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1.
Hig. Aliment. (Online) ; 38(298): e1145, jan.-jun. 2024. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1531447

ABSTRACT

A higienização é um procedimento importante na indústria de alimentos e sua realização deve ocorrer rotineiramente para evitar que os alimentos sejam contaminados. Além disso, todos os manipuladores de alimentos devem receber treinamentos de modo a entender como ocorrem as contaminações e como evitá-las, para que não ocorra deterioração antecipada dos alimentos e para que não exponham os consumidores ao risco de doenças transmitidas por alimentos em caso de contaminação. Esta pesquisa avaliou o processo de higienização e sua eficiência em superfícies presentes em uma agroindústria da agricultura familiar produtora de embutidos cárneos. Apesar de ter instalações adequadas a agroindústria apresentava inadequações quanto aos produtos utilizados e a frequência inadequada para uma higienização eficiente. Foi realizada análise microbiológica das superfícies dos equipamentos para contagem de aeróbios mesófilos e notou-se uma elevada carga microbiana que indicou uma baixa eficiência no processo de higienização. Sugeriu-se melhorias na higiene ambiental associado à instrução dos colaboradores, para contribuir na promoção da qualidade dos produtos, aumento dos lucros e salvaguardando a saúde do consumidor.


Hygiene is an important procedure in the food industry, and its performance must occur routinely to prevent food from being contaminated. In addition, all food handlers must receive training in order to understand how contamination occurs and how to avoid it, so that there is no anticipated deterioration of food and that consumers are not exposed to the risk of foodborne diseases. in case of contamination by pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, this research evaluated the cleaning process and its efficiency on surfaces present in a family farming agroindustry that produces meat products, which despite having adequate facilities, had some difficulties such as product use and inadequate frequency for eficiente cleaning. After performing a microbiological analysis to count surface mesophilic aerobes, a high level of contamination was noted, relating to low efficiency in the cleaning process. Improvements in environmental hygiene are suggested, associated with the instruction of employees for the implementation of the Standard Operating Hygiene Procedure, promoting improvements in product quality, increasing profits and safeguarding consumer health.


Subject(s)
Cattle , Food Hygiene , Meat Industry/standards , Foodborne Diseases/prevention & control , Brazil , Food Industry/standards , Meat Products
2.
International Eye Science ; (12): 264-269, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005393

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of 0.01% hypochlorous acid as a conjunctival sac disinfectant before cataract phacoemulsification and its impact on the ocular surface.METHODS: Randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 285 patients who were scheduled for cataract phacoemulsification surgery were randomly divided into the hypochlorous acid group and the povidone iodine group. Before and after disinfection, conjunctival sac swabs were taken, and bacterial culture and colony-forming units(CFUs)testing were performed using blood agar and chocolate agar media, respectively. All patients were evaluated for ocular symptom scores and pain severity scores 2 h, 1 d, and 1 wk after disinfection, and underwent corneal fluorescein staining, eye redness index, tear meniscus height, and noninvasive breakup time(NIBUT)examination. The incidence of endophthalmitis after surgery was recorded.RESULTS: Conjunctival sac disinfection with 0.01% hypochlorous acid significantly reduced the rate of positive bacterial cultures and colony-forming ability of the conjunctival sac, with statistically significant differences compared with the pre-disinfection period(both P<0.01), and the disinfecting ability of hypochlorous acid was comparable to that of povidone-iodine(χ2=0.811, P=0.368). The scores of ocular symptoms and pain severity in the hypochlorous acid group were significantly lower than those in the povidone-iodine group(both P<0.01). The corneal fluorescein staining and eye redness index in the hypochlorous acid group were significantly lower than those in the povidone-iodine group(all P<0.01). No endophthalmitis occurred in either group of patients. CONCLUSION: As a conjunctival sac disinfectant, 0.01% hypochlorous acid is safe and effective, with minimal discomfort and damage to the ocular surface in patients.

3.
São Paulo med. j ; 142(4): e2023177, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536907

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Contamination of the breathing circuit and medication preparation surface of an anesthesia machine can increase the risk of cross-infection. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contamination of the anesthetic medication preparation surface, respiratory circuits, and devices used in general anesthesia with assisted mechanical ventilation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional, quantitative study conducted at the surgical center of a philanthropic hospital, of medium complexity located in the municipality of Três Lagoas, in the eastern region of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. METHODS: Eighty-two microbiological samples were collected from the breathing circuits. After repeating the samples in different culture media, 328 analyses were performed. RESULTS: A higher occurrence of E. coli, Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (P < 0.001) were observed. Variations were observed depending on the culture medium and sample collection site. CONCLUSION: The study findings underscore the inadequate disinfection of the inspiratory and expiratory branches, highlighting the importance of stringent cleaning and disinfection of high-touch surfaces.

