Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 2.909
Filter
1.
International Eye Science ; (12): 189-193, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913020

ABSTRACT

@#AIM:To study the effect of vitamin E on the injury of human retinal pigment epithelial(hRPE)cells induced by high-dose blue light, and provide experimental evidence for intercepting blue light damaged hRPE cells. <p>METHODS: The hRPE cell injury model was established with 3000±150Lx blue light. The apoptosis rate and reactive oxygen species(ROS)of the six groups of hRPE cells were detected by flow cytometry at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24h respectively. Apoptosis and ROS in hRPE cells were detected by cytometry in 0h-irradiation group, 6h-irradiation group, and vitamin E added groups(vitamin E concentration 10, 50, 100μmol/L)before or after 6h-irradiation. The fluorescence intensity of hRPE cells was observed under a fluorescence microscope using Hoechst 33258 staining reagent.<p>RESULTS: Compared with the 0h-irradiation group, the relative amount of reactive oxygen species increased significantly in 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24h groups(all <i>P</i><0.01), the apoptosis rate of hRPE cells increased significantly in 6, 9, 12 and 24h groups(all <i>P</i><0.01), the apoptosis rate of the 3h-irradiation group was not statistically significantly increased(<i>P</i>=0.46). Compared with the 6h-irradiation group, the relative amounts of ROS and apoptotic rate of the six groups of hRPE cells added vitamin E were significantly decreased, and the blue fluorescence of Hoechst 33258 released in the cells gradually decreased, which was concentration dependent(all <i>P</i><0.01),except for apoptosis rate of hRPE cells in the 10 μmol/L vitamin E group before irradiation(<i>P</i>=0.66). Compared with the 0h-irradiation group, the difference in the relative amount of ROS and apoptosis rate of hRPE cells in added groups were statistically significant(all <i>P</i><0.01). At the same concentration of vitamin E, the relative amount of ROS and apoptosis rate of hRPE cells added vitamin E after irradiation were significantly lower than those added vitamin E before irradiation(all <i>P</i><0.01), except for apoptosis rate of hRPE cells in the 10 μmol/L vitamin E group, which had no difference between added before and after irradiation(<i>P</i>=0.08).<p>CONCLUSION: After hRPE cells had been irradiated by blue light, the increase in the relative amount of intracellular ROS was earlier than that of apoptosis. Elimination of intracellular ROS is the idea of intercepting high doses of blue light induced hRPE cell injury. Vitamin E protects RPE cell against damage induced by high doses of blue light, and the effect becomes stronger as the concentration of vitamin E increases, which is better when added after irradiating. However, it doesn't take effect until the concentration reaches a certain level. And the damage can't be completely repaired.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 437-450, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929305

ABSTRACT

Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) had been widely used in lung diseases on account of direct pulmonary delivery, good drug stability and satisfactory patient compliance. However, an indistinct understanding of pulmonary delivery processes (PDPs) hindered the development of DPIs. Most current evaluation methods explored the PDPs with over-simplified models, leading to uncompleted investigations of the whole or partial PDPs. In the present research, an innovative modular process analysis platform (MPAP) was applied to investigate the detailed mechanisms of each PDP of DPIs with different carrier particle sizes (CPS). The MPAP was composed of a laser particle size analyzer, an inhaler device, an artificial throat and a pre-separator, to investigate the fluidization and dispersion, transportation, detachment and deposition process of DPIs. The release profiles of drug, drug aggregation and carrier were monitored in real-time. The influence of CPS on PDPs and corresponding mechanisms were explored. The powder properties of the carriers were investigated by the optical profiler and Freeman Technology four powder rheometer. The next generation impactor was employed to explore the aerosolization performance of DPIs. The novel MPAP was successfully applied in exploring the comprehensive mechanism of PDPs, which had enormous potential to be used to investigate and develop DPIs.

3.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 285-294, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929193

ABSTRACT

Anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has shown impressive efficacy in treating B-cell malignancies. A single-center phase I dose-escalation study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of T cells transduced with CBM.CD19 CAR, a second-generation anti-CD19 CAR bearing 4-1BB costimulatory molecule, for the treatment of patients with refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Ten heavily treated patients with refractory DLBCL were given CBM.CD19 CAR-T cell (C-CAR011) treatment. The overall response rate was 20% and 50% at 4 and 12 weeks after the infusion of C-CAR011, respectively, and the disease control rate was 60% at 12 weeks after infusion. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in all patients. The incidence of cytokine release syndrome in all grades and grade ⩾ 3 was 90% and 0, respectively, which is consistent with the safety profile of axicabtagene ciloleucel and tisagenlecleucel. Neurotoxicity or other dose-limiting toxicities was not observed in any dose cohort of C-CAR011 therapy. Antitumor efficacy was apparent across dose cohorts. Therefore, C-CAR011 is a safe and effective therapeutic option for Chinese patients with refractory DLBCL, and further large-scale clinical trials are warranted.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD19/adverse effects , China , Humans , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/therapy , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , T-Lymphocytes
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929028

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Low dose computed tomography (LDCT) is the best method for early diagnosis of lung cancer. Even though it has been widely used in clinic, the selection of screening objects and the management scheme of pulmonary nodules are still not unified among research institutions. This study aims to evaluate the effect of LDCT in detection effect and follow-up process for pulmonary nodules in asymptomatic participants.@*METHODS@#A total of 1 600 asymptomatic participants (37 to 82 years old), who came from Yantian District People's Hospital, Southern University of Science and Technology, received LDCT. The lung nodules were categorized into positive nodules and semi-positive nodules, and according to the density of positive nodules they were categorized into 4 types: solid nodules (SN), partial solid nodules (pSN), pure ground glass nodules (pGGN), and pleural nodules (PN). The number, detection rate, imaging findings, follow-up change of lung nodules, and the postoperative pathological results of positive nodules were recorded and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Lung nodules were found in 221 cases by LDCT. The total detection rate of lung nodule was 13.8% (221/1 600), and the detection rate in positive nodules was 4.9% (79/1 600). The detected nodules were mainly single (173 cases), solid (133 cases) and semi-positive nodules (142 cases). Most of nodules (177 cases) had no change in the follow-up process. The enlargement and/or increased density of nodules (5 cases) were lung cancer. Pathological results were obtained in 10 cases, 8 cases were malignant (1 small cell lung cancer and 7 adenocarcinomas), 2 cases were benign (cryptococcal infection and alveolar epithelial dysplasia). The detection rate of lung cancer was 0.5% (8/1 600), and the proportion of early lung cancer was 75% (6/8).@*CONCLUSIONS@#LDCT screening can identify and increase the detection rate in the early lung cancer, which is an effective screening method. It is safe and feasible to take regular follow-up and re-examination for nodules with diameter less than 5 mm. When the size and or density of nodule increases, it indicates the malignant prognosis of the nodule and timely clinical intervention is needed.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928594

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the optimal maintenance dose of caffeine citrate for preterm infants requiring assisted ventilation and caffeine citrate treatment.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 566 preterm infants (gestational age ≤34 weeks) who were treated and required assisted ventilation and caffeine citrate treatment in the neonatal intensive care unit of 30 tertiary hospitals in Jiangsu Province of China between January 1 and December 31, 2019. The 405 preterm infants receiving high-dose (10 mg/kg per day) caffeine citrate after a loading dose of 20 mg/kg within 24 hours after birth were enrolled as the high-dose group. The 161 preterm infants receiving low-dose (5 mg/kg per day) caffeine citrate were enrolled as the low-dose group.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the low-dose group, the high-dose group had significant reductions in the need for high-concentration oxygen during assisted ventilation (P=0.044), the duration of oxygen inhalation after weaning from noninvasive ventilation (P<0.01), total oxygen inhalation time during hospitalization (P<0.01), the proportion of preterm infants requiring noninvasive ventilation again (P<0.01), the rate of use of pulmonary surfactant and budesonide (P<0.05), and the incidence rates of apnea and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (P<0.01), but the high-dose group had a significantly increased incidence rate of feeding intolerance (P=0.032). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the body weight change, the incidence rates of retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular hemorrhage or necrotizing enterocolitis, the mortality rate, and the duration of caffeine use (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#This pilot multicenter study shows that the high maintenance dose (10 mg/kg per day) is generally beneficial to preterm infants in China and does not increase the incidence rate of common adverse reactions. For the risk of feeding intolerance, further research is needed to eliminate the interference of confounding factors as far as possible.


Subject(s)
Caffeine/therapeutic use , Citrates , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927666

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The present study was undertaken to evaluate the subchronic oral toxicity of sodium dehydroacetate (DHA-Na) and to determine the point of departure (POD), which is a critical factor in the establishment of an acceptable dietary intake.@*Methods@#DHA-Na was administered once daily by gavage to Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 0.0, 31.0, 62.0, and 124.0 mg/kg BW per day for 90 days, followed by a recovery period of 4 weeks in the control and 124.0 mg/kg BW per day groups. The outcome parameters were mortality, clinical observations, body weights, food consumption, hematology and clinical biochemistry, endocrine hormone levels, and ophthalmic, urinary, and histopathologic indicators. The benchmark dose (BMD) approach was applied to estimate the POD.@*Results@#Significant decreases were found in the 62.0 and 124.0 mg/kg BW groups in terms of the body weight and food utilization rate, whereas a significant increase was found in the thyroid stimulating hormone levels of the 124.0 mg/kg BW group. Importantly, the 95% lower confidence limit on the BMD of 51.7 mg/kg BW was modeled for a reduction in body weight.@*Conclusion@#The repeated-dose study indicated the slight systemic toxicity of DHA-Na at certain levels (62.0 and 124.0 mg/kg BW) after a 90-day oral exposure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Organ Size , Pyrones , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
7.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 282-288, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920768

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To examine the dose-response association between cardiorespiratory fitness ( CRF ) and the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.@*Methods@#A joint search was performed in Chinese and English electronic databases, including China National Knowledge Infrastructure ( CNKI ) , Wanfang Data, VIP, CBM, PubMed, Embase and Web of Science, to retrieve publications reporting the correlation between CRF and the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases until May, 2021. The pooled risk was estimated using the random effects model, and the dose-response association was evaluated using restricted cubic splines. The source of heterogeneity was assessed by subgroup analysis, and the stability of the results was tested by the trim-and-fill method, while the publication bias was assessed using funnel plots.@*Results@#Totally 37 280 literatures were identified, and 23 eligible studies were finally included in the analysis, which covered 2 605 622 subjects. There were 22 publications identified as high-quality. Meta-analysis revealed that the pooled risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases reduced by 42% in the highest CRF group relative to the lowest CRF group ( OR=0.58, 95%CI: 0.52-0.65 ), and a one metabolic equivalent ( MET ) increase in CRF caused a 10% reduction in the pooled risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases ( OR=0.90, 95%CI: 0.88-0.92 ). There was a negative linear correlation between CRF and the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases ( P=0.396 ). Subgroup analysis identified gender, sample size and study regions as possible sources of heterogeneity, and sensitivity analysis showed that the study results were stable.@*Conclusions@#There is a negative linear correlation between CRF and the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and an increase in CRF may reduce the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920651

ABSTRACT

@#In this study, different functional layer formulations and process parameters were used to prepare the levomilnacipran hydrochloride sustained-release capsules, the influence of functional layer formulation and process factors on dose dumping was studied by comparing their release curves in 40% ethanol; and the risk of dose dumping of the self-developed drug was evaluated by the similar factors of the release curve of the self-developed drug and the reference drug.The results showed that as the coating weight increased, the degree of dose dumping decreased; when the concentration of ethanol in the coating liquid solvent was less than 80%, the dose dumping increased; as the atomization pressure and maturation time increase, the dose dumping became more serious. In 0% ethanol (purified water), 5% ethanol, 20% ethanol and 40% ethanol media, the self-developed and reference preparations had the same degree of dose dumping within the specified time, and rotation speed had no significant effect on the release of metformin in vitro. In summary, formulation factors such as coating weight gain, ethanol concentration in the coating solution solvent, and process factors such as atomization pressure and curing time have a serious impact on the dose dumping of sustained-release capsules.Under the optimal functional layer formulation and process, special attention should be paid to the control of risk of self-developed dose dumping.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920572

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To determine the clinical problems and outcome indicators that need to be included in the expert consensus of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) photodynamic therapy in the treatment of oral potential malignant diseases. @*Methods@# Based on the relevant literature, the clinical problems and outcome indicators were drafted during the meeting. The Delphi method was used for expert consultation and expert opinion collection. The average and standard deviation of the voting results were calculated to determine the importance of the indicators, and the positive coefficient, variation coefficient and coordination coefficient were calculated for quality control. @* Results@#In the first round of the Delphi method, 12 outcome indicators (the main reference elements include photon integral flux, power density, illumination time, and spot diameter were identified; the specific parameters are photon integral flux of 100 J/cm2 and power density of 100-600 mW/cm2. A diode laser of (630 ± 5) nm wavelength should be chosen. The analgesic regimen is local anesthesia supplemented by hypothermia and intermittent laser irradiation before treatment. Lesions with hyperkeratotic require pretreatment. The concentration of ALA administered was set at 20%. Eight clinical problems (main reference elements of photodynamic irradiation dose, specific parameters, choice of light source, evaluation criteria of efficacy, prevention of adverse effects, dosing concentration, whether oral potentially malignant diseases with hyperkeratosis should be pretreated, administration of photosensitizers) were included according to the literature and expert discussion. In the second round, 89 experts completed the questionnaire and gave very important evaluations of 9 outcome indicators (the main reference elements included photon integral flux, power density and illumination time; the specific parameters were a photon integral flux of 100 J/cm 2 and a power density of 100-600 mW/cm2). A diode laser of (630 ± 5)nm wavelength should be chosen. The concentration of ALA administered was set at 20%. Six clinical problems (main reference elements of photodynamic irradiation dose, specific parameters, choice of light source, evaluation criteria of efficacy, dosing concentration, administration of photosensitizers), and the remaining 3 were given important evaluations, with good consistency.@*Conclusion@# In this study, the irradiation dose, mode of administration and concentration, evaluation criteria of efficacy, prevention of adverse effects and pretreatment regimen of ALA photodynamic therapy for oral potentially malignant diseases determined by the Delphi method had good agreement among experts.

10.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210036, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1356460

ABSTRACT

Background: Scorpions are arachnids that have a generalist diet, which use venom to subdue their prey. The study of their trophic ecology and capture behavior is still limited compared to other organisms, and aspects such as trophic specialization in this group have been little explored. Methods: In order to determine the relationship between feeding behavior and venom toxicity in the scorpion species Tityus fuhrmanni, 33 specimens were offered prey with different morphologies and defense mechanisms: spiders, cockroaches and crickets. In each of the experiments we recorded the following aspects: acceptance rate, immobilization time and the number of capture attempts. The median lethal dose of T. fuhrmanni venom against the three different types of prey was also evaluated. Results: We found that this species does not have a marked difference in acceptance for any of the evaluated prey, but the number of capture attempts of spiders is higher when compared to the other types of prey. The immobilization time is shorter in spiders compared to other prey and the LD50 was higher for cockroaches. Conclusions: These results indicate that T. fuhrmanni is a scorpion with a generalist diet, has a venom with a different potency among prey and is capable of discriminating between prey types and employing distinct strategies to subdue them.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Predatory Behavior , Scorpions , Toxicity , Feeding Behavior , Food Chain , Defense Mechanisms , Lethal Dose 50
11.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 75(1): e20210118, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1341027

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the incidence and degree of acute radiodermatitis at the end and after the end of treatment in women with breast cancer undergoing hypofractionated radiotherapy. Methods: Observational, prospective, and longitudinal study, conducted between March 2019 and January 2020, in a radiotherapy outpatient clinic. Results: Thirty-two women participated in the study, among whom, in the last session of hypofractionated radiotherapy, 15 (46.9%) had radiodermatitis, erythema in 13 (40.6%), and wet peeling in 2 (6.3%). In the post-treatment evaluation, 27 (84.4%) had radiodermatitis, erythema in 17 (53.1%), dry peeling in 8 (25%), and wet peeling in 2 (6.3%). Conclusion: The general incidence of radiodermatitis after hypofractionated radiotherapy in women with breast cancer was 37.5%, erythema, 12.5%, and dry peeling, 25%. The development of care protocols for the management of radiodermatitis after treatment is of paramount importance.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Estimar la incidencia y el grado de radiodermatitis aguda al final y después el término del tratamiento en mujeres con cáncer de mama sometidas a la radioterapia hipofraccionada. Métodos: Estudio observacional, prospectivo y longitudinal, realizado entre marzo de 2019 y enero de 2020, en un ambulatorio de radioterapia. Resultados: Participaron del estudio 32 mujeres, de entre las cuales, en la última sesión de radioterapia hipofraccionada, 15 (46,9%) presentaban radiodermatitis, siendo eritema en 13 (40,6%) y descamación húmeda en 2 (6,3%). En la evaluación después del tratamiento, 27 (84,4%) presentaban radiodermatitis, siendo eritema en 17 (53,1%), descamación seca en 8 (25%) y descamación húmeda en 2 (6,3%). Conclusión: La incidencia general de radiodermatitis después radioterapia hipofraccionada en mujeres con cáncer de mama fue 37,5%: eritema, 12,5%; y descamación seca, 25%. Es de suma importancia el desarrollo de protocolos asistenciales para el manejo de radiodermatitis después del tratamiento.


RESUMO Objetivo: Estimar a incidência e o grau de radiodermatite aguda ao final e após o término do tratamento em mulheres com câncer de mama submetidas à radioterapia hipofracionada. Métodos: Estudo observacional, prospectivo e longitudinal, realizado entre março de 2019 e janeiro de 2020, em um ambulatório de radioterapia. Resultados: Participaram do estudo 32 mulheres, dentre as quais, na última sessão de radioterapia hipofracionada, 15 (46,9%) apresentavam radiodermatite, sendo eritema em 13 (40,6%) e descamação úmida em 2 (6,3%). Na avaliação após o tratamento, 27 (84,4%) apresentavam radiodermatite, sendo eritema em 17 (53,1%), descamação seca em 8 (25%) e descamação úmida em 2 (6,3%). Conclusão: A incidência geral de radiodermatite após radioterapia hipofracionada em mulheres com câncer de mama foi 37,5%: eritema, 12,5%; e descamação seca, 25%. É de suma importância o desenvolvimento de protocolos assistenciais para o manejo de radiodermatite após o tratamento.

12.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eAO6412, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364799

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate whether different genotypes of p.Arg16Gly, p.Gln27Glu, p.Arg19Cys and p.Thr164Ile variants interfere in response to treatment in children and adolescents with moderate to severe acute asthma. Methods This sample comprised patients aged 2 to 17 years with a history of at least two wheezing episodes and current moderate to severe asthma exacerbation. All patients received multiple doses of albuterol and ipratropium bromide delivered via pressurized metered-dose inhaler with holding chamber and systemic corticosteroids. Hospital admission was defined as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were changes in forced expiratory volume in the first second after 1 hour of treatment, and for outpatients, length of stay in the emergency room. Variants were genotyped by sequencing. Results A total of 60 patients were evaluated. Hospital admission rates were significantly higher in carriers of the genotype AA relative to those with genotype AG or GG, within the p.Arg16Gly variant (p=0.03, test χ2, alpha=0.05). Secondary outcomes did not differ between genotypes. Conclusion Hospital admission rates were significantly higher among carriers of the genotype AA within the p.Arg16Gly variant. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01323010


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Asthma/genetics , Asthma/drug therapy , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2/genetics , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2/therapeutic use , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Metered Dose Inhalers , Albuterol/therapeutic use
13.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924596

ABSTRACT

Objective: In this study, we investigated the occurrence of skin damage following the initiation of low-dose lamotrigine.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the incidence of skin disorders within 8 weeks of the start of lamotrigine administration, prescribing for 3 years from July 2014 to June 2016.In addition, we also confirmed the onset time of skin disorders in the low- and normal-dose groups.Results: The incidence of skin damage was 7.7 and 24.6 % in the low- and normal-dose lamotrigine start groups, respectively. The onset of skin disorders was relatively early in the normal-dose lamotrigine start group.On the other hand, no tendency was found in the low-dose lamotrigine start group because the number of cases was small.Conclusion: The initiation of low-dose lamotrigine and extension of introduction period might reduce the onset of early skin damage.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923827

ABSTRACT

@#BACKGROUND: The study aims to investigate an optimal indicator for changing the filter during the continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS: Patients with AKI requiring CRRT in an ICU were randomly divided into two groups for crossover trial, i.e., groups A and B. Patients in the group A were firstly treated with continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH), followed by continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF). Patients in the group B were firstly treated with CVVHDF followed by CVVH. Delivered doses of solutes with different molecular weights at the indicated time points between groups were compared. A correlation analysis between the delivered dose and pre-filter pressure (PPRE) and transmembrane pressure (PTM) was performed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to evaluate the accuracy of PTM as an indicator for filter replacement. RESULTS: A total of 50 cases were analyzed, 27 in the group A and 23 in the group B. Delivered doses of different molecular-weight solutes significantly decreased before changing the filter in both modalities, compared with those at the initiation of treatment (all P<0.05). In the late stage of CRRT, the possible rebound of serum medium-molecular-weight solute concentration was observed. PTM was negatively correlated with the delivered dose of medium-molecular-weight solute in both modalities. The threshold for predicting the rebound of serum concentration of medium-molecular-weight solute by PTM was 146.5 mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa). CONCLUSIONS: The filter can be used as long as possible within the manufacturer's safe use time limits to remove small-molecular-weight solutes. PTM of 146.5 mmHg may be an optimal indicator for changing the filter in CRRT therapies to remove medium-molecular-weight solutes.

15.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 400-403, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923723

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the reference level of surface radiation dose of digital radiography (DR) among adult examinees in Beilun District, Ningbo City, so as to provide insights into the optimization of the parameters of DR systems and rational management of the radiation dose.@*Methods@#Based on the cloud imaging system covering 14 DR systems in 11 public hospitals in Beilun District, the diagnosis of adults receiving DR and DR systems check were collected from May 2020 to April 2021. The air kerma-area product ( PKA ) was selected as a measure, and the local diagnostic reference level ( LDRL ), the regional median dose ( RMD ), the regional lowest dose predicted level ( LDPL ) and the typical dose in the DR imaging room were defined using the quartile method according to the examination site, projection direction and radiography positions. The PKA value was transformed into incident air kerma ( Ka, e ), and compared with the recommended value in the Requirements for Radiological Protection in Diagnostic Radiology ( GBZ 130-2020 ).@*Results@#DR was performed among 133 065 person-times from May 2020 through April 2021 in Beilun District. The greatest RMD was found on abdomen AP DR in the supine position ( 120 μGy·m2 ), and the lowest RMD was seen on chest PA DR in the standing position ( 17 μGy·m2 ). The maximums of typical dose in the DR imaging room on chest PA ( 33 vs. 30 μGy·m2 ), abdomen AP ( 161 vs. 153 μGy·m2 ) and pelvis AP DR ( 164 vs. 162 μGy·m2 ) were greater than LDRL in the supine position, and the minimums of typical dose on chest PA ( 10 vs. 11 μGy·m2 ) and chest LAT DR ( 33 vs. 34 μGy·m2 ) were lower than LDPL in the standing position. Following transformation into Ka, e, the LDRL ranged from 0.27 to 3.80 mGy, and the maximums of typical dose ranged from 0.25 to 3.55 mGy, which was much lower than the recommended dose proposed in the national criteria.@*Conclusions@#The reference level of surface radiation dose of DR is established among adults in Beilun District, which is lower than the recommended dose in the national criteria of China. Such a reference level may be employed by medical institutions for optimization of the parameters of DR systems. Key words: digital radiography radiation dose diagnostic reference level air kerma-area product

16.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 48(6): 235-244, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364293

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: We aimed to find the association between screen time (ST)-based sedentary behavior and depression in children and adolescents. Methods: PubMed, Embase, and Web of science database were searched to find eligible studies until April 25, 2021. Data extraction was conducted by two investigators independently, followed by quality assessment for included studies. Odd ration (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were regarded as effect size index. Heterogeneity test was conducted using Cochran' s Q test and I2 test. Least squares trend estimation method was used for dose-response meta-analysis. All statistical analyses were conducted using Stata12.0 software. Results: Totally 22 articles containing 197,673 cases were included. The pooled results displayed that there was a significant positive correlation between ST and depression [OR (95%CI) = 1.24 (1.11, 1.38), P < 0.001]. Similar results were observed for watching television (TV), computer use (CU), computer game (CG)/video game (VG) and internet use (IU)/mobile phone (MP) time. Dose-response meta-analysis showed that take 1 hour/day as control, the risk of depression went down and then went up as sedentary time increased for ST (P > 0.05). The risk of depression was significantly increased when TV time beyond 4.5 hours/day (P < 0.05), or CU time beyond 0.5 hours/day (P < 0.05), or CG/VG time beyond 2 hours/day (P < 0.05), or IU/MP time beyond 0.5 hours/day (P < 0.05). Conclusion: ST-based sedentary behavior was associated with the risk of depression in a non-linear dose-response manner for children and adolescents.

17.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 27(2): 89-101, jul.-dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365897

ABSTRACT

Resumen La vancomicina es un antimicrobiano ampliamente utilizado en unidades de cuidado intensivo para el tratamiento de infecciones por cocos Gram positivos. El principal parámetro PK/PD, predictor de la actividad de la vancomicina, es el AUC/MIC mayor a 400, logrado mediante concentraciones plasmáticas del fármaco de 15 a 20 mg/l en el contexto de un paciente con función renal normal. En los pacientes críticos, se generan cambios en los patrones farmacocinéticos que llevan a dosis sub-terapéuticas del antibiótico y monitoreo constante de las concentraciones plasmáticas. Por tanto, se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura con el objetivo de conocer cuál es el mejor régimen de administración de vancomicina en pacientes críticamente enfermos y establecer los parámetros básicos de prescripción en esta población. Se encontró que la infusión continua de vancomicina se relacionó con mejores resultados, alcanzando más tempranamente los niveles planeados de concentración plasmática. La dosis de carga estuvo en el intervalo de 15 a 30 mg/k y la dosis de mantenimiento se dio en promedio entre 30 a 40 mg/K día. La concentración plasmática meta de vancomicina usada en la mayoría de los estudios oscila entre 15 y 20 mg/l. Como conclusión, se obtiene que la forma de administración en infusión continua, muestra mejor resultado, comparada con la administración intermitente; las dosis altas tanto en carga como en mantenimiento son las más recomendadas y no incrementan el riesgo de nefrotoxicidad; las estrategias PK/PD son útiles para el ajuste de la dosis de los pacientes críticamente enfermos.


Abstract Vancomycin is an antimicrobial used in intensive care units for the treatment of Gram-positive cocci infections. The main PK/PD parameter, predictor of vancomycin activity, is the AUC/MIC greater than 400; this is reached with plasma drug concentrations of 15 to 20 mg/l in the context of a patient with normal renal function. In critically ill patients, there are changes in the pharmacokinetic patterns that lead to sub-therapeutic doses of the antibiotic and a requirement for monitoring the vancomycin levels. There was reviewed literature on this field to determine the best vancomycin administration regimen in critically ill patients, and to establish the basic prescription parameters in this population. It was found that continuous infusion of vancomycin was associated with better results since it reached the necessary plasma concentration levels earlier. The loading dose was in the range of 15 to 30 mg/kg and the maintenance dose averaged between 30 to 40 mg/kg per day. The target plasma concentration of vancomycin used in most of the studies ranged between 15 and 20 mg/l. In conclusion, the continuous administration of vancomycin shows better results compared to intermittent administration. High doses in loading and maintenance are the most recommended since these do not increase the risk of nephrotoxicity. Finally, PK/PD strategies are useful for adjusting the dose of critically ill patients.

18.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(4): 468-475, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350824

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Although the efficacy of hydroxyurea (HU) in inhibiting erythrocyte sickling has been well demonstrated, the action of this drug on human neutrophils and the mechanism by which it improves the manifestations of the disease have not been studied thoroughly. We aimed to investigate the cell viability, along with inflammatory and oxidative markers in the neutrophils of sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients and the effects of HU therapy on these cells, by evaluating the dose-responsiveness. Methods: In the present study, 101 patients (45 men and 56 women, aged 18-69 years) with SCA were divided into groups according to the use or not of HU: the SS group (without HU treatment, n = 47) and the SSHU group (under HU treatment, n = 54). The SSHU group was further stratified into subgroups according to the daily dose of the drug that patients already used: SSHU - 0.5 g (n = 19); SSHU - 1 g (n = 26) and SSHU - 1.5-2 g (n = 9). A control group (AA) comprised 50 healthy individuals. Neutrophils isolated from whole blood were analyzed using Trypan Blue, monoiodotyrosine (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) toxicity assays. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and concentrations of interleukin 10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and malonaldehyde (MDA) were also measured. Results: Neutrophils from SCA patients showed membrane fragility and a significant decrease in cell viability when analyzed by Trypan Blue (p < 0.05), MTT (p < 0.001) and LDH (p = 0.011), compared to the AA group. Levels of inflammatory (MPO, TNF-α, and IL-10) and oxidative markers (SOD, GSH-Px, and MDA) were also altered (p < 0.05) in these cells, showing a significant difference in the SSHU-1g and SSHU - 1.5-2 g groups, compared to the SS group. Treatment with HU reverted the levels of all markers to concentrations similar to those in healthy individuals in a positive dose-effect relationship. Conclusion: The HU did not generate a cytotoxic effect on neutrophils in SCA patients, but it modulated their oxidative and inflammatory mechanisms, promoting cytoprotection with a positive dose-effect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Hydroxyurea , Anemia, Sickle Cell , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Oxidative Stress , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Dosage , Inflammation , Malondialdehyde , Neutrophils
19.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(supl.2): 1-32, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351083

ABSTRACT

Resumen En las últimas décadas ha habido un importante desarrollo de dispositivos inhalados (DI) que permiten aumentar la eficacia de las drogas y disminuir los eventos adversos. Su correcto uso es de fundamental importancia para el control de las enfermedades respiratorias obstructivas. En la Argentina no existen recomendaciones locales sobre el uso de los DI. Se revisó la base biofísica, indicación, ventajas y limitaciones, técnica de correcto uso, errores frecuentes, mantenimiento y limpieza de cada DI. El uso de nebulizaciones ha quedado restringido a la administración de drogas que no están disponibles en otros DI (ejemplo: tratamiento de fibrosis quística), o ante la falla de los otros DI. No deben ser usados durante la pandemia de SARS-CoV2. Los inhaladores de dosis medida (aerosol) deben ser indicados siempre con aerocámaras (AC), las que reducen la incidencia de eventos adversos y aumentan el depósito de la droga en el pulmón. Son los dispositivos de elección junto a los inhaladores de polvo seco. Los aerosoles se deben usar en pacientes que no generan flujos inspiratorios altos. Los inhaladores de polvo seco deben recomendarse en aquellos que pueden realizar flujos inspiratorios enérgicos. Se revisaron los diferentes DI en fibrosis quística y en pacientes con asistencia respiratoria mecánica. La elección del DI dependerá de varios factores: situación clínica, edad, experiencia previa, preferencia del paciente, disponibilidad de la droga y entrenamiento alcanzado con el correcto uso.


Abstract Last decades, a broad spectrum of inhaled devices (ID) had been developed to enhance efficacy and reduce adverse events. The correct use of IDs is a critical issue for controlling obstructive respiratory diseases. There is no recommendation on inhalation therapy in Argentina. This document aims to issue local recommendations about the prescription of IDs. Each device was reviewed regarding biophysical laws, indication, strength, limitations, correct technique of use, frequent mistakes, and device cleaning and maintenance. Nebulization should be restricted to drugs that are not available in other IDs (for example, for treatment of cystic fibrosis) or where other devices fail. Nebulization is not recommended during the SARS-CoV2 pandemic. A metered-dose inhaler must always be used with an aerochamber. Aerochambers reduce the incidence of adverse events and improve lung deposition. Metered-dose inhalers must be prescribed to patients who cannot generate a high inspiratory flow and dry powders to those who can generate an energetic inspiratory flow. We reviewed the use of different IDs in patients with cystic fibrosis and under mechanical ventilation. The individual choice of an ID will be based on several variables like clinical status, age, previous experience, patient preference, drug availability, and correct use of the device.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma , COVID-19 , Argentina , RNA, Viral , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 38(3): 424-433, jul.-sep. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357372

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar la toxicidad de tres chalconas sintéticas administradas por vía intraperitoneal en ratones BALB/c. Materiales y métodos: La dosis letal media (DL50) se estimó por el método Up-and-Down de Dixon. La toxicidad subcrónica de las chalconas se evaluó a 20 y 40 mg/kg por 21 días. Se evaluó el efecto tóxico a nivel de comportamiento, fisiológico, bioquímico e histológico. Resultados: La chalcona 43 generó moco en las heces, daño visceral (hígado) y alteración en el coeficiente de órganos (riñón, p = 0,037 y cerebro, p = 0,008) en comparación con el grupo control. Además, en el análisis histológico se observó que esta chalcona produjo edema, inflamación y necrosis en los órganos evaluados, aunque no hubo diferencia significativa con el control. Todos los parámetros bioquímicos no difirieron significativamente entre los grupos de tratamiento a dosis de 40 mg/kg y el control. Conclusiones: La DL50 para las tres chalconas fue superior a 550 mg/kg de peso corporal. Las chalconas 40 y 42 son relativamente no tóxicas. Ambas pueden considerarse seguras para la aplicación vía intraperitoneal en ratones BALB/c y, en consecuencia, son posibles candidatas para ser usadas en el tratamiento contra las leishmaniosis.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the toxicity of three synthetic chalcones administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice. Materials and methods: The median lethal dose (LD50) was estimated by Dixon's Up-and-Down method. Subchronic toxicity of chalcones was evaluated at 20 and 40 mg/kg for 21 days. Behavioral, physiological, biochemical, and histological toxic effects were evaluated. Results: Chalcone 43 produced mucus in feces, visceral damage (liver) and alterations in organ coefficient (kidney, p = 0.037 and brain, p = 0.008) when compared to the control group. In addition, histological analysis showed that this chalcone produced edema, inflammation and necrosis in the evaluated organs, although there was no significant difference with the control. None of the biochemical parameters differed significantly between the treatment groups at 40 mg/kg dose and the control. Conclusions: The LD50 for all three chalcones was greater than 550 mg/kg of body weight. Chalcones 40 and 42 were found to be relatively non-toxic. Both can be considered safe for intraperitoneal application in BALB/c mice and, consequently, are potential candidates for use in the treatment of leishmaniasis.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL