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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19710, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384010

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work was to assess if the commercially available Fluconazole drug products (Reference, Generic and Similar) would meet the biowaiver criteria from Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Brazilian Agency for Health Surveillance (ANVISA) agencies. All formulations were evaluated considering the dissolution profile carried out in Simulated Gastric Fluid (SGF) pH 1.2, Acetate Buffer (AB) pH 4.5 and Simulated Intestinal Fluid (SIF) pH 6.8. The results demonstrated that all formulations fulfilled the 85% of drug dissolved at 30 min criterion in SGF pH 1.2. However, in AB pH 4.5 and SIF pH 6.8, some formulations, including the comparator, did not achieve this dissolution percentage. The discrepant dissolution profiles also failed the ƒ2 similarity factor analysis, since none of the formulations showed values between 50 and 100 in the three dissolution media. Comparative dissolution profiles were not similar, considering that the main issues concerning the dissolution were evidenced for the comparator product. Hence, a revision in the regulatory norms in order to establish criteria to switch the comparator could result in an increased application of drugs based on biowaiver criteria


Subject(s)
Fluconazole/analysis , United States Food and Drug Administration/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Similar/classification , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency , Dissolution , Acetates/agonists
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19423, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384001

ABSTRACT

Abstract This work aims to ascertain the comprehensiveness of dissolution tests for oral suspensions registered in Brazil and the USA. After consulting literature since 1994, a paucity of information about dissolution methods for suspensions was detected. It makes it difficult to establish the most appropriate test parameters. In January, 2019, there were 46 drugs registered in Anvisa (Brazil) as oral suspension, being 47 reference, 173 generic and 114 interchangeable similar (IS) medicines; while in the USA, 90 drugs were registered as oral suspension by FDA, 235 Abreviatted New Drug Application and 111 New Drug Application medicines. Out of 46 and 90, only six and 15 drugs as oral suspension had a pharmacopeial dissolution test, corresponding to 70 (20.9%) and 82 (23.7%) products in Brazil and the USA, respectively. Dissolution studies were found for 17 drugs as oral suspension in the non-compendial literature. Dissolution test conditions were established to few marketable oral suspension drugs, most of which are BCS class II or IV. Thus, investing in dissolution studies could subsidize the registration of these products by regulators, especially for generic and IS drugs, by comparing dissolution profiles, and predicting their in vivo behavior to avoid exposure of healthy individuals to clinical research.


Subject(s)
Suspensions/pharmacology , Therapeutic Equivalency , Dissolution , Reference Standards , Pharmaceutical Preparations/supply & distribution , Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency , Methods
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18800, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364431

ABSTRACT

Abstract Efavirenz is one of the most commonly used drugs in HIV therapy. However the low water solubility tends to result in low bioavailability. Drug nanocrystals, should enhance the dissolution and consequently bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to obtain EFV nanocrystals prepared by an antisolvent technique and to further observe possible effect, on the resulting material, due to altering crystallization parameters. A solution containing EFV and a suitable solvent was added to an aqueous solution of particle stabilizers, under high shear agitation. Experimental conditions such as solvent/antisolvent ratio; drug load; solvent supersaturation; change of stabilizer; addition of milling step and solvents of different polarities were evaluated. Suspensions were characterized by particle size and zeta potential. After freeze- dried and the resulting powder was characterized by PXRD, infrared spectroscopy and SEM. Also dissolution profiles were obtained. Many alterations were not effective for enhancing EFV dissolution; some changes did not even produced nanosuspensions while other generated a different solid phase from the polymorph of raw material. Nevertheless reducing EFV load produced enhancement on dissolution profile. The most important modification was adding a milling step after precipitation. The resulting suspension was more uniform and the powder presented grater enhancement of dissolution efficacy.


