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1.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 469-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934767

ABSTRACT

Multiple short-term and long-term complications might occur after liver transplantation. In the early stage after liver transplantation, the incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is likely to cause different types of infection, one of which is intestinal flora imbalance. In the recent decade, a series of studies have demonstrated that intestinal flora plays an important role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Intestinal flora may interact with other organs via multiple patterns. Among which, gut-liver axis is one of the most critical channels for regulating microenvironment of the host. Changes in the quantity and composition of intestinal flora could lead to intestinal flora imbalance. In both local and systemic systems, extensive interaction exists between intestinal flora and immune system. In this article, the risk factors of intestinal flora imbalance after liver transplantation, influence of intestinal flora imbalance on liver transplant recipients and relevant treatment strategies were reviewed.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802191

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the regulatory effect of Sijunzi Tang(SJZT) and its single herbs(Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata cum Melle, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Poria) on intestinal flora in spleen-deficient rats. Method:Normal rats were randomly divided into the blank group, model group, Zhengchangsheng granules group, SJZT group and each single herb group, rats were orally administered Sennae Folium decoction to induce diarrhea for ten consecutive days to establish a spleen-deficient model(distilled water for the blank group), then treated with the corresponding drugs for seven consecutive days(distilled water for the blank group and the model group). Fresh feces were collected on pre-modeling(0th day), post-modeling(11th day), and post-treatment(18th day). Short-chain fatty acids(SCFAs) in feces were acidified by sulphuric acid and extracted by diethyl ether, then determined by gas chromatography. The structural change(diversity and similarity) of intestinal flora in feces was analyzed by 16S rDNA-polymerase chain reaction(PCR)-denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis(DGGE) technique. Result:Compared with blank group, the contents of SCFAs as well as diversity and similarity indexes of intestinal flora in feces of all administered groups were significantly decreased on the 11th day(PPth day, compared with model group, the contents of SCFAs as well as diversity and similarity indexes of intestinal flora in feces of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma group were significantly increased(PPPPConclusion:Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Poria are the single herbs responsible for the regulatory effect of SJZT on intestinal flora in spleen-deficient rats, and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma may play a major role.

3.
J. health inform ; 8(supl.I): 1061-1070, 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-906812

ABSTRACT

Apresenta uma metodologia de auxílio no diagnóstico por computador (Computer-Aided Diagnosis - CADx) para classificação de malignidade ou benignidade dos nódulos pulmonares em imagens de tomografia computadorizada. O uso dos índices de diversidade filo genética para extração das características dos nódulos, a classificação é realizada com a ferramenta WEKA usando múltiplos classificadores, validação dos resultados com as métricas kappa, Area Under the Curve, sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia. Os testes mostraram resultados bem objetivos e robustos para uma metodologia CADx com uma acurácia de 98,1%, sensibilidade 98,7%, especificidade 97,9%, um kappa de 0,95 e uma Area Under the Curve de 0,99. Os resultados obtidos comprovaram o bom desempenho das técnicas de extração de características de textura através dos índices apresentados, com uma precisão de 98,1%.


Present a methodology to assist in the computer diagnosis (Computer-Aided Diagnosis -CADx) to classify pulmonary nodules in malignant and benign in CT images. Using phylogenetic diversity index to extract the characteristics of the nodes, the classification made with WEKA tool, validating the results with the following metrics kappa, ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The tests showed very accurate and robust results for integration in a CADx tool with an accuracy of 98.1%, 98.7% sensitivity, 97.9% specificity, a kappa of 0.95 and an AUC of 0.99. The results indicated a good performance of texture extraction techniques through the indexes presented with an accuracy of 98.1%.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phylogeny , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Classification , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Congresses as Topic
4.
Mycobiology ; : 231-238, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729640

ABSTRACT

A total of 4 aquatic plants, Eleocharis kuroguwai Ohwi, Hydrocharis dubia Backer, Salvinia natans All., and Zizania latifolia Turcz., were sampled from representative two wetlands of South Korea. A total of 38 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from aquatic plants native to the Daepyeong wetland, and 27 strains were isolated from the Jilnal wetland. The internal transcribed spacer regions of fungal isolates were sequenced and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. In addition, endophytic fungal diversity from each wetland and host plant species was deduced. A total of 25 fungal genera were purely isolated, and 16 fungal genera were isolated from each of the two wetlands. Commonly isolated genera from both wetlands were Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, Fusarium, Leptosphaeria, Penicillium, and Talaromyces. This study revealed that fungal diversity varied with environmental conditions and by host plant in representative two wetlands.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus , Cladosporium , Eleocharis , Fresh Water , Fungi , Fusarium , Korea , Penicillium , Plants , Talaromyces , Wetlands
5.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(4): 1609-1623, oct.-dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-753714

