Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 19.235
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250739, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355896

ABSTRACT

Abstract Several reasons may underlie the dramatic increase in type2 diabetes mellitus. One of these reasons is the genetic basis and variations. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms are associated with different diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible association of two identified mutations ApaI (rs7975232) and TaqI (rs731236). Eighty-nine healthy individuals and Fifty-six Type 2 Diabetic (T2D) patients were investigated using RFLP technique for genotyping and haplotyping as well. The distribution of Apal genotypes was not statistically significant among the control (P=0.65) as well as for diabetic patients (P=0.58). For Taql allele frequencies of T allele was 0.61 where of G allele was 0.39. The frequency distribution of Taql genotypes was not statistically significant among the control (P=0.26) as well as diabetic patients (P=0.17). Relative risk of the allele T of Apa1 gene is 1.28 and the odds ratio of the same allele is 1.53, while both estimates were < 1.0 of the allele G. Similarly, with the Taq1 gene the relative risk and the odds ratio values for the allele T are 1.09 and 1.27 respectively and both estimates of the allele C were 0.86 for the relative risk and 0.79 for the odds ratio. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium between the two SNPs Taq1/apa1 was statistically significant in control group (D = 0.218, D' = 0.925 and P value < 0.001) and similar data in diabetic groups (D = 0.2, D' = 0.875 and P value < 0.001). These data suggest that the T allele of both genes Apa1 and Taq1 is associated with the increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We think that we need a larger number of volunteers to reach a more accurate conclusion.


Resumo Várias razões podem estar subjacentes ao aumento dramático da diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Um desses motivos é a base genética e variações. Os polimorfismos do receptor da vitamina D estão associados a diferentes doenças, como artrite reumatoide e diabetes. O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a possível associação de duas mutações identificadas ApaI (rs7975232) e TaqI (rs731236). Oitenta e nove indivíduos saudáveis ​​e 56 pacientes com diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) foram investigados usando a técnica RFLP para genotipagem e haplotipagem também. A distribuição dos genótipos Apal não foi estatisticamente significativa entre o controle (P = 0,65), bem como para os pacientes diabéticos (P = 0,58). Para as frequências do alelo Taql, o alelo T foi de 0,61, onde o alelo G foi de 0,39. A distribuição de frequência dos genótipos Taql não foi estatisticamente significativa entre o controle (P = 0,26), bem como os pacientes diabéticos (P = 0,17). O risco relativo do alelo T do gene Apa1 é 1,28 e a razão de chances do mesmo alelo é 1,53, enquanto ambas as estimativas foram < 1,0 do alelo G. Da mesma forma, com o gene Taq1, os valores de risco relativo e razão de chances para o alelo T são 1,09 e 1,27, respectivamente, e ambas as estimativas do alelo C foram de 0,86 para o risco relativo e 0,79 para o odds ratio. O desequilíbrio de ligação par a par entre os dois SNPs Taq1 / apa1 foi estatisticamente significativo no grupo de controle (D = 0,218, D' = 0,925 e valor P < 0,001) e dados semelhantes em grupos diabéticos (D = 0,2, D' = 0,875 e valor P < 0,001). Esses dados sugerem que o alelo T de ambos os genes Apa1 e Taq1 está associado ao aumento do risco de diabetes tipo 2. Achamos que precisamos de um número maior de voluntários para chegar a uma conclusão mais precisa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Saudi Arabia , Case-Control Studies , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Gene Frequency , Genotype
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252952, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355913

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main purpose of this study was to find out a possible association between ABO blood groups or Rh and diabetes mellitus (DM) in the local population of eight (8) different towns of Karachi, Pakistan. For this purpose a survey was carried out in Karachi to have a practical observation of these towns during the period of 9 months from June 2019 to Feb. 2020. Out of eighteen (18) towns of Karachi, samples (N= 584) were collected from only eight (8) Towns of Karachi and gave a code-number to each town. Diabetic group sample was (n1=432) & pre-diabetes sample was (n2 =152). A standard Abbot Company Glucometer for Random Blood Sugar (RBS) and Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) tests, standard blood anti sera were used for ABO/Rh blood type. Health assessment techniques were performed ethically by taking informed consent from all registered subjects. Finally data was analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. In our current study, the comparison of ABO blood groups frequencies between diabetic and pre-diabetic individuals were carried out. The percentage values of blood Group-B as given as: (32% in DM vs. 31% in pre-diabetics), followed by blood Group-O as: (18% in DM vs. 11% in pre-diabetics). Contrary to Group-"B" & "O", blood Group-A and Group-AB were distribution percentage higher pre-diabetic as compared to DM patients, as given as: Group-A (32% in pre-diabetics vs. 26% in DM) & Group-AB (26% in pre-diabetics vs. 24% in diabetic's patients). In addition, percentage distribution of Rh system was also calculated, in which Rh+ve Group was high and more common in DM patients as compared to pre-diabetics; numerically given as: Rh+ve Group (80% in DM vs. 72% in pre-diabetics). Different views and dimensions of the research topic were studied through literature support, some have found no any association and some established a positive association still some were not clear in making a solid conclusion. It is concluded that DM has a positive correlation with ABO blood groups, and people with Group-B have increased susceptibility to DM disease.


Resumo O objetivo principal deste estudo foi descobrir uma possível associação entre grupos sanguíneos ABO ou Rh e diabetes mellitus (DM) na população local de oito (8) diferentes cidades de Karachi, Paquistão. Para tanto, foi realizado um levantamento em Karachi para observação prática dessas cidades durante o período de 9 meses de junho de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020.De dezoito (18) cidades de Karachi, as amostras (N = 584) foram coletadas de apenas oito (8) cidades de Karachi e deram um número-código para cada cidade. A amostra do grupo de diabéticos foi (n1 = 432) e a amostra de pré-diabetes foi (n2 = 152). Um glicômetro padrão da Abbot Company para testes de açúcar no sangue aleatório (RBS) e açúcar no sangue em jejum (FBS), antissoros de sangue padrão foram usados ​​para o tipo de sangue ABO / Rh. As técnicas de avaliação de saúde foram realizadas de forma ética, tomando o consentimento informado de todos os indivíduos registrados. Finalmente, os dados foram analisados ​​pelo SPSS versão 20.0.No presente estudo, foi realizada a comparação das frequências dos grupos sanguíneos ABO entre diabéticos e pré-diabéticos. Os valores percentuais do sangue do Grupo-B são dados como: (32% em DM vs. 31% em pré-diabéticos), seguido pelo sangue do Grupo-O como: (18% em DM vs. 11% em pré-diabéticos). Ao contrário dos Grupos "B" e "O", sangue do Grupo-A e Grupo-AB tiveram distribuição percentual maior de pré-diabéticos em comparação com pacientes com DM, dado como: Grupo-A (32% em pré-diabéticos vs. 26% em DM) e Grupo AB (26% em pré-diabéticos vs. 24% em pacientes diabéticos). Além disso, também foi calculada a distribuição percentual do sistema Rh, no qual o Grupo Rh + ve foi elevado e mais comum em pacientes com DM em comparação aos pré-diabéticos; dados numericamente como: Grupo Rh + ve (80% em DM vs. 72% em pré-diabéticos). Diferentes visões e dimensões do tema de pesquisa foram estudadas com o suporte da literatura, alguns não encontraram nenhuma associação e alguns estabeleceram uma associação positiva, embora alguns não estivessem claros em fazer uma conclusão sólida. Conclui-se que o DM tem correlação positiva com os grupos sanguíneos ABO, e as pessoas com o Grupo B têm maior suscetibilidade à doença DM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , ABO Blood-Group System , Cities
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254234, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364499