4.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 37: eAPE002191, 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1527574

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a eficácia antimicrobiana de um dispositivo fixo emissor de luz UV-C na desinfecção de diferentes superfícies do ambiente hospitalar e sua eficácia antifúngica na qualidade do ar. Métodos Estudo quase-experimental realizado em uma unidade de internação hospitalar, que utilizou o Bioamostrador de ar Andersen® de seis estágios para análise do ar; e na avaliação das superfícies, utilizaram-se três suspensões de microrganismos (Acinetobacter sp. MDR, Escherichia coli e Klebsiella pneumoniae produtora de KPC) para contaminar o ambiente. Para ambos foram feitas coletas pré (controle) e pós-acionamento da luz UV-C (teste). Resultados Na avaliação do ar houve uma redução importante da contagem de colônias após a luz UV-C e não foram encontrados fungos patogênicos ou toxigênicos em nenhum dos dois momentos. Em relação à desinfecção das superfícies, nenhum crescimento bacteriano foi observado após a intervenção da luz, demonstrando 100% de inativação bacteriana nas condições testadas. Conclusão A utilização da tecnologia com emissão de luz UV-C fixa foi eficaz e pode ser considerada uma intervenção promissora para protocolos de desinfecção de superfícies hospitalares.


Resumen Objetivo Evaluar la eficacia antimicrobiana de un dispositivo fijo emisor de luz UV-C para la desinfección de diferentes superficies del ambiente hospitalario y su eficacia antifúngica en la calidad del aire. Métodos Estudio cuasi experimental realizado en una unidad de internación hospitalaria, en que se utilizó el biomuestreador de aire Andersen® de seis etapas para el análisis del aire. En el análisis de las superficies, se utilizaron tres suspensiones de microorganismos (Acinetobacter sp. MDR, Escherichia coli y Klebsiella pneumoniae productora de KPC) para contaminar el ambiente. En ambos se tomó una muestra antes (control) y después de accionar la luz UV-C (prueba). Resultados En el análisis del aire hubo una reducción importante del recuento de colonias después de la luz UV-C y no se encontraron hongos patógenos ni toxigénicos en ninguno de los dos momentos. Con relación a la desinfección de las superficies, no se observó ningún crecimiento bacteriano después de la intervención de la luz, lo que demuestra un 100 % de inactivación bacteriana en las condiciones analizadas. Conclusión El uso de la tecnología con emisión de luz UV-C fija fue eficaz y puede ser considerada una intervención prometedora para protocolos de desinfección de superficies hospitalarias.


Abstract Objective To evaluate a fixed UV-C light emitting device for its antimicrobial effectiveness in the disinfection of distinct surfaces and its antifungal effectiveness on air quality in the hospital environment. Methods This quasi-experimental study was conducted in a hospital inpatient unit, in which a six-stage air Biosampler (Andersen®) was used for air analysis. In the evaluation of surfaces, three suspensions of microorganisms (Acinetobacter sp. multidrug-resistant, Escherichia coli, and KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae) were used to contaminate the environment. In both evaluations, pre- (control) and post-activation of UV-C light (test) collections were made. Results In the air evaluation, an important reduction was observed in the colony count after irradiation with UV-C light, and pathogenic or toxigenic fungi were not found in either of the two moments. Regarding the disinfection of surfaces, no bacterial growth was observed after the application of UV-C light, showing 100% bacterial inactivation under the tested conditions. Conclusion The use of fixed UV-C light emission technology was effective and can be considered a promising intervention for hospital surface disinfection protocols.


Subject(s)
Ultraviolet Rays , Disinfection/methods , Infection Control , Air/parasitology , Air Microbiology , Hospitalization , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
5.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 23: e249184, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1553451

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study aimed to review the scientific literature to describe the main care and hygiene protocols for different types of maxillofacial prostheses (MFP). Methods: A bibliographic search on the PubMed / Medline database using the following keywords: ["maxillofacial prosthesis" OR "ocular prostheses" OR "palatal obturators"] AND ["Cleaning" OR "disinfection"] AND ["care"] AND ["color stability"] OR ["denture cleansers" OR "cleansing agents"]. Articles addressing materials, cleaning and disinfection protocols, and care related to MFP were included. The following exclusion criteria were applied: no adequate methodology, incompatibility with the area of interest, and unavailability for reading in full. Results: The papers were grouped into the following topics: facial prostheses, ocular prostheses, maxillofacial intraoral prostheses, and retention systems. Conclusion: Despite the MFP changes over time, its degradation decreases upon following the recommendations and post-adaptation care. The guidelines for cleaning and disinfection must be individualized to guarantee the longevity of the prosthesis and the patient health


Subject(s)
Palatal Obturators , Ossicular Prosthesis , Disinfection , Hygiene , Maxillofacial Prosthesis Implantation , Maxillofacial Prosthesis
6.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. Porto Alegre ; 64(1): e130007, dez 2023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526315

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a elasticidade de elásticos ortodônticos após desinfecção e esterilização com ácido peracético 0,2%. Materiais e métodos: Neste estudo piloto in vitro, elásticos ortodônticos Morelli® e American Orthodontics™ nas cores cinza e cristal foram divididas em três grupos experimentais: Grupo 1, imerso em água destilada por 72 horas, Grupo 2, imerso em peracético 0,2% por 10 min (para desinfecção) e Grupo 3, imerso em ácido peracético 0,2% por 30 min (para esterilização). Após a imersão, os valores de resistência à tração dos elásticos foram analisados em uma máquina de ensaios universal (EMIC DL-1000) para avaliar a resistência, em Newtons, necessária para a ruptura dos mesmos. A normalidade dos dados foi avaliada pelo teste de Shapiro-Wilk e os dados dos diferentes grupos experimentais foram comparados pelo teste ANOVA. Resultados: Para ambas as marcas, não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos experimentais quanto à resistência à tração. Discussão: O estudo apresentou um método alternativo para a desinfecção e esterilização de materiais termossensíveis. Conclusão: Assim, podemos concluir que a desinfecção e esterilização dos elásticos ortodônticos com ácido peracético 0,2% não alterou seu módulo de elasticidade.


Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the elasticity of orthodontic elastics after disinfection and sterilization with 0.2% peracetic acid. Materials and methods: In this in vitro pilot study, Morelli® and American Orthodontics™ elastic bands in gray and crystal colors were divided into three experimental groups: Group 1, immersed in distilled water for 72 hours, Group 2, immersed in 0.2% peracetic acid for 10 min (for disinfection) and Group 3, immersed in 0.2% peracetic acid for 30 min (for sterilization). After immersion, the tensile strength values of the elastics were analyzed in a universal test machine (EMIC DL-1000) to evaluate the strength, in Newtons, necessary for their rupture. Normality of the data was assessed using the Shapiro-Wilk test, and data from the different experimental groups were compared using the ANOVA test. Results: For both brands, there was no statistically significant difference between the experimental groups regarding tensile strength. Discussion: This study presented an alternative method for the disinfection and sterilization of thermo-sensitive materials. Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that the sterilization of orthodontic elastics with 0.2% peracetic acid did not change their modulus of elasticity.

7.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 13(3): 137-142, jul.-set. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1531866

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: in relation to hand hygiene, it is important to highlight the absence of documented investigations in the scientific literature that address the analysis of theses and dissertations related to this practice. This gap justifies the carrying out of this study, which aims to strengthen and expand the knowledge base related to this topic, highlighting its relevance in the areas of teaching, research, extension and innovation. The objective was to analyze theses and dissertations published in stricto sensu graduate programs on hand hygiene practices in Brazil. Methods: this is a bibliometric study conducted in the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel Theesis and Dissertation Catalog, considering the period from 2013 to 2022. Results: thirty-one (100%) studies were included, 21 (67.7%) dissertations and six (19.3%) theses. Nursing was the main area of assessment (65.6%), which mainly analyzed adherence to hand hygiene practices (29.0%), health education (12.9%), and carried out microbiological analysis of hands (12.9%). Only three publications used theoretical bases as the central core of the research. Conclusion: this study allowed us to identify the need to study the topic at doctoral level, using theoretical bases that will provide the conceptual and philosophical foundation for clinical practice.(AU)


Justificativa e Objetivos: em relação à higienização das mãos, é importante ressaltar a ausência de investigações documentadas na literatura científica que abordem a análise de teses e dissertações relacionadas a essa prática. Tal lacuna justifica a realização deste estudo, que visa fortalecer e expandir a base de conhecimento relativa a essa temática, destacando sua relevância nos domínios do ensino, da pesquisa, extensão e inovação. Objetivou-se analisar teses e dissertações publicadas em programas de pós-graduação stricto sensu sobre as práticas de higienização das mãos no Brasil. Métodos: estudo bibliométrico, realizado no Catálogo de Teses e Dissertações da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, considerando o período de 2013 a 2022. Resultados: foram incluídos 31 (100%) estudos, sendo 21 (67,7%) dissertações e seis (19,3%) teses. A enfermagem foi a principal área de avaliação (65,6%) que analisou, principalmente, a adesão às práticas de higiene das mãos (29,0%), a educação em saúde (12,9%), e realizou análise microbiológica das mãos (12,9%). Apenas três publicações utilizaram bases teóricas como núcleo central da pesquisa. Conclusão: este estudo permitiu identificar a necessidade de estudar a temática em nível de doutorado, utilizando bases teóricas que fornecerão o alicerce conceitual e filosófico para a prática clínica.(AU)


Justificación y Objetivos: en relación a la higiene de manos, es importante resaltar la ausencia de investigaciones documentadas en la literatura científica que aborden el análisis de tesis y disertaciones relacionadas con esta práctica. Este vacío justifica la realización de este estudio, que tiene como objetivo fortalecer y ampliar la base de conocimientos relacionados con este tema, destacando su relevancia en las áreas de docencia, investigación, extensión e innovación. El objetivo fue analizar tesis y disertaciones publicadas en programas de posgrado estricto sensu sobre prácticas de higiene de manos en Brasil. Métodos: estudio bibliométrico realizado en el Catálogo de Tesis y Disertaciones de la Coordinación de Perfeccionamiento del Personal de Educación Superior, considerando el período de 2013 a 2022. Resultados: se incluyeron 31 (100%) estudios, 21 (67,7%) disertaciones y seis (19,3%) tesis. Enfermería fue la principal área de evaluación (65,6%), que analizó principalmente la adherencia a las prácticas de higiene de manos (29,0%), educación para la salud (12,9%) y realizó análisis microbiológicos de las manos (12,9%). Sólo tres publicaciones utilizaron bases teóricas como núcleo central de la investigación. Conclusión: este estudio identificó la necesidad de estudiar el tema a nivel de doctorado, utilizando marcos teóricos que proporcionarán la base conceptual y filosófica para la práctica clínica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Bibliometrics , Hand Disinfection , Health Education , Patient Safety
8.
Salud mil ; 42(2): e402, 20230929. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1531709

ABSTRACT

A partir de la declaración de la Organización Mundial de la Salud del comienzo de la pandemia COVID-19 causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2 en marzo de 2020, los profesionales de la salud se vieron expuestos a esta enfermedad altamente contagiosa y potencialmente mortal que generó múltiples desafíos a toda la comunidad científica. Provocando cambios de paradigmas en la atención de los pacientes y en el uso de las barreras de protección personal. A nivel mundial se crearon múltiples protocolos para la atención odontológica a medida que se iba desarrollando e investigando el comportamiento del virus. Esta revisión bibliográfica resume las indicaciones y recomendaciones basadas en las evidencias disponibles para disminuir las posibilidades de contaminación ante la exposición a este virus, incluyendo medidas a utilizar desde el ingreso del paciente, los métodos de protección personal, la descontaminación y esterilización del material, así como también la desinfección del área de trabajo. Aunque se ha hecho un gran esfuerzo por mejorar los procesos de bioseguridad a nivel científico tecnológico, hay evidencias de que el factor humano sigue siendo el eslabón más débil de esta cadena.


Since the declaration by the World Health Organization of the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus in March 2020, health professionals were exposed to this highly contagious and potentially fatal disease that generated multiple challenges to the entire scientific community. It caused paradigm shifts in patient care and in the use of personal protective barriers. Multiple protocols for dental care were created worldwide as the behavior of the virus was developed and investigated. This bibliographic review summarizes the indications and recommendations based on the available evidence to reduce the possibilities of contamination when exposed to this virus, including measures to be used from patient admission, personal protection methods, decontamination and sterilization of material, as well as disinfection of the work area. Although a great effort has been made to improve biosafety processes at the scientific and technological level, there is evidence that the human factor continues to be the weakest link in this chain.


Desde a declaração pela Organização Mundial da Saúde do início da pandemia de COVID-19 causada pelo vírus SARS-CoV-2 em março de 2020, os profissionais de saúde foram expostos a essa doença altamente contagiosa e potencialmente fatal, que criou vários desafios para toda a comunidade científica. Ela causou mudanças de paradigma no atendimento ao paciente e no uso de barreiras de proteção individual. Em todo o mundo, vários protocolos para atendimento odontológico foram criados à medida que o comportamento do vírus foi desenvolvido e pesquisado. Esta revisão da literatura resume as indicações e recomendações baseadas em evidências para reduzir a probabilidade de contaminação por exposição a esse vírus, incluindo medidas a serem usadas desde a admissão do paciente, métodos de proteção individual, descontaminação e esterilização de equipamentos, bem como desinfecção da área de trabalho. Embora muitos esforços tenham sido feitos para melhorar os processos de biossegurança em nível científico e tecnológico, há evidências de que o fator humano continua sendo o elo mais fraco dessa cadeia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sterilization/instrumentation , Disinfection/instrumentation , Dental Equipment , Dental Offices , COVID-19/prevention & control
9.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 111(2): 1110801, mayo-ago. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532251

ABSTRACT

Frente a la difusión en medios de comunicación de medias verdades con enunciados alarmantes y anticientíficos, este editorial busca revisar las bases científicas para determinar el comportamiento clínico. Así, el texto discurre por el concepto de infección focal desde su origen, yendo al encuentro de sus transformaciones conceptuales a través de los descubrimien- tos científicos, teniendo en cuenta las características emocio- nales propias de cada paciente como un todo y los peligros a los que se puede estar expuestos frente a las medias verdades (AU)


Facing the diffusion of alarming and anti-scientific state- ments in the media, this editorial seeks the scientific bases to determine the clinical behavior. Thus, the text runs through the concept of focal infection from its origin and across its conceptual transformations through scientific discoveries, by considering the emotional characteristics of each patient as a whole and the dangers to which they may be exposed in the face of half-truths (AU)


Subject(s)
Root Canal Therapy/methods , Focal Infection, Dental/complications , Focal Infection, Dental/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology
10.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 111(2): 1-1, jul. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529346

ABSTRACT

Resumen Frente a la difusión en medios de comunicación de medias verdades con enunciados alarmantes y anticientíficos, este editorial busca revisar las bases científicas para determinar el comportamiento clínico. Así, el texto discurre por el concepto de infección focal desde su origen, yendo al encuentro de sus transformaciones conceptuales a través de los descubrimientos científicos, teniendo en cuenta las características emocionales propias de cada paciente como un todo y los peligros a los que se puede estar expuestos frente a las medias verdades.


Abstract Facing the diffusion of alarming and anti-scientific statements in the media, this editorial seeks the scientific bases to determine the clinical behavior. Thus, the text runs through the concept of focal infection from its origin and across its conceptual transformations through scientific discoveries, by considering the emotional characteristics of each patient as a whole and the dangers to which they may be exposed in the face of half-truths.

11.
Braz. dent. j ; 34(3): 33-41, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1447599

ABSTRACT

Abstract This in vitro study compared the antimicrobial efficacy of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 8 µg/mL ozonated water agitated by passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) or PUI combined with EndoActivator (EA) against mature multispecies biofilm. One hundred and five oval-shaped mandibular premolars were instrumented, sterilized, and inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, and Staphylococcus aureus, divided into: control group - saline; O3 group - ozonated water; O3 PUI group - ozonated water with PUI agitation; O3 PUI+EA group - ozonated water with PUI+EA agitation; NaOCl group - NaOCl; NaOCl PUI group - NaOCl with PUI agitation; and NaOCl PUI+EA group - NaOCl with PUI+EA agitation. Microbiological samples were collected before (S1) and after (S2) the disinfection procedures and the data were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. In the culture method, there was significant disinfection in the O3 PUI+EA, NaOCl, NaOCl PUI, and NaOCl PUI+EA groups (p˂0.05). The combination of NaOCl with PUI+EA reduced microbial counts to zero (p˂0.05). In the qPCR method, there was a significant reduction in the total count of viable microorganisms in the O3 PUI, O3 PUI+EA, NaOCl, NaOCl PUI, and NaOCl PUI+EA groups (p˂0.05). It can be concluded that 2.5% NaOCl with and without agitation, as well as 8 µg/mL ozonated water with its action enhanced by the agitation techniques, were effective in root canal disinfection, and their antimicrobial efficacy is related to the microorganisms present in the biofilm.


Resumo Este estudo in vitro comparou a desinfecção do hipoclorito de sódio 2,5% (NaOCl) e da água ozonizada 8 µg/mL agitados pela irrigação ultrassônica passiva (PUI) e por associação da PUI com EndoActivator (EA) na redução de biofilme misto maduro. Cento e cinco pré-molares inferiores ovalados foram instrumentados, esterilizados e inoculados com Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans e Staphylococcus aureus, divididos em: Grupo controle: soro; Grupo O3: água ozonizada; Grupo O3 PUI: água ozonizada agitada por PUI; Grupo O3 PUI + EA: água ozonizada agitada por PUI e EA: Grupo NaOCl: hipoclorito de sódio; Grupo NaOCl PUI: hipoclorito de sódio agitado por PUI; Grupo NaOCl PUI + EA: hipoclorito de sódio agitado por PUI e EA. Amostras microbiológicas foram coletadas antes (S1) e após (S2) os procedimentos de desinfecção e os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis. No método de cultura, houve desinfecção significativa nos grupos O3 PUI + EA, NaOCl, NaOCl PUI e NaOCl PUI + EA (p˂0.05), sendo que no grupo NaOCl PUI + EA não houve crescimento de microrganismo (p˂0.05). No método de qPCR, nas contagens dos microrganismos antes e após os protocolos de desinfecção, houve redução microbiana nos grupos O3 PUI, O3 PUI + EA, NaOCl, NaOCl PUI, NaOCl PUI + EA (p˂0.05). Concluiu-se que o NaOCl 2,5% com e sem agitação foi eficiente, assim como a água ozonizada 8 µg/mL potencializada pelos métodos de agitação na desinfecção e que a mesma está relacionada com os microrganismos presentes no biofilme.

12.
Braz. dent. sci ; 26(1): 1-11, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1417829

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Os ortodontistas usam alicates ortodônticos continuamente, e essas ferramentas têm um forte potencial para infecções nosocomiais. Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar a eficiência de três métodos de desinfecção de alicates ortodônticos. Material e Métodos: As pontas ativas de 26 alicates ortodônticos (cortadores distais e alicates Weingart) foram contaminadas com microrganismos, vírus e esporos S. aureus, E. coli e C. albicans. Os métodos de controle microbiano foram desinfecção com álcool 70%, esterilização com esferas de vidro (250 °C calor seco) e irradiação com luz ultravioleta (250 nm UV-C) por 30 e 60 segundos. O número de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC) e unidades formadoras de placas (UFP) foi quantificado e comparado para cada microrganismo após incubação em placas de cultura. Resultados: Todas as pontas do alicate dos grupos que receberam luz ultravioleta ou foram submetidos à esterilização com esferas de vidro apresentaram número significativamente menor de esporos, bactérias e fungos do que suas respectivas amostras controle (p<0,001). A desinfecção física com luz UV-C pode representar uma alternativa confiável em comparação com outros métodos químicos e físicos devido ao aumento de microrganismos resistentes a produtos químicos e à emissão de subprodutos nocivos após o tratamento químico. Conclusão: Os métodos de controle microbiano testados foram eficazes na desinfecção de alicates ortodônticos, tornando a luz ultravioleta-C uma alternativa promissora para eliminar os microrganismos dos alicates (AU)


Objective: Orthodontists use orthodontic pliers continuously, and these tools have a strong potential for nosocomial infections. This study aimed to compare the efficiency of three methods for disinfecting orthodontic pliers. Material and Methods: The active tips of 26 orthodontic pliers (distal end cutters and Weingart pliers) were contaminated with S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans microorganisms, viruses, and spores. The microbial control methods were 70% alcohol disinfection, glass bead sterilization (250 °C dry heat), and ultraviolet light irradiation (250 nm UV-C) for 30 and 60 seconds. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) and plaque-forming units (PFU) was quantified and compared for each microorganism after incubation in culture plates. Results: All tips of the pliers in the groups that received ultraviolet light or were subjected to glass bead sterilization showed a significantly lower number of spores, bacteria, and fungi than their respective control samples (p<0.001). Physical disinfection with UV-C light may represent a reliable alternative compared to other chemical and physical methods due to the increase in microorganisms resistant to chemical products and the emission of harmful by-products after chemical treatment. Conclusion: The tested microbial control methods were effective in the disinfection of orthodontic pliers, making ultraviolet-C light a promising alternative to eliminate microorganisms from pliers (AU)


Subject(s)
Ultraviolet Rays , Disinfection , Containment of Biohazards , Environmental Pollution
13.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 39(2): e00205322, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421024

ABSTRACT

Na região Amazônica, cidades como Santarém, no Estado do Pará, Brasil, ainda carecem de Estações de Tratamento de Água para atender toda a população. Nesses locais, medidas domiciliares de desinfecção da água são importantes para preservar a potabilidade e evitar efeitos indesejáveis na saúde. Este estudo avaliou experimentalmente o efeito das medidas domiciliares na eliminação de Escherichia coli em amostras de água. As técnicas avaliadas para esse trabalho foram: (i) hipoclorito de sódio 2,5%; (ii) fervura; (iii) filtro de cerâmica; e (iv) exposição solar. Foram testadas amostras, combinando-se diferentes concentrações de E. coli (entre 3 e 100 unidades formadoras de colônias/100mL). Os resultados mostraram que as medidas domiciliares de desinfecção foram eficazes na eliminação da E. coli, com exceção do filtro de cerâmica, cujas amostras de água, mesmo após a filtragem, apresentaram-se positivas para o crescimento da bactéria. Considerando que a distribuição da água tratada não chega à maior parte da população que reside em Santarém e em áreas periurbanas, como em comunidades quilombolas e ribeirinhas, o uso das medidas como hipoclorito de sódio 2,5%, fervura e exposição solar poderão favorecer a promoção da saúde e diminuir a ocorrência de surtos de doenças diarreicas veiculadas pela água.


In the Amazon region, cities such as Santarém, in the state of Pará, Brazil, still lack Water Treatment Stations to serve the entire population. In these places, household methods of water disinfection are important to preserve potability and avoid undesirable health effects. Our study experimentally evaluated the effect of household methods for eliminating Escherichia coli in water samples. The techniques evaluated for this study were: (i) sodium hypochlorite 2.5%; (ii) boiling; (iii) ceramic filter, and (iv) sun exposure. Samples were tested, combining different concentrations of E. coli (from 3 to 100 colony forming units/100mL). The results showed that household disinfection methods were effective in eliminating E. coli; except for the ceramic filter, the water of which was still positive for their growth, even after filtration. Considering that the distribution of treated water does not reach most of the population living in Santarém and in peri-urban areas, such as the quilombola and riverside communities, the use of such methods as sodium hypochlorite 2.5%, boiling, and sun exposure may favor health promotion and reduce the occurrence of outbreaks of dysentery transmitted by water.


En la región Amazónica, las ciudades como Santarém, en el estado de Pará, Brasil, todavía carecen de Estaciones de Tratamiento de Agua para atender a toda la población. En estos lugares, las medidas de desinfección domiciliaria del agua son importantes para preservar la potabilidad y evitar efectos indeseables en la salud. Este estudio evaluó el efecto de medidas domiciliarias en la eliminación de Escherichia coli en muestras de agua. Las técnicas evaluadas en este trabajo fueron: (i) hipoclorito de sodio al 2,5%; (ii) hervir el agua; (iii) filtro cerámico y (iv) exposición al sol. Se probaron muestras combinando diferentes concentraciones de E. coli (entre 3 y 100 unidades formadoras de colonias/100mL). Los resultados mostraron que las medidas de desinfección domiciliaria fueron efectivas en la eliminación de E. coli, con excepción del filtro cerámico que presentó un resultado positivo para su crecimiento en las muestras de agua, aún después de filtrada. Considerando que la distribución de agua tratada no llega a la mayoría de la población residente en Santarém y en áreas periurbanas como comunidades quilombolas y ribereñas, el uso de técnicas como el hipoclorito de sodio al 2,5%; hervir el agua o exponerla al sol pueden favorecer una promoción de la salud y reducir el surgimiento de brotes de enfermedades diarreicas transmitidas por el agua.

14.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1212-1217, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006474

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the variation rules and health risks of trihalomethane in regional drinking water, and to provide evidence for the innovative water processing technology and the optimization of drinking water quality. MethodsBased on regional drinking water sanitation monitoring, non-parametric rank sum test was used to analyze the effects of residual trihalomethane production in different periods and with disinfection methods. The United States environmental protection agency (USEPA) classic "four-step" health risk assessment model was used to evaluate the carcinogenic risk and non-carcinogenic risk of trihalomethane through drinking water exposure. ResultsThe yield of trichloromethane in wet season was 6.3 μg·L-1, which was higher than that in dry season. Compared with chlorination pretreatment, ozone pretreatment reduced the content of bromomethane dichloromethane. Compared to liquid chlorine disinfection, sodium hypochlorite treatment incresed the levels of trichloromethane and bromomethane chloride. Although the total carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of trihalomethane in drinking water in the region were at safe levels, they were above the acceptable limits occasionally. The highest carcinogenic risk of trihalomethane were dichlorobromomethane and chlorodibromomethane,and the highest non-carcinogenic risk was trichloromethane. The health risk of children was 1.2 times higher than that for adults. ConclusionThe production of residual trihalomethane in drinking water in this area is relatively low, which is less harmful to the health of adults and children. Monitoring, including other disinfection byproducts, should continue and appropriate disinfection techniques for drinking water should be explored.

15.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1902-1906, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004916

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand the knowledge of disinfection and its influencing factors among caregivers in childcare centers in Huangpu District, Shanghai, in order to provide a basis for the future development of targeted training programs and the work plan to enhance the professional level of disinfection practitioners in childcare centers.@*Methods@#A total of 423 caregivers from 62 childcare centers (including nursery schools) in Huangpu District were selected for a questionnaire about disinfection knowledge, influencing factors, and training needs in March 2023. Differences in disinfection knowledge among subjects with different characteristics were compared using χ 2 tests, and influencing factors were analyzed using a multi factor binary Logistic regression model.@*Results@#The overall knowledge rate of disinfection among caregivers was 50.12%, and those in public kindergartens, private ones, and nursery schools were 51.35%, 46.18%, and 42.57%, respectively, with statistically significant differences ( χ 2=14.25, P < 0.05 ). The caregivers in the highest level kindergartens ( OR =4.50, 95% CI =1.97-10.29), in first level ones ( OR =4.29, 95% CI = 1.98-9.33), in the institutions had clusters of outbreaks ( OR =1.87, 95% CI =1.14-3.07), in which the number of children to caregivers ratio being less than 10∶1 ( OR =21.81, 95% CI =2.55-186.59), with 6-14 years of working experience ( OR =3.51, 95% CI = 1.59 -7.75) had better knowledge of disinfection( P <0.05).@*Conclusions@#Knowledge of disinfection among caregivers of childcare institutions is low in Huangpu District, Shanghai. Training of caregivers disinfection knowledge should be strengthened for caregivers with fewer years of experience, in childcare institutions, to improve caregivers disinfection expertise and skills.

16.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1743-1746, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-998906

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand the status of childcare center disinfection around the COVID-19 pandemic, the needs of professional technical support, so as to give advice for improvement measures.@*Methods@#Using multi stage stratified sampling method, one was selected from each area of northern and southern Anhui Province, with 3 counties/districts selected from each city. A total of 54, 58, 60 childcare institutions were selected. A questionnaire survey, as well as on site visits and data check were administered in these childcare centers in Anhui Province were implemented. Information regarding the three stage disinfection work from 2019 to 2022 and technical support needs were collected.@*Results@#A total of 54, 58, 60 childcare centers were investigated in 2019, 2020 and 2021-2022. Most of the childcare centers recorded disinfection work (96.3%, 96.6%, 98.3%), while few of them ( 26.4% , 26.3%, 58.3%) monitored disinfection factor intensity. The implementing rate of disinfection effect evaluation was 68.3% at the stage of normal prevention and control, the highest demand rate for professional technical support was guidance and training ( 95.0% ), and the highest demand rate for training content was disinfectant preparation method (81.7%). There were significant differences in the rate of disinfection tableware room allocation (A: 93.3%, B: 70.0%), and the rate of disinfection effect evaluation among different cities (A: 53.3%, B: 83.3%)( χ 2=6.24, 5.46, P <0.05).@*Conclusions@#From 2019 to 2022, childcare center disinfection has significantly improved, however, disinfection factor intensity monitoring and disinfection effect evaluation are neglected during the stage of normal prevention and control. The demand for professional technical institutions to provide disinfectant preparation method guidance and training is high.It is suggested to strengthen the monitoring and evaluation of disinfection and related technical guidance.

17.
Chinese Journal of Digestive Endoscopy ; (12): 467-471, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995405

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the cleansing effect of Nitric Oxide (NO) sustained-release silica nanoparticles (short for NO sustained-release agent) on endoscopic biofilm and its clinical application.Methods:A total of 160 clinical endoscopes were randomly divided into two groups: the cleansing agent group (80 pieces, disinfected with cleansing agents), NO group (80 pieces, disinfected with NO sustained-release agent). A biofilm model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was constructed and used as the control for phosphate buffered solution (PBS) treatment. A biofilm model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the surface of endoscopic lumen was built first in vitro. Scanning electron microscopy was then used to observe the microstructure of biofilm after treatment with NO sustained-release agent. Viable counting method was used to evaluate the cleansing effect of NO sustained-release agent on biofilm. Finally, at the clinical level, the actual disinfection effect of NO sustained-release agent on clinical endoscopy was evaluated by detecting the protein residues, viable counting and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) biofluorescence detection. Results:The scanning electron microscopy showed that the biofilm was intact in the model group, but scattered bacteria were observed on the biofilm surface in the NO group and the detergent group. Compared with the model group [(4.86±2.67)×10 6(colony-forming units, CFU)/mL], the standard CFUs of the NO group [(1.37±0.61)×10 4CFU/mL] and the detergent group [(1.31±0.21)×10 5CFU/mL] were significantly lower (detergent group VS model group, P=0.009; NO group VS model group, P=0.008), and there was significant difference between the detergent group and the model group ( t=9.53, P=0.000 6). The levels of residual proteins in the endoscopic lumens before and after the treatment were 8.03±1.47 mg/mL and 0.50±0.37 mg/mL in the NO group, 8.01±1.51 mg/mL and 0.91±0.52 mg/mL in the detergent group with significant difference ( P<0.01), and the reduction effect of the NO group was more significant. The disinfection of NO group and cleaning agent group was within the qualifying range, but the ATP bioluminescence value, protein residue and colony count of NO group (78.56±42.59 RLU, 0.50±0.37 mg/mL, 7.55±4.56 CFU) were significantly lower than those of detergent agent group (120.80±54.00 RLU,0.91±0.52 mg/mL,11.50±4.75 CFU, P<0.01). Conclusion:NO sustained-release agent can effectively clear endoscopic biofilm and further improve the disinfection effect on endoscopes, which may be of great significance for improving the effects on treatment and prognosis of patients.

18.
Chinese Journal of Digestive Endoscopy ; (12): 212-217, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995377

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the performance of rural practitioners of endoscopic cleaning and disinfection participating in the Early Diagnosis and Treatment Program for Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers and to analyze the influencing factors.Methods:The questionnaires for skill assessment were designed based on the skill scheme and clinical practice of the Early Diagnosis and Treatment Program for Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers in rural China, and the App Early diagnosis, Early treatment was used as the examination platform. The practitioners in 539 county hospitals from 25 provinces participating in the program in 2019 were assessed for techniques and skills for endoscopic cleaning and disinfection and the excellence rate was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors for the examination. Results:A total of 1 671 endoscopic cleaning and disinfection practitioners participated in the assessment with the score of 73.41±16.60. The passing rate was 85.82%, and the excellence rate was 44.94%. Among all questions, the correct rate of "opportunistic screening flow chart" was the highest (98.21%), and that of "the evaluation index for mass screening" was the lowest (57.89%). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the excellence rate was high in practitioners who had a bachelor degree or above ( OR=1.627,95% CI:1.319-2.007, P<0.001), the career for 5 to <15 years (5 to <10 years: OR=1.329,95% CI:1.045-1.689, P=0.020; 10 to <15 years: OR=1.384,95% CI:1.026-1.867, P=0.033), working in eastern and central regions (eastern regions: OR=3.476,95% CI:2.368-5.103, P<0.001;central regions: OR=4.028,95% CI:2.679-6.057, P<0.001) and with full understanding of the screening scheme ( OR=1.547,95% CI:1.246-1.921, P<0.001) . Conclusion:Practitioners on the Early Diagnosis and Treatment Program for Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers in rural China have mastered the basic screening scheme and skills for endoscopic cleaning and disinfection. The education background, duration of the career, area and understanding of screening scheme are influencing factors for the excellence rate of endoscopic cleaning and disinfection.

19.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 505-507, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-978417

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the quality of disinfection in the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid sampling sites in Shanghai. MethodsSwab samples of medical staff’ hands and environments of different SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid sampling sites were collected from July to September 2022, with the total number of bacterial colonies cultured and counted. ResultsA total of 728 swab samples were collected from 69 sampling sites. The median total number of bacterial colonies on hand surface, object surface and air samples were 0 CFU·cm-2, 0 CFU·cm-2, and1 CFU·(petri dish∙5 min)-1, respectively, and P95 was 13 CFU·cm-2, 5.3 CFU·cm-2, and 17.8 CFU·(culture vessel∙5 min)-1, respectively. According to the GB 15982‒2012 Hygienic Standard for Disinfection in Hospitals class Ⅳ environment, 680 samples met the standard (93.4%). Furthermore, 96.9%, 92.0%, and 92.2% of the samples in the sampling sites of tertiary/secondary hospitals, community health centers, and community convenience sampling sites met the standard, respectively. Quality of disinfection did not differ significantly across these sampling sites. ConclusionThe quality of disinfection in the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid sampling sites in Shanghai is generally good. Additionally, hand hygiene of medical staff and disinfection on object surface in some sampling sites need to be strengthened.

20.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 287-291, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976258

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo analyze the disinfection quality of nursing institutions in Fengxian District, so as to provide evidence for improving disinfection work in nursing institutions. MethodsA total of 54 nursing institutions for the elderly in Fengxian District of Shanghai were selected as the monitoring sites during 2017‒2021. The samples from indoor air, surface of objects, tableware and hands of staff were collected for bacteriological testing, and then evaluated for the quality of sanitary disinfection. ResultsFrom 2017 to 2021, the annual qualified rate of disinfection quality in the nursing institutions was 84.85%‒100.00%, and there was a significant difference of the monitoring samples among different years (χ2=51.73,P<0.01). A statistically significant difference was observed among the different types of nursing homes (χ2=25.83,P<0.01). The qualified rate of indoor air was 100.00%, and the qualified rate of surface of environmental, surface of tableware and hands of staff were 93.21%, 92.59% and 86.73%, respectively. The qualified rates of disinfection of different types of samples were statistically significant (χ2=53. 803,P<0. 001). The qualified rate of different types of staff hands was from 79.17% to 92.71%, and the qualified rate of cleaners and care-givers were lower than the healthcare practitioners (χ2=6.53,P<0.05). The lowest test pass rate was surface of faucets, which was 83.33% (χ2=23.85,P<0.01). ConclusionThe quality of disinfection in the nursing institutions for elderly in Fengxian District needs to be improved, and it is necessary to make further efforts to strengthen the hand hygiene of staff, the disinfection quality of tableware and surface of objects.

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