ABSTRACT

Alsophila firma is a tree fern that is distributed mainly in tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) and is considered as a threatened species. Arbuscular mycorrrhizal fungi (AMF) have been proposed as an alternative in rescue programs of endangered species. However, our knowledge about diversity of AMF and mycorrhizal status of the species of TMCF is limited. In Mexico TMCF shows different degrees of conservation because of fragmentation and land use change. In this study, we evaluated the level of colonization, richness and abundances of spores of AMF in three fragments with different conservation status: conserved (100 years), secondary vegetation (17 years) and disturbed. For this, soil samples and roots were collected from five individuals of A. firma per site, with at least 100m away from each other; a total of 100cm of roots were analysed per site. Root samples showed AMF and occasionally dark septate fungi (DSF) colonizations. For the overall study, 19 species of AMF were recorded: Gigaspora (7), Acaulospora (4), Glomus (4), Funneliformis (2), Sclerocystis (1) and Scutellospora (1). The dominant species in the three sites were Funneliformis geosporum and Acaulospora scrobiculata. The highest diversity (H’) and evenness (J’) (p<0.05) were found in the conserved site (H’=1.7, J’=0.66), when compared to the secondary vegetation (H’=1.5, J’=0.61), and the disturbed site (H’=0.74, J’=0.41). Statistical analysis showed that the AMF degree of colonization was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the conserved site; although, the disturbed site showed low richness and abundances of AMF, the degree of root colonization did not differ statistically (p<0.05) with the secondary vegetation site. Chao2 (Richness estimation model) showed that the number of analysed samples were sufficient to represent the structure of the AMF communities with values >90%. The present study confirmed that A. firma is a mycorrhizal species that exhibits high levels of colonization even in disturbed sites. We suggest that F. geosporum and A. scrobiculata may have the potential to inoculate the gametophyte and young sporophyte of A. firma, to support restoration programs, because of their abundances and high tolerance to disturbed sites.


Alsophila firma es un helecho arborescente que crece principalmente en bosque mesófilo de montaña (BMM) y se encuentra en la categoría de riesgo. Los hongos mico- rrízicos arbusculares (HMA) se han propuesto como una alternativa para programas de recuperación de especies nativas en peligro. Sin embargo, sabemos poco sobre la diversidad de HMA y del estatus micorrízico de las espe- cies vegetales del BMM. En México el BMM presenta diferentes grados de conservación debido a la fragmentación y el cambio de uso de suelo. Se evaluó el grado de colonización, riqueza y abundancia de esporas de los HMA presentes en fragmentos de BMM con diferente historia de manejo: conservado (100 años), en recuperación (17 años) y alterado. Se estudiaron muestras de suelo y raíces toma- das de 5 individuos de A. firma por cada sitio, con al menos 100m de distancia entre individuos. Se analizaron en total 100cm de raíz por cada sitio. Las muestras de raíz presentaron colonización principalmente de HMA y ocasionalmente por hongos septados oscuros (HSO). Se encontraron 19 especies: Gigaspora (7), Acaulospora (4), Glomus (4), Funneliformis (2), Sclerocystis (1) y Scutellospora (1). Las especies dominantes en los tres sitios fueron Funneliformis geosporum y Acaulospora scrobiculata. La mayor diversidad (H’) y equitatividad (J’) (p<0.05) se presentaron en el sitio conservado (H’=1.7; J’ 0.66) con respecto al sitio en recuperación (H’=1.5, J’ 0.61) y alterado (H’=0.74, J’=0.41). Los niveles de colonización micorrízica total de raíz fueron estadísticamente mayores (p<0.05) en el sitio conservado. Aunque el sitio alterado presenta una baja riqueza y abundancia de HMA la colonización micorrízica total de raíz no fue estadísticamente diferente (p<0.05) respecto al sitio en recuperación. El estimador Chao2 indica que las muestras analizadas reflejan la estructura general de la comunidad de HMA con valores superiores al 93%. El presente estudio confirma que A. firma es una especie micorrízica con altos niveles de colonización incluso en sitios alterados. Se sugiere que las especies F. geosporum y A. scrobiculata por su alta tolerancia a sitios alterados pueden tener potencial para inocular gametofitos y esporofitos de A. firma para incrementar la supervivencia en programas de restauración.


