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1.
Vigil. sanit. debate ; 10(2): 77-92, maio 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371249

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O SARS-CoV-2 é um novo tipo de coronavírus capaz de infectar humanos e causar a Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), enfermidade que tem causado enormes impactos no Brasil e no mundo. A doença, devido às suas altas taxas de disseminação e letalidade, foi declarada pandêmica pela Organização Mundial da Saúde no primeiro semestre de 2020. Vários estudos têm frequentemente indicado a detecção de fragmentos de RNA do SARS-CoV-2 em amostras de redes de esgoto, estações de tratamento e águas naturais. A presença do SARS-CoV-2 nesses ambientes tem levantado a possibilidade de transmissão pelo contato com águas contaminadas e aerossóis gerados durante seus fluxos ou tratamentos. Objetivo: Descrever relatos de detecção do novo coronavírus em amostras obtidas em redes de esgotos, em lodos residuais de plantas de tratamento e em corpos d'água naturais, e apresentar a viabilidade desse vírus quando inoculado artificialmente nesses ambientes. Método: Revisão integrativa de literatura fundamentada em artigos científicos escritos em inglês ou português, indexados nas bases de dados do Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar e MedRxiv. Resultados: Foi possível destacar os riscos que o SARS-CoV-2 proporciona às populações de humanos e de animais selvagens quando presente nas águas residuais, estratégias cabíveis de serem utilizadas para limitar a propagação desse patógeno nas matrizes aquáticas, e a importância da implementação de sistemas de monitoramento epidemiológico nesses locais. Conclusões: A fim de reduzir os riscos de surtos emergentes e reemergentes da COVID-19 por meio de matrizes aquosas, abordagens preventivas em relação à presença do SARS-CoV-2 nesses ambientes têm sido fortemente recomendadas.


Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is a new type of  coronavirus capable of infecting humans and cause the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), an illness that has causing enormous impacts in Brazil and worldwide. The disease, due to its high-level dissemination and lethality rates, was declared pandemic by the World Health Organization in the first half of 2020. Several studies have frequently indicated the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA fragments in samples from sewage networks, treatment plants and natural waters. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in those environments has raised the possibility of transmission through the contact with contaminated waters and aerosols generated during their flow or treatment. Objective: Describe detection reports of the new coronavius in samples obtained from sewage networks, from waste sludges of treatment plants and from natural water bodies, and present the viability of this virus when artificially inoculated in those environments. Method: Integrative literature review based on scientific articles written in English or Portuguese, indexed in the Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar and MedRxiv databases. Results: It was possible to highlight the risks that the SARS-CoV-2 poses to human and wildlife populations when present in wastewater, appropriate strategies to be used to limit the spread of this pathogen in aquatic matrices, and the importance of implementing epidemiological monitoring systems in those places. Conclusions: In order to reduce the risks of emerging and re- emerging outbreaks of COVID-19 through aqueous matrices, precautionary approaches regarding the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in those environments have been strongly recommended.

2.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 142-145, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920522

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In order to analyze the characteristics of the outbreak of acute respiratory tract infection in children caused by respiratory syncytial virus(RSV).@*Methods@#The field epidemiological investigations were conducted for the two outbreaks in kindergartens in Hangzhou. Data were analyzed by descriptive method. Samples with positive respiratory syncytial virus nucleic acid were sequenced using PCR.@*Results@#The two outbreaks occurred in kindergartens. There were 21 cases in kindergarten A, lasting 11 days, and 43 cases in kindergarten B, lasting 33 days. The epidemic curve showed a proliferation pattern. The cases were concentrated in nurseries and K1 classes, primarily among children aged 2-4 years. The most common symptoms were fever and cough, mainly upper respiratory tract infection, and no severe cases were found. Upper respiratory tract samples were collected and detected as positive for RSV. Four samples were sequenced and identified as subgroup B.@*Conclusion@#During the outbreak of acute respiratory infection in kindergartens, respiratory syncytial virus should be given primary consideration in the process of identification of the outbreak caused by other respiratory infections, and strictly control measures should be taken to reduce the long term impact of the epidemic.

