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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879175

ABSTRACT

Resina Draconis, a rare and precious traditional medicine in China, is known as the "holy medicine for promoting blood circulation". According to the national drug standard, it's derived from the resin extracted from the wood of Dracaena cochinchinensis, a Liliaceae plant. In addition, a variety of Dracaena species all over the world can form red resins, and there is currently no molecular identification method that can efficiently identify the origin of Dracaena medicinal materials. In this study, seven species of Dracaena distributed in China were selected as the research objects. Four commonly used DNA barcodes(ITS2, matK, rbcL and psbA-trnH), and four highly variable regions(trnP-psaJ, psbK-psbI, trnT-trnL, clpP) in chloroplast genome were used to evaluate the identification efficiency of Dracaena species. The results showed that clpP sequence fragment could accurately identify seven species of Dracaena plants. However, due to the long sequence of clpP fragment, there were potential problems in the practical application process. We found that the combined fragment "psbK-psbI+ trnP-psaJ" can also be used for accurate molecular identification of the Resina Draconis origin plants and relative species of Dracaena, which were both relatively short sequences in the combined fragment, showing high success rates of amplification and sequencing. Therefore, the "psbK-psbI+ trnP-psaJ" combined fragment can be used as the DNA barcode fragments for molecular identification of Resina Dracon's origin plants and relative species of Dracaena. Research on the identification of Dracaena species, the results of this study can be used to accurately identify the original material of Resina Draconis, and providing effective means for identification, rational development and application of Resina Draconis base source.


Subject(s)
China , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Plant/genetics , Dracaena/genetics , Plants , Resins, Plant , Sequence Analysis, DNA
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828424

ABSTRACT

Resin-containing drugs in Dracaena from four different appearances were analyzed by headspace sampling-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(HS-GC-MS) metabolomics technique and hierarchical clustering analysis(HCA) chemometrics method. This study was to analyze differential volatile components in resin-containing drugs in Dracaena from different appearance and metabolic pathways. The results of partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) and HCA analysis indicated that there was little difference in volatile components between fiber-rich sample and hollow cork cambium sample, however, the volatile components in the two samples compared with whole body resin-containing sample and resin-secreting aggregated sample had a large metabolic difference. Twenty differential metabolites were screened by VIP and P values of PLS-DA. The content of these differential metabolites was significantly higher in whole body resin-containing sample and resin-secreting aggregated sample than in fiber-rich sample and hollow cork cambium sample. Sixteen significant metabolic pathways were obtained through enrichment analysis(P<0.05), mainly involved in terpenoids biosynthesis and phenylpropanoid metabolism. This result provided a reference for further study of resin formation mechanism of resin-containing drugs in Dracaena from different appearances. At the same time, it also provided a reference for establishing a multi-index quality evaluation system.


Subject(s)
Cluster Analysis , Discriminant Analysis , Dracaena , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Resins, Plant
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773274

ABSTRACT

As an important integral part of traditional Chinese medicine chemical biology( TCMCB),it is of great importance to rapid isolate,and reliably identify the chemical components in herbal medicines. Phytochemical studies on the anti-inflammatory active part of Chinese dragon's blood,the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis,resulted in the isolation of two compounds,nordracophane( 1) and dracophane( 2),using LC-MS and chromatographic techniques( Silica gel,ODS and preparative HPLC). The structures,cyclic dihydrochalcane trimers,were elucidated on the basis of 1 D and 2 D NMR,MS,IR and UV spectral analysis. Compound 1 is a new compound,and 2 is isolated from D. cochinchinensis for the first time. Both compounds exhibited significant inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharides( LPS)-stimulated RAW264. 7 cells with IC50 values of( 14. 9±4. 50) and( 9. 0±0. 7) μmol·L-1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Chromatography, Liquid , Dracaena , Mass Spectrometry , Mice , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Plant Extracts
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-700126

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of crude and fractionated extracts of Dracaena loureiri endocarp against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles minimus mosquitos. Methods: Larvicidal activity was tested according to World Health Organization standard protocol.The third-stage larvae of each mosquito species were exposed to various concentrations of Dracaena loureiri crude extract and six groups of Dracaena loureiri fractionated extracts (RC-DT 009–014). Larval mortality rates were observed after 24 h and 48 h of exposure.Then, a computerized probit analysis of the mortality data was performed to determine lethal concentration 50 (LC50) and lethal concentration 90 values. Results: Anopheles minimus larvae (24-h LC5077.88 mg/L) had the highest susceptibility to crude extract, whereas others (Aedes aegypti, 24-h LC50224.73 mg/L; Aedes albopictus, 24-h LC50261.75 mg/L; and Culex quinquefasciatus, 24-h LC50282.86 mg/L) were significantly less susceptible. The most effective groups of fractionated extracts were RC-DT 012 and RC-DT 013. The mosquito species most susceptible to fractionated extracts was Culex quinquefasciatus, with 24-h LC50 values of 0.66 and 0.94 mg/L for RC-DT 012 and RC-DT 013, respectively. Conclusions: The larvicidal activity of fractionated extracts is more effective than that of crude extract against all tested mosquito species. For the most effective alternative larvicide, purification and a phytochemical constituent analysis must be performed.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-511488

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal activity of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the endocarp and seeds of Dracaena loureiri (D. loureiri) against the dengue mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. Methods: Bioassays were performed by exposing late third-stage to early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti to various concentrations of the extracts from D. loureiri. The larval mortality was observed after 24-and 48-h exposure. Results: The larvicidal bioassay in this study demonstrated that the ethanolic endocarp extract was the most effective with the LC50 value of 84.00 mg/L after 24 h exposure and< 50 mg/L after 48 h exposure. Extracts from the other parts of the plant were signifi-cantly less effective as a larvicide. Conclusions: The ethanolic endocarp extract of D. loureiri demonstrated effective lar-vicidal activity. It is an alternative source for developing a novel larvicide for controlling this mosquito species.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-852434

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker (QAMS) for determination of five active components in Draconis Resina and discuss application of QAMS in quality control of ethnic medicines. Methods Using the method of HPLC, the Fortis Xi C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) was used. The mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile (A)-1.0% acetic acid (B) with gradient elution (0-10 min, A: 25%→30%; 10-60 min, A: 30%→50%) at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection wavelength was 278 nm, the column temperature was 30 ℃ and the sample size was 10 μL. Pterostilbene was selected as an internal standard to establish the relative correction factors (RCFs) of 7, 4’-dihydroxyflavone, resveratrol, loureirin A, and loureirin B with reference to pterostilbene so as to achieve simultaneous determination of multi-indexed components. The contents of five active components were determined by both external standard method (ESM) and QAMS. Meanwhile, relative error (RE) between QAMS and ESM was analyzed to evaluate QAMS method. Results There were good linearities in the range of 10.23-102.27 μg/mL for 7,4’-dihydroxyflavone, 11.01-110.14 μg/mL for resveratrol, 9.47-94.72 μg/mL for loureirin A, 11.59-115.90 μg/mL for loureirin B and 24.35-243.52 μg/mL for pterostilbene, RCFs of 7,4’-dihydroxyflavone, resveratrol, loureirin A and loureirin B with reference to pterostilbene were 0.626, 1.064, 1.154, and 0.837 respectively, and repeatability was good in different experimental conditions (RSD < 3.0%).There were no significant difference between the quantitative results of the two methods. Conclusion QAMS method is feasible, credible, and can be used to determine multiple components in Draconis Resina. QAMS can be adopted as a novel strategy for quality control of ethnic medicines.

7.
Br J Med Med Res ; 2016; 11(5): 1-18
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-181981

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study was designed to explore and exploit the phytotherapeutic and fertility effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Dracaena arborea in type-1 Alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The phytotherapeutic effects of Dracaena arborea on hematological parameters, appetite, spermiogram, histological architecture and histomorphometrics (stereology) of testicular and/or pancreatic tissues of treated and untreated rats were carried out. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Lagos State University, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria, between October, 2012 and February, 2013. Methodology: 24 healthy normal male rats were recruited for this study. They were divided into four groups in a randomized trial; with group A consisting of non-diabetic healthy rats that received only the vehicle (0.5 mg/kg of 2% acacia solution); while group B, C & D was injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of Alloxan monohydrate (ALX) at 100 mg/kg prior to DAE treatment. Groups C and D were subsequently administered DAE orally 72 hours post administration of ALX, at daily doses of 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg respectively. Results: ALX (100 mg/kg) was found to induce type 1 diabetic conditions in the rats, demonstrated by the significant increase (P < 0.05) in the glucose levels, and a decline in appetite (water and food intakes). Conversely, administration of DAE at 100 and 300 mg/kg revealed significant dose and time- dependent increase (P < 0.05) in glucose tolerance and appetite (water and food intakes) in DAE treated groups compared to the untreated or ALX treated only group. Significant normalization (P < 0.05) of red blood cell count, packed cell volume and Hemoglobin levels were also observed in diabetic rats treated with the 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg DAE. In addition, testicular and pancreatic histopathological profiles of both DAE treated groups show evidences of appreciable normalization of ALX-induced pathology. Conclusion: Our findings indicates that DAE may offer great therapeutic benefit in the treatment of type-1 diabetes mellitus and normalizing testicular dysfunction or infertility in diabetic patients.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-854132

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the main components from Dracaena cochinchinensis by HPLC-DPPH and provide a foundation for "spectrum-effect" quality control standard. Methods: The determination was developed on Phenomenex lura C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with gradient elution of methanol-acetonitril-0.2% H3PO4 and the detective wavelength was set at 306 nm. The column temperature was 35℃. Results: The DPPH free radical scavenging abilities of these five antioxidants were as follows: pterstilbene > resveratrol > luoreirin B > luoreirin A > 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone. The analysis on the structures of the five compounds showed that the hydroxymethylation didn't decrease the antioxidant activities of stilbenes. The symmetry of B ring of dihydrochalcone has the significant effect on the antioxidant activities. However, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone didn't show the related activity in D. cochinchinensis. Conclusion: HPLC-DPPH can not only be used for screening the components with antioxidant potency but also for the purpose of quality evaluation of D. cochinchinensis, and the method proves to be selective, simple, and reproducible.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-854527

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the phenolic constituents of Draconis Resina. Methods: The compounds were isolated and purified by silica gel and sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and their structures were identified by physiochemical properties and MS and NMR spectroscopic data. Results: Fourteen compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Draconis Resina and identified as 4'-hydroxy-1', 4″-dimethoxychalcane (1), 7-hydroxy-5, 4'-dimethoxy-2-arylbenzofuran (2), pterostilbene (3), 3, 4'-dihydroxy-5- methoxystilbene (4), 5, 7, 4'-trihydroxyflavanone (5), pinocembrin (6), 7-hydroxyflavanone (7), liquiritigenin (8), methyl 4- hydroxybenzoate (9), methyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoate (10), ethyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoate (11), 2, 4-dihydroxy acetophenone (12), 3, 4-dihydroxyallybenzene (13), and β-sitosterol (14). Conclusion: Compound 1 is a new natural product. Compound 2 is firstly obtained from the plants of Liliaceae. Compounds 5 and 9-12 are firstly isolated from the plants of Dracaena Vand. ex L., and compounds 6 and 7 are isolated from Dracaena cochinchinensis for the first time.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-855169

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a method for the determination of 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavane and pterostilbene in Zhuang Medicine Dracaena cochinchinensis. Methods: The determination was developed on C18 column. Acetonitrile-0.2% phosphoric acid (36: 64) was used as mobile phase and the detective wavelength was set at 281 and 306 nm, respectively. Results: The linear ranges of 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavane and pterostilbene were 0.4076-1.5285 μg (r = 0.9998) and 1.6408-6.1530 μg (r = 0.9997), respectively. The average recovery was 97.88% (RSD = 0.82%) and 97.10% (RSD = 0.59%), respectively. Conclusion: The method is simple and accurate, which could be used for the quality control of D. cochinchinensis and its extract.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-681159

ABSTRACT

Object To study the active constituents of Sanguis Draxonis made form Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour ) S C Chen in China * Methods Various column chromatographies with Sephadex L 20 gel, MCI gel and silica gel were employed for the isolation and purification The structures of compounds were elucidated by spectral analysis Results Twelve compounds were isolated from the commercial product available on the market By means of spectral data, they were identified as 26 O ? D glucopyranosyl furostan 5,25 (27) diene 1?,3?,22?,26 tetrahydroxy 1 O ? L arabinopyranoside (Ⅰ); 3, 4 dihydroxy allylbenzene 4 O ? D glucopyranoside (Ⅱ); 7 hydroxy 3 (p hydroxyphenyl) chroman (Ⅲ); 7, 4′ dihydroxy 3′ methoxyflavan (Ⅳ); 3, 4 dihydroxyallylbenzene (Ⅴ); resveratrol (Ⅵ); 7, 4′ dihydroxy flavanone (Ⅶ); di (p hydroxyphenyl) methane (Ⅷ); acanthoside B (Ⅸ),p hydroxybenzoic acid (Ⅹ); hydroquinone (Ⅺ) and protocatechualdehyde ( ⅩⅡ ) Conclusion Compound Ⅰ and Ⅱ are new natural glycosides, and Ⅴ and Ⅵ are isolated from D cochinchinensis for the first time

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-578721

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the chemical constituents in the leaves of Dracaena cochinchinensis.Methods The compounds were separated with column chromatography and their chemical structures were identified by physicochemical and spectral method,respectively.Results Thirteen compounds were isolated from the plant. They were identified as isorhamnerin(Ⅰ),quercetin(Ⅱ),25(R)-spirostane-5-en-3?-ol(Ⅲ),gracillin(Ⅳ),25(R)-spirostane-5-en-3?,14?-diol(Ⅴ),25(R)-spirostane-5-en-3?,14?-diol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside(Ⅵ),25(R)-spirostane-5-en-3?,14?-diol-3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosy(1→4)-?-D-glucopyranoside(Ⅶ),25(R)-spirostane-14?-hydroxy-4-en-3-one(Ⅷ),7?-hydroxysistosterol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside(Ⅸ),?-stigmasterol(Ⅹ),stigmasterol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside(Ⅺ),daucosterol (Ⅹ Ⅱ),and methyl ?D-glucopyranoside(Ⅹ Ⅲ).Conclusion Spirostane-type steroids are the major constituents in the leaves of D.cochinchinensis.Compounds Ⅰ-Ⅲ,Ⅴ,Ⅵ,Ⅷ,and Ⅸ are isolated from this plant for the first time.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-574162

ABSTRACT

Objective The experiment compared the chemical components in the roots,stems,and leaves of Dracaena cochinchinensis with those in the raw material of Dragon's blood,in order to find the possible raw material of Dragon's blood.Methods Technology of thin layer chromatography(TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC).Results The results showed that the roots,stems,and leaves of D.cochinchinensis just contained small amount of loureirin A,the contents of loureirin A of the three samples are: 58,53,and 15 ?g/g,respectively.Loureirin B was only detected in the leaves with content of 2 ?g/g.Conclusion From the analysis of peak areas and the retention time,there are only slight correlations among the components of the four samples and the chemical components among the roots,stem,and leaves are different.Moreover,there is too low content of loureirins in the roots,stem,and leaves to be raw material of Dragon's blood.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-572383

ABSTRACT

Object To study the chemical constituents of Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S. C. Chen. Methods The constituents were isolated on silica gel chromatography, preparative TLC, and spectral data. Results Six compounds were isolated and identified from the resin of D. cochinchinensis as: 1, 2, 4, 5-tetrachloro-3, 6-dimethoxybenzene (Ⅰ), cholest-4?-methyl-7-en-3?-ol (Ⅱ), cholest-4?-methyl-7-en-3-one (Ⅲ), hexacosane (Ⅳ), cholest-7-en-3?-ol (Ⅴ), cholest-7-en-3-one (Ⅵ). Conclusion Compounds Ⅳ-Ⅵ were isolated from D. cochinchinensis for the first time.

15.
China Pharmacy ; (12)1991.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-673175

ABSTRACT

This paper briefly describes China-produced Resina Draconis in respect to the sources of original plant,refining process, chemical compositions,quality analysis and present status of its application in China.

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