Subject(s)
Ferns/microbiology , Mycorrhizae/physiology , Ecosystem , Forests , Mexico , Mycorrhizae/classification , Tropical Climate
6.
Rev. bras. eng. biomed ; 30(1): 27-34, Mar. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-707135

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer in the world, being more common among women and representing 22% of all new cancer cases every year. The sooner it is diagnosed, the better the chances of a successful treatment are. Mammography is one way to detect non-palpable tumors that cause breast cancer. However, it is known that the sensitivity of this exam can vary considerably due to factors such as the specialist's experience, the patient's age and the quality of the images obtained in the exam. The use of computational techniques involving artificial intelligence and image processing has contributed more and more to support the specialists in obtaining a more precise diagnosis. METHODS: This paper proposes a methodology that exclusively uses texture analysis to describe features of masses in digitized mammograms. To increase the efficiency of texture feature extraction, the diversity index's capability to detect patterns of species co-occurrence is used. For this purpose, the Gleason and Menhinick indexes are used. Finally, the extracted texture is classified using the Support Vector Machine, looking to differentiate the malignant masses from the benign. RESULTS: The best result was obtained using the Gleason index, with 86.66% accuracy, 90% sensitivity, 83.33% specificity and an area under the ROC Curve (Az) of 0.86. CONCLUSION: Both indexes showed statistically similar performance; however, the Gleason index was slightly superior.

7.
Psicol. teor. prát ; 15(2): 119-129, ago. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-717657

ABSTRACT

Este artigo visa apresentar, com exemplos empíricos, três índices calculáveis a partir de dados de evocações livres. Dois desses índices foram elaborados por Flament e Rouquette (2003) e indicam o grau de diversidade e de raridade das evocações. O terceiro índice permite o estudo da proporção de elementos comuns a dois corpora de evocações, por isso foi nomeado de índice de comunidade. A partir desses três indicadores, é possível ter informações sobre o grau de compartilhamento social de cada objeto, seu nível de idiossincrasia e a proporção de comunidade entre dois corpora. Essas informações, quando associadas a outras técnicas, podem ser úteis para uma melhor compreensão da relação população-objeto.


This paper aims at presenting three indexes that can be calculated from free evocation data. Two of those indexes were elaborated by Flament and Rouquette (2003), and they indicate the diversity and rarity degrees of evocations. The third index allows for the study of the proportion of elements common to two evocation corpora. From these three indicators it is possible to have information about the degree of social sharing of each object, their idiosyncrasy level and the community proportion between two corpora. When associated with other techniques, such information might be useful for a better understanding of the population-object relationship.


Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar, con ejemplos empíricos, tres índices estimados a partir de datos de evocaciones libres. Dos de estos índices fueron desarrollados por Flament y Rouquette (2003) e indican el grado de diversidad y rareza de las evocaciones. El tercer índice permite estudiar la proporción de elementos comunes a los dos corpora de evocaciones, por lo que fue llamado el índice de la comunidad. A partir de estos tres indicadores es posible tener información sobre el grado de participación social de cada objeto, su nivel de la idiosincrasia y la proporción de comunidad entre los dos corpora. Esta información, cuando se combina con otras técnicas, puede ser útil para una mejor comprensión de la relación población-objeto.

8.
J Environ Biol ; 2013 May; 34(3): 599-604
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-148570

ABSTRACT

Seasonal and topographical variations of abundance and quality composition of periphyton at up and down stream of Imphal, Thoubal and Khuga rivers were studied from 1999-2002. It was found that periphyton population was high (3,055-53,450 u cm-2) and fluctuated in a wide range. Upper stretches (3053-53,450 u cm-2) of the rivers have higher periphyton population and showed definite seasonal fluctuation than the middle and lower stretches (3,276-16,320 u cm-2). Species richness was also higher in upper stretches in comparison to lower stretches of all the rivers. Bacillariophyceae dominated the periphyton population and contribution of Cyanophyceae was nominal. Shannon and Weaver species diversity index was within the favorable range and evenness value for all the rivers were near unity and reflected a stable and unpolluted aquatic environment of the rivers.