3.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 120-122, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920517

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand the epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of respiratory tract infection caused by human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in a primary school in Huzhou City, and to provide scientific reference for the prevention and control of the outbreak of upper respiratory tract infection caused by hMPV in the future.@*Methods@#The investigation was carried out according to the Guidelines for Handling Influenza Like Case Outbreaks (2018 version). The throat swabs were collected to carry out COVID-19 nucleic acid test. If negative, influenza virus and other common 14 upper respiratory tract virus detection would be conducted.@*Results@#A total of 53 cases of human metapneumovirus infection were found, the first case was found on December 15, 2020; the cases concentrated from December 21 to December 26; the last case was on December 29. It lasted 15 days and the epidemic ended. All the cases were first year students, and the incidence rate of the affected classes was 44.92% (53/118), among which the incidence rate of 101 classes was 23.08% (9/39), 102 classes was 53.85% (21/39), 103 classes was 57.50%( 23/40 ), the difference was statistically significant( χ 2=10.07, P <0.05). The age of the patients ranged from 6 to 7 years. The morbidity rate of boys was 48.00%(24/50) and that of girls was 42.65% (29/68), with no significant difference( χ 2=0.33, P >0.05). The clinical symptoms of all cases were mild, mainly cough, sore throat, runny nose, only a small number of fever. Throat swabs of 20 patients were collected, and 13 cases were positive for human metapneumovirus nucleic acid.@*Conclusion@#The symptoms caused by human metapneumovirus are relatively mild, which is not easy to attract the attention of schools and parents. Schools should carry out relevant prevention and control knowledge publicity, do a good job in the morning and afternoon inspection, and put an end to classes with diseases.

4.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 1, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1361136

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To perform an entomological survey, evaluating the circulation of Leishmania spp. in sand flies captured from the new foci of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the coastal region of São Paulo state. METHODS Sand flies were captured from November 2016 to September 2018 using light traps of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), in the neighborhood where VL cases were reported. Leishmania spp. circulation was evaluated by gut dissection and molecular analysis of the females captured. RESULTS Nyssomyia intermedia was the more frequent species (90,7%) within the 1,203 sand flies captured. We found no flagellates in dissected females, but two pools containing females of Ny. intermedia presented DNA of L. infantum. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that Ny. intermedia might be involved in the establishment of this new VL focus in Sao Paulo. However, before incriminating this species as a L. infantum vector, further studies should investigate other vectorial capacity parameters, including competence, survival, and feeding habits.

5.
Arch. méd. Camaguey ; 25(2): e7732, mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248824

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento: la pesquisa activa en los alumnos de las Ciencias Médicas constituye unas de las fortalezas de la Educación Médica Superior en Cuba implementadas desde la Atención Primaria de Salud para la identificación de los factores de riesgo y lograr salud en la comunidad. Objetivo: caracterizar la pesquisa activa de los alumnos de las Ciencias Médicas en prevención del COVID-19 en un área de salud. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo trasversal en el área de salud del Policlínico Docente Francisco Peña Peña del municipio de Nuevitas en la provincia Camagüey desde abril a mayo de 2020. El universo se conformó por los 142 estudiantes de Medicina, Estomatología, Enfermería y Tecnologías de la Salud a participar en la pesquisa activa. Resultados: se determinó la carrera de Medicina como la más representativa en la participación de los alumnos en la pesquisa, se identificaron por los estudiantes 115 personas con sintomatología respiratoria, de ellos existió un discreto predominio del sexo femenino y predominó el grupo de edad de 41-60 años, el mayor porcentaje de la población mostró un nivel de muy satisfecho con la labor realizada por los galenos universitarios. Conclusiones: los estudiantes de la carrera de Medicina fueron los de mayor participación en las labores de pesquisa activa, el tema de vías de transmisión para el control del virus fue de los que más conocimiento tenían los galenos, identificaron síntomas respiratorios en las féminas, entre la cuarta y sexta década de vida, casi la totalidad de la población pesquisada manifestó un nivel muy satisfecho en relación al desempeño de los estudiantes durante las labores preventivas de pesquisa activa.


