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1.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 75(1)abr. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1550871

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La rabia es una enfermedad zoonótica asociada al virus RABV, el cual tiene características neurotrópicas. El virus se transmite por el contacto con saliva de animales infectados; la mordedura de un perro es la causa más común. Es un virus que causa la muerte de miles de personas cada año. Objetivo: Describir a profundidad los principios moleculares de la infección por rabia, así como su patogenia, diagnóstico y tratamiento. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de bibliografía en PubMed, SciELO, Scopus, Researchgate; se consultaron 163 referencias y se seleccionaron 51 fuentes que contenían la información más relevante para cumplir con el objetivo del trabajo. Conclusión: Actualmente es posible entender de mejor manera los mecanismos de transmisión y propagación del virus en el organismo; existe nuevo conocimiento sobre los receptores involucrados, así como la función de estos en la replicación viral. Sin embargo, el objetivo de la erradicación de la rabia a corto plazo es complejo. La invasión de territorios selváticos vuelve a la rabia un posible patógeno reemergente; la vacunación de especies transmisoras es el medio ideal para conseguir el control de la enfermedad.


Introduction: Rabies is a zoonotic disease associated with the RABV virus, which has neurotropic characteristics. The virus is transmitted by contact with saliva from infected animals; a dog's bite is the most common cause. This virus causes the death of thousands of people every year. Objective: To describe in depth the molecular principles of rabies infection, as well as its pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. Methods: A literature search was conducted in PubMed, SciELO, Scopus, and Researchgate. A total of 163 references were consulted, and 51 sources containing the most relevant information were selected to fulfill the objective of the work. Conclusions: It is currently possible to better understand the mechanisms of transmission and spread of the virus in the organism; there is new knowledge about the receptors involved, as well as their function in viral replication. However, the goal of eradicating rabies in the short term is complex. The invasion of wild territories makes rabies a possible re-emerging pathogen; vaccination of transmitting species is the ideal means to achieve disease control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/virology
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 210-215, feb. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430505

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Apocrine glands are sweat glands that are located in the skin of the dog. Anal sac apocrine, circunanal apocrine, and mammary glands are considered modified apocrine structures, and there are about nine possible types of neoplasms and other tumors in the apocrine glands of the dog and cat, including cysts, adenoma, carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. Thus, it is important to provide new markers to characterize these glands to improve the histopathological diagnosis. In this article, we describe the distribution of kallikrein- related peptidases 5, 7, 8, and 10 in the normal apocrine glands of the dog's skin. These proteases have been shown to play a fundamental role in the homeostasis of the human skin barrier but have been scarcely studied in canine skin.


Las glándulas apocrinas son glándulas sudoríparas que se encuentran en la piel del perro. Las glándulas apocrinas del saco anal, apocrinas circunanales y mamarias se consideran estructuras apocrinas modificadas, y existen alrededor de nueve tipos posibles de neoplasias y otros tumores en las glándulas apocrinas del perro y el gato, incluidos quistes, adenoma, carcinoma y adenocarcinoma. Por lo tanto, es importante proporcionar nuevos marcadores para caracterizar estas glándulas para mejorar el diagnóstico histopatológico. En este artículo, describimos la distribución de las peptidasas 5, 7, 8 y 10 relacionadas con la calicreína en las glándulas apocrinas normales de la piel del perro. Se ha demostrado que estas proteasas desempeñan un papel fundamental en la homeostasis de la barrera de la piel humana, pero apenas se han estudiado en la piel canina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Apocrine Glands/metabolism , Apocrine Glands/chemistry , Kallikreins/analysis , Kallikreins/metabolism , Skin , Immunohistochemistry
3.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 327-330, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971795

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of rabies-exposed populations in Anji County, Zhejiang Province from 2017 to 2021, so as to provide insights into rabies control in the county.@*Methods@#All data pertaining to rabies were captured from Monthly Report of Rabies-exposed Populations in Huzhou City and Investigation Form of Multiple Dog Injuries reported by dog injury clinics in Anji County from 2017 to 2021, and the species of animals causing dog injuries, duration, degree and site of exposure, and post-exposure treatment of rabies-exposed populations were descriptively analyzed. @*Results@#Totally 46 186 cases with rabies exposure were reported in dog injury clinics in Anji County from 2017 to 2021, and the rate of exposure appeared a tendency towards a decline year by year (Z=-23.249, P<0.001), with an annual mean exposure rate of 1 739.59/105. The number of cases with exposure to rabies peaked in July and August (10 066 cases, 21.79%). Dogs were predominant animals causing injuries (31 732 cases, 68.70%), and the rate of exposure to dog bites appeared a tendency towards a decline year by year (Z=-35.541, P<0.001). There were 11 350 cases with cat-causing injuries (24.57%), and the rate of exposure to cat bites appeared a tendency towards a rise (Z=14.834, P<0.001). Lower extremity was the main site of exposure (22 364 cases, 48.42%), and the proportions of grade Ⅱ and Ⅲ exposure to rabies were 72.85% and 25.23%, the rates of exposure both appeared a tendency towards a decline (Z=-14.522, P<0.001; Z=-21.820, P<0.001). The proportion of using human rabies immune globulin was 25.72% among populations with grade Ⅲ exposure, which appeared a tendency towards a rise (Z=6.636, P<0.001). @*Conclusions@#The rate of exposure to rabies appeared a tendency towards a decline in Anji County from 2017 to 2021. Dogs were predominant animals causing injuries, and the rate of cat bites appeared a tendency towards a rise from 2017 to 2021; however, the proportion of using human rabies immune globulin remains to be improved among populations with grade Ⅲ exposure.

4.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e210468, 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1518143

ABSTRACT

Rescue and recovery dogs intercalate the activity intensity developed, which also triggers significant metabolic changes in cardiac physiology. Thus, we evaluated the changes that search simulation causes in glucose, lactate, and cardiac troponin I level (cTnI) and the electrocardiographic and heart rate during the activity and recovery phase to predict the physiological adaptation to the exercise. Five healthy adult dogs from the Rescue and Recovery Service of Military Firefighters Corps were submitted to 60 minutes search operation simulation in the woods. They covered a forest area of approximately 50,000 m2. The dogs were loose and accompanied by their driver, and they could perform any physical activity. Were evaluated serum biochemical analysis of glucose, lactate, cardiac troponin I, electrocardiographic, and heart rate (rest, exercise phase, and recovery time). No changes in glucose levels, heart rate, and cardiac rhythm were detected. In comparison to baseline values, there is an increase: in lactate at the end of the exercise phase [EXER] (60'EXER), and in the recovery phase [RCT] at 30'RCT and 60'RCT, and cTnI at 60'RCT, 120'RCT, and 4hRCT. P wave duration was significantly higher at 60'EXER, 15'RCT, and 30'RCT, with no alterations in wave amplitude. QRS interval duration significantly increased at 30'RCT, and the ST segment presented a significant difference at 60'EXER, 15'RCT, and 60'RCT compared to the rest moment. The moderate alterations in lactate and cTnI and few alterations in the electrocardiographic and heart rate maintenance suggest the adaptation of rescue and recovery dogs to the type, intensity, and duration of search operation simulation performed.(AU)


Cães de busca e resgate intercalam a intensidade da atividade desenvolvida que desencadeia alterações metabólicas significativas, bem como na fisiologia cardíaca. Assim, foram avaliadas as alterações que a simulação de busca produz nos níveis de glicose, lactato, troponina I cardíaca (cTnI), bem como na frequência cardíaca e atividade eletrocardiográfica durante a fase de atividade e recuperação, a fim de predizer a adaptação fisiológica ao exercício. Cinco cães adultos saudáveis do Serviço de Resgate e Salvamento do Corpo de Bombeiros Militares foram submetidos à simulação de operação de busca de 60 minutos na mata e cobriram uma área florestal de aproximadamente 50.000 m2. Os cães estavam soltos, acompanhados pelo condutor e estavam livres para realizar qualquer tipo de atividade física. Foram avaliados os níveis séricos de glicose, lactato e troponina I cardíaca, atividade eletrocardiográfica e frequência cardíaca em repouso, na fase de exercício e no tempo de recuperação. Não foram detectadas alterações nos níveis de glicose, frequência cardíaca e ritmo cardíaco. Em comparação com os valores basais houve aumento de lactato ao final da fase de exercício [EXER] (60'EXER) e na fase de recuperação [RCT] aos 30'RCT e 60'RCT; e cTnI aos 60'RCT, 120'RCT e 4hRCT. Duração da onda P foi significativamente maior em 60'EXER, 15'RCT e 30'RCT, sem alterações na amplitude da onda. Duração do intervalo QRS teve aumento significativo em 30'RCT e o segmento ST apresentou diferença significativa em 60'EXER, 15'RCT e 60'RCT quando comparado ao basal. As alterações moderadas nos níveis de lactato e cTnI, bem como a pouca alteração na atividade eletrocardiográfica e manutenção da frequência cardíaca sugerem boa adaptação dos cães de busca e resgate ao tipo, intensidade e duração da operação de busca simulada realizada.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Dogs/physiology , Electrocardiography/veterinary , Cardiac Electrophysiology/methods , Lactic Acid/administration & dosage , Troponin I/administration & dosage
5.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1518148

ABSTRACT

Studies on the interactions between the intestinal microbiome and its host have strengthened in the last decade. However, publications on this topic in dogs still need to be made available, reinforcing the need for new studies and literary data for consultation. Given this, this review aims to describe the intestinal microbiome and its interactions with the canine host, which can contribute to both health and morbid conditions in these animals. The definition of microbiome encompasses the collective genome of all microorganisms that live in a defined habitat (intestine). It is known that the dog's intestinal microbiota is varied, composed of bacteria, archaea, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. Under normal conditions, there is commensalism between some of these microorganisms and the host, which promotes critical physiological relationships and interactions that contribute to homeostasis and the consequent health of the animal. With this in mind, it is expected that the disturbances associated with the microbiome will result in imbalances in this commensal relationship and thus precipitate the development of diseases and aggravation of other diseases, thus characterizing intestinal dysbiosis.(AU)


Os estudos sobre as interações entre o microbioma intestinal e o seu hospedeiro ganharam força na última década. Entretanto, as publicações acerca de tal temática em cães ainda são escassas, o que reforça a necessidade de novos estudos e dados literários para consultas. Frente a isso, o objetivo da presente revisão é descrever sobre o microbioma intestinal e suas interações e principais efeitos no cão, os quais podem contribuir tanto para a higidez quanto para quadros mórbidos desses animais. A definição de microbioma engloba o genoma coletivo de todos os microrganismos que vivem em habitat definido (intestino). É sabido que a microbiota intestinal do cão é muito variada, sendo composta por bactérias, arqueas, vírus, fungos e protozoários. Em condições normais, há o comensalismo entre alguns desses microrganismos e o hospedeiro, o que promove importantes relações e interações fisiológicas que contribuem sobremaneira para a homeostasia e consequente saúde do animal. Ciente disso, é de se esperar que os distúrbios associados ao microbioma resultarão em desequilíbrios nessa relação comensal e, assim, precipitar o desenvolvimento de doenças e/ou agravamento de outras moléstias, caracterizando, assim, a disbiose intestinal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Dysbiosis
6.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 26(2cont): 324-335, 2023. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1518658