9.
Rev. bras. entomol ; 57(1): 59-66, jan.-mar. 2013. graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-669495

ABSTRACT

Orthoptera assemblages associated with macrophytes of floodplain lakes of the Paraná River. The Orthoptera assemblage composition varies considerably, depending on habitat type. This study examines the spatiotemporal relationship between plant diversity, hydrometric level, environmental variables and the Orthoptera richness and abundance in floodplain lakes connected permanently or temporarily with the main channel of the Paraná River. The grasshoppers were collected fortnightly (April 2006May 2007). A total of 17 species were recorded and classified according to their frequency of occurrence in constant (7), accessory (4), or accidental (6) species. In the two lakes, the greater species richness and abundance was recorded in summer, thereby coinciding with the highest water level of the Paraná River. The most significant correlation between the orthopteran richness and abundance was with the water level. The aquatic plant richness was significantly different between the lakes, but the vegetation was dominated by Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. (Liliales, Pontederiaceae). The lake, which was connected permanently, presented the highest values of diversity and abundance, proving to be a more diverse assemblage. The beta diversity was higher in the temporary connected lake than in the permanently connected one. The orthopterans assemblages were different between the lakes, Cornops aquaticum and Tucayaca gracilis were the species that contributed more to the level of dissimilarity. C. aquaticum was more representative in the lake temporarily connected, while T. gracilis in the permanent connected one. The water level of the Paraná River and the connectivity of the floodplain lakes play an important role to explain the abundance and richness of their orthopteran assemblages.

10.
Rev. biol. trop ; 61(1): 111-124, Mar. 2013. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-674065

ABSTRACT

In Argentina, the grasslands of Pampas region comprise approximately 15% of the country. As in other grasslands of the world, grasshoppers are among the most important native herbivores. Their economic importance has been recognized in Argentina since the mid to late nineteenth century, since outbreaks of different species have become recurrent phenomena. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to study their diversity and distribution in grasslands of the Southern Pampas region (Laprida county, Buenos Aires province), as one of the most affected areas. The study was conducted during five seasons (2005-10). Sampling sites were represented by the most common plant communities in this area, classified in four categories: native grasslands, disturbed grasslands, implanted pastures and halophilous grasslands. The samplings were conducted from mid-spring to early autumn, with five or six samples per season. We estimated the following population descriptors: species richness (S), eveness (E), dominance (J), and diversity index (H´). In order to evaluate the similitude of the grasshopper communities present in the different plant communities, we used qualitative and quantitative coefficients of similitude. A total of 22 species of grasshoppers were collected, of which 21 belong to the family Acrididae. The subfamily Melanoplinae was the most diverse with eight species. The largest species richness was recorded in native grasslands (18). The different communities of grasshoppers had similar indices of evenness and dominance (p>0.05). Considering all plant communities, the average value of Shannon-Wiener index was 1.58±0.075. There was a positive correlation between evenness index and species richness (p<0.05). The diversity index H’ was different between plants communities (p<0.05), and it was higher in the disturbed grassland (1.75±0.096, p<0.05) than in the halophilous grasslands (1.34±0.12). Native and disturbed grasslands had a higher plant richness than halophilous grasslands and implanted pastures (p<0.05). There was a positive relationship between plant richness and grasshoppers species richness, and diversity of grasshoppers. According to the qualitative indices applied, the similitude between different grasshopper communities was higher than 60%. In general, the species that had a higher frequency of occurrence showed greater abundance and distribution. Covasacris pallidinota, Dichroplus elongatus, D. maculipennis, Borellia bruneri and B. pallid were the most widely distributed species, most of them (12) showed a restricted distribution and few (five) an intermediate distribution.


Los acridios son componentes nativos de los pastizales, dichos sistemas han sido modificados debido a la intensificación de las actividades agrícola-ganaderas y por lo tanto se considera importante estudiar las comunidades de acridios asociadas. Se estudió la diversidad y distribución de acridios en el Sur de la región pampeana a través de muestreos realizados en las comunidades vegetales más representativas del partido de Laprida, provincia de Buenos Aires, durante cinco temporadas (2005-2010). Se recolectaron 22 especies. La subfamilia Melanoplinae fue la más diversa (ocho especies). La mayor cantidad de especies se observó en los pastizales nativos (18). La diversidad en los pastizales alterados (1.75±0.096) fue superior (p<0.05) a la de los pastizales halófilos (1.34±0.12). La riqueza de plantas en los pastizales nativos y los pastizales alterados fue superior (p<0.05) a la de las demás comunidades. Se registro una relación positiva entre la riqueza de plantas y las variables riqueza y diversidad de acridios. La similitud entre las comunidades de acridios estimada por los índices cualitativos fue superior al 60%. En general, las especies que tuvieron una mayor frecuencia de aparición, mostraron una mayor abundancia y distribución. Covasacris pallidinota, Dichroplus elongatus, D. maculipennis, Borellia bruneri y B. pallida fueron las de mayor distribución, cinco especies tuvieron una distribución intermedia y la mayoría (12) una distribución restringida.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biodiversity , Grasshoppers/classification , Poaceae , Argentina , Population Density , Population Dynamics
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-855393

