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1.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(289): 8000-8011, jun.2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1379676

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Investigar os fatores associados à segurança dos pacientes em cuidados paliativos domiciliares quanto ao uso medicamentos. Método: Trata-se de um estudo exploratório, descritivo, com abordagem quantitativa, realizado com cuidadores familiares de indivíduos com doenças crônicas acompanhados na Unidade de Cuidados Paliativos e Tratamento da dor, em um hospital de referência em Recife - PE. A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio de entrevista, utilizando um roteiro semiestruturado. Os dados foram organizados em planilha construída no programa Microsoft Excel e analisados por meio de estatística descritiva. Resultados: Verificou-se que a maioria dos cuidadores mantém o armazenamento dos medicamentos longe do calor e da incidência do sol, além da verificação rotineira da validade antes da administração. Entretanto, 43,75% dos cuidadores não possuem o hábito de ler a bula e 50% referem, em algum momento, já ter trocado a medicação e/ou horário do remédio do paciente. Conclusões: Foi evidenciado a atenção no armazenamento dos medicamentos, porém há necessidade da implementação de estratégias para garantir a segurança na administração dos medicamentos no domicilio.(AU)


Objective: To investigate the factors associated with patient safety in home palliative care regarding medication use. Method: This is an exploratory, descriptive study with a quantitative approach, carried out with family caregivers of individuals with chronic diseases followed up at the Palliative Care and Pain Treatment Unit (UCPD), in a referral hospital in Recife - PE. Data collection took place through interviews, using a semi-structured script. Data were organized in a spreadsheet built in Microsoft Excel and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: It was found that most caregivers keep medication storage away from heat and sunlight, in addition to routinely checking the validity before administration. However, 43.75% of caregivers do not have the habit of reading the leaflet and 50% report, at some point, having already changed the patient's medication and/or medication schedule. Conclusions: Attention to the storage of medicines was evidenced, but there is a need to implement strategies to ensure safety in the administration of medicines at home.(AU)


Objetivo: Investigar los factores asociados a la seguridad del paciente en cuidados paliativos domiciliarios en cuanto al uso de medicamentos. Método: Se trata de un estudio exploratorio, descriptivo, con abordaje cuantitativo, realizado con cuidadores familiares de personas con enfermedades crónicas acompañadas en la Unidad de Cuidados Paliativos y Tratamiento del Dolor (UCPD), en un hospital de referencia de Recife - PE. La recolección de datos ocurrió a través de entrevistas, utilizando un guión semiestructurado. Los datos se organizaron en una hoja de cálculo construida en Microsoft Excel y se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados: Se constató que la mayoría de los cuidadores mantienen el almacenamiento de medicamentos alejado del calor y la luz solar, además de verificar rutinariamente la validez antes de la administración. Sin embargo, el 43,75% de los cuidadores no tiene el hábito de leer el prospecto y el 50% refiere, en algún momento, haber cambiado ya la medicación y/o el horario de medicación del paciente. Conclusiones: Se evidenció atención al almacenamiento de medicamentos, pero existe la necesidad de implementar estrategias para garantizar la seguridad en la administración de medicamentos en el domicilio.(AU)


Subject(s)
Palliative Care , Caregivers , Medication Therapy Management , Patient Safety , Home Nursing
2.
Rev. estomatol. Hered ; 32(2): 119-128, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409338