ABSTRACT Background: active research in students of Medical Sciences constitutes one of the strengths of Medical Higher Education in Cuba implemented from Primary Health Care to identify risk factors and achieve health in the community. Objective: to characterize the active research of students of Medical Sciences in COVID-19 prevention in a health area. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in the health area of ​​the Francisco Peña Peña Teaching Polyclinic of Nuevitas in the period from April to May 2020. The universe was formed by the 142 students of medicine, dentistry, nursing and technological careers to participate in active research. Results: the most representative medical degree in the participation of Medical Sciences students in the research was determined, 115 people with respiratory symptoms were identified by the students, of them there was a discrete predominance of the female sex and the group of the age of 41-60 years, the highest percentage of the population showed a level of very satisfied with the work carried out by students of the University of Medical Science. Conclusions: the medical career was the one with the highest participation in active research tasks, the issue of transmission routes for virus control was one of which the doctors knew the most, respiratory symptoms were identified in females, among the fourth and the sixth decade of life, almost the entire population surveyed showed a very satisfied level in relation to the performance of the students during the preventive work of active research.

6.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1785-1788, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906805

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the role of tuberculin skin test prified protein derivative (PPD) in defining the screening scope of close contacts of tuberculosis cases in disposal of tuberculosis outbreak in schools.@*Methods@#In a senior middle school in August 2019, 1 553 students of the grade two were tested by PPD because of a school tuberculosis outbreak. PPD results were compared to grade one students without any association with this tuberculosis epidemic, who were also tested by PPD when beginning school. Potential association between PPD distribution characteristics and tuberculosis case distribution were analyzed.@*Results@#Twenty nine grade two students were diagnozed as tuberculosis infection, seven of which were PPD positive, and with the same MIRU-VNTR genotype. In grade one, 0.1 % (1/796) student showed strong PPD positive, 34.3% (273/796) student showed positive. For grade two students, significant higher rate of strong PPD positive [5.9% (45/757)], and PPD positive [52.0% (394/757)] were observed ( χ 2=45.71, 49.90, P <0.01). Proportion of strong PPD positive in the first floor of the teaching building ( 19.4 %), where tuberculosis cases clustered, was significantly higher than that in other floors ( χ 2=89.81, P <0.01); Number of strong PPD positive students increased with TB cases in each floor of the teaching building ( r =0.99, P <0.01). Proportion of strong PPD positive and PPD positive in floors of the dormitory, where TB cases lived, was significantly higher than in other floors ( χ 2=49.4, 64.9 , P <0.01). Number of strong PPD positive and PPD positive students increased with TB cases in each floor of the teaching building ( r =0.84, 0.56, P <0.01).@*Conclusion@#Strong PPD positive rate well reflects tuberculosis infection of close contacts, and is recommended for defining the scope of screening.

7.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1761-1764, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906799

ABSTRACT

Abstract@#Tuberculosis (TB) prevention and control in schools is always the key area of TB control work. The paper reviews the TB epidemic change trend and characteristic in students, and analyzes existing problems in current TB control work in schools, including incompletely implemented routine precaution measurements in schools, inaccurate occupational information for TB patients, absence of evidence from TB laboratory in diagnosis and tracing infectious source, lack of timeliness and standardization in close contact screening, low coverage of preventive therapy, and lack of capacity for tackling public sentiment. Specific suggestions were proposed for every institute involved in TB control work in schools to solve these problems.

8.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1444-1448, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904569

ABSTRACT

Abstract@#The outbreak of tuberculosis in campus shows a profound impact on academic learning and mental health of students, which might result in more serious social problems. The present editorial addresses weak links in the school tuberculosis prevention and control. Disease prevention and control institutions, medical institutions, education administrative departments and schools need to clarify work responsibilities, strictly implement the school tuberculosis prevention and control laws, regulations and management guidelines, and coordinate with multiple departments, with the aim to strengthen early warning capacity for campus tuberculosis, improve tuberculosis screening and risk assessment of relevant personnel, and implement the health checkup of schools and faculty, as well as the screening, diagnosis, registration, treatment and follow up of students cases. To further improve tuberculosis control across China, strengthening the awareness of tuberculosis prevention and control among institutions and the public, and improving adherence to tuberculosis treatment, as well as moving forward from passive to active tuberculosis monitoring and early prevention, reducing the occurrence of tuberculosis outbreak in school should be prioritized, so as to promote the smooth development of tuberculosis prevention and control work in China.