ABSTRACT

A insuficiência cardíaca congestiva é considerada, atualmente, a principal causa de óbitos em cães, sendo resultante da degeneração mixomatosa da válvula mitral, processo que inviabiliza o fechamento total da mesma durante a sístole. Apesar de se tratar de uma doença progressiva, os efeitos patológicos podem ser reduzidos significativamente e concomitantemente prolongar a vida do animal, desde que haja protocolos de tratamentos específicos e descritos por profissionais capacitados na área médica animal. Esse estudo teve como objetivo relatar um caso de insuficiência congestiva em um animal da espécie canina, sem raça definida, sexo masculino resgatado pela prefeitura do município de Botucatu, São Paulo, Brasil. Durante a necropsia foi observado os seguintes achados macroscópicos: neoplasias cutâneas aderidas ao tecido, tártaro dentário, pneumonia intersticial hemorrágica, companhias de fibrose e enfisema pulmonar hemorrágico, metástase calcificada circular em lobo pulmonar direito, necrose pulmonar, cardiomiopatia hipertrófica concêntrica, insuficiência cardíaca congestiva, aderência de pericárdio na cavidade torácica, fígado em aspecto de noz moscada, metástase hepática, hepatite, esplenomegalia, dilatação entérica multifocal, intussuscepção, necrose intestinal, hipertrofia de pelve renal e aderência de cápsula renal. Esses achados demonstram o comprometimento de todos os órgãos do animal, demonstrando que a causa mortis foi em decorrência de uma insuficiência respiratória de origem infecciosa que ocasionou a insuficiência cardíaca congestiva.(AU)


Congestive heart failure is currently considered the main cause of death in dogs, resulting from myxomatous degeneration of the mitral valve, a process that prevents its total closure during systole. Despite being a progressive disease, the pathological effects can be significantly reduced and, at the same time, prolong the animal's life, as long as there are specific treatment protocols described by trained professionals in the field of animal medicine. This study aimed to report a case of congestive insufficiency in an animal of the canine species, mixed breed, male, rescued by the municipality of Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil. During the necropsy, the following macroscopic findings were observed: skin neoplasms adhered to the tissue, dental tartar, hemorrhagic interstitial pneumonia, fibrosis and hemorrhagic pulmonary emphysema, circular calcified metastasis in the right pulmonary lobe, pulmonary necrosis, concentric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure, adherence of pericardium in the thoracic cavity, nutmeg liver, liver metastasis, hepatitis, splenomegaly, multifocal enteric dilation, intussusception, intestinal necrosis, renal pelvis hypertrophy and renal capsule adherence. These findings showed the involvement of all tissues, demonstrating that the cause of death was due to respiratory failure of infectious origin that caused congestive heart failure.(AU)


Actualmente se considera la insuficiencia cardíaca congestiva como la principal causa de muerte en perros, resultante de la degeneración mixomatosa de la válvula mitral, proceso que impide su cierre total durante la sístole. A pesar de ser una enfermedad progresiva, los efectos patológicos pueden reducirse significativamente y, al mismo tiempo, prolongar la vida del animal, siempre y cuando existan protocolos de tratamiento específicos descritos por profesionales capacitados en el campo de la medicina animal. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo reportar un caso de insuficiencia congestiva en un animal canino, mestizo, macho, rescatado por el municipio de Botucatu, São Paulo, Brasil. Durante la necropsia se observaron los siguientes hallazgos macroscópicos: neoplasias cutáneas adheridas al tejido, sarro dental, neumonía intersticial hemorrágica, compañías de fibrosis y enfisema pulmonar hemorrágico, metástasis circular calcificada en lóbulo pulmonar derecho, necrosis pulmonar, miocardiopatía hipertrófica concéntrica, insuficiencia cardíaca, adherencia del pericardio en la cavidad torácica, hígado de nuez moscada, metástasis hepática, hepatitis, esplenomegalia, dilatación entérica multifocal, intususcepción, necrosis intestinal, hipertrofia de la pelvis renal y adherencia de la cápsula renal. Estos hallazgos demuestran la afectación de todos los órganos del animal, demostrando que la causa de la muerte se debió a una insuficiencia respiratoria de origen infeccioso que provocó una insuficiencia cardíaca congestiva.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Dogs , Autopsy/veterinary , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Brazil , Heart Failure/mortality , Infections/complications
7.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225930

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are the most common non epithelial, mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and amount to 1 to 3% of all gastrointestinal tumours. Histologically, GISTs demonstrate considerable morphologic variation.The aim of the study was to evaluate the histo-morphological features of GIST and the expression of DOG1 and KI-67 in these tumours. Eleven cases of GISTs received during a five-year period at a tertiary care centre were analysed for their demographic parameters, morphology and risk stratification. Immunohistochemistry for DOG1 and Ki67 was performed for all the eleven cases.Inthis study there was a female preponderance with the mid -fifties being the median age of presentation. The stomach and small intestine were the common sites of involvement. The histologic type was predominantly spindle cell with a few cases of mixed tumours. DOG 1 was positive in all the tumours and Ki-67 index was markedly elevated in the epithelioid cell type and in the high-risk category of tumours.DOG 1 holds good as an important marker for clinically suspected GIST diagnosis and Ki-67 expression correlates with the risk stratification of the tumour and can be a good prognostic factor

8.
BAG, J. basic appl. genet. (Online) ; 33(2): 45-53, Dec. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420296

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La displasia de cadera canina o displasia coxo-femoral (DCF) es un desorden progresivo e incapacitante en perros de razas grandes, como el Ovejero Alemán. La selección de reproductores libres de displasia es la única forma de reducir su incidencia. Se han desarrollado varios métodos de diagnóstico basados en el examen radiográfico, en base a los cuales se seleccionan los reproductores para la cría. La DCF tiene una base hereditaria poligénica e influencia ambiental, con una heredabilidad media a baja (alrededor de 0,20 a 0,40), por lo que el progreso de la selección fenotípica ha sido lento. En Argentina la prevalencia de la displasia en la raza sigue siendo alta (>25%) y es imposible prever su incidencia en la progenie del plantel de cría. Algunos países han implementado la selección basada en el valor estimado de cría, obteniendo un importante avance. Los estudios de asociación del genoma completo han revelado numerosos marcadores asociados a la DCF y se han encontrado varios genes candidatos que señalan la posibilidad de implementar una selección genómica en un futuro cercano.


ABSTRACT Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a progressive and disabling disorder in large dog breeds, such as the German Shepherd dog. Breeding sires and dams free of dysplasia is the only way to reduce its incidence. Several diagnostic methods have been developed based on radiographic examination, on the basis of which dogs are selected for breeding. CHD has a polygenic hereditary basis and environmental influence, with a median to low heritability (ca. 0,20 to 0,40), so the progress in phenotypic selection has been slow. In Argentina, the prevalence of dysplasia in German Shepherd dogs remains high (> 25%) and it is impossible to predict its incidence in the offspring of the breeding stock. Some countries have implemented a selection based on the estimated breeding value, obtaining an important advance. Genomewide association studies have revealed numerous CHD-associated markers and several candidate genes have been found that point to the possibility of implementing genomic selection in the near future.

9.
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 69(3): 325-333, sep.-dic. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424225

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Perineal hernia results from weakening and/or the inability of the pelvic diaphragm to support the rectal wall, promoting caudal displacement of abdominal or pelvic organs in the perineum. Unneutered male dogs aged between 7 and 10 years are the most affected, being rare in females. The main clinical signs are unilateral or bilateral swelling of the perineal region, associated or not with tenesmus, dysuria, urinary and/or fecal incontinence, anuria and pain during defecation. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, anamnesis, physical examination, and complementary tests such as radiography and ultrasound. Clinical treatment can be done in some cases, but surgical intervention is required to resolve the problem. The present work aims to report the case of a patient treated at the FullPet Veterinary Clinic in Guarulhos, São Paulo, Brazil, a 7-year-old male Yorkshire canine, unneutered, weighing 4.5 kg. The same was submitted to surgery by the traditional method of suture with nylon thread and enteropexy. When there was recurrence, surgical reintervention was necessary to correct the hernia using a polypropylene mesh.


RESUMEN La hernia perineal resulta del debilitamiento y/o incapacidad del diafragma pélvico para sostener la pared rectal, lo que promueve el desplazamiento caudal de los órganos abdominales o pélvicos en el perineo. Los perros machos no castrados de entre 7 y 10 años son los más afectados, siendo raro en las hembras. Los principales signos clínicos son tumefacción unilateral o bilateral de la región perineal, asociada o no a tenesmo, disuria, incontinencia urinaria y/o fecal, anuria y dolor durante la defecación. El diagnóstico se basa en la historia clínica, la anamnesis, el examen físico y pruebas complementarias como la radiografía simple y la ecografía. El tratamiento clínico se puede hacer en algunos casos, pero se requiere una intervención quirúrgica para resolver el problema. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo relatar el caso de un paciente atendido en la Clínica Veterinaria FullPet de Guarulhos, São Paulo, Brasil, un canino Yorkshire macho de 7 años, sin castrar, con un peso de 4,5 kg. Fue intervenido quirúrgicamente por el método tradicional de sutura con hilo de nylon y enteropexia. Cuando hubo recidiva, fue necesaria la reintervención quirúrgica para corregir la hernia mediante una malla de polipropileno.

10.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1537054

ABSTRACT

El doble arco aórtico persistente es una patología caracterizada por anomalías embrionarias en la vascularización, que pueden afectar de manera indirecta a otros sistemas, como el digestivo y el respiratorio. El objetivo de este documento es reportar un caso de doble arco aórtico, persistente en un cachorro Bull terrier, de seis meses de edad. El paciente ingresó a consulta por motivo de regurgitaciones frecuentes y pérdida ponderal. En el estudio radiográfico, se evidenció dilatación esofágica craneal a la base del corazón y en la toracotomía, se confirmó un doble arco aórtico persistente. Se realizó manejo nutricional y posteriormente, corrección quirúrgica de la anomalía vascular. Este es el primer caso de una anomalía de este tipo en Colombia. Se concluye, que un manejo quirúrgico enfocado a liberar el anillo estenosante y a recuperar la función esofágica, son la base terapéutica de este tipo de alteraciones.


Persistent double aortic arch is a pathology characterized by embryonic vascularization anomalies, which can indirectly affect other systems such as the digestive and respiratory systems. The objective of this document is to report a case of persistent double aortic arch in a six-month-old Bull Terrier puppy. The patient was admitted for consultation due to frequent regurgitation and weight loss. The radiographic study revealed cranial esophageal dilation at the base of the heart, and a thoracotomy confirmed a persistent double aortic arch. Nutritional management was performed and subsequently, surgical correction of the vascular anomaly. This is the first case of an anomaly of this type in Colombia. It is concluded that surgical management focused on releasing the stenosing ring and recovering esophageal function are the therapeutic basis for this type of alteration.

11.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-220825

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There is a necessitated need for canvassing and prioritizing measures towards rabies elimination beyond existing statuesque post-exposure prophylaxis. Moreover, there is a need to characterize the psychological and intrusive experiences of dog-bite victims to portray a picture beyond the public health perspective. To get an expressive understanding of the psychological and lived-in experience ofObjective: dog bite victims' to complement existing concepts. The study was conducted at the anti-rabiesMethod: clinic(ARC) of SMHS hospital which receives animal bite cases from the whole of Kashmir valley. Participants were selected by purposive sampling based on the inclusion criteria, and data saturation was reached with eleven participant interviews. One to one in-depth interviews were conducted with eleven (11) dog bite victims, using a preformed interview guide. Data analysis was performed using Colaizzi's phenomenological method to describe the individualistic experiences faced in peculiar conditions with familiar phenomena embedded in them. Data analysis yielded three overarching themes and nine subthemes viz:-Results: 1.Spiritual and emotional ineffectualness. (Suffering and affliction, Spiritual sulkiness, Emotional emergence) 2. Flashbacks of being hindered and defenseless. (Lack of focus in one's work, lacking the courage to protect, Being shaky) 3. Social and economical implications. (Financial loss, group and peer detachment, preferring isolation) The results of this study showed that dog bite patients experience an unpleasantConclusion: phenomenon in the face of being bitten by the dogs and are subjected to severe psychological pressures that require attention and support of medical professionals, psychologists and government authorities.

12.
J Indian Med Assoc ; 2022 Aug; 120(8): 65-70
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-216587

ABSTRACT

Human Hydatid Disease is a growing menace, a parasitic disease present in many countries all over the globe (more than 1 million people are affected throughout the World annually). Tape-worm is the main causative organism.In humans it is prevalent in two forms – Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) [caused by Echinococcus granulosus] and Alveolar Echinococcosis (AE)[caused by Echinococcus multilocularis]. Humans are the accidental intermediate host; they are being affected by drinking water or eating food contaminated with parasite eggs or by direct contact with infected animal hosts like dogs. In humans, the most commonly affected organ is Liver followed by the Lungs. The main investigational tool is Ultrasonography but Computed Tomography (CT) and serological tests are also helpful in the diagnosis of Liver Hydatid Cysts (LHC). Although PAIR technique is the most important modality of therapy along with medical treatment, surgery has got a great role in the management of the entire spectrum of the disease. Nowadays, various Laparoscopic techniques have been safely used to improve the morbidity and mortality associated with the surgical management of the disease, and is the only other therapeutic option used all over the World. Prevention programme includes, public awareness and Education, dog deworming and slaughterhouse hygiene.

13.
Rev. colomb. cienc. pecu ; 35(2)jun. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535788

ABSTRACT

Background: Bacteria of the Anaplasmataceae family and canine hemoparasitic protozoans transmitted by ticks are common in Colombia due to circulation and biological adaptation of vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.). Objective: To detect the circulation of Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis in sheltered dogs in three municipalities in southern Aburrá Valley, province of Antioquia, Colombia. Methods: Primers were used to amplify the 16S rRNA associated with the Anaplasmataceae family, dsb for Ehrlichia sp. and 18S rRNA for Hepatozoon sp. Results: Of the 357 samples of venous blood obtained, representing all the sheltered dogs in the study zone, Ehrlichia canis DNA was detected in 2.2% of individuals, showing identity of 100% with previous sequences from the GenBank. Hepatozoon canis showed 8.7% (31/357) prevalence of infection, with 100% identity to genotypes from Japan, Brazil, and Spain. Only one sequence of H. canis exhibited a phylogenic divergence concerning H. canis previously reported in Brazil and the Old World. Conclusions: This study confirms the circulation of E. canis and H. canis in asymptomatic shelter dogs in the south-central zone of the Aburrá Valley, province of Antioquia, Colombia. The present study is the first molecular detection of H. canis in the Province of Antioquia and the third report of canine hepatozoonosis from Colombia, highlighting the importance of considering this agent in veterinary clinic.


Antecedentes: Los agentes patógenos transmitidos por garrapatas, tales como las bacterias de la familia Anaplasmataceae y los protozoos hemoparasitarios caninos, son comunes en Colombia debido a la circulación y la adaptación biológica del vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.). Objetivo: Detectar la circulación de Ehrlichia canis y Hepatozoon canis en perros protegidos en tres municipios del sur del Valle de Aburrá, departamento de Antioquia, Colombia. Métodos: Se usaron cebadores para amplificar el gen 16S rRNA asociado con la familia Anaplasmataceae y el gen dsb para Ehrlichia sp. y el 18S rRNA para Hepatozoon sp. Resultados: De las 357 muestras de sangre venosa obtenidas, que representan a todos los perros de albergues en la zona de estudio, 2,2% fueron positivas para Ehrlichia canis, con 100% de identidad con secuencias anteriores publicadas en todo el mundo. Hepatozoon canis mostró una prevalencia de infección del 8,7% (31/357), con una identidad del 100% con genotipos de Japón, Brasil y España. Solo una secuencia de H. canis exhibió divergencia filogénica en relación con H. canis previamente reportada en Brasil y el Viejo Mundo. Conclusiones: Este estudio confirma la circulación de E. canis y H. canis en perros asintomáticos de albergues en la zona centro-sur del Valle de Aburrá, departamento de Antioquia, Colombia. El presente estudio es la primera detección molecular en el Departamento de Antioquia y el tercer reporte de hepatozoonosis canina de Colombia destacando la importancia de considerar este agente en la clínica veterinaria.


Antecedentes: Agentes patogênicos transmitidos por carrapatos, como bactérias da família Anaplasmataceae e protozoários hemoparasitários caninos, são comuns na Colômbia devido à circulação e adaptação biológica do vetor Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.). Objetivo: Detectar Ehrlichia canis e Hepatozoon canis em cães abrigados em três municípios do sul do vale de Aburrá, departamento de Antioquia, Colômbia. Métodos: Os primers foram utilizados para amplificar o rRNA 16S associado à família Anaplasmataceae, o dsb para Ehrlichia sp. e o rRNA 18S para Hepatozoon sp. Resultados: Das 357 amostras de sangue venoso obtidas, representando todos os cães abrigados na zona de estudo, 2,2% foram positivas para Ehrlichia canis, com 100% de identidade com sequências anteriores publicadas em todo o mundo. Hepatozoon canis mostrou uma prevalência de infecção de 8,7% (31/357), com 100% de identidade com genótipos do Japão, Brasil e Espanha. Apenas uma sequência de H. canis apresentou divergência filogênica em relação a H. canis previamente relatados no Brasil e no Velho Mundo. Conclusões: Este estudo confirma a circulação de E. canis e H. canis em cães de abrigo assintomáticos na zona centro-sul do vale de Aburrá, departamento de Antioquia, Colômbia. O presente estudo é a primeira detecção molecular no Departamento de Antioquia e o terceiro relato de hepatozoonose canina na Colômbia, destacando a importância de considerar este agente na clínica veterinária.

14.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e241162, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278483

ABSTRACT

Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies and a major zoonotic disease in Brazil. Due to the southward expansion of the disease within the country and the central role of dogs as urban reservoirs of the parasite, we have investigated the occurrence of CVL in two municipalities Erval Velho and Herval d'Oeste in the Midwest region of Santa Catarina state. Peripheral blood samples from 126 dogs were collected in both cities and tested for anti-L. infantum antibodies by indirect enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence reaction (IIF) and for the presence of parasite DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral blood. From examined dogs, 35.71% (45/126) were positive for at least one of the three tests and two (1.6%) were positive in all performed tests. Twelve dogs (9.5%) were positive for both ELISA and IIF, while 21 dogs were exclusively positive for ELISA (16.7%), and 15 (11.9%) for IIF. L. infantum k-DNA was detected by PCR in 9 out of 126 dogs (7.1%) and clinical symptoms compatible with CVL were observed for 6 dogs. Taken together, these results indicate the transmission of CVL in this region, highlighting the needs for epidemiological surveillance and implementation of control measures for CVL transmission in this region.


A Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (LVC) causada pela Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum e transmitida por flebotomíneos e é uma das principais zoonoses do Brasil que se encontra em expansão em estados da região sul do país, sendo os cães o principal reservatório urbano do parasito. O presente estudo investigou a ocorrência de LVC em dois municípios, Erval Velho e Herval d'Oeste localizados no meio-oeste de Santa Catarina. Para tanto, amostras de sangue periférico de 126 cães foram coletadas em ambas as cidades e submetidas à detecção de anticorpos anti-L. infantum por meio de testes de ELISA e imunofluorescência indireta (IFI), bem com a detecção de k-DNA pela reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR). Além disso, também foram observados os sintomas clínicos e as condições ambientais associadas a esses animais. Dos cães examinados, 35,7% (45/126) foram positivos para pelo menos um dos três testes, dois cães (1,6%) foram positivos em todos os três testes, 12 cães (9,5%) foram positivos tanto no ELISA quanto na IFI, enquanto 21 cães (16,7%) foram positivos para ELISA e 15 (11,9%) para o IFI. A amplificação do k-DNA de L. infantum foi positiva em 9 dos 126 cães (7,1%). Entre os cães positivos seis apresentaram um ou mais sintomas clínicos correlacionados com a LVC. Esses resultados confirmaram a ocorrência de LVC na região e destacaram a importância do monitoramento e implementação de medidas de controle para a LVC nessa região.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities
15.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(10): e20210543, 2022. tab
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1375117

ABSTRACT

Prothrombin time (PT) and the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) are useful tools for the diagnosis and monitoring of coagulation disorders in Veterinary Medicine. Our objectives were: to establish reference intervals (RI) for PT and a PTT for the dog using the Start®4 (Stago), to compare the obtained RI with literature; to evaluate the effects of gender and age on the coagulation profile. Plasma samples of 122 healthy dogs (57 males; 65 females) aged between 4 months and 18 years, divided into three age groups (0-2 years old; 3-10 years old; > 10 years old) and grouped in to males and females were analysed. The RI were estimated following the ASVCP guidelines with the Reference Value Advisor software. The RI were: PT 6.7'' to 10.8''; aPTT 9.0'' to 14.8''. PT was significantly higher in females than in males. Dogs aged 10 years or older have significantly higher mean aPTT times than younger dogs. RI comparison showed a considerable percentage of cases outside the reference RI of the literature (PT - 79.3%; aPTT - 77.1%), demonstrating the need of each laboratory to calculate its own RI. The RI established in this study are applicable for the coagulation profile assessment in dogs.


O tempo de protrombina (TP) e o tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa) são ferramentas úteis para o diagnóstico e monitorização das alterações da coagulação em Medicina Veterinária. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: estabelecer intervalos de referência (IR) para TP e TTPa para o cão utilizando o Start®4 (Stago), de modo a comparar os IR obtidos com a literatura; avaliar os efeitos do sexo e da idade no perfil da coagulação. Foram usadas amostras de plasma de 122 cães saudáveis (57 machos; 65 fêmeas) com idades entre quatro meses e 18 anos, divididos em três grupos (0-2 anos; 3-10 anos; > 10 anos) e agrupados em machos e fêmeas. Os IR foram calculados seguindo as diretrizes da ASVCP com o software Reference Value Advisor. Os IR obtidos foram: PT 6,7 '' a 10,8 ''; TTPa 9,0 '' a 14,8 ''. O TP foi significativamente maior nas fêmeas do que nos machos. Os cães com 10 anos ou mais apresentaram tempos médios de TTPa significativamente maiores do que cães mais jovens. A comparação de IR mostrou uma percentagem considerável de casos fora do IR de referência da literatura (TP - 79,3%; TTPa - 77,1%), confirmando a necessidade de cada laboratório calcular seu próprio IR. Os IR estabelecidos neste estudo são aplicáveis na avaliação do perfil hemostático em cães.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Partial Thromboplastin Time/veterinary , Prothrombin Time/veterinary , Hemostatics/analysis , Reference Values , Sex Factors , Age Factors
16.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(10): e20210421, 2022. graf
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1375121

ABSTRACT

Dog bite is one of the major public health problems involving people worldwide. Although, several studies have investigated this phenomenon in different countries, little information about the incidence of dog bite episodes in Italy is available. We analysed data about dog biting events between 2010 and 2019 provided by the CRIUV, the Regional Reference Centre for Veterinary Urban Hygiene in the largest city of Southern Italy, namely. Naples. We observed severe and profound inconsistencies in the data collection that reveal structural and significant weaknesses of the current data collection system. Given the multifactorial nature of dog bite, we highlight the need to improve the gathering of all the information related to the factors affecting the occurrence of biting episodes for an accurate assessment of the biting phenomenon.


A mordida de cães é um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública que envolve pessoas em todo o mundo. Embora vários estudos tenham investigado esse fenômeno em diferentes países, poucas informações sobre a incidência de episódios de mordidas por cães na Itália estão disponíveis. Analisamos dados sobre eventos de mordidas de cães entre 2010 e 2019 fornecidos pelo CRIUV, Centro de Referência Regional para Higiene Veterinária Urbana na maior cidade do sul da Itália, Nápoles. Observamos inconsistências graves e profundas na coleta de dados que revelam fragilidades estruturais e significativas do sistema de coleta de dados atual. Dada a natureza multifatorial da mordida canina, destaca-se a necessidade de melhorar a coleta de todas as informações relacionadas aos fatores que afetam a ocorrência de episódios de mordida para uma avaliação precisa deste fenômeno.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Bites and Stings/veterinary , Human-Animal Bond , Aggression , Risk , Retrospective Studies , Italy
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 822022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468709

ABSTRACT

Abstract Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies and a major zoonotic disease in Brazil. Due to the southward expansion of the disease within the country and the central role of dogs as urban reservoirs of the parasite, we have investigated the occurrence of CVL in two municipalities Erval Velho and Herval dOeste in the Midwest region of Santa Catarina state. Peripheral blood samples from 126 dogs were collected in both cities and tested for anti-L. infantum antibodies by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence reaction (IIF) and for the presence of parasite DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral blood. From examined dogs, 35.71% (45/126) were positive for at least one of the three tests and two (1.6%) were positive in all performed tests. Twelve dogs (9.5%) were positive for both ELISA and IIF, while 21 dogs were exclusively positive for ELISA (16.7%), and 15 (11.9%) for IIF. L. infantum k-DNA was detected by PCR in 9 out of 126 dogs (7.1%) and clinical symptoms compatible with CVL were observed for 6 dogs. Taken together, these results indicate the transmission of CVL in this region, highlighting the needs for epidemiological surveillance and implementation of control measures for CVL transmission in this region.


Resumo A Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (LVC) causada pela Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum e transmitida por flebotomíneos e é uma das principais zoonoses do Brasil que se encontra em expansão em estados da região sul do país, sendo os cães o principal reservatório urbano do parasito. O presente estudo investigou a ocorrência de LVC em dois municípios, Erval Velho e Herval dOeste localizados no meio-oeste de Santa Catarina. Para tanto, amostras de sangue periférico de 126 cães foram coletadas em ambas as cidades e submetidas à detecção de anticorpos anti-L. infantum por meio de testes de ELISA e imunofluorescência indireta (IFI), bem com a detecção de k-DNA pela reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR). Além disso, também foram observados os sintomas clínicos e as condições ambientais associadas a esses animais. Dos cães examinados, 35,7% (45/126) foram positivos para pelo menos um dos três testes, dois cães (1,6%) foram positivos em todos os três testes, 12 cães (9,5%) foram positivos tanto no ELISA quanto na IFI, enquanto 21 cães (16,7%) foram positivos para ELISA e 15 (11,9%) para o IFI. A amplificação do k-DNA de L. infantum foi positiva em 9 dos 126 cães (7,1%). Entre os cães positivos seis apresentaram um ou mais sintomas clínicos correlacionados com a LVC. Esses resultados confirmaram a ocorrência de LVC na região e destacaram a importância do monitoramento e implementação de medidas de controle para a LVC nessa região

18.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-6, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468522

ABSTRACT

Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies and a major zoonotic disease in Brazil. Due to the southward expansion of the disease within the country and the central role of dogs as urban reservoirs of the parasite, we have investigated the occurrence of CVL in two municipalities Erval Velho and Herval d'Oeste in the Midwest region of Santa Catarina state. Peripheral blood samples from 126 dogs were collected in both cities and tested for anti-L. infantum antibodies by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence reaction (IIF) and for the presence of parasite DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral blood. From examined dogs, 35.71% (45/126) were positive for at least one of the three tests and two (1.6%) were positive in all performed tests. Twelve dogs (9.5%) were positive for both ELISA and IIF, while 21 dogs were exclusively positive for ELISA (16.7%), and 15 (11.9%) for IIF. L. infantum k-DNA was detected by PCR in 9 out of 126 dogs (7.1%) and clinical symptoms compatible with CVL were observed for 6 dogs. Taken together, these results indicate the transmission of CVL in this region, highlighting the needs for epidemiological surveillance and implementation of control measures for CVL transmission in this region.


A Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (LVC) causada pela Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum e transmitida por flebotomíneos e é uma das principais zoonoses do Brasil que se encontra em expansão em estados da região sul do país, sendo os cães o principal reservatório urbano do parasito. O presente estudo investigou a ocorrência de LVC em dois municípios, Erval Velho e Herval d’Oeste localizados no meio-oeste de Santa Catarina. Para tanto, amostras de sangue periférico de 126 cães foram coletadas em ambas as cidades e submetidas à detecção de anticorpos anti-L. infantum por meio de testes de ELISA e imunofluorescência indireta (IFI), bem com a detecção de k-DNA pela reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR). Além disso, também foram observados os sintomas clínicos e as condições ambientais associadas a esses animais. Dos cães examinados, 35,7% (45/126) foram positivos para pelo menos um dos três testes, dois cães (1,6%) foram positivos em todos os três testes, 12 cães (9,5%) foram positivos tanto no ELISA quanto na IFI, enquanto 21 cães (16,7%) foram positivos para ELISA e 15 (11,9%) para o IFI. A amplificação do k-DNA de L. infantum foi positiva em 9 dos 126 cães (7,1%). Entre os cães positivos seis apresentaram um ou mais sintomas clínicos correlacionados com a LVC. Esses resultados confirmaram a ocorrência de LVC na região e destacaram a importância do monitoramento e implementação de medidas de controle para a LVC nessa região.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Neglected Diseases/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Zoonoses/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
19.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 31(1): e016821, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360927

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to verify the occurrence of Dioctophyme renale in stray dogs in the city of Pelotas, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico of the Universidade Federal de Pelotas received 146 wandering dogs for necropsy, sent by the City Hall of Pelotas from March 2012 to January 2020. Among the necropsied animals, seventeen dogs (11.64%) were diagnosed with dioctophymosis. Among these dogs, 11 were parasitized with one specimen in the right kidney, two dogs presented two specimens in the right kidney, and in other two dogs, the parasites were in the abdominal cavity. In one dog, two parasites were found in the left kidney; in another dog, both kidneys were parasitized, with two parasites in the right kidney and one in the left kidney. The data obtained in this study showed that the occurrence of D. renale in stray dogs in the city of Pelotas is high, and D. renale mainly parasitizes the right kidney.


Resumo Este trabalho possui como objetivo verificar a ocorrência de D. renale em cães errantes do município de Pelotas, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Universidade Federal de Pelotas recebeu 146 cães errantes para necropsia, encaminhados pela Prefeitura Municipal de Pelotas, no período de março de 2012 a janeiro de 2020. Dentre os cães necropsiados, 17 animais foram diagnosticados com dioctofimose, determinando uma ocorrência de 11,64%. Desses animais, onze estavam parasitados com um exemplar no rim direito, dois animais possuíam dois exemplares no rim direito. Em dois animais, os parasitas estavam na cavidade abdominal; em um animal havia, dois parasitas no rim esquerdo e noutro animal os dois rins estavam parasitados, tendo dois exemplares no rim direito e um exemplar no rim esquerdo. Os dados obtidos neste trabalho permitem concluir que é elevada a ocorrência de D. renale nos cães errantes do município de Pelotas, parasitando principalmente o rim direito.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Enoplida Infections/veterinary , Enoplida Infections/epidemiology , Dioctophymatoidea , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Kidney/parasitology , Animals, Wild
20.
Chinese Journal of Microsurgery ; (6): 656-663, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995462

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the protective effect and mechanism of improved St. Thomas solution on canine skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI).Methods:Between March 2021 and September 2021, in the experimental operating room at the Air Force Hospital of the PLA Eastern Theater Command, 16 Beagles were randomly divided into control group, IRI group, IRI+NS group, and improved St. Thomas group, 4 in each group. The canine skeletal muscle IRI model was established, and the canine vital signs were monitored by pre-perfusion with improved St. Thomas perfusate [potassium chloride (KCl), magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4), and NaHCO 3 (pH adjusted)]. The pathological damage of canine skeletal muscle was explored by hematoxylin eosin (HE) staining, electron microscope detection and tissue wet/dry weight ratio, and blood vessel density. Hypoxia performances were detected by labeling blood vessels and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). The IRI model of L6 rat myoblasts was established, and the components of St. Thomas perfusion solution were pre incubated to explore the effect on the inhibition of cell proliferation. And by detecting reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), F2 isoprostane (F2-isoprostane), interleukin 1β(IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), myeloperoxide enzyme (MPO), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), etc. to explore its protective mechanism. Statistical software SPSS 23.0 was used for statistical analysis, A P<0.05 was set as statistically significant. Results:In the improved St. Thomas group, the vital signs of the dogs were relatively stable, the amount of maintained dopamine was less, the histopathological structure of the gastrocnemius muscle tended to be intact, the swelling of tissue cells and mitochondria was significantly relieved, and the tissue wet/dry weight ratio was less than that in the IRI group ( P=0.046). Pre-incubated with therapeutic doses of MgSO 4 or NaHCO 3, the proliferation rate of L6 cells was higher than that of IRI group ( P<0.01, P=0.005), NADPH ( P=0.004, P=0.001), F2-isoprostane ( P<0.01, P=0.01), IL-1β ( P=0.02, P=0.015), TNF-α ( P<0.01, P<0.01), MPO ( P<0.01, P<0.01) were all lower than those in the IRI group, except GSH-Px that was higher than what in the IRI group ( P<0.01). Conclusion:Pre-perfusion of the improved St. Thomas solution can stabilise the vital signs of dogs in a short period of time. The solution can improve the state of skeletal muscle cells, improve tissue hypoxia, and reduce the damage of skeletal muscle tissue cells through anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress.

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