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the genetic diversity among the wild populations of Leonurus artemisia in Henan province. Methods: The genetic diversity of 66 individuals in eight representational populations of L. artemisia from four areas of Funiu, Taihang, Dabie, and Tongbai Mountains was investigated by SCoT molecular marker technique. Results: A total of 240 bands were produced by 10 primers, among which 238 bands were polymorphic bands, and the percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) was 99.17%. The average value of Nei's genetic diversity index (H) was 0.264 2, Shannon's information index (I) was 0.39, genetic differentiation coefficient (Gst) was 0.294 6, and the gene flow (Nm) among populations was 1.197.Mantel Test analysis showed that the significant correlation was found between the geographical and genetic distances among the different populations of L. artemisia (r=0.366 3, P < 0.05). Conclusion: The wild populations of L. artemisia in Henan province have higher genetic diversity. There is a significant correlation between geographical and genetic distances.

12.
Braz. j. biol ; 72(2): 305-310, May 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-639439

ABSTRACT

This study sampled the diversity of Braconidae (Hymenoptera) in three different ecosystems: a degraded pasture, a secondary forest and an area in recovery process using native tree seedlings. The objective was to verify the use of those insects as a tool to check the local conservation by examining Shannon's diversity index. Ten subfamilies were identified, and Microgastrinae was predominant in a number of individuals. The diversity index calculated varies among the sampled areas, thus showing a correlation with vegetation cover with the number of individuals collected and number of subfamilies found. The results showed changes in the community of Braconidae, in the recovery area between the first and second year of study, thereby leading to the conclusion that they are indicators of environmental quality.


Este estudo amostrou a diversidade de Braconidae (Hymenoptera) em três ecossistemas distintos: pastagem degradada, mata secundária e área em processo de recuperação com utilização de mudas de árvores nativas. O objetivo foi verificar a possibilidade de utilização desse grupo de insetos como ferramenta para identificar o estado de conservação local por meio da análise do índice de diversidade de Shannon. Foram identificadas dez subfamílias, com predominância em número de indivíduos de Microgastrinae. Os índices de diversidade calculados permitiram diferenciar as áreas amostradas, apresentando uma correlação da cobertura vegetal com o número de indivíduos coletados e o numero de subfamílias encontradas. O método evidenciou alteração na comunidade de Braconidae na área em recuperação, entre o primeiro e o segundo ano de estudo, demonstrando que são insetos indicadores de qualidade ambiental.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biodiversity , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Hymenoptera/classification , Brazil , Conservation of Natural Resources , Population Density
13.
J Environ Biol ; 2012 Mar; 33(2): 159-166
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-146682

ABSTRACT

Native diversity is well represented in northern and eastern parts of India for mango. We evaluated three important polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based marker techniques viz., random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and directed amplified mini satellite DNA (DAMD) and examined their suitability for depicting genetic relationships and discrimination among closely related group of 46 mango varieties grown in the different agro-ecological zones in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal. Nine RAPD, eleven ISSR and four DAMD primers generated 110, 160 and 43 discrete fragments, respectively, accounting for polymorphism of 87.3, 79.83 and 83.72%, respectively. Cumulative analysis of these markers resulted in comprehensive UPGMA based dendrogram where in native mangoes representing important breeding lines and varieties from Uttar Pradesh fall more or less in separate cluster, while Bihar and West Bengal cultivars represent genetically different lineage forming distinct separate cluster. The prime focus on the study was towards identification of genetic variability that warrants establishing origin and molecular evolution of mango cultivars of eastern and northern India because they are the rich gene pool for conservation. Highest diversity index (DI) and polymorphic information content (PIC) values were found in DAMD indicating it to be more informative than others. Similarly, high effective multiplex ratio (EMR) and marker index (MI) were recorded by ISSR reflecting ability to simultaneously detect a large number of bands. The study accomplished establishing genetic relationship and also DNA fingerprint development. The data is also useful for mapping studies for gene identification.

14.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 28(2): 277-296, mar./apr. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-912566

ABSTRACT

A caatinga está presente em quase toda área de clima semiárido do nordeste brasileiro e apresenta formações vegetais, fisionômica e florísticamente distintas. O estudo foi realizado em duas áreas de remanescentes de caatinga, um de embasamento cristalino (Fazenda Trussu - 6°19'46"S e 39°22'37''O) e outro sedimentar (Fazenda Elmo Moreno - 6º21'78"S e 39º14'24''O), localizadas no município de Iguatu, região centro-sul, Ceará. As coletas botânicas foram feitas quinzenalmente nos quatro meses de chuvas e mensalmente nos meses secos, durante o período de abril de 2007 a dezembro de 2010. Coletou-se ervas, subarbustos, arbustos, árvores, epífitas, hemiparasitas e lianas. A coleção botânica encontra-se depositada no acervo do Herbário MOSS. Na Fazenda Trussu coletou-se 186 espécies, distribuídos em 135 gêneros e 53 famílias e na Fazenda Elmo Moreno coletou-se 148 espécies, distribuídas em 107 gêneros e 46 famílias. Confirma-se a hipótese de que a vegetação da caatinga se diferencia de acordo com o tipo de substrato presente (cristalino ou sedimentar), exercendo a profundidade do solo influência sobre a distribuição e competição de espécies lenhosas. O registro de um significativo número de espécies vegetais lenhosas exclusivas e raras nas áreas estudadas indica que os trabalhos realizados até o momento ainda não amostraram ou cobriram considerável número de espécies presentes nas diferentes regiões do bioma caatinga.


The scrub is present in nearly every area of semi-arid northeast of Brazil and has vegetation, physiognomic and floristically distinct. The study was conducted in two areas of remnant scrub, one of the crystalline basement (Farm Trussu - 6 ° 19' 46 "S and 39 ° 22' 39''O) and other sedimentary (Farm Elmo Moreno - 6 of 21 '78 "S and 39 º 14' 24''O) located in the municipality of Iguatu, south-central, Ceará. The botanical collections were made fortnightly in four months and monthly rainfall in the dry months during the period April 2007 to December 2010. Was collected herbs, shrubs, trees, epiphytes, and lianas hemiparasites. The botanical collection is deposited in the Herbarium MOSS. On Farm Trussu was collected 186 species distributed in 135 genera and 53 families in the Farm and Elmo Moreno was collected 148 species belonging to 107 genera and 46 families. Confirms the hypothesis that the caatinga vegetation differs according to the type of substrate present (crystalline or sedimentary), exerting influence on soil depth distribution and competition of woody species. The registration of a significant number of woody plant species unique and rare in the study area indicates that the work performed so far have not covered or sampled a considerable number of species present in different regions of the Scrubland biome.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Semi-Arid Zone , Flowers , Biodiversity
15.
Rev. biol. trop ; 59(4): 1805-1812, Dec. 2011. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-646553

ABSTRACT

The orchid community in the Biosphere Reserve Sierra del Rosario, Cuba. The Biosphere Reserve Sierra del Rosario is located in Western Cuba and two different areas can be characterized: one for tourism and forestry activities, El Taburete (ET), and the other for conservation and research, El Salón (ES). With the aim to know the effect of visitation activities on the orchid community in the Reserve, a comparative study between the disturbed area and the preserved one was undertaken. The field work, held between 2004-2005, consisted on four transects in each locality (10x100m, 0.1ha). For each transect, the existing orchid species (terrestrial and epiphytic), kind of phorophytes, and level of occupation were identified. Different analysis were considered: dominance-diversity, Sorensen similarity, the dominance index and the relative abundance of the most abundant species. Our results showed 27 phorophytes species, 20 species in ET (98 phorophytes), and 16 species in ES (76 phorophytes). A total of 22 genus, 26 species and 8 326 individuals of orchids were identified. In ET, 17 genus, 18 species and 5 075 individuals were found, while for ES were 15 genus, 18 species and 3 251 individuals. Both locations have a similarity of species of 57.14%. Oeceoclades maculata, an invasive species, was the most abundant. The most dominant species were Microchilus plantagineus in ES and O. maculata in ET. The dominance in ET was of 81.79%, while in ES of 69.27%. It is important to sketch management plans focused on controlling O. maculata in both areas, and the restoration of the disturbed area. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4): 1805-1812. Epub 2011 December 01.