9.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1418-1422, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887395

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and assoicated factors of tuberculosis (TB) aggregation in schools in Wuhan from 2017 to 2020, and to provide scientific basis for school based TB prevention and control strategies.@*Methods@#Questionnaire star was used to collect data on tuberculosis prevention and control in various schools in Wuhan. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the influencing factors of tuberculosis aggregation in schools.@*Results@#A total of 37 outbreaks of tuberculosis aggregation in schools were reported in Wuhan from 2017 to 2020, which involved 28 different schools, including 24 colleges and universities and 4 senior high schools, 176 cases were reported, among which 39 were positive for pathogens and 17 cases of rifampicin resistant, and the median duration of single cluster epidemic was 48 (28, 368) days, universities were more prone to cluster outbreaks than middle schools ( χ 2=75.27, P <0.01), the incidence in male was higher than that of in female in cluster outbreak ( χ 2=22.82, P =0.00). The results of multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that boarding school ( OR =5.12), TB screening at school entry ( OR =3.27), etiology tracking and registrationin school ( OR =7.28), treatment and isolation of sick students on time ( OR =9.12), whether the dormitories and classrooms were often ventilated ( OR =4.97), and whether the management of school suspension and return was strictly implemented ( OR =4.68) were associated with the occurrence of TB cluster outbreak( P <0.05).@*Conclusion@#Schools should actively strive for policies and funding, strictly implement TB screening and physical examination for freshmen, as well as the management of contact tracing and registeration, targeted TB health education, guidance for teachers and students for cleaning, disinfection and hand hygiene, timely treatment and reporting of suspected symptoms, to prevent the occurrence of TB clustering outbreaks.

10.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1242-1245, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886675

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of school foodborne disease outbreaks in Henan Province from 2011 to 2020 and to provide the basis for effective prevention and control of school foodborne disease outbreaks.@*Methods@#The outbreaks of foodborne diseases in schools in Henan Province reported by the foodborne disease outbreak surveillance system from 2011 to 2020 were statistically analyzed.@*Results@#A total of 47 outbreaks of school foodborne diseases were reported in Henan province in the past 10 years, with a total of 1 258 cases, 701 hospitalizations and 1 death. Zhengzhou, Zhumadian, Xinyang and Xinxiang were the top 4 cities in Henan Province in terms of the number of school foodborne disease outbreaks reported. The peak of foodborne illness incidents in schools was in June and September. The largest number of incidents occurred in middle school canteens and primary school canteens(all 12). The number of reported incidents (12) and the number of cases of foodborne diseases (371) in schools caused by cereals and their products were the largest. Pathogenic bacteria and their toxins were the main pathogenic factors that caused the outbreaks of foodborne diseases in schools, accounting for 78.26% of the identified causes. Bacillus cereus was the top pathogens causing foodborne diseases outbreaks in schools. The pathogenic factor that caused the largest number of cases was Diarrheogenic Escherichia Coli, and the pathogenic factor that caused the death cases was poisonous mushrooms. Apart from unexplained incidents, improper processing was the main link leading to foodborne diseases outbreaks in schools.@*Conclusion@#The primary and middle school students are the group with high incidence of foodborne diseases in schools. The supervision and management of school canteen should be strengthened in summer to prevent the outbreak of bacterial foodborne diseases caused by improper processing and storage of grain food.

11.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1110-1115, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886357

ABSTRACT

Abstract@#School tuberculosis prevention and control has always been the focus of social attention. In recent years, school tuberculosis outbreaks occurred frequently, which had a strong impact on the society. Scientific and accurate interpretation of epidemiological evidence, especially on the etiology, is of great significance to the diagnosis and management of the clustering epidemic of tuberculosis in schools. This paper reviews current reporting and management systems of school tuberculosis outbreaks in China, and discusss the application of genotyping in homology analysis of school tuberculosis outbreaks, so as to provide scientific basis for accurate identification of school tuberculosis outbreaks.