ABSTRACT

Due to the severe side effects revealed by most of the currently used antidiabetic medicines, search for finding new and safe drugs to manage diabetes is continued. Naphthoquinones possessing strong antioxidant properties have been employed as candidates for diabetes therapy. Present study is aimed at finding the antioxidant and hypoglycaemic potential of some novel derivatives of 2-phenylamino-1,4-naphthoquinones (PAN) including chloro, nitro, methyl and bromo (5a-d) derivatives synthesized by single pot experiment. Product crystals were purified by TLC and characterized by FT-IR. The antioxidant potential of the compounds was assayed through DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities noted as UV-vis. absorbance. The DPPH assay has showed the powerful antioxidant activity of nitro and bromo derivatives, while the nitro derivative showed the significant reduction potential towards FRAP assay. Hypoglycaemic potential of the compounds was studied in rat animal model. All synthesized compounds revealed better hypoglycaemic activity; however, the chloro-derivative exhibited the more potent hypoglycaemic activity showing about 43% reduction in the mean blood glucose levels of the treated animals. As the bioreduction of naphthoquinones may be influenced by changing its redox properties, it has been noticed that the e-donating resonance effect (+R) of 'chloro' group has shown the significant effects on biological activity through stabalization of its imine form which limits the potential of generation of free radicals during bioreduction of quinones and thus has been proposed as the reason of its hypoglycaemic activity. Future studies employing the properties of e-donating groups of PAN may optimize the drug-receptor interaction for better drug designing and drug development strategies against diabetes and also for the clinical trials.


Em razão dos graves efeitos colaterais causados pela maioria dos medicamentos antidiabéticos atualmente utilizados, continua a busca por novos medicamentos seguros para o controle do diabetes. As naftoquinonas, que possuem fortes propriedades antioxidantes, têm sido empregadas como candidatas à terapia do diabetes. O presente estudo visa encontrar o potencial antioxidante e hipoglicemiante de alguns novos derivados de 2-fenilamino-1,4-naftoquinonas (PAN), incluindo derivados de cloro, nitro, metil e bromo (5a-d) sintetizados por experimento em pote único. Os cristais do produto foram purificados por TLC e caracterizados por FT-IR. O potencial antioxidante dos compostos foi testado por meio de atividades de sequestro de radicais DPPH e redução de energia observada como absorção no UV-vis. O ensaio DPPH mostrou a poderosa atividade antioxidante dos derivados nitro e bromo, enquanto o derivado nitro mostrou o potencial de redução significativo para o ensaio FRAP. O potencial hipoglicêmico dos compostos foi estudado em modelo animal de rato. Todos os compostos sintetizados revelaram melhor atividade hipoglicemiante; no entanto, o derivado cloro apresentou atividade hipoglicêmica mais potente, com redução de 43% nos níveis médios de glicose no sangue dos animais tratados. Como a biorredução de naftoquinonas pode ser influenciada pela alteração de suas propriedades redox, notou-se que o efeito da doação eletrônica por ressonância (+R) do grupo "cloro" tem sido significativo na atividade biológica por meio da estabilização de sua forma imina, que limita o potencial de geração de radicais livres durante a biorredução de quinonas, e, portanto, tem sido proposto como a razão de sua atividade hipoglicemiante. Estudos futuros empregando as propriedades de grupos de doação eletrônica de PAN podem otimizar a interação droga-receptor para melhor planejamento de medicamentos e estratégias de desenvolvimento de medicamentos contra o diabetes e também para os ensaios clínicos.


Subject(s)
Rats , Models, Animal , Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Development , Hypoglycemic Agents , Antioxidants
4.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 86(1): 27-32, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403483

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between subfoveal choroidal thickness and plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level and the severity of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A total of 68 cases, including 15 patients without diabetic retinopathy, 17 patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, 16 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and 20 healthy patients (control group), were enrolled in this study. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured manually using the enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography scanning program, and plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level was measured using a commercial micro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results: The subfoveal choroidal thickness values and plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine levels were significantly different between the four groups (p<0.001 and p<0.001). The subfoveal choroidal thickness values were significantly lower in the proliferative diabetic retinopathy group than in the other three groups (no diabetic retinopathy, nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, and control groups; p<0.001, p=0.045, and p<0.001, respectively). The plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine levels were significantly higher in the proliferative diabetic retinopathy group than in the other three groups (p<0.001, p<0.04, and p<0.001, respectively). In addition, a significant negative correlation was also found between plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level and subfoveal choroidal thickness (p<0.001, r=-0.479). Conclusion: Asymmetrical dimethylarginine is an important marker of endothelial dysfunction and endogenous endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. The severity of diabetic retinopathy was related to increased plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine level and reduced subfoveal choroidal thickness in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic retinopathy.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a relação da espessura subfoveal da coroide e dos níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica com a gravidade da retinopatia diabética em pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Métodos: Foram incluídos 68 casos, compreendendo 15 pacientes sem retinopatia diabética, 17 pacientes com retinopatia diabética não proliferativa, 16 pacientes com retinopatia diabética proliferativa, e 20 casos saudáveis (grupo de controle). A espessura subfoveal da coroide foi medida manualmente, usando o programa de varredura com tomografia computadorizada óptica com imagem profunda aprimorada, e os níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica foram medidos usando um kit microELISA comercial. Resultados: Os valores da espessura subfoveal da coroide e os níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica foram significativamente diferentes nos quatro grupos (p<0,001 para ambos os parâmetros). Os valores da espessura subfoveal da coroide foram significativamente menores no grupo com retinopatia diabética proliferativa do que nos outros três grupos (sem retinopatia diabética, retinopatia diabética não proliferativa e grupo de controle, com p<0,001, p=0,045 e p<0,001, respectivamente). Já os níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica foram significativamente maiores no grupo com retinopatia diabética proliferativa do que nos outros três grupos (p<0,001, p=0,04 e p<0,001, respectivamente). Além disso, também foi encontrada uma correlação negativa significativa entre os níveis plasmáticos de dimetil-arginina assimétrica e a espessura subfoveal da coroide (p<0,001, r=-0,479). Conclusão: A dimetil-arginina assimétrica é um importante marcador de disfunção endotelial e um inibidor endógeno da óxido nítrico sintase. Foi encontrada uma relação da gravidade da retinopatia diabética e de níveis elevados de dimetil-arginina assimétrica no plasma com a redução da espessura subfoveal da coroide em pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 com retinopatia diabética.

