woman, being married/in a stable union, being retired, having been diagnosed for a longer time and showing a more positive attitude towards diabetes explained 93.0% of the variance in general self-care. Discussion This is an unprecedented study in the characterization of diabetes self-care among users of the supplementary health system in Brazil. Although the results are similar to those of national and international studies, they suggest that, given the complexity of the disease, diabetes self-care is constantly neglected and more training is required among healthcare professionals to address related psychosocial factors. Conclusions The results suggest that educational interventions for the promotion of diabetes self-care should be developed taking into account the sociodemographic and clinical profile of the participants, as well as the promotion of self-efficacy to decrease negative attitudes towards diabetes.


Resumen Introducción Aunque la ciencia ha descubierto diversos factores que intervienen en el autocuidado de la diabetes, todavía quedan algunos vacíos sobre todo en lo que respecta a los comportamientos de autocuidado entre personas con diferentes características socioeconómicas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar la adherencia al autocuidado de la diabetes y su correlación con factores sociodemográficos, clínicos y psicosociales entre los usuarios del sistema de salud suplementaria en Sao Paulo. Materiales y métodos Se realizó un estudio transversal con 214 participantes que padecían diabetes tipo 2, en el que se utilizaron las versiones brasileñas del cuestionario de actividades de autocuidado en diabetes, el cuestionario de actitudes sobre diabetes y la escala de empoderamiento de la diabetes. Se empleó un modelo de regresión lineal múltiple (método regresión stepwise) para delinear las correlaciones entre las variables. Resultados Los participantes mostraron una adherencia moderada al autocuidado global. Factores como ser mujer, estar casado/en unión libre estable, ser jubilado, tener más tiempo de diagnóstico y mostrar una actitud más positiva frente a la diabetes explicaron el 93.0% de la varianza en el autocuidado global. Discusión El estudio es inédito en la caracterización del autocuidado de la diabetes entre los usuarios del sistema de salud complementaria en Brasil. Si bien los resultados son similares a los de estudios nacionales e internacionales, estos se sugieren que, dada la complejidad de la enfermedad, el autocuidado de la diabetes se descuida constantemente y se requiere una mayor formación entre los profesionales de la salud para tratar los aspectos psicosociales asociados. Conclusión Los resultados sugieren que las intervenciones educativas para la promoción del autocuidado deben diseñarse teniendo en cuenta el perfil sociodemográfico y clínico de los participantes, así como la promoción de la autoeficacia para disminuir la actitud negativa hacia la diabetes.


Subject(s)
Self Care , Self Efficacy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Self-Management
17.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 24(5): 232-237, mar.-abr. 2021. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1283796

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, a series of cases occurred in Wuhan (China), caused by a new coronavirus. On March 11, 2020, the WHO declared the COVID-19 disease, caused by SARS-CoV-2, as a pandemic. In Peru, the first person infected with SARS-CoV-2 was confirmed on March 6, 2020. The number of infected has been constantly increasing to this day. Purpose: It is relevant to the current pandemic, understanding the mechanism of infection of SARS-CoV-2 in diabetic patients and in this way to be able to provide natural alternatives to reduce the complications that these patients can carry out until death. Methodology: An information search was carried out between April 6 and August 25 of 2020 in databases and indexed journals, whose articles have been published between 2011 and 2020. Results: It was found regarding inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP-4) evaluated in in vitro tests, that the Berberis aristata species has a metabolite called "berberine", which has the highest inhibitory capacity among the mentioned species, and, concerning furine inhibition, among the in vitro tests, catechin has a significant inhibitory capacity; it also has DPP-4 inhibitory activity. Conclusion: There is a great variety of medicinal plants with inhibitory properties for DPP-4 and some for furin. These properties are beneficial in patients with type 2 diabetes, since they reduce the activity of these proteases and, consequently, the complications in SARS-CoV-2 infection