12.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 935-938, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881441

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the effect of risk management on cluster infectious disease prevention and control in schools, and to provide a scientific basis for the further development of its methods and strategies.@*Methods@#A two year risk management program of cluster infectious disease control and prevention in 92 schools was carried out in urban area of Jingzhou. In the process of intervention, comprehensive measures were implemented, such as improving organizational management and rules, strengthening routine hygiene management, supervising the implementation of epidemic prevention and control measures, increasing training and guidance. On site investigation was conducted to evaluate the risk management effects before and after the risk management, with the other 7 counties of Jingzhou having got no risk management chosen as the control group.@*Results@#Through two-year risk management, the implementation rate covering all aspects regarding cluster infectious disease prevention and control were 6.5-45.7 percentage point higher than that before. The proportion of low and medium risk school increased by 19.6 and 5.4 percentage point, respectively, while the proportion of high risk schools decreased by 25.0 percentage point(Z=7.41, P<0.01). The annual incidence of clustered infectious diseases in 92 schools decreased by 23.9 percentage point. Compared with other counties in Jingzhou City, the trend of decline was significant(χ 2=18.17, P<0.01).@*Conclusion@#Risk management can effectively improve the implementation rate of prevention and control measures regarding epidemic disease in schools, reduce risk severity, and decrease the incidence of cluster infectious diseases.

13.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 914-916, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881435

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze of epidemiological and etiological characteristics of 14 norovirus clusters or outbreak in Nan an District, for comprehensive prevention and control measures for norovirus infections in the region.@*Methods@#Data were collected from the emergency public health event management information system of China Disease Prevention and Control Information System, and were analyzed by using descriptive epidemiological method.@*Results@#In 2018, 14 cases of norovirus infection clusters and outbreaks were reported in Nan an District, accounting for 63.64% of the total number of incidents in the region. A total of 268 cases were reported, with an average incidence of 2.19%; the outbreak occurred mainly in November(n=6); kindergartens reported the most outbreak(n=7), followed by primary schools(n=5); the median duration of the outbreak was 2.80 days; and 14 outbreaks were caused by the GII-type genome of norovirus, with the main transmission routes being human-to-hnuman transmission.@*Conclusion@#The prevalence of norovirus outbreaks tends to be higher in schools, it is necessary to strengthen the monitoring of vomiting and diarrhea symptoms in collective units such as schools, and efforts should be promoted for implementation of all levels of prevention and control measures in school.

14.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 547-550, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876364

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the relationship between sleep and exercise among grade 1-6 students in a certain city during the period of home based online courses in the epidemic, and to provide reference basis for the government and relevant departments to make relevant policies on student health promotion.@*Methods@#From April 22 to May 14 in 2020, 24 452 primary school students were selected by stratified cluster random sampling method to network questionnaire survey, which included general situation, sleep time,and exercise.@*Results@#Totally 21.6% of primary school students participated in low intensity exercise, 9.4% in moderate intensity exercise and 5.8% in high intensity exercise every day. Less than 10% of the students participated in all types of intense sports for more than 30 minutes each time. The report rate of sleep deprivation among students in grades 1 to 6 was 22.5%, 25.5%, 28.9%, 31.3%, 35.0%, 39.9%, respectively(χ 2=350.75, P<0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for gender, grade, oneness and other factors, high intensity exercise was negatively correlated with sleep deprivation(OR=0.91, 95%CI=0.86-0.97).@*Conclusion@#Insufficient sleep is common among primary students, and appropriate amount of high intensity exercise is a favorable factor to ensure adequate sleep time in primary school students.

15.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 273-276, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873690

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To estimate the transmission capacity of influenza clustering in schools and nurseries, and to evaluate the effect of suspension measures, providing a basis for formulating disease management strategies and control measures.@*Methods@#The SEIAR dynamics model was used to simulate the epidemic data, calculating the basic regeneration coefficient R 0 of the epidemic to evaluate the epidemic transmission capacity, and calculating the cumulative incidence rate of the epidemic to evaluate the prevention and control effect of the suspension measures.@*Results@#The basic regeneration coefficient R 0 was 8.44(8.01,8.89) without intervention. There were statistically significant differences in R 0 of influenza epidemic among different types of school(F=9.52, P<0.01). The R 0 of influenza epidemic in primary and secondary schools were higher than that in nurseries(P<0.05). R 0 of influenza A was higher than that of influenza B(t=2.71, P<0.01). R 0 of influenza A(H3) was higher than of influenza B(Victoria)(P<0.05). The cumulative incidence of the outbreaks which were suspended for 4 days and 7 days was significantly lower than that in the non-suspensions(P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of the outbreaks between the 4-day suspension and the 7-day suspension(P>0.05).@*Conclusion@#Transmission capacity of school-based influenza epidemic is high, especially among primary and secondary schools. When the epidemic situation of infected class meets the suspension standard, it is recommended to suspend classes for 4 days.

16.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 132-134, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862613

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand the management of tuberculosis outbreaks in middle schools in Bijie City, and to put forward suggestions to improve the quality of tuberculosis epidemic situation in schools.@*Methods@#A unified questionnaire was used to investigate the management of tuberculosis outbreaks in middle schools reported by tuberculosis information management system from August 27, 2018 to January 6, 2019 in Bijie City.@*Results@#The screening rate of close contacts was 69.72%(99/142), which significantly varied by counties(P<0.01). The time from the date of diagnosis of patients to screening of close contacts by local CDC was 3(1-10.5) days. Rate of standardized management process for close contacts aged 15 years or older (0) was lower than that for close contacts aged younger than 15 years old (23.08%)(P<0.01). 3 462 close contacts were screened for TB symptom,and chest X-ray among those suspected individuals(process 1), and 2 439 close contacts were screened with TB symptom,PPD test,and chest X-ray among those suspected individuals or those with strong positive in PPD test(process 2). The detection rate of pulmonary tuberculosis in close contacts of Grade I was lower in Process 1 (28.89/100 000) than in Process 2 (328.00/100 000)(χ2=6.56, P=0.01). The latent infection rate of the first-class close contacts (6.39%) was higher than that of the second-class close contacts(1.93%)(χ2=54.86, P<0.01).@*Conclusion@#Management of tuberculosis outbreaks in middle schools in Bijie City in 2018 is effective and timely, but the standardization needs to be improved.

17.
Infectio ; 24(4): 243-247, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114876

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: to describe an experience in identification and control of an outbreak of Ralstonia spp. in a renal unit. Material and Method: an epidemiological investigation of a hospital outbreak in 2 sites and extramural service of a renal unit. The investigation included patients who presented fever or chills, during or after dialysis, and who had positive blood culture for Ralstonia spp. Results: Of 769 hemodialysis patients, 124 were identified with bacteremia by Ralstonia spp.; of these, 98.4% had catheter access and 1.6% had fistula. The overall attack rate was 16.1% and the case fatality rate was 0.8%. Environmental cultures were taken and drugs and devices were tracked. Several cultures were taken of the prefilled heparin following the methods described in the International Pharmacopoeia. However, it was the technique of microbial isolation recommended by experts that enabled the isolation of the microorganism and confirmed the source. Conclusions: The outbreak described exceeded the number of patients affected documented in literature. It was caused by a contaminated batch of heparin. Evidence is provided of a recommended by expert technique used for the isolation of Ralstonia spp. in order to achieve control of outbreaks in a timely manner, minimizing clinical, economic, and social impact.


Resumen Objetivo: describir la experiencia en la identificación y control de un brote por Ralstonia spp. en una unidad renal. Material y Método: investigación epidemiológica de brote hospitalario en 2 sedes y servicio extramural de una unidad renal. Se incluyeron pacientes que presentaron fiebre o escalofrío, durante o después de la terapia dialítica, y que tuvieran hemocultivo positivo para Ralstonia spp. Resultados: De los 709 pacientes para hemodiálisis, se identificaron 124 con bacteriemia por Ralstonia spp., 98,4% tenían acceso por catéter. La tasa de ataque global fue del 16,1% y la tasa de letalidad 0,8%. Se realizaron cultivos ambientales y trazabilidad de medicamentos y dispositivos, pero ante la presencia de casos extramurales la hipótesis fue redireccionada. La heparina prellenada había sido cultivada en varias oportunidades siguiendo la metodología de la farmacopea internacional. Sin embargo, la técnica de aislamiento microbiano recomendada por expertos fue la que permitió aislar el microorganismo y confirmar la fuente. Conclusiones: El brote que se describe excedió el número de pacientes documentados en la literatura y fue causado por un lote contaminado de heparina. Se aporta evidencia de una técnica recomendada por expertos utilizada para el aislamiento de Ralstonia spp. a fin de lograr el control de brotes de manera oportuna, minimizando el impacto clínico, económico y social.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ralstonia , Dialysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Disease Outbreaks , Mortality , Renal Dialysis , Equipment and Supplies , Catheters
18.
Arch. méd. Camaguey ; 24(5): e7645, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131161

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento: la falta de referencias a crisis semejantes a la pandemia COVID-19 en el pasado hace difícil poder predecir qué pueda suceder en el futuro inmediato. Lógicamente, los efectos presentes son fáciles y documentables, pero aquellos que dejarán huella en los distintos actores a medio y a largo plazo resultan más sujetos a debate. Objetivo: analizar el comportamiento de esta pandemia en la región cubana centrado en el mes de abril, al mostrar la mejor dirección a seguir a la hora de la toma de decisiones. Métodos: se diseñó un modelo matemático en función del impacto de la efectividad de las medidas ante esta pandemia basada en las funciones polinómicas de casos confirmados y los casos recuperados en el territorio durante el mes de abril. Resultados: se tiene el comportamiento actual y futuro de la efectividad del tratamiento ante esta pandemia al permitir tomar decisiones a corto y largo plazo atendiendo a estas variables. Conclusiones: se obtuvo la función de efectividad basado en las funciones de casos confirmados y casos recuperados diarios, al evidenciar que se pronostica mejoras en el enfrentamiento de la pandemia con extrema disciplina. Lo que permite al territorio establecer una estrategia de mejora basadas en un plan de acción.


ABSTRACT Background: the lack of references to crises similar to COVID-19 pandemic in the past makes difficult to predict what may happen in the immediate future. Logically, the present effects are easily documented, but those that will leave their mark on the different actors in the medium and long term are subject to more debate. Objective: to analyze the behavior of this pandemic in the Cuban region centered on the month of April, showing the best direction to follow when making decisions. Methods: a mathematical model was designed based on the impact of the effectiveness of the measures in the face of this pandemic based on the polynomial functions of confirmed cases and the cases recovered in the territory during the month of April. Results: the current and future behavior of the effectiveness of the treatment in the face of this pandemic is showed, allowing decisions to be made in the short and long term, taking into account these variables. Conclusions: the effectiveness function was obtained based on the functions of confirmed cases and daily recovered cases, showing that improvements are expected in the confrontation of the pandemic with extreme discipline, which allows the territory to establish an improvement strategy based on an action plan.

19.
Arch. méd. Camaguey ; 24(5): e7569, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131162

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento: parvovirus humano B19 es el agente causal de la quinta enfermedad en los niños y de la poliartropatía y la eritroblastopenia aguda en los adultos. Objetivo: determinar los aspectos clínicos, epidemiológicos y analíticos de la infección por parvovirus B19 durante un brote nosocomial. Métodos: se realizó un estudio trasversal descriptivo en los servicios de Medicina y Pediatría en el Hospital Regional de Lambayeque durante los meses de noviembre y diciembre de 2017. Se realizó un estudio de serie de casos en base a las historias clínicas de pacientes y personal de salud, con resultado positivo a la infección por PVB1, mediante la técnica de ELISA. El universo estuvo constituido por 153 pacientes atendidos en los servicios de Medicina y Pediatría en el tiempo mencionado. De los cuales se seleccionó una muestra de 16 casos, cumpliendo los criterios mencionados. Resultados: se identificaron 16 pacientes positivos de los servicios de Medicina y Pediatría, con títulos de IgM contra parvovirus B19 superiores a 17 UI/mL, cuyas edades oscilaron entre los seis meses y 38 años. Entre ellos ocho y 16 pacientes presentaron comorbilidades de las cuales 3/8 correspondieron a enfermedades autoinmunes. Se evidenciaron contactos intrahospitalarios en ambos servicios. Se encontró una mayor morbilidad en el personal de salud femenino de mediana edad. Conclusiones: la infección por parvovirus B19 en el hospital u otro medio sanitario representa un riesgo para el personal de salud.


ABSTRACT Background: human parvovirus B19 is the causative agent of fifth disease in children and of polyarthropathy and acute erythroblastopenia in adults. Objective: to determine the clinical, epidemiological and analytical aspects of parvovirus B19 infection during a nosocomial outbreak. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in the Medicine and Pediatrics services of the Regional Lambayeque Hospital during the months of November and December 2017. A study of a series of cases was carried out based on the patients and health personnel historical charts, with a positive result to the PVB1 infection, through the ELISA technique. The universe was constituted by 153 patients treated in the Medicine and Pediatrics services. Of which it was selected a sample of 16 cases, based on the criteria. Results: 16 positive patients from the Medicine and Pediatrics departments were identified, with IgM titers against parvovirus B19 greater than 17 IU / mL, whose ages ranged from 6 months to 38 years. Among them 8/16 patients presented comorbidities of which 3/8 corresponded to autoimmune diseases. In-hospital contacts were evident in both services. Greater morbidity was found in middle-aged female health personnel. Conclusions: Parvovirus B19 infection in the hospital or other health environment represents a risk mainly for health personnel.

20.
Arch. méd. Camaguey ; 24(5): e6957,
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131171

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento: la higiene de las manos es lo más importante para el autocuidado, es una de las formas más económicas y eficaces de prevenir enfermedades como el cólera, fiebre tifoidea, enfermedades respiratorias agudas y otras enfermedades de transmisión digestiva. Objetivo: fundamentar un recorrido por la historia del lavado de mano. Métodos: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica con el método de análisis bibliográfico, a través de una búsqueda realizada sin restricciones de idioma, desde el año 2008 hasta el momento actual año 2019, al seguir en el análisis un orden cronológico. Los términos que se utilizaron para la búsqueda, localizados en el DeCS, fueron: higiene de las manos, enfermedades transmisibles, cuidados en las bases de datos: SciELO, Ebsco, LILAC, MEDLINE en las que se identificaron 94 documentos publicados, de ellos, se seleccionaron para la revisión 35 documentos que responden al objetivo. Resultados: se hace referencia a los antecedentes biográficos de Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis. Se alude a los antecedentes del lavado de manos en Cuba y a la necesidad de cumplir el lavado de las manos en los hospitales, se brinda información sobre la promoción de la adecuada higiene de las manos para reducir el riesgo de contraer enfermedades trasmisibles. Conclusiones: la promoción de la adecuada higiene de las manos reduce el riesgo de contraer enfermedades trasmisibles. Al brindar cuidados con manos seguras, se ofrece un servicio de calidad que preserva la seguridad del paciente en todos los ámbitos.


ABSTRACT Background: hand hygiene is the most important factor for self-care, it is one of the most economical and effective ways to prevent diseases such as cholera, typhoid fever, acute respiratory diseases and other gastrointestinal tract infections. Objective: to perform a journey through the history of handwashing. Methods: a bibliographic review was carried out, a search without language restrictions from 2008 to 2019, and following a chronological order in the analysis. The search terms hand hygiene, communicable diseases, and health care, were used in the SciELO, Ebsco, LILAC, and MEDLINE databases. 94 published documents were identified, of which 35 were selected according to the objective. Results: we refer to the biographical background of Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis, and to the history of hand washing in Cuba and the need to comply with hand washing in hospitals. We provide information on the promotion of proper hand hygiene to reduce the risk of contracting communicable diseases. Conclusions: the promotion of adequate hand hygiene reduces the risk of contracting communicable diseases. By providing care with safe hands a quality service is offered that preserves patient safety in all areas.

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