5.
Health sci. dis ; 24(1): 43-46, 2023. tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1411401

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Ces vingt dernières années, on assiste à une augmentation spectaculaire du nombre de cas de diabète de type 1 avec une mortalité plus élevée en Afrique Noire en lien avec les difficultés d'accès aux soins, à la rupture de suivi engendrant un nombre élevé de perdus de vue. L'objectif du travail est de déterminer le profil épidémiologique des enfants diabétiques perdus de vue dans notre pratique. Patients et méthodes. C'est une étude transversale à visée descriptive et analytique qui a concerné les enfants diabétiques perdus de vue de 2002 à 2019 dans le service de diabétologie du CHU de Yopougon. Résultats. Durant l'étude 195 enfants ont été suivi dans le service, 90 ont été considérés comme perdus de vue soit une fréquence de 46,15 %. L'âge moyen des perdus de vue était de 14,6 ± 5,3 avec des extrêmes allant de 2 à 20 ans. Ils sont majoritairement de sexe F dans 50,6 %. Dans 37 % on retrouve un niveau socio-économique faible calculé selon l'indice IPSE avec une association statistiquement significative entre les classes socio-économiques moyenneinferieure et moyenne (p respectivement < 0,01 et 0,001). La plupart des perdus (84,5 %) n'ont pas d'assurance maladie. Le lieu de résidence était urbain (Abidjan) dans 73 %. Ils ont issus d'une famille biparentale dans 79 ,8 % des cas. Une association statistiquement significative a été retrouvée entre la non-scolarisation et la perte de vue (P < 0,05).Conclusion. Le manque de suivi chez les enfants diabétiques a des conséquences drastiques sur le pronostic de la maladie au long cours, marqué par une mortalité de 11 % qui touche essentiellement les populations à revenu faible


Introduction. Over the past twenty years, there has been a spectacular increase in the number of cases of type 1 diabetes with a higher mortality rate in Black Africa due to difficulties in accessing care but also a lack of follow-up resulting in a high number of people being lost to follow-up. Our work aims to determine the epidemiological profile of diabetic children lost to follow-up. Patients and methods. This was a cross-sectional study with descriptive and analytical aims which concerned diabetic children lost to follow-up from 2002 to 2019 in the diabetes department of the University Hospital of Yopougon. Results. During the study period, 195 children were followed up in the department, 90 were considered as lost to follow-up, i.e. a frequency of 46.15%. The average age of the lost to follow-up was 14.6 ± 5.3 years with extremes ranging from 2 to 20 years. The majority of them were male (50.6%). Thirty-seven percent had a low socioeconomic level calculated according to the IPSE index, with a statistically significant association between the lowermiddle and middle socioeconomic classes (p < 0.01 and 0.001 respectively). Most of the lost (84.5%) did not have health insurance. The place of residence was urban (Abidjan) in 73%. They came from a two-parent family in 79.8% of cases. A statistically significant association was found between non-education and loss of sight (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The lack of follow-up in diabetic children has drastic consequences on the prognosis of the disease in the long term marked by a mortality of 11% which affects mainly low-income populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Epidemiology , Disease Management , Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnosis , Lost to Follow-Up , Social Class , Continuity of Patient Care
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250179, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339372

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a non-communicable disease throughout the world in which there is persistently high blood glucose level from the normal range. The diabetes and insulin resistance are mainly responsible for the morbidities and mortalities of humans in the world. This disease is mainly regulated by various enzymes and hormones among which Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a principle enzyme and insulin is the key hormone regulating it. The GSK-3, that is the key enzyme is normally showing its actions by various mechanisms that include its phosphorylation, formation of protein complexes, and other cellular distribution and thus it control and directly affects cellular morphology, its growth, mobility and apoptosis of the cell. Disturbances in the action of GSK-3 enzyme may leads to various disease conditions that include insulin resistance leading to diabetes, neurological disease like Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Fluoroquinolones are the most common class of drugs that shows dysglycemic effects via interacting with GSK-3 enzyme. Therefore, it is the need of the day to properly understand functions and mechanisms of GSK-3, especially its role in glucose homeostasis via effects on glycogen synthase.


Resumo O diabetes mellitus (DM) é uma doença não transmissível em todo o mundo, na qual existe nível glicêmico persistentemente alto em relação à normalidade. O diabetes e a resistência à insulina são os principais responsáveis ​​pelas morbidades e mortalidades de humanos no mundo. Essa doença é regulada principalmente por várias enzimas e hormônios, entre os quais a glicogênio sintase quinase-3 (GSK-3) é uma enzima principal e a insulina é o principal hormônio que a regula. A GSK-3, que é a enzima-chave, normalmente mostra suas ações por vários mecanismos que incluem sua fosforilação, formação de complexos de proteínas e outras distribuições celulares e, portanto, controla e afeta diretamente a morfologia celular, seu crescimento, mobilidade e apoptose do célula. Perturbações na ação da enzima GSK-3 podem levar a várias condições de doença que incluem resistência à insulina que leva ao diabetes, doenças neurológicas como a doença de Alzheimer e câncer. As fluoroquinolonas são a classe mais comum de drogas que apresentam efeitos disglicêmicos por meio da interação com a enzima GSK-3. Portanto, é necessário hoje em dia compreender adequadamente as funções e mecanismos da GSK-3, principalmente seu papel na homeostase da glicose via efeitos na glicogênio sintase.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insulin Resistance , Diabetes Mellitus , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Glucose , Homeostasis
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242818, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285628