Antecedentes: En diciembre de 2019, se registraron una serie de casos producidos por un nuevo coronavirus en Wuhan (China). El 11 de marzo de 2020, la Organización Mundial de la Salud declaró a la COVID-19, provocada por el coronavirus 2 causante del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2), como una pandemia. En el Perú, la primera persona infectada por SARS-CoV-2 fue confirmada el 6 de marzo de 2020; desde entonces, la cifra de infectados ha ido en constante aumento hasta el día de hoy. Propósito: Es relevante, ante la actual pandemia, entender el mecanismo de infección del SARS-CoV-2 en pacientes diabéticos, para, de esta manera, poder dar alternativas naturales para disminuir las complicaciones que pueden llevar a estos pacientes hasta la muerte. Metodología: se realizó una búsqueda de información entre el 6 de abril y el 25 de agosto de 2020, en bases de datos y revistas indexadas, cuyos artículos han sido publicados entre 2011 y 2020. Resultados: Se encontró, en cuanto a los inhibidores de la dipeptidilpeptidasa 4 (DPP-4) evaluados en ensayos in vitro, que la especie Berberis aristata posee un metabolito denominado "berberina", el cual presentó la mayor capacidad inhibitoria entre las especies analizadas. Con respecto a la inhibición de la furina, en los ensayos in vitro, la catequina posee una capacidad inhibitoria significativa; además de actividad inhibitoria para la DPP-4. Conclusión: Existe una gran variedad de plantas medicinales con propiedades inhibitorias para la DPP-4, y algunas de ellas para la furina. Estas propiedades son beneficiosas en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2, dado que reducen la actividad de estas proteasas y, por consiguiente, las complicaciones causadas por la infección por SARS-CoV-2


Subject(s)
Furin , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , COVID-19
18.
An. Fac. Med. (Perú) ; 82(2): 124-130, abr.-jun 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339084

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción. El pie diabético es una complicación frecuente de la diabetes. Los datos son escasos en el norte peruano. Objetivo. Describir la evolución clínica del pie diabético en un hospital de Lambayeque-Perú, entre los años 2018 y 2019. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo, prospectivo. Los pacientes fueron captados por emergencia/consulta y seguidos por la unidad de pie diabético mediante visitas diarias y curaciones. Resultados. Seguimiento desde agosto del 2018 a octubre 2019. Hubo 136 pacientes; mediana de edad: 63 años (RIC= 54-86) y 50,38% fueron hombres. La mediana de años con diabetes y tiempo de hospitalización fue 10 años y 10 días; 40% y 21% tuvo trauma y amputación previa. Las frecuencias de hipertensión arterial, nefropatía diabética, enfermedad renal crónica, síndrome coronario agudo y evento cerebrovascular previo fueron: 52,9%, 26,4%, 33,3%, 2,9% y 16,6%, respectivamente; 50,7% tuvo compromiso de pie derecho, 58,1% del izquierdo y 8,6%, de ambos. El Wagner inicial más frecuente fue IV: 30,16%, seguido de II: 25,40% y el final más frecuente fue IV: 42,15% seguido del II: 22,31%. Se amputaron 41,22%, mayores: 28,24% y menores 11,8%; 25,6% fueron supracondíleas; 39,6% tuvo sepsis, evolución desfavorable 38,58% y fallecieron 9,44%. En los amputados, la mediana de días antes de la amputación fue 12. Conclusiones. La frecuencia de amputación y mortalidad fue mayor a la de estudios anteriores. Hubo una alta frecuencia de evolución desfavorable: amputación/muerte o empeoramiento de la gangrena.


ABSTRACT Introduction. Diabetic foot is a frequent complication of diabetes. Data are scarce in northern Peru. Objective. To describe the clinical evolution of the diabetic foot in a hospital in Lambayeque-Peru, between 2018 and 2019. Methods. Descriptive, prospective study. The patients were recruited by emergency/consultation and followed by the diabetic foot unit through daily visits and dressings. Results. Follow-up from August 2018 to October 2019. There were 136 patients; median age: 63 years (IQR = 54-86) and 50.38% were men. The median number of years with diabetes and hospitalization time was 10 years and 10 days; 40% and 21% had trauma and previous amputation. The frequencies of high blood pressure, diabetic nephropathy, chronic kidney disease, previous acute coronary syndrome and cerebrovascular event were: 52.9%, 26.4%, 33.3%, 2.9% and 16.6%, respectively; 50.7% had involvement of the right foot, 58.1% of the left and 8.6% of both. The most frequent initial Wagner was IV: 30.16%, followed by II: 25.40% and the most frequent final was IV: 42.15% followed by II: 22.31%. 41.22% were amputated, mayor amputations: 28.24% and minor amputations 11.8%; 25.6% were supracondylar; 39.6% had sepsis, 38.58% unfavorable evolution and 9.44% died. In amputees, the median number of days before amputation was 12. Conclusions. The frequency of amputation and mortality was higher than in previous studies. There was a high frequency of unfavorable evolution: amputation/death or worsening of gangrene.

19.
Cienc. Salud (St. Domingo) ; 5(2): [19-26], Ene-Abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290596

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la demencia senil es una patología degenerativa, en la actualidad su frecuencia está incrementándose en adultos mayores, debido, esencialmente, a comorbilidades o complicaciones inherentes a su condición fisiológica; las investigaciones apuntan a que su ocurrencia se asocia a hipertensión arterial y diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Objetivo: la investigación tuvo como objetivo comparar la demencia senil presuntiva en adultos mayores con y sin factores patológicos del Centro Médico EsSalud de Chota, Cajamarca. Metodología: el estudio fue relacional, transversal, realizado en 178 adultos mayores atendidos en el Centro Médico EsSalud, se utilizó una ficha de factores patológicos y el Test Mini Mental. Resultados: como factores patológicos, el 39,9 % de adultos mayores presentaron hipertensión arterial de leve a severa y el 21,9 % presentaron diabetes mellitus tipo 2. El 84,3 % de adultos mayores presentaron demencia senil presuntiva de leve a severa. Conclusión: se concluye que existen diferencias estadísticas significativas entre la demencia senil presuntiva en adultos mayores con y sin factores patológicos (hipertensión arterial [p= 0,000] y diabetes mellitus tipo 2 [p= 0,000]). (AU)


Introduction: Senile dementia is a degenerative pathology, currently its frequency is increasing in older adults, essentially due to comorbidities or complications inherent to their physiological condition; Research indicates that its occurrence is associated with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective: The objective of the research was to compare presumptive senile dementia in older adults with and without pathological factors from the EsSalud Medical Center in Chota, Cajamarca. Methodology: The study was relational, cross-sectional, carried out in 178 older adults treated at the EsSalud Medical Center, a file of pathological factors and the Mini Mental Test were used. Results: As pathological factors, 39.9% of older adults had mild to severe hypertension and 21.9% had type 2 diabetes mellitus. 84.3% of older adults had mild to severe presumptive senile dementia. Conclusion: It is concluded that there are statistically significant differences between presumptive senile dementia in older adults with and without pathological factors (arterial hypertension [p = 0.000] and type 2 diabetes mellitus [p = 0.000]).


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Women , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hypertension , Men
20.
Curitiba; s.n; 20210224. 150 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1282749

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Introdução: O conhecimento da Diabetes Mellitus e a busca por informações de saúde são fatores que contribuem para o controle e a autogestão da doença, consequentemente, para a redução de complicações e de mortalidade Objetivo: Analisar a influência da literacia em saúde e do conhecimento da doença na autogestão do cuidado em adultos com Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 após educação em saúde. Método: Estudo quase-experimental, que utilizou a consulta de enfermagem como intervenção educativa. Participaram 33 usuários de uma Unidade de Saúde do Município de Colombo, Paraná, Brasil, que apresentavam glicemia de jejum ?126mg/dL e /ou exame de hemoglobina glicada ?7,00%, dispostos em único grupo. Foram utilizados para a coleta de dados os instrumentos sociodemográficos, clínicos, Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy Patients with Diabetes e Eight-Item Health Literacy Assessment Tool. Foram desenvolvidas ações educativas durante a consulta de enfermagem com pactuação de metas; atividade em grupo com o tema sinais e sintomas da hipoglicemia e hiperglicemia/ controle da doença; e orientações por contatos telefônicos, as quais foram transcritas em diário de campo. Os dados foram analisados de forma descritiva e pelos testes de alfa de Cronbach, Shapiro- Wilk, Wilcoxom, Coeficiente de Correlação de Spearman, McNemar e Qui quadrado. Os relatos do diário de campo foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo, estabelecendo duas categorias: gestão dos cuidados pactuados e interferência da pandemia Covid-19 nos cuidados. Resultados: Houve predomínio de mulheres (69,7%) com idade de 34 a 65 anos, com diagnóstico da doença >10 anos (48,5%), que obtiveram conhecimento adequado sobre a doença (54,4%) e níveis suficientes de literacia em saúde, com pontuação média de 20,7±5,4. Após intervenções, houve aumento significativo do conhecimento sobre a doença (p=0,001), correlacionado com aumento dos níveis de literacia (r=0,494 p=0,001) e tempo do diagnóstico (r=0,455 p=0,001). Na categoria gestão dos cuidados pactuados, foram verificadas mudanças nos hábitos alimentares e adesão à atividade física, consequentemente, perda de peso, diminuição de índice de massa corporal e hemoglobina glicada. As interferências positivas da pandemia Covid-19 nos cuidados foram adaptação à atividade física, aumento da ingestão de hortaliças e frutas, busca e maior utilização dos serviços de saúde. As interferências negativas foram medo, insegurança e dificuldades para cumprir as metas pactuadas. Conclusões: As intervenções de educação em saúde foram efetivas no aumento do conhecimento da doença, associado à elevação dos níveis de literacia em saúde, os quais influenciaram na autogestão do cuidado. A pandemia teve interferência positiva e negativa no controle da doença. A mensuração dos níveis de literacia em saúde e o conhecimento da doença dão subsídios para a construção de estratégias educativas direcionadas e centradas na pessoa.


Abstract: Introduction: Knowledge of Diabetes Mellitus and the search for health information are factors that contribute to the control and self-management of the disease, and therefore, to the reduction of the complications and mortality. Objective: To analyze the influence of health literacy and knowledge of the disease on self-care management in adults with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, after health education. Method: Quasi-experimental study, which used nursing consultation as an educational intervention. The participants were 33 users from a Health Unit of the Municipality of Colombo, Paraná, Brazil, who presented fasting blood glucose ?126mg / dL and / or glycated hemoglobin test ?7.00%, grouped into a single group. Sociodemographic and clinical instruments, Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy Patients with Diabetes and Eight-Item Health Literacy Assessment Tool were used for data collection. Educational actions were developed during the nursing consultation with agreement on goals; a group activity concerning to signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia / disease control; and guidance by telephone contact, which were transcribed in a field diary. Data were analyzed descriptively and using Cronbach's alpha tests, Shapiro-Wilk, Wilcoxom, Spearman's Correlation Coefficient, McNemar and Chi square. The field diary reports were submitted to content analysis, establishing two categories: management of agreed care and interference of the Covid-19 pandemic in care. Results: There was a predominance of women (69.7%) aged 34 to 65 years, with a diagnosis of the disease >10 years (48.5%), who obtained adequate knowledge about the disease (54.4%) and sufficient health literacy levels, with an average score of 20.7 ± 5.4. After interventions, there was a significant increase in knowledge about the disease (p = 0.001), correlated with increased levels of literacy (r = 0.494 p = 0.001) and time of diagnosis (r = 0.455 p = 0.001). In the category of agreed care management, changes were observed in eating habits and adherence to physical activity, and therefore, weight loss, decreased body mass index and glycated hemoglobin. The positive interference of the Covid-19 pandemic in care was the adaptation to physical activity, increased intake of vegetables and fruits, search and greater use of health services. Negative interferences were fear, insecurity and difficulties in meeting the agreed goals. Conclusions: Health education interventions were effective in increasing knowledge of the disease, associated with increased levels of health literacy, which influenced the self-management of care. The pandemic had positive and negative interference in the control of the disease. The measurement of health literacy levels and knowledge of the disease provide subsidies for the construction of educational strategies directed and centered on the person.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Primary Health Care , Health Education , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Health Literacy
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