Subject(s)
Efficacy/classification , HIV/pathogenicity , Crystallization/instrumentation , Dissolution/methods , Particle Size , Solubility , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Excipients/pharmacology , Dissolution/classification , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Methods
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19759, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383977

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dissolution is a key step in the uptake of oral drugs. In order to compare the behaviour of the dissolution of two formulations, the dissolution profile test was used. This assay must be discriminative and should mimic in vivo conditions. Many dissolution media described in pharmacopoeias are not predictive of bioavailability. Due to this, biorelevant media are used as an alternative to solve this problem. The objective of this work is to evaluate the relevance of biorelevant dissolution media to predict in vivo drug dissolution. For this, a bibliographic search was carried out in scientific databases. The search was first performed for articles verifying the physicochemical properties of human gastrointestinal fluids. Subsequently, a comparison was made between the properties of gastrointestinal fluids and those of biorelevant and pharmacopoeial media. Finally, the results of bioequivalence studies and dissolution profile tests in biorelevant media described in the literature were compared. The results revealed that there are a few publications that have analysed some physicochemical properties of gastrointestinal fluids. In addition, high variability was observed for some properties. Regarding the comparison of these properties with pharmacopoeial media and biorelevant media, the analysis showed that the biorelevant media are more similar to gastrointestinal fluids than the pharmacopoeial media. Finally, the in vitro dissolution profile results were similar to the results obtained in vivo. Thus, biorelevant media may be useful for analysing dissolution profiles.


Subject(s)
Therapeutic Equivalency , Dissolution , Drug Liberation , Publications/classification , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191024, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394036

ABSTRACT

Abstract Posaconazole exerts an extended spectrum of antifungal activity against various strains of clinically relevant moulds and yeasts. In recent years, antifungal triazole posaconazole has become increasingly important for the prophylaxis and treatment of systemic mycoses. After oral administration of posaconazole, absolute bioavailability has been estimated to range from 8% to 47%. Pharmaceutical co-crystallization is a promising approach for improving dissolution rate or manipulating other physical properties of API. The objective of this study is to improve the dissolution rate of posaconazole by co-crystallization. A 1:1 stoichiometric co-crystals of adipic acid were prepared by solvent assisted grinding method. The prepared co-crystals were subjected to solid-state characterization by FTIR, PXRD and DSC studies. The physicochemical properties of posaconazole and co-crystals were assessed in terms of melting point, flowability and dissolution rate. The results indicated improvement in flow property and dissolution rate. In vitro dissolution profile of co-crystals showed a significant increased dissolution of posaconazole from initial period in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution. The dissolution efficiency for posaconazole-adipic acid co-crystal was 61.65 % against posaconazole, 46.58 %. Thus, co-crystallization can be a promising approach to prepare posaconazole-adipic acid co-crystals with improved physicochemical properties.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Crystallization/instrumentation , Hydrochloric Acid , Sprains and Strains/diagnosis , Yeasts/classification , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Biological Availability , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Efficiency , Dissolution , Mycoses/pathology
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927916

ABSTRACT

The present study explored the effect of co-amorphous technology in improving the dissolution rate and stability of silybin based on the puerarin-silybin co-amorphous system prepared by the spray-drying method. Solid-state characterization was carried out by powder X-ray diffraction(PXRD), polarizing microscopy(PLM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry(DSC), etc. Saturated powder dissolution, intrinsic dissolution rate, moisture absorption, and stability were further investigated. The results showed that puerarin and silybin formed a co-amorphous system at a single glass transition temperature which was higher than that of any crude drug. The intrinsic dissolution rate and supersaturated powder dissolution of silybin in the co-amorphous system were higher than those of the crude drug and amorphous system. The co-amorphous system kept stable for as long as three months under the condition of 40 ℃, 75% relative humidity, which was longer than that of the single amorphous silybin. Therefore, the co-amorphous technology could significantly improve the dissolution and stability of silybin.


Subject(s)
Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Desiccation , Drug Compounding/methods , Drug Stability , Silymarin , Solubility , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Technology , X-Ray Diffraction
7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1312-1321, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924761

ABSTRACT

The amorphous solid dispersion is one of the most effective formulation approaches to enhance the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. However, the amorphous drugs tend to crystallize during storage or dissolution due to inadequate formulations, preparation techniques, storage and dissolution conditions, thus negating their advantages. Meanwhile, it is often difficult to establish in vitro-in vivo correlation for amorphous solid dispersions owing to the difference between dissolution media and physiological environments and between the apparent concentration and membrane transport flux, the dynamic process of the in vivo absorption, which put great challenges to the development of amorphous solid dispersion products. This review covers the recent progress on the mechanistic study of the in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption of amorphous solid dispersions, aiming to provide guidance for the formulation development of poorly soluble drugs.