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da dieta rica em gordura (HFD) e da microbiota intestinal humana sintética (GM) combinada com HFD e dieta alimentar (CD) na indução de diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) usando modelo de camundongos. Para nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo usando transplante de GM humano selecionado através do método baseado em cultura acoplada à modulação dietética em camundongos para o estabelecimento in vivo de inflamação que leva a T2D e disbiose intestinal. Vinte bactérias (T2D1-T2D20) de amostras de fezes de indivíduos T2D confirmados verificaram ser morfologicamente diferentes e foram submetidas à purificação em meios diferentes aerobicamente e anaerobicamente, o que revelou sete bactérias mais comuns entre 20 isolados com base na caracterização bioquímica. Com base no sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA, esses sete isolados foram identificados como Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenides (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). Esses sete isolados foram, posteriormente, usados ​​como microbioma intestinal sintético (GM) por seu papel na indução de T2D em camundongos. Linhagens consanguíneas de camundongos albinos foram divididas em quatro grupos e foram alimentadas com CD, HFD, GM + HFD e GM + CD. Camundongos que receberam a dieta modificada com HFD e GM + (CD / HFD) mostraram um aumento altamente significativo (P < 0,05) no peso e na concentração de glicose no sangue, bem como um nível elevado de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-α, IL-6 e MCP-1) em comparação com os ratos que receberam apenas CD. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA de 11 bactérias fecais obtidas de três animais selecionados aleatoriamente de cada grupo revelou disbiose intestinal em animais que receberam GM. Cepas bacterianas, incluindo Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) e Lactobacillus Gasseri (MT152635D), foram tratadas com dieta modificada / CD) em comparação com as linhagens Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629), que foram isoladas de camundongos recebendo CD / HFD. Em conclusão, esses resultados sugerem que a constituição de GM e dieta desempenham papel significativo na inflamação levando ao início ou/e possivelmente à progressão de T2D.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rabbits , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Bacteroides , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Prevotella , Bacteroidetes , Ruminococcus , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dysbiosis , Inflammation , Mice, Inbred C57BL
8.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 30: e64079, jan. -dez. 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371649

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: comparar o comportamento glicêmico dos pacientes em pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca valvar e de revascularização do miocárdio, submetidos ao mesmo protocolo de controle glicêmico, e avaliar a incidência de hipoglicemia e mortalidade intra-hospitalar dessa população. Método: estudo de coorte, retrospectivo, quantitativo, que avaliou 354 prontuários de cirurgias realizadas em 2016. Resultados: pacientes revascularizados apresentaram maiores médias glicêmicas (149,14±36,03), maior uso de insulina e coeficiente de variação (23,30%). Entretanto, a incidência de hipoglicemia foi maior entre valvares (35,32%), mais acometidos por lesão renal aguda (6,58%), terapia de substituição renal (11,97%) e mortalidade hospitalar (6,58%). Conclusão: evidenciou-se uma população heterogênea com desfechos clínicos que caracterizaram os valvares como mais criticos, devido a maior número de portadores de fibrilaçao atrial, maior tempo de CEC, e maior uso de vasoaminas e corticosteroides. Logo, é necessário conhecer as particularidades de cada população, para gerenciar protocolos específicos de controle glicêmico para diferentes perfis epidemiológicos.


Objective: to compare the glycemic behavior of patients in the postoperative period of valve heart surgery and myocardial revascularization, submitted to the same glycemic control protocol and to assess the incidence of hypoglycemia and mortality and in-hospital mortality in this population. Method: cohort, retrospective, quantitative study that evaluated 354 medical records of surgeries performed in 2016. Results: revascularized patients had higher blood glucose means (149,14±36.03), greater use of insulin and higher coefficient of variation (23.30%). However, the incidence of hypoglycemia was higher (35.32%) valve patients, more affected by acute kidney injury (6.58%), renal replacement therapy (11.97%) and hospital mortality (6.58%). Conclusion: a heterogeneous population with clinical outcomes that characterized the valves as more critical, due to a greater number of patients with atrial fibrillation, longer CEC time, and greater use of vasoamines and corticosteroids. It is necessary to know the particularities of each population, in order to manage specific glycemic control protocols for different epidemiological profiles.


Objetivo: comparar el comportamiento glucémico de pacientes en postoperatorio de cirugía valvular y revascularización miocárdica, sometidos al mismo protocolo de control glicémico y evaluar la incidencia de hipoglucemia y mortalidad hospitalaria en esta población. Método: estudio de cohorte, retrospectivo, cuantitativo que evaluó 354 historias clínicas, entre agosto y octubre de 2020, de cirugías realizadas en 2016. Resultados: pacientes revascularizados presentaron mayores medias de glucemia (149,14±36,03), mayor uso de insulina y mayor coeficiente de variación (23,30%). Aunque, la incidencia de hipoglucemia fue mayor (35,32%) entre las válvulas, que se vieron más afectadas por daño renal agudo (6,58%), terapia de reemplazo renal (11,97%) y mortalidad hospitalaria (6,58%). Conclusión: el estudio mostró una población heterogénea con resultados clínicos que caracterizaron a las válvulas como más críticas, debido a un mayor número de pacientes con fibrilación auricular, mayor tiempo de CEC y mayor uso de vasoaminas y corticoides. Por tanto, es necesario conocer las particularidades de cada población, para gestionar el control glucémico con protocolos específicos para diferentes perfiles epidemiológicos.

9.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-7, 01/jan./2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361637

ABSTRACT

Aim: to identify which complications and prognosis of diabetic patients, hospitalized, who acquired COVID-19, through a systematic review. Methods: a systematic review based on the PRISMA flowchart, including cohort studies, available in Portuguese, English, Spanish, French, and Mandarin, published from 2019 to 2020, using the PICOS strategy, in the databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scielo, Lilacs, Scopus and Science Direct, which in addition to the inclusion criteria after questionnaires to assess methodological quality and risk of bias. Results: of the 811 articles researched, 6 were included in this research. These studies showed that patients with COVID-19 and higher DM with worse prognosis, spent more time in the ICU, constantly needed indifference, greater complications when related to other comorbidities, high mortality rate, and glycemic control associated with advanced age directly affected patients. Outcomes even of non-diabetic subjects. Conclusion: this review identified the severity of the pathophysiological association is related to older age and biochemical and inflammatory factors linked to the two pathogens and that these subjects are more prone to specialized hospital care, which, however, result in high rates of hospital mortality.


Objetivo: identificar quais complicações e prognósticos dos pacientes diabéticos, internados, que adquiriram COVID-19, por meio de uma revisão sistemática. Métodos: foi realizada uma revisão sistemática baseada no fluxograma PRISMA, incluindo estudos de coorte, disponíveis em português, inglês, espanhol, francês e mandarim, publicados de 2019 a 2020, utilizando a estratégia PICOS, nas bases de dados: PubMed, Web of Science, Scielo, Lilacs, Scopus e Sciece Direct. Além dos critérios de inclusão passam por questionários para avaliar a qualidade metodológica e risco de viés. Resultados: dos 811 artigos pesquisados, 6 foram incluídos nesta pesquisa. Esses estudos mostraram que pacientes com COVID-19 e DM apresentam pior prognóstico, maior permanência em UTI, necessidade constante de ventilação invasiva, maiores complicações quando relacionadas a outras comorbidades, elevado índice de mortalidade, e o controle glicêmico associado à idade avançada afetavam diretamente os desfechos inclusive de pacientes não diabéticos. Conclusão: esta revisão identificou que a gravidade da associação fisiopatológica está relacionada à idade mais avançada e aos fatores bioquímicos e inflamatórios ligados aos dois patógenos e que esses sujeitos são mais propensos ao atendimento hospitalar especializado, o que, no entanto, resulta em altas taxas de mortalidade hospitalar.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Strategies , Hospital Mortality , Diabetes Mellitus , Glycemic Control
10.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e225337, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1366230

ABSTRACT

Aim: To elaborate and validate an instrument for Brazilian Portuguese speakers, to assess dentists' knowledge about care of patients with diabetes mellitus (Dental-Diabetes). Methods: Methodological study comprising four stages: a) Elaboration of instrument; b) Content validation (computing Content Validity Index - CVI) based on Expert Committee assessment; c) Pre-test with 30 dentists, followed by assessment of suggestions by Expert Committee; d) Psychometric validation through instrument application in a sample of 127 dentists by means of the web tool e-Surv. Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients were used to evaluate, respectively, internal consistency and reproducibility. Results: The final version of the instrument consists of 22 questions (7 on sociodemographic data and 15 querying dentists' knowledge) and those submitted for validation attained a CVI of 0.95 [95% CI 0.916-0,981], showing satisfactory internal consistency, with 0.794 Cronbach's alpha [95% CI 0.741-0.842] and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.799 [95% CI: 0.746-0.846] between the test and retest scores. Conclusions: Dental-Diabetes is a comprehensive instrument, culturally adequate and validated to assess dentists' knowledge about care of patients with diabetes


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Dentists , Diabetes Mellitus , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results
11.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(3): 86-98, 20221115.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1401557

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Diabetes Mellitus (DM) es una enfermedad inflamatoria sistémica de alta prevalencia e incidencia a nivel mundial. Dentro de las complicaciones crónicas, la enfermedad renal diabética es una de las más frecuentes y que marca el pronóstico. Objetivos: El objetivo de este artículo es hacer una revisión actualizada de la enfermedad renal diabética, a la luz de los cambios en los paradigmas que se han generado en los últimos años con respecto a sus nuevas definiciones, el papel de la inflamación en su desarrollo, la gestión del riesgo cardiovascular y los nuevos tratamientos. La enfermedad renal diabética puede presentarse en aproximadamente el 30-50% de la población con diabetes mellitus tipo 1 o 2 alrededor del mundo. En la patogénesis y progresión de esta condición se distinguen tres ejes fundamentales el hemodinámico, metabólico e inflamatorio. Es importante siempre hacer gestión del riesgo cardiovascular. El diagnóstico se debe hacer con el cálculo de la tasa de filtrado glomerular y la relación albuminuria / creatinuria en muestra ocasional. Los objetivos en el tratamiento deben ser: el control metabólico, reducir o enlentecer la progresión de la enfermedad renal y disminuir los desenlaces cardiovasculares. Conclusión: El tratamiento de la ERD debe ser holístico, desde intervenciones no farmacológicas, como la modificación de los estilos de vida, hasta los nuevos medicamentos como el uso de inhibidores SGLT-2, Agonistas del receptor GLP-1 y el uso antagonistas selectivos del receptor mineralocorticoide como finerenona. El futuro es promisorio.


Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a systemic inflammatory disease of high prevalence and incidence worldwide. Among the chronic complications, diabetic kidney disease is one of the most frequent and determines the prognosis. Objectives: The objective of this article is to make an updated review of diabetic kidney disease, in light of the changes in the paradigms that have been generated in recent years concerning to the new definitions, the role of inflammation-causing disease, cardiovascular risk management, and the new treatments. Diabetic kidney disease can present in approximately 30-50% of the population with diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2 around the world. In the pathogenesis and progression of this condition, three fundamental axes are distinguished: the hemodynamic, the metabolic, and the inflammatory. It is important to manage cardiovascular risk. The diagnosis must be made by calculating the glomerular filtration rate and the albuminuria/creatinuria ratio in a random urine sample. The objectives of the treatment should be: metabolic control, reduce or slow the progression of kidney disease and improve cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusion: The treatment of diabetic kidney disease should be holistic, from non-pharmacological interventions, such as lifestyle changes, to new medications such as the use of SGLT-2 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists, and the use of selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists such as finerenone. The future is promising.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Kidney Diseases
12.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-5, 01/jan./2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411471

ABSTRACT

Objectives: the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the association of dry extracts of Astragalus membranaceus, Peumus boldus and Curcuma longa in rats with induced diabetes. Methods: After the induction of type 2 diabetes by intraperitoneal streptozotocin, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to groups (n=6) and treated for 20 days. The extracts were suspended in water and administered through orogastric gavage once daily as described: Group I: healthy control (saline); group II: received Astragalus membranaceus, Peumus boldus and Curcuma longa (400 mg/kg/day of each dry extract); group III: received Astragalus membranaceus, Peumus boldus, Curcuma longa (400 mg/kg/day of each dry extract) and glibenclamide (15 mg/kg/day). Fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and fructosamine were evaluated. Results: Fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance for groups II and III were influenced by treatments (p<0.05). The extracts did not significantly influence the efficacy of glibenclamide. Conclusion: The results found in this study allow us to consider that it is not possible to conclude that the compounds evaluated are not effective in DM in rats, due to variables such as total treatment period, doses, size of pancreatic injury caused by streptozotocin, and diet profile may have influenced the results. The studied compounds have potential for application in diabetes and further studies should be carried out to adjust the treatment.


Objetivos: avaliar os efeitos da associação de extratos secos de Astragalus membranaceus, Peumus boldus e Curcuma longa em ratos com diabetes induzida. Métodos: Após a indução de diabetes tipo 2 (DM) por estreptozotocina intraperitoneal, ratos Wistar machos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em grupos (n=6) e tratados por 20 dias. Os extratos foram suspensos em água e administrados por gavagem orogástrica uma vez ao dia conforme descrito: Grupo I: controle saudável (solução salina); grupo II: recebeu Astragalus membranaceus, Peumus boldus e Curcuma longa (400 mg/kg/dia de cada extrato seco); grupo III: receberam Astragalus membranaceus, Peumus boldus, Curcuma longa (400 mg/kg/dia de cada extrato seco) e glibenclamida (15 mg/kg/dia). A glicemia de jejum, tolerância à glicose, alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase e frutosamina foram avaliados. Resultados: A glicemia de jejum e a tolerância à glicose para os grupos II e III foram influenciadas pelos tratamentos (p<0,05). Os extratos não influenciaram significativamente na eficácia da glibenclamida. Conclusão: Os resultados encontrados neste estudo permitem considerar que não é possível concluir que os compostos avaliados não são eficazes no DM em ratos, devido às variáveis como tempo total de tratamento, doses e tamanho da lesão pancreática causada por estreptozotocina, além do perfil da dieta, que podem ter influenciado os resultados. Os compostos estudados têm potencial para aplicação em diabetes e mais estudos devem ser realizados para adequar o tratamento.


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus , Blood Glucose , Streptozocin , Fructosamine , Curcuma , Peumus , Diabetes Mellitus , Alanine Transaminase
13.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 30: e66069, jan. -dez. 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392822

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar o Grau de Implantação das ações desenvolvidas pela Atenção Básica para a assistência às pessoas com Diabetes Mellitus. Método: estudo avaliativo, tipo análise de implantação, realizada em Estratégia de Saúde da Família e Farmácia Municipal, por meio de análise documental, entrevista, observação participante e diário de campo, a partir de Modelo Avaliativo, aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. Resultados: o Grau de Implantação das ações realizadas foi considerado insatisfatório (54,34%), sendo a dimensão Político-Organizacional com Grau de Implantação crítico (45,23%) e a Técnico- Assistencial com Grau de Implantação insatisfatório (60,41%), o que conduziu a proposição de recomendações com vistas a subsidiar a tomada de decisão, para a melhoria da assistência. Conclusão: os resultados mostram uma realidade ainda distante do que é proposto nas políticas públicas e podem contribuir para o estabelecimento de novas e resolutivas formas de organizar os serviços e produzir saúde na gestão participativa.


Objective: to evaluate the Deployment Level of the measures developed by Primary Care to provide care to people with Diabetes Mellitus. Method: this is an evaluative study, using a deployment analysis, carried out within the Family Health Strategy and the Municipal Pharmacy, through document analysis, interview, participant observation, and field diary, based on an Evaluation Model, approved by the Research Ethics Committee. Results: the Deployment Level of the measures performed was considered unsatisfactory (54.34%), with the Political-Organizational dimension reaching a critical Deployment Level (45.23%) and the Technical-Assistance dimension reaching an unsatisfactory Deployment Level (60.41%), which led to the proposition of recommendations aiming to subsidize decision making, aiming to improve assistance. Conclusion: the results reveal a reality that is still distant from what is proposed in public policies and can to contribute to the establishment of novel and resolute forms of organizing services and producing health in participatory management.


Objetivo: evaluar el grado de implantación de las acciones desarrolladas por la Atención Básica para la atención a las personas con Diabetes Mellitus. Método: estudio evaluativo, de tipo análisis de implantación, realizado dentro del programa Estrategia de Salud de la Familia y Farmacia Municipal, a través de análisis documental, entrevista, observación participante y diario de campo, a partir del modelo evaluativo, aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación. Resultados: el grado de implantación de las acciones realizadas se consideró insatisfactorio (54,34%), siendo que la dimensión Político-organizacional obtuvo un grado de implantación crítico (45,23%) y la dimensión Técnico-asistencial un grado de implementación insatisfactorio (60,41%), lo que llevó a la propuesta de recomendaciones que objetivan subsidiar la toma de decisiones para la mejoría de la asistencia. Conclusión: los resultados muestran una realidad aún distante de lo propuesto por las políticas públicas y pueden contribuir en el establecimiento de nuevas y resolutivas formas de organizar el servicio y fomentar la salud en la gestión participativa.

14.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(6): 784-791, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403241

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with hypoglycemia and severe hypoglycemia (SH) in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in Brazil. Materials and methods: This multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted between August 2011 and August 2014 across 10 Brazilian cities. The data were obtained from 1,760 individuals with T1D. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics related to hypoglycemic events in the previous 4 weeks were evaluated. Results: Of 1,760 individuals evaluated, 1,319 (74.9%) reported at least one episode of hypoglycemia in the previous 4 weeks. The main factors associated with hypoglycemia were lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level, better adherence to self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), and higher education level. Episodes of SH were reported by 251 (19%) individuals who, compared with subjects with nonsevere hypoglycemia, received lower doses of prandial insulin and higher doses of basal insulin, in addition to reporting less frequent use of long-acting basal insulin analogs. The percentage of SH episodes was evenly distributed across all ranges of HbA1c levels, and there were no correlations between the mean number of nonsevere or severe hypoglycemic events and HbA1c values. Higher alcohol consumption and more frequent hospitalizations were independently associated with SH. Conclusion: Although individuals presenting with hypoglycemia had lower HbA1c values than those not presenting hypoglycemia, there were no correlations between the number of nonsevere hypoglycemia or SH and HbA1c values. Also, the frequency of SH was evenly distributed across all ranges of HbA1c values. Better adherence to SMBG and higher education level were associated with hypoglycemia, while alcohol consumption, higher doses of basal insulin, and more frequent hospitalizations in the previous year were associated with SH.

15.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(6): 883-894, Nov.-Dec. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403256

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The management of diabetes mellitus (DM) requires maintaining glycemic control, and patients must keep their blood glucose levels close to the normal range to reduce the risk of microvascular complications and cardiovascular events. While glycated hemoglobin (A1C) is currently the primary measure for glucose management and a key marker for long-term complications, it does not provide information on acute glycemic excursions and overall glycemic variability. These limitations may even be higher in some special situations, thereby compromising A1C accuracy, especially when wider glycemic variability is expected and/or when the glycemic goal is more stringent. To attain adequate glycemic control, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is more useful than self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), as it is more convenient and provides a greater amount of data. Flash Glucose Monitoring (isCGM /FGM) is a widely accepted option of CGM for measuring interstitial glucose levels in individuals with DM. However, its application under special conditions, such as pregnancy, patients on hemodialysis, patients with cirrhosis, during hospitalization in the intensive care unit and during physical exercise has not yet been fully validated. This review addresses some of these specific situations in which hypoglycemia should be avoided, or in pregnancy, where strict glycemic control is essential, and the application of isCGM/FGM could alleviate the shortcomings associated with poor glucose control or high glycemic variability, thereby contributing to high-quality care.

16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(6): 792-799, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403258

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate a possible association between personality factors (PF) and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. This allows for the investigation of obstacles related to treatment type and the presence of complications in HRQoL. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 78 patients aged 13-67 years from two diabetes clinics. PF was evaluated using the validated questionnaire Inventory of the Five Great Personality Factors. HRQoL was determined using the Brazilian Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale (B-PAID) questionnaire. The chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Welch's modified two-sample t-test were used to establish relationships. Results: In this sample of 46 women and 32 men with T1D and mean A1C of 8%-9%, we observed great suffering in 58.97% and that HRQoL was worse in women. "Openness" was the most prevalent PF and "extroversion" the least prevalent. "Neuroticism" facilitated a tendency to tolerate suffering. Conclusion: T1D patients' personalities influence their treatment. The PF "neuroticism" is potentially related to better HRQoL. Brazilian T1D patients indicated great suffering in their HRQoL, which may be characteristic across the country. Women experienced worse HRQoL, which is in line with world literature. However, the limited sample size in this study warrant further research to test the hypotheses.

17.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(6): 908-918, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403260

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Congenital malformations are more frequently found among children born to mothers with diabetes than in the background population. There are several complex mechanisms involved in the development of congenital malformations in the offspring of mothers with hyperglycemia, such as the overexpression of glucose transporters (GLUTs) 1 and 2, the increased activity of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway and the reduced expression of the PAX3 gene with a consequent increase in p53 protein expression. These alterations can lead to increased glucose and free radical concentrations in the embryo, thus promoting the process of apoptosis and causing malformation. The most frequent malformations found in the offspring of mothers with diabetes are heart and neural tube defects, urinary tract and kidney malformations, and cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Strict glycemic control should be obtained before and during pregnancy, aiming to avoid or minimize the risk of congenital malformations in the offspring. Beyond hyperglycemia, several factors may also be associated with increased risks of malformations in the offspring of these women, such as obesity, multiple pregnancies, advanced maternal age, folic acid deficiency, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, assisted reproduction techniques, and exposure to different types of environmental pollutants.

18.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 85(6): 572-577, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403456

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of anatomical outcomes and medications of patients with systemic diseases who underwent Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty with donor factors. Methods: Sixty nondiabetic donors of endothelial grafts and 60 patients who underwent operation by a single surgeon were included in this retrospective study. The patients' data, including the presence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, antidiabetic-antihypertensive medications, and intracameral tamponades and anatomical outcomes, were recorded. The donor data were obtained from eye bank records. Results: Eighteen patients had type 2 diabetes mellitus (30%) and 34 had hypertension (56.6%). Among the patients with diabetes mellitus, 13 were receiving a single-agent antidiabetic drug, 4 were receiving dual oral antidiabetic therapy, and 1 was receiving insulin therapy. Among the hypertensive patients, 11 had monotherapy and 23 had dual antihypertensive therapy. Postoperatively, 35 patients (58.3%) had an endothelial attachment, 8 (13.3%) received reinjection, 7 (11.7%) required re-Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty, and 10 (16.7%) underwent penetrating keratoplasty. The mean donor age was 51.2 ± 14.1 years. The most common cause of donor death was cardiopulmonary arrest (36/60 cases; 60.0%). Regression analysis revealed that the presence of diabetes mellitus significantly disrupted graft attachment (p=0.034), while the presence of hypertension, antidiabetic and antihypertensive medication use, and the type of tamponade used in the patients, and the age, sex, cause of death, and specular endothelial cell count of donors were not statistically significantly associated with graft attachment (p>0.05). Conclusion: In this study, the anatomical outcomes of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty surgery were affected by recipient and donor factors. The presence of diabetes mellitus in the recipient significantly negatively affected graft attachment.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a associação de desfechos ana tômicos com doenças sistêmicas e medicamentos em casos submetidos à ceratoplastia endotelial da membrana de Descemet e fatores relativos aos doadores. Métodos: Foram incluídos neste estudo retrospectivo enxertos obtidos de doadores não diabéticos e 60 casos operados por um único cirurgião. Foram registrados os dados dos casos, incluindo a presença de diabetes mellitus e hipertensão, medicamentos antidiabéticos e anti-hipertensivos, tamponamentos intracamerais e desfechos anatômicos. Os dados dos doadores foram obtidos dos prontuários do banco de olhos. Resultados: Dezoito casos tinham diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (30%) e 34 tinham hipertensão (56,6%). Entre os casos de diabetes mellitus, 13 estavam em uso de uma medicação antidiabética de agente único, 4 estavam em terapia antidiabética oral dupla e 1 estava em insulinoterapia. Entre os hipertensos, 11 estavam em monoterapia e 23 em terapia anti-hipertensiva dupla. No pós-operatório, 35 pacientes (58,3%) submeteram-se a uma fixação endotelial, enquanto 8 casos (13,3%) receberam reinjeção, 7 casos (11,7%) necessitaram de ceratoplastia endotelial da membrana de Descemet e 10 casos (16,7%) foram submetidos a uma ceratoplastia penetrante. A média de idade dos doadores foi de 51,2 ± 14,1 anos. A causa mais comum de morte do doador foi parada cardiorrespiratória (36/60 casos; 60,0%). A análise de regressão revelou que a presença de diabetes mellitus causa distúrbios significativos na fixação do enxerto (p=0,034), enquanto a presença de hipertensão, o uso de medicamentos antidiabéticos e anti-hipertensivos, o tipo de tamponamento usado, a idade, o sexo, a causa da morte e a contagem de células endoteliais especulares dos doadores não demonstraram associações estatisticamente significativas com a fixação do enxerto (p>0,05). Conclusões: Os resultados anatômicos da cirurgia de ceratoplastia endotelial da membrana de Descemet são afetados por fatores do receptor e do doador. A presença de diabetes mellitus no receptor teve um significativo impacto negativo na fixação do enxerto.

19.
Podium (Pinar Río) ; 17(3): 1174-1193, sept.-dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406297

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El profesional de actividad física contribuye con aportes importantes en los programas, aplica la educación sanitaria y fortalece la preparación física y psicológica en la población. De ahí que la investigación estuvo centrada en mostrar los resultados de un programa de actividades físicas terapéuticas. Objetivo: El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en elaborar un programa de actividades físicas terapéuticas, caracterizado por un enfoque integral en educación para la salud que permita una mejor prescripción en la preparación biopsicosocial de las embarazadas con diabetes gestacional en el logro de un parto satisfactorio. Materiales y métodos: Para ello, se realizó un estudio de diseño preexperimental de control mínimo, con tres años de duración (2019-2021). La muestra seleccionada se realizó a partir de un muestreo intencional estratificado, no probabilístico. Se emplearon métodos de los niveles teórico y empírico, así como técnicas de investigación entre los que destacan análisis y síntesis, inductivo-deductivo, sistémico-estructural funcional, análisis documental, observación estructurada, entrevista y encuesta respectivamente. Resultados: El programa se realizó mediante implementación de ejercicios físicos terapéuticos. Participaron 16 embarazadas con diabetes gestacional, más del 56 % mostró altos niveles de ansiedad, depresión y estrés. El 88 % evidenció bajos niveles de condición física. El 100 % logró modificar de forma positiva el comportamiento hacia estilos de vida saludables con buen control metabólico. El 94 % alcanzó buena condición física y psicosocial, también disminuyeron la dosis de insulina. Conclusiones: El estudio mostró que se mejoró la prescripción en la preparación biopsicosocial orientada al logro de un parto satisfactorio en embarazadas con diabetes gestacional.


SÍNTESE Introdução: O profissional de atividade física contribui com importantes contribuições em programas, aplica educação sanitária e fortalece a preparação física e psicológica da população. Assim, a pesquisa foi focada em mostrar os resultados de um programa de atividades físicas terapêuticas. Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar um programa de atividades físicas terapêuticas, caracterizado por uma abordagem integral na educação sanitária que permite uma melhor prescrição na preparação biopsicossocial de gestantes com diabetes gestacional na realização de um parto satisfatório. Materiais e métodos: Para este fim, foi realizado um estudo de controle mínimo pré-experimental de três anos (2019-2021). A amostra selecionada foi baseada em amostragem estratificada, não probabilística e propositada. Foram utilizados métodos teóricos e empíricos e técnicas de pesquisa, incluindo análise e síntese, indutivo-dedutiva, sistêmico-estrutural-funcional, análise documental, observação estruturada, entrevista e pesquisa, respectivamente. Resultados: O programa foi realizado através da implementação de exercícios físicos terapêuticos. Dezesseis mulheres grávidas com diabetes gestacional participaram, mais de 56% mostraram altos níveis de ansiedade, depressão e estresse. Oitenta e oito por cento mostraram baixos níveis de aptidão física. 100% foram capazes de modificar positivamente o comportamento em direção a estilos de vida saudáveis com bom controle metabólico. 94 % conseguiram uma boa aptidão física e psicossocial, eles também diminuíram a dosagem de insulina. Conclusões: O estudo mostrou uma melhor prescrição na preparação biopsicossocial com o objetivo de obter um parto bem sucedido em mulheres grávidas com diabetes gestacional.


ABSTRACT Introduction: The physical activity professional helps with important contributions to the programs, applies health education and strengthens the physical and psychological preparation of the population. Hence, the research was focused on showing the results of a program of therapeutic physical activities. Objective: The objective of this work was to develop a program of therapeutic physical activities, characterized by a comprehensive approach in health education that allows a better prescription in the biopsychosocial preparation of pregnant women with gestational diabetes in achieving a satisfactory delivery. Materials and methods: For this, a study of pre-experimental of minimum control design was carried out, with a duration of three years (2019-2021). The selected sample was made from a stratified, non-probabilistic intentional sampling. Theoretical and empirical methods were used, as well as research techniques, among which analysis and synthesis, inductive-deductive, systemic-structural functional, documentary analysis, structured observation, interview and survey stand out. Results: The program was carried out through the implementation of therapeutic physical exercises. Sixteen pregnant women with gestational diabetes participated, more than 56% showed high levels of anxiety, depression and stress. The 88% showed low levels of physical fitness. The 100% managed to positively modify behavior towards healthy lifestyles with good metabolic control. The 94% achieved good physical and psychosocial condition, they also decreased the dose of insulin. Conclusions: The study showed that the prescription in the biopsychosocial preparation aimed at achieving a satisfactory delivery in pregnant women with gestational diabetes was improved.

20.
Rev. Univ. Ind. Santander, Salud ; 54: e321, Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407020

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction and objective: In Colombia, Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV (DPP4) inhibitors are recommended as second-best choice for type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. However, no evaluation of the accomplishment or impact of this recommendation was performed. The objective was to determine the prescription of the DPP4 inhibitor according to the Colombian Clinicial Practice Guide regarding type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment, and its effects on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc). Materials and methods: A descriptive study that included patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who attended a first level between 2016 and 2018, had a prescription for DPP4 inhibitor and at least two control appointments. Variables included were sociodemographic, clinics, treatment and comorbidities. The unadjusted prescription was defined as the lack of accomplishment of Colombian guidelines. Descriptive statistics and X2 test were used for the comparison of categorical variables. A binary logistic regression model was applied. Results: 112 out of 207 patients accomplished inclusion criteria, of which 77 were women (68.8%). Also, 68.8% of the patients had an unadjusted prescription of the iDPP4. There was a 0.21% total reduction in HbA1c levels, with a mean of 198.2 ± 124 days between the first and second control measurement (reduction of 0.55% when the prescription was adjusted to the guidelines and 0.05% if it was unadjusted). Conclusion: There is a limited impact of DPP4 inhibitors regarding the reduction of HbA1c and metabolic control, and there is a slight follow-up to the Colombian guidelines in patients who attend a first level.


Resumen Introducción y Objetivo: En Colombia se recomiendan los inhibidores de la Dipeptidil Peptidasa-IV (iDPP4) como segunda opción para el manejo de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2. No se ha evaluado el cumplimiento e impacto de esta recomendación. Como objetivo se buscó determinar la prescripción de los iDPP4 según las recomendaciones de la Guía de Práctica Clínica colombiana, y su efecto sobre la hemoglobina glicosilada (HbA1c). Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo que incluyó pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 que consultaron a un primer nivel entre 2016 y 2018, y tenían formulado un iDPP4, con al menos dos consultas de seguimiento. Se incluyeron variables sociodemográficas, clínicas, tratamiento y comorbilidades. La prescripción no ajustada se definió como la falta de cumplimento de la recomendación de la guía colombiana. Se empleó estadística descriptiva y pruebas X2 para la comparación de variables categóricas. Se aplicó un modelo de regresión logística binaria. Resultados: Hubo 207 pacientes de los cuales 112 cumplieron criterios de inclusión, 77 eran mujeres (68,8%). El 68,8% de los pacientes presentaron una prescripción no ajustada del iDPP4. Hubo una reducción total de 0,21%, con una media de 198,2±124 días entre la primera y segunda medición de HbA1c de control (reducción de 0,55% cuando la prescripción se ajustaba a la guía colombiana y 0,05% cuando no). Conclusión: Hay un limitado impacto de los iDPP4 frente a la reducción de HbA1c y poco seguimiento de la guía colombiana en pacientes de primer nivel de atención.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL