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1.
Vive (El Alto) ; 7(19): 85-92, abr. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1560632

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la resistencia antibiótica en bacterias patógenas como Escherichia coli y Klebsiella spp. productoras de betalactamasas, han surgido como un problema global de salud pública. Su presencia, se asocia con infecciones intrahospitalarias y comunitarias, aumentando la morbilidad y la mortalidad de los pacientes. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia de E.coli y Klebsiella spp productoras de betalactamasas en cultivos procesados en un laboratorio clínico. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de diseño documental. La muestra estuvo constituida por un total de 1465 resultados de cultivos positivos para Escherichia coli o Klebsiella spp. en el periodo 2022. Para la recolección de la información, se tuvo acceso a la base de datos anonimizada del laboratorio en una hoja de Excel para su posterior análisis. Los datos fueron tabulados en SPSS versión 25. Resultados: el análisis de bacterias productoras de BLEE mostró una positividad del 22,3% en E. coli y 46,1% en Klebsiella spp. E. coli presentó mayor frecuencia de negativos (77,7%) en comparación con Klebsiella spp. La presencia de E. coli fue más común en muestras de orina (90,6%) y en otras muestras como esputo y heridas cutáneas (21,3%). Se evaluaron 8 antibióticos, y se destacó la alta sensibilidad para amikacina (AK) (99,6% y 98,0%) y elevada resistencia ampicilina (AM) (91,5% y 100%) en ambas especies. Ciprofloxacino (CIP) y Trimetropin/Sulfametoxazol (STX) mostraron relativa frecuencia mayor de resistencia. Conclusión: los resultados muestran una alta frecuencia de bacterias productoras de BLEE en E. coli y Klebsiella spp., con una mayor prevalencia en Klebsiella spp. Además, la resistencia a AM, CIP y STX destaca la importancia de una gestión adecuada de la resistencia antimicrobiana.


Introduction: antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. producing beta-lactamases has emerged as a global public health problem. Their presence has been associated with both hospital-acquired and community-acquired infections, leading to increased morbidity and mortality in patients. Objective: to determine the frequency of betalactamase-producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp. in cultures processed in a clinical laboratory. Methods: a descriptive documentary design study was conducted. The sample consisted of a total of 1465 positive culture results for Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. in the year 2022. Data collection involved accessing the laboratory's anonymized database in an Excel sheet for subsequent analysis. The data were tabulated in SPSS version 25. Results: the analysis of ESBL-producing bacteria showed a positivity of 22.3% in E. coli and 46.1% in Klebsiella spp. E. coli showed a higher frequency of negatives (77.7%) compared to Klebsiella spp. The presence of E. coli was more common in urine samples (90.6%) and in other samples such as sputum and skin wounds (21.3%). Eight antibiotics were evaluated, with high sensitivity noted for amikacin (AK) (99.6% and 98.0%) and high resistance for ampicillin (AM) (91.5% and 100%) in both species. Ciprofloxacin (CIP) and Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole (STX) showed a relatively higher frequency of resistance. Conclusion: the results show a high frequency of ESBL-producing bacteria in E. coli and Klebsiella spp., with a higher prevalence in Klebsiella spp. Furthermore, the resistance to AM, CIP, and STX highlights the importance of proper management of antimicrobial resistance.


Introdução: a resistência antibiótica em bactérias patogênicas como Escherichia coli e Klebsiella spp., produtoras de beta-lactamases, emergiu como um problema de saúde pública global. Sua presença tem sido associada a infecções hospitalares e comunitárias, aumentando a morbidade e a mortalidade dos pacientes. Objetivo: determinar a frequência de E. coli e Klebsiella spp. produtoras de betalactamase em culturas processadas em laboratório clínico. Métodos: foi realizado um estudo descritivo de design documental. A amostra consistiu em um total de 1465 resultados de cultura positiva para Escherichia coli ou Klebsiella spp. no ano de 2022. A coleta de dados envolveu o acesso ao banco de dados anonimizado do laboratório em uma planilha do Excel para análise subsequente. Os dados foram tabulados na versão 25 do SPSS. Resultados: a análise de bactérias produtoras de BLEE mostrou uma positividade de 22,3% em E. coli e 46,1% em Klebsiella spp. E. coli apresentou uma frequência maior de resultados negativos (77,7%) em comparação com Klebsiella spp. A presença de E. coli foi mais comum em amostras de urina (90,6%) e em outras amostras, como escarro e feridas na pele (21,3%). Foram avaliados oito antibióticos, com alta sensibilidade observada para amicacina (AK) (99,6% e 98,0%) e alta resistência para ampicilina (AM) (91,5% e 100%) em ambas as espécies. Ciprofloxacina (CIP) e Trimetoprima/Sulfametoxazol (STX) mostraram uma frequência relativamente maior de resistência. Conclusão: os resultados mostram uma alta frequência de bactérias produtoras de BLEE em E. coli e Klebsiella spp., com uma maior prevalência em Klebsiella spp. Além disso, a resistência a AM, CIP e STX destaca a importância da adequada gestão da resistência antimicrobiana.

2.
An. Fac. Med. (Perú) ; 85(1): 85-91, ene.-mar. 2024. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1556807

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos (RAM) es un problema de salud pública de alcance global. De no lograrse contener su propagación, para el año 2050 se convertiría en la primera causa de muerte a nivel mundial, con un serio impacto en la economía mundial. Esta situación ha determinado la aplicación del enfoque «Una Salud¼ para su contención. Este enfoque reconoce que la salud de las personas, los animales, las plantas y el medio ambiente están estrechamente relacionados y son interdependientes. Desde el año 2015, la Organización Mundial de la Salud, en coordinación con otras organizaciones aprobaron el Plan de Acción Mundial para enfrentar la RAM, esto determinó que los estados miembros elaboraran e implementaran sus planes nacionales. El Perú inició el abordaje para la contención de la RAM aplicando el enfoque «Una Salud¼ desde el año 2017. Se registran algunos avances en la implementación de Plan nacional pero también los retos y acciones pendientes de alcanzar.


ABSTRACT Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) is a public health problem of global scope, whose projections if its spread is not contained indicate that by the year 2050 it would become the leading cause of death worldwide with a serious impact on the world economy. This situation has determined the application of the "One Health" approach for its containment. The approach recognizes that the health of people, animals, plants and the environment are closely related and interdependent. Since 2015, the WHO, in coordination with other organizations, approved the Global Action Plan to face AMR, this determined that the Member States elaborate and implement their national plans. Peru began the approach to contain AMR applying the "One Health" approach since 2017. Some progress has been made in the implementation of the National Plan but also the challenges and actions pending to be achieved.

3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(1): e202302992, feb. 2024. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1525290

ABSTRACT

La resistencia a los antirretrovirales (ARV) es un problema de salud pública. Con el uso de inhibidores de la integrasa (INSTI) en pediatría, también comienzan a aparecer resistencias. El objetivo de esta comunicación es describir 3 casos con resistencia a los INSTI. Se describen 3 pacientes pediátricos con transmisión vertical del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). Iniciaron ARV de lactantes y preescolares, con mala adherencia al tratamiento, cursaron con diferentes planes secundarios a comorbilidades asociadas y fallas virológicas por resistencia. Los 3 casos clínicos describen la rápida aparición de resistencia frente a la falla virológica y el compromiso de los INSTI. La adherencia debe ser supervisada para detectar precozmente el aumento de la viremia. La falla virológica en un paciente tratado con raltegravir obliga a un rápido cambio de esquema ARV, ya que continuar utilizándolo podría favorecer nuevas mutaciones y resistencia a los INSTI de segunda generación.


Antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance is a public health issue. Resistance has also been observed in the case of integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) used in pediatrics. The objective of this article is to describe 3 cases of INSTI resistance. These are the cases of 3 children with vertically-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). They were started on ARVs as infants and preschoolers, with poor treatment adherence, and had different management plans due to associated comorbidities and virological failure due to resistance. In the 3 cases, resistance developed rapidly as a result of virological failure and INSTI involvement. Treatment adherence should be monitored so that any increase in viremia can be detected early. Virological failure in a patient treated with raltegravir forces to a rapid change in ARV therapy because its continued use may favor new mutations and resistance to second-generation INSTIs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/genetics , HIV Integrase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , HIV Integrase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Uruguay , Raltegravir Potassium/therapeutic use , Raltegravir Potassium/pharmacology , Mutation
4.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529457

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the antibiotic profile of microorganisms isolated from urine samples of patients with community urine tract infections (UTI) admitted to the University Hospital of the Federal University of Sao Carlos to support an appropriate local empirical treatment. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2018 to October 2020. Data from 1,528 positive urine cultures for bacterial pathogens and antibiograms were tabulated. Bacterial species prevalence and their resistance profile were analyzed and compared by sex and age. For Gram-negative fermenting bacteria, resistance rates were compared between patients with previous hospitalization and the total of infections caused by this group. For comparisons, the Chi-square test was performed, using Fisher's exact test when necessary (BioEstat program, adopting p ≤ 0.05). A multivariate analysis was applied to assess the effect of the studied variables in predicting multidrug resistance. Infections were more prevalent in women and older adults. Gram-negative bacteria represented 90.44% of total cultures. In both sexes, E. coli prevalence was significantly higher in adults compared with older adults (p < 0.0001). For several antibiotics, resistance rates were higher in the older adults compared with other ages and in patients with Gram-negative fermenting infections and previous hospitalization compared with the total of infections by this group of bacteria. The closer to the hospitalization, the higher the number of antibiotics with superior resistance rates. Resistance rates for aminoglycosides, carbapenems, ceftazidime, nitrofurantoin, piperacillin+tazobactam, and fosfomycin were less than 20%, considered adequate for empirical treatment. Only hospitalization in the previous 90 days was statistically significant in predicting infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria.

5.
São Paulo med. j ; 142(4): e2023113, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536910

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the effectiveness of specific concentrations of antibiofilm agents, such as N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), rifampicin, and ozone, for the treatment of pan-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (PRKp). OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effectiveness of antibiofilm agents, such as NAC, rifampicin, and ozone, on biofilm formation in PRKp at 2, 6, 24, and 72 h. DESIGN AND SETTING: This single-center experimental study was conducted on June 15, 2017, and July 15, 2018, at Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Turkey. METHODS: Biofilm formation and the efficacy of these agents on the biofilm layer were demonstrated using colony counting and laser-screened confocal microscopy. RESULTS: NAC at a final concentration of 2 μg/mL was administered to bacteria that formed biofilms (24 h), and no significant decrease was detected in the bacterial counts of all isolates (all P > 0.05). Rifampicin with a final concentration of 0.1 μg/mL was administered to bacteria that formed biofilm (24 h), and no significant decrease was detected in bacterial count (all P > 0.05). Notably, ozonated water of even 4.78 mg/L concentration for 72 h decreased the bacterial count by ≥ 2 log10. CONCLUSION: Different approaches are needed for treating PRKp isolates. We demonstrate that PRKp isolates can be successfully treated with higher concentrations of ozone.

6.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1527678

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del estudio fue describir los niveles de resistencia transmitida de VIH-1 en adultos atendidos en Unidades de Atención Integral de Guatemala. El estudio incluyó registros de 185 pacientes adultos VIH-1 positivo, de reciente diagnóstico sin antecedente de uso de TAR, de noviembre del 2019 a noviembre del 2020. El análisis se realizó en el software DeepChek® v2.0, para la clasificación de la resistencia se siguió el algoritmo de Stanford HIVdb (v9.4 - 07/12/2022). Se encontró 18.4% (IC 95% 13.1 - 24.7%) de resistencia general a alguna familia de ARVs. Se evidenció 15.1% (IC 95% 10.3 - 21.1%) de resistencia individual a la familia de INNTR afectando principalmente a NVP y EFV; 2.2% (IC 95% 0.6 - 5.4%) de resistencia a INTR, mayormente a FTC/3TC; y 2.7% (IC 95% 0.9 - 6.2%) de resistencia intermedia y baja los IP NFV y LPV/r. Tres casos presentaron resistencia múltiple a los INTR + INNTR. Las mutaciones más frecuentemente encontradas fueron K103N (41.2%), M184V/I (8.8%) y M46I (5.9%). La elevada resistencia transmitida del VIH-1 en pacientes atendidos en distintas Unidades de Atención Integral del VIH, demuestra la importancia de analizar periódicamente la tendencia de la resistencia en personas que no han estado expuestas a ARVs, lo cual a su vez es un marcador indirecto de presencia de resistencia adquirida en el país, datos que evidencian la necesidad de acciones e intervenciones prontas y efectivas dado su impacto en la salud pública.


The objective of this study was to describe the levels of transmitted HIV-1 resistance in patients with a recent HIV diagnosis before starting ART, treated in Comprehensive Care Units in Guatemala during the years 2019 and 2020. The study included records of 185 HIV-positive adult patients, recently diagnosed with HIV without a history of ART use. The analysis was carried out in the DeepChek® v2.0 software, the Stanford HIVdb algorithm (v9.4 - 07/12/2022) was followed to classify resistance. 18.4% (95% CI 13.1 - 24.7%) of general resistance to some family of ARVs was found. There was evidence of 15.1% (95% CI 10.3 - 21.1%) of individual resistance to the NNRTI family, mainly affecting NVP and EFV; 2.2% (95% CI 0.6 - 5.4%) resistance to INTR, mostly to FTC/3TC; and 2.7% (95% CI 0.9 - 6.2%) of intermediate and low resistance IP NFV and LPV/r. Three cases presented multiple resistance to NRTIs + NNRTIs. The most frequently found mutations were K103N (41.2%), M184V/I (8.8%) and M46I (5.9%). The high transmitted resistance of HIV-1 in patients treated in different Comprehensive HIV Care Units demonstrates the importance of periodically analyzing the trend of resistance in people who have not been exposed to ARVs, which in turn is an indirect marker. of the presence of acquired resistance in the country, data that demonstrate the need for prompt and effective actions and interventions given its impact on public health.


O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever os níveis de resistência transmitida ao HIV-1 em adultos tratados em Unidades de Cuidados Integrais na Guatemala. O estudo incluiu prontuários de 185 pacientes adultos HIV-1 positivos, recentemente diagnosticados sem histórico de uso de TARV, no período de novembro de 2019 a novembro de 2020. A análise foi realizada no software DeepChek® v2.0, para classificação da resistência, O algoritmo Stanford HIVdb (v9.4 - 07/12/2022) foi seguido. Foi encontrada 18.4% (IC 95% 13.1 - 24.7%) de resistência geral a alguma família de ARVs. Houve evidência de 15.1% (IC 95% 10.3 - 21.1%) de resistência individual à família de NNRTI, afetando principalmente NVP e EFV; 2.2% (IC 95% 0.6 - 5.4%) resistência ao INTR, principalmente ao FTC/3TC; e 2.7% (IC 95% 0.9 - 6.2%) de resistência intermediária e baixa ao IP NFV e LPV/r. Três casos apresentaram resistência múltipla a NRTIs + NNRTIs. As mutações mais frequentemente encontradas foram K103N (41.2%), M184V/I (8.8%) e M46I (5.9%). A elevada resistência transmitida do HIV-1 em pacientes atendidos em diferentes Unidades de Cuidados Integrados ao HIV demonstra a importância de analisar periodicamente a tendência de resistência em pessoas que não foram expostas aos ARVs, o que por sua vez é um marcador indireto da presença de ARVs adquiridos. resistência no país, dados que demonstram a necessidade de ações e intervenções rápidas e eficazes dado o seu impacto na saúde pública.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , HIV Infections/genetics , Population Surveillance , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV-1/genetics , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , HIV Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Guatemala/epidemiology , Mutation
7.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 38: e024, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1557358

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to identify and characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of bacteria found in primary endodontic infections in the teeth of patients treated at the Dental Clinic of the University of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. From September to December 2019, samples were obtained from 21 patients with primary endodontic infections. The collections were carried out in triplicate using paper cones placed close to the total length of the root canal. Bacterial isolation was performed in Brain Heart Infusion agar, Blood agar, and other selective culture media cultured at 37°C for up to 48 h under aerobiosis and microaerophilic conditions. The bacterial species were identified using the Vitek 2 automated system. The disk diffusion method on agar Müeller-Hinton was used to assess antimicrobial susceptibility with the recommended antimicrobials for each identified bacterial species. A total of 49 antibiotics were evaluated. Fifteen of the 21 samples collected showed bacterial growth, and 17 bacterial isolates were found. There were 10 different bacterial species identified: Enterococcus faecalis (four isolates), Streptococcus mitis/oralis (three isolates), Streptococcus anginosus (three isolates) being the most common, followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus constellatus, Streptococcus alactolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella variicola, and Providencia rettgeri (one isolate of each species). The analysis demonstrated significant susceptibility to most of the tested antibiotics. However, some Enterococcus isolates resisted the antibiotic's erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline. A Staphylococcus epidermidis isolate was characterized as multidrug-resistant. Five Streptococcus isolates were non-susceptible to all antibiotics tested.

8.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 46: e, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559557

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the etiological profile and antimicrobial resistance in breast abscess cultures from patients from the community, treated at a public hospital located in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Methods: This is an retrospective cross-sectional study that evaluated the medical records of patients with bacterial isolates in breast abscess secretion cultures and their antibiograms, from January 2010 to August 2022. Results: Based on 129 positive cultures from women from the community diagnosed with breast abscesses and treated at Fêmina Hospital, 99 (76.7%) of the patients had positive cultures for Staphylococcus sp, 91 (92%) of which were cases of Staphylococcus aureus. Regarding the resistance profile of S. aureus, 32% of the strains were resistant to clindamycin, 26% to oxacillin and 5% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The antimicrobials vancomycin, linezolid and tigecycline did not show resistance for S. aureus. Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen found in the breast abscess isolates during the study period. Oxacillin remains a good option for hospitalized patients. The use of sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim should be considered as a good option for use at home, due to its low bacterial resistance, effectiveness and low cost.

9.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 386-390, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007258

ABSTRACT

In recent years, clinical studies on targeted therapy and immunotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma used alone or in combination have provided abundant evidence on efficacy and safety for the selection of first-line therapies. However, no consensus has been reached on the selection of second-line therapies in various clinical guidelines for hepatocellular carcinoma, which is caused by the fact that existing evidence is limited to the options after failure of sorafenib and that there is still a lack of high-level evidence for new first-line therapies such as second-line therapies after resistance to targeted therapy and immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. This article reviews the results of current clinical trials and summarizes the studies on second-line therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma after resistance to first-line targeted therapy and immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma based on the different mechanisms of action of drugs, as well as the research advances in recent years. For hepatocellular carcinoma patients with resistance to first-line targeted therapy and immunotherapy, targeted combination therapy and dual-immune therapy are expected to improve treatment outcome and survival, and more prospective clinical studies are needed in the future to provide effective and safe treatment regimens for hepatocellular carcinoma patients with resistance to targeted therapy and immunotherapy.

10.
Chinese Journal of Biologicals ; (12): 251-256, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006865

ABSTRACT

@#Inflammatory bowel disease(IBD)is a complex inflammatory disease mediated by immunity that is treated with the goal of maintaining disease remission and preventing recurrence. With the deep study of the molecular mechanism of the occurrence and development of IBD,many related target molecules have been found,and the monoclonal antibodies of corresponding targets have been used to treat the disease,while the drug resistance phenomenon generated during treatment has seriously affected the treatment effect. In this paper,monoclonal antibodies such as infliximab were reviewed for the treatment of IBD resistance,with a view to understanding its possible mechanisms and exploring effective treatments and preventive measures

11.
Journal of Public Health and Preventive Medicine ; (6): 49-52, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005904

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the prevalence of primary drug resistance among HIV-1 patients in Hubei Province from 2020 to 2022, and to provide corresponding basis and data support for HIV antiviral therapy (ART) in Hubei Province. Methods During 2020-2022, plasma samples of HIV-1 infected patients before ART were collected., Patients’ demographic data and baseline laboratory test data were also collected. HIV-1 pol region was amplified by in-house method for sub-type typing and drug-resistant mutation site analysis. Results The pol gene sequence was successfully amplified in 242 of 285 cases, with a success rate of 84.9%. CRF07_BC was the predominant HIV-1 sub-type, accounting for 47.11% (114/242), followed by CRF01_AE, accounting for 25.21% (61/242), sub-type B, accounting for 14.16% (35/242), and CRF55_01B, accounting for 4.13% (10/242). The primary resistance rate was 6.20% (15/242). The mutation site of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) was mainly M184V, and the mutation sites of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) were mainly E138A/G/EG and V179E. These different mutation sites led to different degrees of drug resistance to 12 drugs. The incidence of drug resistance mutation of CRF55_01B sub-type was significantly higher than that of other sub-types. Conclusion The primary drug resistance rate of HIV-1 infected patients is at a slightly high level in Hubei Province, and close monitoring of primary drug resistance and mutation sites should be strengthened before ART, especially for CRF55_01B sub-type.

12.
Journal of Public Health and Preventive Medicine ; (6): 16-19, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005897

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the research progress, research hotspot and development trend of tigecycline resistance based on the quantitative analysis and visualization function of CiteSpace. Methods The data were collected from 4,263 Chinese and English articles on tigecycline resistance in CNKI, Wanfang, VIP and Web of Science (WOS) databases from 2012 to 2022. CiteSpace 5.8.R3 software was used to analyze the cooperative network of authors, the cooperative network of countries and institutions, the total citation times of journals, and keywords included in the literature, to reveal the hotspots and trends of tigecycline resistance research. Results The number of articles published in English literature was higher than that in Chinese literature. China had the largest number of published documents, showing a significant international academic influence in this research field. Countries all over the world were concerned about the resistance of tigecycline, but Chinese literatures focused more on the clinical infection and prevention of tigecycline resistance, while English literatures placed special emphasis on the research about the drug resistance mechanism of tigecycline. Conclusion The research direction at home and abroad is basically the same, but the research focus has gradually shifted from the clinical treatment and monitoring of tigecycline to the molecular level of drug resistance mechanism.

13.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 961-966, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016719

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To investigate the regulatory effect of autophagy on the resistance of human liver cancer cell Huh7 to lenvatinib. METHODS Using human liver cancer cell Huh7 as subject, the lenvatinib-resist cell model (Huh7-LR) was generated by the low-dose gradient method combined with long-term administration. The sensitivity of parental cell Huh7 and drug-resistant cell Huh7-LR to lenvatinib was detected by using CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry. Western blot assay and GFP-mCherry-LC3 plasmid transfection were performed to detect the expression levels of autophagic protein Beclin-1, autophagic adapter protein sequestosome 1 (p62), microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and autophagic level. Furthermore, an autophagy activation model was constructed by cell starvation, the protein expression of p62 and autophagy level were detected by using Western blot assay and GFP-mCherry-LC3 plasmid transfection, and the effect of autophagy activation on the sensitivity of Huh7-LR cells to lenvatinib was detected by flow cytometry. RESULTS Compared with parental cells, the drug resistance index of Huh7-LR cells was 6.2; protein expression of p62 was increased significantly, while apoptotic rate, protein expression of Beclin-1 and LC3Ⅱ/ LC3Ⅰ ratio were all reduced significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01); the level of autophagy was decreased to some extent. Autophagy activation could significantly increase the protein expression of p62 in Huh7-LR cells (P<0.05) and autophagy level, and significantly increase its apoptotic rate (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Autophagy is involved in lenvatinib resistance, and activating autophagy can reverse the resistance of liver cancer cells to lenvatinib to some extent.

14.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 760-766, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016521

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical features of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) and bacterial infection and early warning indicators associated with multidrug-resistant infections. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for 130 patients with ACLF and bacterial infection who attended The Second Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Medical University from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2021, and according to the drug susceptibility results, the patients were divided into multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infection group with 80 patients and non-MDR bacterial infection group with 50 patients. General information and laboratory examination results were compared between the two groups to screen for the early warning indicators associated with MDR bacterial infection. The Student’s t-test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data with homogeneity of variance between two groups, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data or continuous data with heterogeneity of variance between two groups; the chi-square test or the Fisher’s exact test was used for comparison of categorical data between two groups. The binary logistic regression analysis and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to assess the predictive value of early warning indicators. ResultsAmong the 130 patients with ACLF and bacterial infection, sputum (27.7%) was the most common specimen for detection, followed by blood (24.6%), urine (18.5%), and ascites (17.7%). Bacterial infections were dominated by Gram-negative bacteria (58.5%). Of all bacteria, Escherichia coli (18.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.6%), and Enterococcus faecium (13.8%) were the most common pathogens. Gram-positive bacteria had a high resistance rate to the antibacterial drugs such as erythromycin (72.2%), penicillin (57.4%), ampicillin (55.6%), and ciprofloxacin (53.7%), while Gram-negative bacteria had a high resistance rate to the antibacterial drugs such as ampicillin (73.3%), cefazolin (50.0%), and cefepime (47.4%). The patients with ACLF and bacterial infection had a relatively high rate of MDR bacterial infection (61.5%). Comparison of clinical data between the two groups showed that compared with the patients with non-MDR bacterial infection, the patients with MDR bacterial infection had significantly higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (Z=2.089, P=0.037), aspartate aminotransferase (Z=2.063, P=0.039), white blood cell count (Z=2.207, P=0.027), and monocyte count (Z=4.413, P<0.001). The binary logistic regression analysis showed that monocyte count was an independent risk factor for MDR bacterial infection (odds ratio=7.120, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.478‍ ‍—‍ ‍20.456,P<0.001) and had an area under the ROC curve of 0.686 (95%CI: 0.597‍ ‍—‍ ‍0.776) in predicting ACLF with MDR bacterial infection(P<0.001), with the optimal cut-off value of 0.50×109/L, a sensitivity of 0.725, and a specificity of 0.400. ConclusionACLF combined with bacterial infections is mainly caused by Gram-negative bacteria, with the common pathogens of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and a relatively high MDR rate in clinical practice. An increase in monocyte count can be used as an early warning indicator to distinguish MDR bacterial infection from non-MDR bacterial infection.

15.
Journal of Public Health and Preventive Medicine ; (6): 141-143, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016432

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in sputum culture of pneumonia, and to provide evidence for the rational application of clinical antibacterial drugs . Methods The clinical data of 475 patients with positive sputum bacterial culture admitted to department of respiratory medicine of Neijiang Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine from May 2020 to May 2023 were collected. The types and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria isolated from sputum culture were statistically analyzed . Results A total of 539 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated from the sputum culture of 475 patients with pneumonia, including 344 strains (63.82%) of Gram-negative bacteria [mainly Klebsiella pneumoniae (79 strains, 14.66%)] and 195 strains (36.18%) of Gram-positive bacteria [mainly Streptococcus pneumoniae (70 strains, 12.99%)]. Klebsiella pneumoniae was highly sensitive to aztreonam, levofloxacin, amikacin, imipenem, and ertapenem, with the sensitivity rates of 94.67%, 92.41%, 94.87%, 96.00% and 98.67% respectively. Streptococcus pneumoniae was absolutely sensitive to teicoplanin, vancomycin and linezolid, and was highly sensitive to cefpirome, levofloxacin, imipenem and ertapenem, with the sensitivity rates of 94.29%, 91.43%, 97.14% and 98.48%. Conclusions The common pathogenic bacteria of patients with pneumonia in Neijiang Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine include Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Various pathogenic bacteria have different degrees of resistance to common antibacterial drugs. It is necessary to combine with the types and drug susceptibility results of pathogenic bacteria for the rational application of antibacterial drugs.

16.
Cancer Research on Prevention and Treatment ; (12): 157-162, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016391

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignant tumors recorded worldwide. This condition has high morbidity and mortality and seriously endangers people's health. Traditional diagnostic models fail to meet people's current needs for real-time monitoring of tumors. Compared with traditional detection methods, ctDNA detection is not only noninvasive but can also attain real-time detection of comprehensive genomic information of tumors. The advancement of detection technology has gradually highlighted the potential of ctDNA detection in the clinical treatment of CRC. This article reviews the advancements on the clinical application of ctDNA in early screening, minimal residual disease detection, and guidance on individualized treatment of CRC patients.

17.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics ; (12): 90-98, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1014565

ABSTRACT

The FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene mutation is the most common genetic mutation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is associated with poor prognosis. Various targeted inhibitors have been developed for FLT3 mutations and have shown promising clinical efficacy. However, the emergence of resistance poses new challenges for targeted therapy in AML. This article provides an overview of the pathological and prognostic role of FLT3 mutations in AML, the current research progress on commonly used FLT3 inhibitors (type I and type II), the mechanisms of FLT3 inhibitor resistance, and strategies for overcoming resistance.

18.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics ; (12): 82-89, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1014563

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal-derived tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the cornerstone of GIST therapy, but mutations in resistance genes pose many problems for treatment, especially the heterogeneity of KIT resistance mutations. In recent years, with the release of a number of GIST related drug research and experimental results, the great potential of targeted therapy, immunotherapy and combination therapy to treat GIST in different directions has been revealed, providing more therapeutic directions for GIST. This article will review the experimental research and future direction in recent years.

19.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 415-420, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013650

ABSTRACT

During the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer ( NSCLC) , many patients have developed drug resistance due to the use of targeted EGFR inhibitors. The main reasons for drug resistance are EGFR site mutations and bypass activation. Activation of ALK pathway is one of the major types of bypass activation. A recent authoritative study indicates that ALK is closely related to immunotherapy. This article reviews the treatment of ALK in tumors from three aspects: the structure and physiological function of ALK, the small molecule inhibitor of ALK, the biological function of ALK and its related treatment methods for NSCLC, and prospects future directions for better application of ALK in the treatment of NSCLC.

20.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 99-105, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013598

ABSTRACT

Aim To investigate whether diallyl disul-fide (DADS) augments the sensitivity of DJ-1 (protein/ nucleic acid deglycase) overexpressed human gastric SGC7901 cells to 5-FU (5-fluorouracil). Methods The experimental groups include control group, DADS group, VCR (vincristine) group, VCR + DADS group, DJ-1 group, DJ-1 + DADS group. MTT was used to analyze the effect of DADS on 5 -FU (5 -fluorou- racil) induced proliferation inhibition. Flow cytometry was performed to examine the effect of DADS on cell apoptosis. RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluo-rescence were used for determine the effect of DADS on the drug resistance associated gene expression. Results DADS enhanced the proliferation inhibitory effect of 5-FU on DJ-1 overexpressed cells and VCR resistant cells. DADS could induce apoptosis in VCR-resistant cells. DADS downregulated the expression of DJ-1 while inducing apoptosis in DJ-1 overexpressed cells. DJ-1 overexpression upregulated the expression of P-gp (P-glycoprotein), Bcl-2, and XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein), downregulated the expression of caspase-3. DADS decreased the expression of P-gp, Bcl-2, and XIAP, while increased the expression of caspase-3 in DJ-1 overexpressed cells and VCR-resistant cells. Conclusions DADS can augment the sensitivity of DJ-1 overexpressed cells to 5-FU, which is related to its antagonism against DJ-1 mediated upregula- tion of P-gp, Bcl-2, XIAP, and downregulation of caspase-3.

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