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los estreptococos del grupo viridans (EGV) son un grupo heterogéneo de bacterias saprófitas anaerobias facultativas que forman parte de la flora normal de cavidad oral. El incremento de la resistencia antibiótica de este grupo de bacterias cobra importancia en pacientes hospitalizados con terapia antibiótica prolongada, en los cuales estos microorganismos pueden ser sustituidos por bacterias multirresistentes. Objetivos: Determinar el porcentaje de cepas de EGV aisladas de cavidad oral resistentes a los antibióticos utilizados en el tratamiento de diversas patologías infecciosas hospitalarias. Material y Métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo en el que se incluyeron 60 pacientes hospitalizados con historia de terapia antibiótica por más de 3 semanas. Las muestras se procesaron siguiendo protocolos estandarizados de recolección, aislamiento e identificación para EGV de cavidad oral y un protocolo de pruebas de sensibilidad antibiótica. Los resultados se muestran en tablas y gráficas de frecuencia. Resultados: La principal indicación para terapia antibiótica intrahospitalaria fue infección orofacial: 28,33%. La penicilina fue el antibiótico más utilizado ya sea en terapia única, combinada o múltiple en todos los pacientes. Se aislaron en total 108 cepas de EGV, con un promedio de 1,8 cepas por paciente. La especie predominantemente identificada fue S. mutans. El 96,3% de las cepas de EGV fue sensible a todos los antibióticos incluidos en el panel. Conclusiones: El uso de distintas combinaciones y modalidades de terapia antibiótica no tiene efecto en la susceptibilidad de EGV aislados de cavidad oral en pacientes hospitalizados, independiente de la duración del tratamiento.


ABSTRACT Viridans group streptococci (VGS) are a heterogeneous group of saprophytic facultative anaerobic bacteria that are part of the normal flora of the oral cavity. The increased resistance to multiple antibiotics in this group of bacteria becomes important in prolonged antibiotic therapies inpatient where these common microorganisms are replaced by multi-resistant bacteria. Objectives: To determine the percentage of VGS strains isolated from oral cavity resistant to antibiotics used in hospital infectious diseases. Material and methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study that included 60 hospitalized patients with a history of antibiotic therapy for more than 3 weeks. The samples were processed following standardized protocols for collection, isolation and identification of oral cavity VGS and a protocol of antibiotic susceptibility testing. The results are shown in tables and graphics of absolute and relative frequencies. Results: The main indication for antibiotic therapy was orofacial infection with a 28.33%. Penicillin was the antibiotic further used either in single, combined or multiple therapies in all patients. A total of 108 samples (1.8 per patient swabs) were collected. The predominantly identified specie was Streptococcus mutans. The 96.3% of all VGS strains were sensitive to all antibiotics included in the panel. Conclusion: Using different combinations and types of antibiotic therapy inpatient has no effect on the susceptibility of VGS isolated from oral cavity separate from treatment.

3.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 309-312, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931542

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the demographic characteristics and treatment intention, treatment status and therapeutic effect of patients with skeletal fluorosis in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (reffered to as Inner Mongolia) in order to provide a basis for next step treatment program.Methods:From March to June 2020, a face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted among 3 570 patients with skeletal fluorosis in 11 leagues (cities) of Inner Mongolia to understand their basic information, treatment intention, treatment status and therapeutic effect. Patients with skeletal fluorosis of different demographic characteristics were compared with each other in their treatment intention and treatment status, and the therapeutic effects of different drugs were compared by χ 2 test. Results:A total of 3570 patients with skeletal fluorosis were investigated. There were slightly more women than men with skeletal fluorosis (1.29 ∶ 1.00, 2 014/1 556). The ages were mainly from 40 to 79 years old (95.4%, 3 406/3 570). Mongols patients accounted for 36.0% (1 285/3 570). Patients with low education (primary school and below) accounted for 82.2% (2 935/3 570). Eighty-five per cent (3 035/3 570) of the patients had drug treatment intention and 37.1% (1 325/3 570) of the patients had drug treatment. Thirty-seven point five per cent (1 338/3 570) of the patients had surgery intention and surgery was performed in 0.2% (8/3 570) of the patients. Combination therapy (98.5%, 194/197) and chondroprotective agents alone (98.3%, 173/176) were more effective than anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents alone (84.2%, 48/57) in the treatment of skeletal fluorosis ( P < 0.05). Surgery was effective (8/8). Conclusions:Most of the patients with skeletal fluorosis are middle-aged and elderly, and the patients with skeletal fluorosis in Mongols account for a certain proportion. At present, all the patients with skeletal fluorosis who have the will to be treated have not been effectively treated, and the means of treatment is relatively single. It should be advocated to carry out various forms of treatment of skeletal fluorosis, so that patients could relieve symptoms, reduce pain and improve their quality of life.

