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1.
Interdisciplinaria ; 38(1): 23-40, ene. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149378

ABSTRACT

Resumen La previa (i.e., el consumo de alcohol antes de asistir al evento de la salida en el que puede, o no, consumirse más alcohol) incrementa marcadamente el riesgo de experimentar consecuencias negativas asociadas al consumo de alcohol. Aunque el consumo de alcohol es muy prevalente entre los adolescentes argentinos, son escasos los trabajos centrados en la previa. Este trabajo describe el consumo de alcohol y la conducta de previa en adolescentes argentinos (13 a 18 años), identifica el efecto de las normas descriptivas y los motivos de previa sobre la frecuencia de previa y la cantidad de alcohol consumido durante esta práctica, y examina variaciones en el consumo general de alcohol y en la cantidad de consecuencias negativas derivadas, en función de realizar, o no, la previa. Participaron 402 adolescentes (52.7 % mujeres) que completaron una encuesta sobre consumo de alcohol, consecuencias negativas asociadas, conducta y motivos de previa, y normas descriptivas sobre estos encuentros. El 60 % de los adolescentes reportó conducta de previa en el último año en la que consumieron, en promedio, 70 gramos de alcohol. El 85 % continuó tomando alcohol después de la previa. Quienes exhiben conducta de previa, comparados con quienes beben pero no hacen previa, consumen significativamente más alcohol y experimentan más consecuencias negativas derivadas de este consumo. A nivel multivariado, las normas descriptivas fueron el mejor predictor de los indicadores de previa. Los hallazgos sugieren que la previa sería un factor de riesgo para tener trayectorias de consumo problemático y sería beneficioso prevenir este tipo de prácticas.


Abstract In Argentina, alcohol is the most consumed psychoactive substance among adolescents and, similar to other western countries, rates of alcohol use markedly increase during this developmental stage. Arguably more concerning, heavy episodic drinking (HED, a.k.a. binge drinking) is also highly prevalent. Heavy episodic drinking can be defined as the consumption of a large quantity of alcohol (i.e., ≥ 42/70 g of pure alcohol, depending on sex and age) in one, rather brief, single setting. HED is associated with greater occurrence of a myriad of negative consequences such as alcohol-induced increments in impulsivity and risk-taking behaviors, blackouts, drunk driving, sleep and eating impairments, and the development of tolerance. Prepartying (i.e., the consumption of alcohol before attending a social event where more alcohol might, or might not, be available) is a high-risk drinking practice due to its robust association with alcohol-related negative consequences. Different factors influence alcohol use and preparty behavior. Many adolescents overestimate the drinking behaviors of their peers (descriptive norms) which, in turn, is associated with heavier alcohol use. Additionally, previous work found that one of the main reasons or motives for engaging in preparty behavior is the desire of getting intoxicated. Although alcohol use is highly prevalent among Argentinean adolescents, studies focused on prepartying are very scarce. The present study (i) describes alcohol consumption and prepartying behaviors in Argentinean adolescents (13 to 18 years old), (ii) examines the effect of descriptive norms and prepartying motives on prepartying outcomes (i.e., frequency of prepartying and drinking quantity when prepartying) and (iii) examines variations in alcohol drinking outcomes as a function of prepartying. Participants were 402 adolescents (52.7 % women) that completed a pencil and paper survey that measured alcohol consumption, prepartying outcomes, descriptive norms for prepartying, prepartying motives and alcohol-related negative consequences. Most of the sample (83 %) reported lifetime alcohol use and 64 % reported last-month alcohol use. More than half of the sample (57 %) reported engaging in prepartying behavior within the last year where they consumed an average of 70 grams of alcohol. Most of the adolescents who prepartied (85 %) continued drinking alcohol at the event. Adolescents who engaged in preparty behavior, compared to their drinking peers who did not, consumed significantly more alcohol and experienced more alcohol-related negative consequences. Specifically, 90 % of the adolescents who engaged in preparty behavior reported to engaged in heavy drinking episodes within the previous month while 68 % of drinkers who did not preparty reported to engage in that drinking pattern. At the multivariate level, descriptive norms, but not prepartying motives, were significantly associated with preparty behavior. The present results suggest that prepartying could be a risk factor for the involvement in problematic trajectories of alcohol use and, therefore, it would be beneficial to prevent adolescents from engaging in this type of drinking practice. Additionally, the present findings suggest promising avenues for intervention, such as those aimed at targeting descriptive norms. Adolescents tend to overestimate drinking behaviors among their peers, a bias that is associated with heavier alcohol use. Interventions aimed at correcting these biases have shown promising results at reducing drinking behaviors.

2.
Mudanças ; 20(1/2): 1-6, dez. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-679729

ABSTRACT

O principal modelo teórico da motivação para o uso de bebidas alcoólicas propõe a existência de quatro motivos distintos para beber, que possuem correlatos externos diferenciados: motivos sociais, motivos de realce, motivos de coping e motivos de conformidade. O objetivo do presente estudo foi explorar relações lineares entre esses quatro motivos e a frequência de consumo de álcool em alguns contextos recorrentes de uso entre estudantes universitários. Os participantes foram 401 estudantes universitários, com idades entre 18 e 35 anos (M = 22,51; DP = 3,56),sendo 54,8% dos indivíduos do sexo feminino. Análises de regressão mostraram diferentes motivos explicando a frequência de uso em cada um dos cinco contextos avaliados. Houve correlações significativas entre a frequência de consumo em alguns dos contextos e a quantidade de problemas vivenciados em decorrência do uso de bebidas. O significado teórico do papel diferencial da motivação em cada contexto, implicações práticas e limitações do estudo são discutidos ao final.


The most widely influential model of alcohol use proposes the existence of four distinct drinking motives, whichalso have different external correlates: social, enhancement, coping, and conformity motives. The aim of the present study was to explore linear relationships between these four drinking motives and the frequency of alcohol use in some recurring drinking situations in undergraduate students. Participants were 401 undergraduate students, with ages ranging from 18 to 35 years (M = 22.51, SD = 3.56), and 54.8% women. Regression analyses showed different drinking motives explaining the frequency of alcohol consumption in each of the five drinking situations evaluated. Frequencies of use in some of the drinking contexts positively correlated with drinking problems. The authors discussthe theoretical meaning of the different regression models for each drinking situation, the practical implications ofsuch distinction, and the limitations of the study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Alcoholism
3.
Acta investigación psicol. (en línea) ; 1(3): 491-502, dic. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-706785

ABSTRACT

El objetivo principal del estudio fue elaborar un modelo estructural del consumo estimado de bebidas alcohólicas entre estudiantes de licenciatura, el cual integrara los motivos para beber (Cooper, 1994), expectativas negativas y problemas, amigos bebedores, asistencia a fiestas y búsqueda de sensaciones (Earleywine y Finn, 1991). En una muestra de 138 estudiantes universitarios se elaboraron y/o adaptaron escalas para evaluar las variables mencionadas, y se validaron posteriormente mediante modelos de regresión múltiple. El modelo obtenido mostró que el consumo fue afectado directamente por la asistencia a fiestas y las expectativas negativas, e indirectamente por el afrontamiento, el mejoramiento-social y amigos bebedores; además, los problemas fueron afectados directamente por expectativas negativas, el consumo y fiestas. Finalmente, usando un modelo de clases latentes, se identificaron tres subgrupos de estudiantes con perfiles diferentes de consumo, expectativas negativas, amigos bebedores y motivos de mejoramiento-sociales.


The main purpose of the study was to develop a structural model of estimated consumption of alcoholic beverages among undergraduate students, which integrates the motives for drinking (Cooper, 1994), negative expectations and problems, drinking friends, attending parties and sensation seeking (Earleywine and Finn, 1991). In a sample of 138 college students were developed and / or adapted scales to assess these variables, and subsequently validated by multiple regression analysis. The model obtained showed that consumption was directly affected by attendance at parties and negative expectations, and indirectly by the coping, and social-enhancement and drinking friends, in addition, the problems were directly affected by negative expectations, consumption and parties. Moreover, using a latent class model, we identified three subgroups of students with different profiles of consumption, negative expectations, and motives for drinking friends and social-enhancement.

4.
Psico (Porto Alegre) ; 42(1): 7-15, jan.-mar. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-743265

ABSTRACT

Os motivos para uso de álcool são variáveis importantes que ajudam a compreender o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas. Motivos para usar álcool podem ser representados através de uma estrutura de quatro dimensões inter-relacionadas: social, realce, coping e conformidade. O objetivo desta revisão de literatura é apresentar o conceito de motivos para uso de álcool, distinguindo-o de expectativas sobre o uso e enfatizando seu duplo papel como preditores e mediadores em estudos sobre o uso de álcool. Modelos fatoriais empíricos representativos do construto e algumas dificuldades na avaliação são também debatidas. Ao final, ressalta-se a utilidade potencial da avaliação de motivos para uso de álcool em situações de intervenção clínica com alcoolistas e a necessidade de construção e adaptação de instrumentos de avaliação no país.


Drinking motives are important variables that help us to understand alcohol use. They can be represented by a four-factor structure: social, enhancement, coping and conformity. Aim of this review of literature is to present drinking motives concept, distinguishing it from drinking expectancies and emphasizing its double function as predictors and mediators in alcohol use studies. Structural models of drinking motives and assessment difficulties are also debated. Finally, it is discussed the potential utility of assessing drinking motives in clinical interventions with alcoholic individuals and the need for construction and adaptation of drinking motives assessment tools in Brazil.


Los motivos para el uso de alcohol son variables importantes que ayudan a entender el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas. Motivos para el uso de alcohol puedem ser representados por una estructura de cuatro dimensiones interrelacionadas: social, incremento de humor, afrontamiento y conformidad. El propósito de esta revisión de la literatura consiste en introducir el concepto de motivos para el consumo de alcohol, haciendo la distinción con expectativas sobre el uso y haciendo hincapié en su doble papel como predictores y mediadores en los estudios sobre el consumo de alcohol. Modelos empíricos y algunas dificultades en la evaluación también se examinan. Por último, destacamos la utilidad potencial de la evaluación de los motivos para el consumo de alcohol en situaciones de intervención clínica con alcohólicos y la necesidad de la construcción y adaptación de instrumentos de evaluación em Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcoholism , Psychology , Substance-Related Disorders
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