8.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 70 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392313

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this work was to elaborate a diagnosis of the dissolution test in Africa in comparison with Brazil, evaluating the dissolution profile of low solubility drugs such as albendazole, ibuprofen, furosemide, glibenclamide, hydrochlorothiazide and carvedilol to ascertain their quality. The dissolution profiles were evaluated by utilizing the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). The glibenclamide medicine was evaluated according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), while a dissolution method was developed for the carvedilol medicine. A filter selection test for all the drugs showed that cannula is suitable for all, except for carvedilol, which is centrifuged. The various brands of Nigerian and Brazilian medicines tested showed some statistical differences. The suitable conditions that allowed the dissolution of carvedilol to be determined were the USP type II apparatus at 75 rpm containing 900 mL of acetate buffer, pH 4.5. The results of the dissolution test showed that out of the 17 different brands of Brazilian medicines and 17 different products from Nigeria, 94.12% and 58.82% passed respectively


O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar um diagnóstico do teste de dissolução na África em comparação ao Brasil, avaliando o perfil de dissolução de medicamentos de baixa solubilidade como albendazol, ibuprofeno, furosemida, glibenclamida, hidroclorotiazida e carvedilol para verificar sua qualidade.Os perfis de dissolução foram avaliados utilizando a Farmacopeia dos Estados Unidos (USP). O medicamento glibenclamida foi avaliado de acordo com a Food and Drug Administration (FDA), enquanto um método de dissolução foi desenvolvido para o medicamento carvedilol.Um teste de seleção de filtro para todos os medicamentos mostrou que a cânula é adequada para todos, exceto para o carvedilol, que é centrifugado. As diversas marcas de medicamentos Nigerianos e Brasileiros testadas apresentaram algumas diferenças estatísticas. As condições adequadas que permitiram a determinação da dissolução do carvedilol foram o aparelho USP tipo II a 75 rpm contendo 900 mL de tampão acetato, pH 4,5. Os resultados do teste de dissolução mostraram que das 17 diferentes marcas de medicamentos brasileiros e 17 diferentes produtos da Nigéria, 94,12% e 58,82% foram aprovados, respectivamente


Subject(s)
Solubility , Brazil/ethnology , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Africa/ethnology , Dissolution , United States Food and Drug Administration , Albendazole/pharmacology , Ibuprofen , Carvedilol/pharmacology , Furosemide/pharmacology , Methods , Acetates/adverse effects
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191023, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403698

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the work the andrographolide (AG)-solid dispersions (SDs) were prepared by the spray-drying method, using polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG8000), Poloxamer188, polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVPK30), Soluplus® as carrier materials. The effect of different polymers as carrier materials on the properties of the AG-SDs were studied. The results showed obvious differences in intermolecular interaction, thermal stability, drug state, powder properties, dissolution behavior, and so on of AG-SDs prepared using different polymers as carrier materials. AG-PEG8000-SD was a partial-crystalline and partial-amorphous powder with smaller surface area and pore volume, but it was easy to wetting and did not swell in contact with dissolved medium. AG-Soluplus®-SD was completely amorphous powder with larger specific surface area and pore volume, but it swelled in contact with water. Therefore, the dissolution profile of AG in AG-PEG8000-SD was similar to that in AG-Soluplus®-SD. Soluplus® and PEG8000 were suitable polymers to design AG-SDs, considering both physicochemical properties and dissolution behaviors. The results of this reseach showed that when selecting carrier materials for SD, we should not only consider the state of drugs in SD and the powder properties of SD, but also consider whether there is swelling when the carrier materials are in contact with the dissolution medium.