Teniendo en cuenta la escasez de estudios previos que permitan apreciar el efecto de la antropización sobre las comunidades de orquídeas en la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra del Rosario, al occidente de Cuba; se procedió a realizar un estudio comparativo entre un hábitat conservado (El Salón; ES) y uno antropizado (El Taburete; ET) y se encontraron en total 27 especies de forófitos, 20 especies presentes en ET (98 forófitos) y 16 especies en ES (76 forófitos). Por lo tanto se identificaron 22 géneros de orquídeas, 26 especies y 8 326 plantas. En ES fueron 15 géneros, 18 especies y 3 251 plantas, en ET, 17 géneros, 18 especies y 5 075 plantas. Oeceoclades maculata, una especie invasora, fue la más abundante. Ambas localidades tienen una similaridad de especies de 57.14%. Las especies más dominantes fueron: Microchilus plantagineus en ES y O. maculata en ET. La dominancia en ES es de 69.27% y en ET de 81.79%. Es importante elaborar planes de manejo enfocados a controlar O. maculata en ambas áreas, y en restablecer el estrato arbóreo original de la zona antropizada.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Conservation of Natural Resources , Orchidaceae/classification , Trees , Cuba
16.
J Environ Biol ; 2011 Sept; 32(5): 537-541
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-146612

ABSTRACT

Studies on community structures of earthworms of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations and their adjacent mixed forests in West Tripura (India) revealed that both the studied sites harvoured 10 earthworm species. Nine species (Pontoscolex corethrurus, Kanchuria sp 1, Metaphire houlleti, Drawida papillifer papillifer, Drawida assamensis, Gordiodrilus elegans, Eutyphoeus assamensis, Eutyphoeus comillahnus and Eutyphoeus gigas) were common to both. While Octochaetona beatrix was found only in the rubber plantations, Dichogaster affinis was restricted to the mixed forest only. Earthworms were found mostly within 15 cm depth of soils having mean temperature of 27ºC, moisture of 23%, pH of 4.57, organic matter of 1.34% and water holding capacity of 36%. Mean earthworm density in rubber plantations (115 ind. m-2) was significantly higher (p = 0.003, t = 3.83) than that in the mixed forests (69 ind. m-2) due to dominance of Pontoscolex corethrurus, an exotic species. Numbers of dominant species were two (P. corethrurus and D. assamensis) in the rubber plantations and five (P. corethrurus D. assamensis, D. papillifer papillifer, M. houlleti and Kanchuria sp 1) in the mixed forests. Compared to the mixed forests, significantly low (p<0.05) Shannon diversity index (H) and species evenness and high index of dominance in the rubber plantation were evaluated.

17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 43(5): 516-522, set.-out. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-564286

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Study of the temporal activity of malaria vectors during the implantation of a hydroelectric power station on the River Paraná, intended to generate electrical energy. The river separates the States of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, in Brazil. The objective was to verify whether alterations occurred in the wealth and diversity indices of Anopheles, following two successive floods, extended to the temporal activity and nycthemeral rhythm followed over a five year period. METHODS: Mosquito capture was performed monthly using the Human Attraction Technique and Shannon Traps. The first, executed for 24h, provided the nycthemeral rhythm and the second, lasting 15h, permitted the tracking of Anopheles during the two floods. RESULTS: The bimodal pattern of Anopheles darlingi defined before these floods was modified throughout the environment interventions. The same effect had repercussions on the populations of An albitarsis s.l., An triannulatus and An galvaoi. Activity prior to twilight was less affected by the environment alterations. CONCLUSIONS: The dam construction provoked changes in Anopheles temporal activity patterns, permitting classification of the area as an ecologically steady and unstable situation. Differences observed in Anopheles behavior due to the capture methods revealed the influence of solo and multiple attractiveness inside the populations studied.


INTRODUÇÃO: Estudo da atividade horária de vetores da malária durante a implantação de uma represa no Rio Paraná, destinada à geração de energia elétrica. O rio separa os Estados de São Paulo e Mato Grosso do Sul, no Brasil. O objetivo foi verificar se as alterações na riqueza e diversidades de Anopheles diante de duas inundações sucessivas se estendiam à atividade horária e ritmo nictimeral numa série temporal de cinco anos. MÉTODOS: A captura de mosquito foi mensal, por meio dos métodos Técnica Atrativa Humana e Armadilha de Shannon. A primeira, executada durante 24 horas, forneceu o ritmo nictimeral e a segunda, com duração de 15 horas, para acompanhar os anofelinos durante as duas inundações. RESULTADOS: O padrão bimodal de Anopheles darlingi definido antes dessas inundações foi alterado ao longo das intervenções ambientais. O mesmo efeito repercutiu nas populações de An albitarsis s.l., An triannulatus e An galvaoi. A atividade pré-crepuscular foi a menos afetada pelas alterações ambientais. CONCLUSÕES: As barragens provocam mudanças no padrão de atividade horária dos anofelinos permitindo classificar a área em situação ecologicamente estável e instável. Diferenças observadas no comportamento dos anofelinos pelos métodos de captura mostram a influência da uni e múltipla atratividade dentro das populações estudadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/physiology , Biodiversity , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Floods , Insect Vectors/physiology , Power Plants , Anopheles/classification , Brazil , Population Density , Population Dynamics
18.
Rev. bras. entomol ; 54(1): 76-81, mar. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-550500

ABSTRACT

Diversidade de formigas epigéicas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) em ambientes no Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Foi comparada, através do uso de índices de diversidade e modelos de abundância de espécies, a diversidade das comunidades de formigas epigéicas que ocorrem em duas estruturas vegetacionais diferentes: mata nativa e cultura de eucalipto. Para a captura das formigas foram utilizadas 800 armadilhas de solo do tipo pitfall, em oito amostras distintas. Um total de 85 espécies, distribuídas em 36 gêneros de sete subfamílias foram coletadas nos dois ambientes, sendo que destas, 83 ocorreram na mata nativa e 60 na cultura de eucalipto. A diversidade de espécies de formigas calculada pelo índice de Simpson não foi significativamente diferente entre os ambientes, ao contrário do resultado obtido a partir da aplicação do índice de Shannon, o qual indicou maior diversidade de espécies na mata nativa. O modelo log-series não se ajustou satisfatoriamente aos dados das comunidades de formigas encontradas na cultura de eucalipto e na mata nativa, mas o modelo log-normal mostrou-se adequado para descrever a estrutura das comunidades dos dois ambientes. O modelo broken-stick, que representa uma comunidade bem estruturada, ajustou-se apenas aos dados da mata nativa.


We compared, through the use of diversity indices and species abundance models, the diversity of communities of epigeous ants occurring in two different vegetational structures: native forest and eucalyptus plantation. To capture the ants, 800 soil pitfall traps were used, in eight sample series. A total of 85 species, belonging to 36 genera of seven subfamilies were collected in the two environments. Of these species, 83 occurred in the native forest and 60 in the eucalyptus plantation. The species diversity as evaluated by Simpson's index was not significantly different between the environments, but the Shannon index indicated a higher diversity of species in the native forest. The log-series model could not be adjusted satisfactorily to the data for the ant communities from either the eucalyptus plantation or the native forest; however, the log-normal model appeared appropriate to describe the community structure in both environments. The broken-stick model, which represents a well-structured community, was only adjusted to the data for the native forest sites.

19.
J Environ Biol ; 2009 Sept; 30(5suppl): 777-784
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-146297

ABSTRACT

The epipelic algae of Balik lagoon and Uzun lagoon were investigated from May 2003 to December 2004. A total of 106 taxa were identified. Of these, 85 were found in Balik lagoon and 78 were found in Uzun lagoon. Water temperature of the lagoons ranged from 6.5 to 24.5oC during the sampling period. Conductivity, hardness, dissolved oxygen an pH values varied between 0.70 and 8.00 mS, 26.00 and 86.60 of, 3.50 and 9.00 mg l -1 and 7.82 and 8.70 respectively. Nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, chloride, phosphate phosphorus and sulphate concentrations in the water were also measured and ranged from 0.01 to 0.14, 0.01 to 0.24, 2.41 to 48.70, 0.01 to 0.12 and 54.00 to 104.40 mg l -1 respectively. Species richness (d), diversity (Shannon – Weaver, H’) and evennes ( J’) were calculated for epipelic algae and the findings showed similar oscillations throughout the research period. Cluster analyses and multidimensional scaling (MDS) revealed a similar distribution pattern of epipelic algal flora in both lagoons.

20.
J Environ Biol ; 2009 Mar; 30(2): 247-251
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-146180

ABSTRACT

Harike wetland was declared a Ramsar site in 1990. It is located at the confluence of two major rivers of Indus rivers system, the Beas and the Sutlej, but was never explored extensively for its existing fish biodiversity. Earlier only 27 fish species of commercial value were reported from the wetland. Acknowledging its importance for rich diversity, fish assemblages in seven different reaches of Harike wetland were studied to determine their abundance and distribution. 61 fish species of 35 genera were recorded from Harike wetland during the present study. Cirrihinus mrigala and Cyprinus carpio belonging to family Cyprinidae were the dominant fish species. Lake and Riyasat having many microhabitats supported highest diversity of fishes (60 and 56 respectively) followed by Beas (20) Sutlej (14), Confluence (12), Reservoir (9) and Downstream (8). Among the IUCN designated threatened species, 1 Critically Endangered, 4 Endangered and 13 Vulnerable fish species of India are found in Harike wetland. Species diversity index, dominance, evenness and catch per unit effort were calculated to ascertain the fish distribution in Harike wetland.

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