10.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386312

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La hipertensión arterial es el principal factor de riesgo cardiovascular, y su prevalencia en Paraguay es la mayor de América Latina. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue comparar productos de losartán de 100 mg comprimidos de producción nacional e importada a través de los perfiles de disolución versus su precio. Se tomaron 8 marcas de losartán potásico comercializadas durante el 2017, realizándose los controles de calidad de acuerdo a lo establecido en la Farmacopea Americana (USP 38). Se determinó el porcentaje de principio activo liberado en el medio de disolución establecido por la USP 38, por medio de los perfiles de disolución. Las determinaciones se realizaron por HPLC y espectrofotometría UV/V. Los controles realizados cumplieron con las especificaciones establecidas por la USP 38. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el análisis estadístico de los perfiles de disolución de las diferentes marcas analizadas. Los resultados demostraron que los precios de las marcas analizadas no afectaban la calidad de los productos, pero sí en el costo del tratamiento de la población de escasos recursos, debido al mayor costo de los productos importados con respecto a los de producción nacional.


ABSTRACT Hypertension is the main cardiovascular risk factor, and its prevalence in Paraguay is the highest in Latin America. The objective of the present work was to compare products of 100 mg losartan tablets made in Paraguay and imported products, through dissolution profiles versus price. Eight brands of potassic losartan commercialized during 2017 were subjected to quality controls in accordance with the provisions of the American Pharmacopoeia (USP 38). The percentage of active principle released in the dissolution medium established by USP 38 was determined by means of dissolution profiles. The determinations were made by HPLC and UV/V spectrophotometry. The controls carried out complied with the specifications established by USP 38. No significant differences were found in the statistical analysis of the dissolution profiles of the different brands analyzed. The results showed that the prices of the brands analyzed did not affect the quality of the products, but they affected the cost of treatment of the low-income population due to the higher cost of imported products compared to those of national production.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904326

ABSTRACT

@#In order to evaluate the consistency of the release behavior between the self-made saxagliptin and metformin hydrochloride sustained-release tablets and the reference preparations in vitro, the similarity of the dissolution curves between the self-made preparations and the reference preparations in four dissolution mediums: HCl (pH 1.0), acetate buffer saline (pH 4.5), phosphate buffer saline (pH 6.8) and pure water, and the gel morphology and strength of the self-made preparations and the reference preparations in the HCl (pH 1.0) solution medium were compared.Results showed that in four dissolution mediums, the dissolution rates of saxagliptin in the self-made preparations and the reference preparations at 15 min were greater than 85%, and the ?2 similarity factors of metformin hydrochloride were 89, 83, 80, 86, all greater than 50, so the dissolution of the self-made preparations was consistent with those of the reference preparations.The volume expansion rate, water absorption rate and erosion rate were consistent with those of the reference preparations, and the gel strength of the self-made preparations was the same as that of the reference preparations.The in vitro release behaviors of the self-made preparations and the reference preparations are consistent, which provide a good guarantee for bioequivalence.

12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1739-1744, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881561

ABSTRACT

Based on the "requirements on the submitted documents for consistency evaluation of generic oral solid dosage forms of chemical drugs" and relevant guidance, this article summarized and formulated the decision tree of in vitro consistency evaluation of oral solid generic drugs, discussed the differences and common problems of in vitro evaluation research projects under different conditions, selective analyzed the technical requirements and concern problems of unconventional research projects, and proposed corresponding recommendations for concern problems, in order to provide more references for the follow-up study on consistency evaluation of oral solid generic drugs.

13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1021-1029, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881182

ABSTRACT

Nanocrystal formulations have been explored to deliver poorly water-soluble drug molecules. Despite various studies of nanocrystal formulation and delivery, much more understanding needs to be gained into absorption mechanisms and kinetics of drug nanocrystals at various levels, ranging from cells to tissues and to the whole body. In this study, nanocrystals of tetrakis (4-hydroxyphenyl) ethylene (THPE) with an aggregation-induced emission (AIE) property was used as a model to explore intracellular absorption mechanism and dissolution kinetics of nanocrystals. Cellular uptake studies were conducted with KB cells and characterized by confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and quantitative analyses. The results suggested that THPE nanocrystals could be taken up by KB cells directly, as well as in the form of dissolved molecules. The cellular uptake was found to be concentration- and time-dependent. In addition, the intracellular THPE also could be exocytosed from cells in forms of dissolved molecules and nanocrystals. Kinetic modeling was conducted to further understand the cellular mechanism of THPE nanocrystals based on first-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs). By fitting the kinetic model against experimental measurements, it was found that the initial nanocrystal concentration had a great influence on the dynamic process of dissolution, cellular uptake, and exocytosis of THPE nanocrystals. As the nanocrystal concentration increased in the culture media, dissolution of endocytosed nanocrystals became enhanced, subsequently driving the efflux of THPE molecules from cells.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880993

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used throughout China to prevent and cure diseases for thousands of years, and now it is a part of the integrative medicine field that is available in Western societies. To ensure the safety and quality of the herbal medicines that are a major part of the TCM tradition, they must be held to modern pharmaceutical standards. Erzhi pill (EZP) is a Chinese Pharmacopeia-listed herbal preparation that is used in the long-term clinical management of post-menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis and menstrual disorders. Until now, whether the drug release mechanism of EZP is in line with its intended TCM usage has not been studied.@*METHODS@#The release of specnuezhenide from three EZPs (self-made, Leiyunshang and Renhe) in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), acetate buffer (pH 4.5 buffer) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) was investigated in a dissolution test. The water uptake capacity and erosion extent of the three EZPs were investigated using swelling and erosion studies. The drug release mechanism was further assessed through statistical model fitting, using DDSolver software.@*RESULTS@#The release of specnuezhenide from all three EZPs in SGF was less than 50% within a 4 h period. However, over 70% of the specnuezhenide was released from each EZP in both pH 4.5 buffer and SIF in the same time. Analysis of the swelling and erosion behaviors and the drug release mechanism of the three EZPs confirmed that the release rate from EZP followed a sustained release profile, which was an interactive combination of swelling and erosion.@*CONCLUSION@#This study showed that the release pattern from the pills was in line with the intended TCM use of EZP. TCM had not only theoretically considered sustained release from the pills, but also formulated them to achieve this release pattern. When establishing quality control standards for pills, the theoretical TCM usage and the actual release patterns need to be considered.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879129

ABSTRACT

Nanocrystals self-stabilized Pickering emulsion(NSSPE) is a new kind of emulsion where only nanocrystals of poorly soluble drugs are used as stabilizers. Our previous study showed that NSSPE with Ligusticum chuanxiong oil as the main oil phase can significantly promote oral absorption of puerarin. The present study aimed to explore its absorption mechanism in oral administration. The in vitro dissolution test was carried out to study the effect of NSSPE on release of puerarin. The effects and mechanism of NSSPE on uptake and transport of puerarin across Caco-2 cell were investigated. The results showed that the drug release rate of NSSPE was similar to that of nanocrystals, with their cumulative dissolution of puerarin not affected by pH of releasing mediums, both significantly higher than that of crude material. The uptake of puerarin in NSSPE was concentration-dependent and significantly higher than that of solution or surfactant stabilized emulsion. Genistein and indomethacin, inhibitors of lipid rafts/caveolin, could significantly reduce the uptake of puerarin in NSSPE. Compared with solution, NSSPE and surfactants stabilized emulsion obviously increased transport rate K_a and apparent permeability coefficient P_(app) of puerarin in AP → BL direction, but there was no significant difference in BL → AP direction. It could be inferred that there were both passive and active transport mechanisms, as well as lipid raft/caveolin mediated endocytosis for absorption of NSSPE. The promoted oral absorption of puerarin in NSSPE was mainly related to the existing nanocrystal form which could promote dissolution, puerarin as well as Ligusticum chuanxiong oil which could promote drug transmembrane transport and inhibit drug efflux. It is the unique structure and composition of the compound NSSPE that promoted the oral absorption of puerarin.


Subject(s)
Caco-2 Cells , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Emulsions , Humans , Isoflavones , Nanoparticles
16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 743-750, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876519

ABSTRACT

Biphasic dissolution test, consisting of immiscible aqueous and organic phase, is an in vitro dissolution method that simultaneously measures the dissolution and partition of drugs. Due to the advantages of simulating in vivo absorption and overcoming the influence of surfactants on dissolution, it has been widely used to evaluate the poorly soluble drugs in vitro dissolution. Based on the relevant research in this field in recent years, this review summarizes the history, dissolution device, theoretical model and application of the biphasic dissolution test. Finally, the prospects in the development of biphasic dissolution test are also outlined.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908768

ABSTRACT

We developed a novel portable and automated dissolution test analyzer for rapid and high precision in vitro dissolution testing of drugs.The analyzer consists of a flow-through-cell drug dissolution system,an automated sequential sampling system,a high-speed capillary electrophoresis (HSCE) system,and a data acquisition system.Combining the high-temporal resolution flow-gating sampling approach with HSCE,which has outstanding advantages of efficient separation and resolution,the analyzer can achieve rapid analysis and exhibits the ability in miniaturization for on-site assessment of different active pharmaceutical ingredients.To integrate the flow-through-cell dissolution system with HSCE,a specially designed flow-gating-injection (FGI) interface was employed.The performance of the analyzer was investigated by analyzing the dissolution of immediate-release drugs including single dose (amoxicillin dispersible tablets) and fixed dose combination (amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium) drug tablets with the high-temporal resolutions of 12 s and 20 s,respectively.The dissolution profiles of different active pharmaceutical ingredients could be simultaneously and automatically monitored with high repeatability and accuracy.The analyzer was successfully utilized for the pharmaceutical quality control and bio-relevant dissolution testing,as well as in vivo-in vitro correlation analysis.Our portable analyzer is miniaturized,convenient and of low-cost,and will provide a valuable tool for dissolution testing in pharmaceutical research and development.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873578

ABSTRACT

@#Lenvatinib mesylate (LF), a multi-target tyrosinase inhibitor mainly used in the treatment of a variety of cancers, has low oral bioavailability mainly due to its gelation during the dissolution process. In the current study, in order to enhance dissolution and eliminate gelation of LF, a supramolecular coamorphous system of LF-baicalein (BAI) (molar ratio, 1∶1) was prepared by rotary evaporation and characterized by PLM, PXRD, DSC and FTIR. Results indicated the formation of coamorphous system with a single Tg of 118 °C. Different from original LF crystal, no gelation phenomenon was observed during the dissolution of coamorphous LF-BAI. In addition, the dissolution rate of LF was increased by 2.2-fold after coamorphization. Meanwhile, the dissolution rate of the co-former BAI was also enhanced by more than 25.4-fold. Stability test showed that the prepared coamorphous system had a good physical stability for at least 90 days under 25 °C/ 60%RH and 40 °C /75%RH conditions.

19.
Rev. cient. (Guatem.) ; 29(2)21 de oct. 2020.
Article in Spanish, English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123344

ABSTRACT

Los ensayos de equivalencia terapéutica tienen como objetivo demostrar que los medicamentos genéricos aportan la misma cantidad de principio activo en comparación con el medicamento innovador. El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar la equivalencia terapéutica del medicamento enalapril maleato en tabletas de 20 mg, según la clasificación biofarmacéutica que le corresponde, ya que este es un medicamento representativo de la clase III, para demostrar que tienen un perfil de tolerabilidad adecuado y que son eficaces para su prescripción médica. Por otro lado, al demostrarse la equivalencia terapéutica se puede recurrir con toda seguridad al medicamento genérico y reducir los costos de los tratamientos, con lo cual la población tendrá una oferta de medicamentos confiables, seguros y a precios económicos. Se utilizó un medicamento innovador y tres de los ocho medicamentos genéricos de fabricación y comercialización nacional, a los cuales se les determinó perfiles de disolución (F2: 45.41, 92.42, 71.04), uniformidad de contenido (AV: 7.37, 2.97, 2.50) y valoración de principio activo (%: 107.14, 98.89, 101.71) para determinar la cantidad de principio activo en las muestras. Los análisis se realizaron con base en los criterios establecidos en la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos. Se aplicó un modelo estadístico independiente, y se estableció que dos de los tres lotes analizados de los medicamentos genéricos son equivalentes terapéuticos con el lote del medicamento innovador. Con las pruebas de disolución in vitro realizadas a lo largo de este estudio, se puede concluir que los tres lotes analizados de dos medicamentos genéricos pueden ser considerados intercambiables con respecto al lote del medicamento innovador.


The therapeutic equivalence essays to demonstrate that generic medicine can provide the same amount of active ingredient compared to the innovative medicine. The objective of this research was to evaluate the therapeutic equivalence of enalapril maleate 20 mg, according to the biopharmaceutical classification, given that this is a representative class III drug. This to demonstrate that it has an acceptable tolerability profile and that it is effective for medical prescription. Once the therapeutic equivalence is stablished, the use of therapeutic bioequivalence products can reduce treatment costs, so that the general public can have access to reliable, safe and affordable medicines. For this study an innovative medicine and three of the eight generic medicines of national manufacture and commercialization were used for each medicine, the dissolucion profiles (F2: 45.41, 92.42, 71.04), the uniformity of content (AV: 7.37, 2.97, 2.50) and percentage of active ingredient (%: 107.14, 98.89, 101.71) were determined. The essays were performed based on the criteria established in The United States Pharmacopeia and were satisfactory in all the analyzed batches. An independent statistical model was carried out it was established, that two of the three analyzed batches for generic medicine are therapeutic equivalents with the batch of the innovative drug. In vitro dissolution tests obtained throughout this study, concluded that the three analyzed batches of two generic medicines can be considered interchangeable in respect to the batch of the innovative medicine.

20.
Rev. colomb. ciencias quim. farm ; 49(2): 329-354, May-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144355

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY The purpose of this study was to evaluate physicochemical properties and dissolution studies of furosemide (FUR), hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and nifedipine (NIF), low water solubility drugs, in raw materials and pharmaceutical formulations. Surface and physicochemical characterization techniques -scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (IR) spectrometry- as well as physical and physicochemical tests on tablets and capsules were applied as supporting information on drug quality control. Simple, rapid, and efficient UV-Vis methods were developed and validated for the determination of FUR, HCTZ and NIF samples. SEM exhibited considerable differences in the crystal morphological structures. Among the drugs studied, except for furosemide, more than one polymorph was present in the samples. Drug release profiles were satisfactory for all products. FUR and HCTZ tablets exhibited similar dissolution profiles, with very rapid release to the pharmaceutical specialties (reference, similar and generic). For HCTZ tablets, the similar drug (f2= 48.74) is not equivalent to the reference drug. NIF capsules (reference and compounded) showed a release >80% of stated on product labels, in 10 minutes. The results obtained in this study suggest that the quality parameters and drug dissolution profiles may have been influenced by the morphology and size of the crystals, excipients, and technological processes.


RESUMEN El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar las propiedades fisicoquímicas y los estudios de disolución de furosemida (FUR), hidroclorotiazida (HCTZ) y nifedipina (NIF), medicamentos de baja solubilidad en agua, en materias primas y formulaciones farmacéuticas. Técnicas de caracterización fisicoquímica y de superficie: microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM), termogravimetría (TG), difracción de rayos X (XRD) y espectrometría infrarroja (IR), así como pruebas físicas y fisicoquímicas en tabletas y cápsulas que se aplicaron como información de apoyo sobre el control de calidad. Se desarrollaron y validaron métodos simples, rápidos y eficientes de UV-Vis para la determinación de muestras de FUR, HCTZ y NIF. SEM exhibió diferencias considerables en las estructuras morfológicas de cristal. Entre las drogas estudiadas, a excepción de la furosemida, más de un polimorfo estaba presente en las muestras. Los perfiles de liberación de fármacos fueron satisfactorios para todos los productos. Las tabletas FUR y HCTZ exhibieron perfiles de disolución similares, con una liberación muy rápida a las especialidades farmacéuticas (referencia, similares y genéricas). Para las tabletas de HCTZ, el medicamento similar (f2= 48,74) no es equivalente al medicamento de referencia. Las cápsulas NIF (de referencia y compuestas) mostraron una liberación >80% de la indicada en las etiquetas del producto, en 10 minutos. Los resultados obtenidos en este estudio sugieren que los parámetros de calidad y los perfiles de disolución del fármaco pueden haber sido influenciados por la morfología y el tamaño de los cristales, excipientes y procesos tecnológicos.

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