4.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 26(2): 102347, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384118

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Several therapies have been used or proposed for the treatment of COVID-19, although their effectiveness and safety have not been properly evaluated. The purpose of this document is to provide recommendations to support decisions about the drug treatment of outpatients with COVID-19 in Brazil. Methods A panel consisting of experts from different clinical fields, representatives of the Brazilian Ministry of Health, and methodologists (37 members in total) was responsible for preparing these guidelines. A rapid guideline development method was used, based on the adoption and/or adaptation of recommendations from existing international guidelines combined with additional structured searches for primary studies and new recommendations whenever necessary (GRADE-ADOLOPMENT). The rating of quality of evidence and the drafting of recommendations followed the GRADE method. Results Ten technologies were evaluated, and 10 recommendations were prepared. Recommendations were made against the use of anticoagulants, azithromycin, budesonide, colchicine, corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine alone or combined with azithromycin, ivermectin, nitazoxanide, and convalescent plasma. It was not possible to make a recommendation regarding the use of monoclonal antibodies in outpatients, as their benefit is uncertain and their cost is high, with limitations of availability and implementation. Conclusion To date, few therapies have demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of outpatients with COVID-19. Recommendations are restricted to what should not be used, in order to provide the best treatment according to the principles of evidence-based medicine and to promote resource savings by aboiding ineffective treatments.

5.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 30: e20200511, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1341729

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the correspondence between actions contemplated in the safety protocol on medication prescription, use and administration of the Ministry of Health with interventions of the Nursing Interventions Classification, by means of cross-mapping. Method: a descriptive study developed in four stages: extraction of the protocol's Nursing actions; identification of the interventions of the Nursing Interventions Classification; cross-mapping; and cross-mapping validation by experts. Results: 61 actions of the protocol and 32 interventions of the Nursing Interventions Classification were identified. After two rounds of mapping analysis by the experts, correspondence was identified between 53 actions and seven interventions. The interventions that presented the highest correspondence were the following: Medication Administration, Medication Management and Medication Prescription. Of the 53 mapped actions of the protocol, 56,6% were considered more detailed and specific than the activities of the interventions, 20,8% were classified as similar in meaning, 17,0% as broader and general, and 5,7% were only mapped with the title and definition of the intervention. Conclusion: the mapped actions of the protocol were considered more detailed and specific in relation to the activities of the interventions of the Nursing Interventions Classification. The unmapped interventions can contribute to elaborating operational protocols that expand the Nursing actions related to the mitigation of medication errors.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar la correspondencia entre las acciones contempladas en el protocolo de seguridad para la prescripción, el uso y la administración de medicamentos del Ministerio de la Salud y las intervenciones de la Clasificación de Intervenciones de Enfermería, por medio de la técnica de mapo cruzado. Método: estudio descriptivo desarrollado en cuatro etapas: extracción de las acciones de Enfermería del protocolo; identificación de las intervenciones de la Clasificación de Intervenciones de Enfermería; mapeo cruzado; y validación del mapeo cruzado a cargo de expertos. Resultados: se identificaron 61 acciones del protocolo y 32 intervenciones de la Clasificación de Intervenciones de Enfermería. Después de dos rondas de análisis del mapo a cargo de los expertos, se identificó correspondencia entre 53 acciones y siete intervenciones. Las intervenciones que presentaron mayor correspondencia fueron las siguientes: administración de medicamentos, control de medicamentos y prescripción de medicamentos. De las 53 acciones del protocolo mapeadas, se consideró que el 56,6% eran más detalladas y específicas que las actividades de las intervenciones, el 20,8% fueron clasificadas como similares en relación al significado, el 17,0% como más amplias y generales y el 5,7% se mapearon solamente con el título y la definición de la intervención. Conclusión: se consideró que las acciones del protocolo mapeadas eran más detalladas y específicas en relación con las actividades de las intervenciones de la Clasificación de Intervenciones de Enfermería. Las intervenciones no mapeadas pueden ser útiles para elaborar protocolos operativos que amplíen las acciones de Enfermería relacionadas a la mitigación de errores de medicación.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a correspondência entre ações contempladas no protocolo de segurança na prescrição, uso e administração de medicamentos do Ministério da Saúde com intervenções da Classificação de Intervenções de Enfermagem, por meio do mapeamento cruzado. Método: estudo descritivo desenvolvido em quatro etapas: extração das ações de enfermagem do protocolo; identificação das intervenções da Classificação de Intervenções de Enfermagem; mapeamento cruzado; e validação do mapeamento cruzado por peritos. Resultados: foram identificadas 61 ações do protocolo e 32 intervenções da Classificação de Intervenções de Enfermagem. Após duas rodadas de análise do mapeamento pelos peritos, identificou-se correspondência de 53 ações com sete intervenções. As intervenções que apresentaram maior correspondência foram: administração de medicamentos, controle de medicamentos e prescrição de medicamentos. Das 53 ações do protocolo mapeadas, 56,6% foram consideradas mais detalhadas e específicas do que as atividades das intervenções, 20,8% foram classificadas como similares em significado, 17,0% como mais amplas e gerais e 5,7% foram mapeadas apenas com o título e definição da intervenção. Conclusão: as ações do protocolo mapeadas foram consideradas mais detalhadas e específicas em relação às atividades das intervenções da Classificação de Intervenções de Enfermagem. As intervenções não mapeadas podem contribuir para a construção de protocolos operacionais que ampliem as ações de enfermagem relacionadas à mitigação de erros de medicação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Strategies , Medication Therapy Management , Patient Safety , Standardized Nursing Terminology , Medication Errors , Nursing, Team
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908730

ABSTRACT

Objective:to investigate the efficacy of drugs in the treatment of laryngeal granuloma after hypothermic plasma radiofrequency surgery in early glottic carcinoma.Methods:Thirty-two cases of laryngeal granulomacoming from 289 patients with early glottic carcinoma treated by plasma radiofrequency surgery under endoscope-supported laryngoscopefrom January 2011 to January 2021 in Dalian Municipal Central Hospital were enrolled. All patients were given oral treatment of zinc gluconate tablets (70 grams per tablet, containing 10 grams of zinc). The usage was 3 tablets each time, twice a day. If the granulation was located in the vocal cord, 20 mg of esomeprazolec was added twice a day, and taken orally on an empty stomach. The total course of treatment was 6-12 weeks.Results:Follow-up and reexamination of electronic laryngoscope showed that the granulation of all patients began to become smaller after 3 weeks of drug treatment and gradually disappeared after 6-12 weeks. After the granulation disappeared, the drug was stopped, and there was no recurrence.Two patients developed nausea and epigastric discomfort after oral administration of zinc gluconate tablets for 3 weeks, and the discomfort disappeared after reducing the dose.Conclusions:Oral administration of zinc gluconate tablets alone or in combination with esomeprazoleis an effective, safe and low recurrence method for laryngeal granuloma after hypothermic plasma radiofrequency ablation in early glottic carcinoma.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880529

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine the effectiveness and safety of essential oil from Citrus aurantium on anxiety in patients undergoing coronary angiography.@*METHODS@#A single-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in 80 patients experiencing coronary angiography in Imam Ali Hospital in Kermanshah, Iran from April to November in 2016. All patients were randomly divided into intervention and control groups by a random number table, 40 cases in each group. The patients in the intervention group inhaled Citrus aurantium essential oil for 15-20 min about 60 min before angiography. Following the same procedure, distilled water was used instead of Citrus aurantium in the control group. Spielbergers State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was filled in and vital signs including systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), respiratory and pulse rate were recorded before and 20 min after the intervention. Adverse reactions after intervention were observed.@*RESULTS@#In the intervention group, the mean scores of STAI, SBP, DBP, respiratory and pulse rate were 53.30 ± 10.13, 134.82 ± 11.75 mm Hg, 84.49 ± 6.99 mm Hg, 17.87 ± 1.73 times/min, and 76.48 ± 12.55 beats/min at baseline and significantly decreased to 42.37 ± 10.15, 124.49 ± 10.48 mm Hg, 79.23 ± 6.62 mm Hg, 14.54 ± 1.43 times/min, and 70.03 ± 13.66 beats/min respectively 20 min after intervention (all P0.05). All subjects reported no adverse reactions.@*CONCLUSION@#Inhalation of the essential oil from Citrus aurantium was effective in reducing anxiety and stress levels in patients undergoing coronary angiography.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#IRCT2016040816797N2 (retrospectively registered on 21 April 2016, https://en.irct.ir/trial/15600 ).

8.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20210021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279383

ABSTRACT

Resumo Contexto A pandemia do Coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19) tem afetado negativamente o comportamento da população. Nesse contexto, o impacto da pandemia da COVID-19 no tratamento medicamentoso dos pacientes com doença arterial periférica (DAP) e claudicação intermitente (CI) permanece obscuro. Objetivos Analisar o impacto da pandemia da COVID-19 no tratamento medicamentoso dos pacientes com DAP e CI. Métodos Neste estudo observacional transversal, 136 pacientes com DAP e CI, recrutados do nosso banco de dados, responderam por telefone um questionário envolvendo as seguintes questões: a) cuidados com a COVID-19; b) saúde global; c) tratamento das doenças. Posteriormente, os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, de acordo com a dificuldade para a aquisição dos medicamentos (DAM: dificuldade e SDAM: sem dificuldade), para a comparação da saúde global entre os dois grupos. Resultados Dezessete porcento dos pacientes reportaram dificuldades para a aquisição dos medicamentos durante a pandemia. Uma maior prevalência desses pacientes reportou estar mais triste (56,5% versus 24,8%, p < 0,01) e com mais dificuldades para dormir (56,5% versus 24,8%, p < 0,01) em relação aos pacientes do grupo SDAM. Os grupos não apresentaram diferenças para o declínio na capacidade de caminhada, ansiedade, estresse e depressão (p > 0,05). Conclusões Uma maior prevalência de pacientes do grupo DAM reportou estar mais triste e com mais dificuldade para dormir em comparação ao grupo SDAM durante a pandemia da COVID-19.


Abstract Background The Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a negative impact on the population's behavior. In this context, the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on drug treatment of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and intermittent claudication (IC) remains unclear. Objectives To analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on drug treatment of patients with PAD and IC. Methods In this cross-sectional, observational study, 136 patients with PAD and IC were recruited from our database and answered a questionnaire by telephone involving the following questions: a) precautions related to COVID-19; b) general health status; and c) treatment of diseases. Subsequently, patients were divided into two groups according to difficulty in obtaining their drugs (DOD: difficulty obtaining drugs, or NDOD: no difficulty obtaining drugs) and overall health was compared between groups. Results Seventeen percent of patients reported difficulties with obtaining drugs during the pandemic. A higher proportion of these patients reported being sadder (56.5% vs. 24.8%, P < 0.01) and having more difficulty sleeping (56.5% vs. 24.8%, P < 0.01) than of the patients in the NDOD group (P <0.01). The groups did not differ in terms of impairment of walking capability, anxiety, stress, or depression (P> 0.05). Conclusions A higher proportion of patients in the DOD group reported being sadder and having greater difficulty sleeping compared to the NDOD group during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Social Isolation , Medication Adherence , Peripheral Arterial Disease/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Intermittent Claudication/drug therapy , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Walking , Depression , Sleep Quality , Health Services Accessibility
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908394

ABSTRACT

Neonatal persistent pulmonary hypertension refers to the continuous increase of pulmonary artery pressure, right heart pressure, right-to-left shunt at foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus level, severe hypoxemia and even respiratory failure after birth.At present, the drug treatments of neonatal persistent pulmonary hypertension include inhaling nitric oxide, sildenafil, milrinone, endothelin receptor antagonists bosentan, prostaglandins and their analogs.This review briefly summarized the progress on the treatment of neonatal persistent pulmonary hypertension.

10.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 36(4): e1358, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156487

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las urgencias hipertensivas constituyen una de las complicaciones agudas más frecuentes de la hipertensión arterial y es causa de muerte prematura entre adultos. Muchas publicaciones abogan por el uso de la Medicina Tradicional y Natural como método terapéutico eficaz e inocuo en su manejo. Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad del tratamiento acupuntural en las urgencias hipertensivas durante el preoperatorio en los pacientes que serán sometidos a intervenciones quirúrgicas ambulatorias menores en el Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso, de enero a octubre de 2019. Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio de intervención terapéutica. El universo estuvo constituido por 150 pacientes hipertensos que fueron asignados aleatoriamente a un grupo estudio que recibió tratamiento con acupuntura y un grupo control que recibió tratamiento medicamentoso. A todos se les realizó diagnóstico occidental y oriental. Ambos grupos estuvieron conformados por 75 pacientes. Resultados: Predominó el grupo de edades de 45 a 54 años en ambos grupos, un mayor número de mujeres enfermas. El síntoma que más afectó al total de los pacientes fue la cefalea y hubo superioridad del diagnóstico síndrome hiperactividad de fuego de hígado. El 74 por ciento de los pacientes a los que se les aplicó acupuntura mejoraron y un 66 por ciento lo lograron en el grupo control. Conclusiones: El tratamiento acupuntural resultó ser efectivo en los pacientes con urgencias hipertensivas durante el preoperatorio para las intervenciones quirúrgicas ambulatorios menores(AU)


Introduction: Hypertensive emergencies are one of the most frequent acute complications of arterial hypertension and the cause of premature death among adults. Many publications advocate the use of traditional and natural medicine as an effective and safe therapeutic method for its management. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of acupuncture against hypertensive emergencies during the preoperative period in patients who will undergo minor outpatient surgical interventions at Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso Clinical-Surgical Hospital, from January to October 2019. Methods: A therapeutic intervention study was carried out. The population consisted of 150 hypertensive patients who were randomly assigned to either a study group that received acupuncture or a control group that received drug treatment, all of whom underwent Western and Eastern diagnoses. Both groups consisted of 75 patients. Results: The age set 45-54 years predominated in both groups, together with a greater number of sick women. The symptom that most affected all the patients was headache and there was superiority of the diagnosis of Liver-fire hyperactivity syndrome. 74 percent of the patients who received acupuncture improved, while 66 percent achieved it as part of the control group. Conclusions: Acupuncture turned out to be effective in patients with hypertensive emergencies during the preoperative period for minor outpatient surgeries(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Acupuncture/methods , Ambulatory Surgical Procedures/methods , Hypertension/drug therapy
11.
Rev. Finlay ; 10(3): 209-221, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143812

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento: la coexistencia de la enfermedad arterial periférica y el síndrome coronario agudo se asocia con peor pronóstico. El índice tobillo-brazo ha demostrado ser un marcador de ateroesclerosis multisitios. Objetivo: determinar la relación entre el índice tobillo-brazo y la enfermedad arterial coronaria multivasos. Método: se realizó un estudio observacional analítico que incluyó a todos los pacientes egresados de la unidad de cuidados coronarios del Hospital Provincial Universitario Camilo Cienfuegos Gorriarán, de la provincia Sancti Spíritus, en el período comprendido entre el primero de marzo de 2011 al 30 de febrero de 2018, con diagnóstico de síndrome coronario agudo, con y sin elevación del segmento ST. Se recogieron datos clínicos, de índice tobillo-brazo, ecocardiográficos y de angiografía coronaria y se determinó la implicación pronóstica del índice en la enfermedad multivaso a través de un árbol de clasificación con las variables incluidas en el modelo de regresión logística binaria. Resultados: la enfermedad multivaso se presentó en 85,2 % pacientes, de ellos eran hombres el 81,9 %, el 85,9 % de ellos con enfermedad multivaso, la edad media fue de 59,1 años, el 52,3 % presentó SCACEST con enfermedad multivaso el 78,8 %. Los factores de riesgo más frecuentes fueron: el hábito de fumar (86,8 %), la dislipidemia (85,8 %) y la hipertensión arterial (84,8 %) en el grupo con enfermedad multivaso e ITB=0,9 (DE=0,3). Recibieron tratamiento con clopidogrel (86,1 %), ácido acetilsalicílico (86,3 %), IECA o ARA II (85,8 %), estatinas (73,2 %), betabloqueantes (87,5 %) y nitratos (86,3 %). En la angiografía, el 85,2 % presentó una enfermedad coronaria severa. Las dos variables predictoras fueron: el SCASEST y el ITB≤0,9 que mostraron un elevado valor predictivo positivo en el pronóstico de enfermedad arterial coronaria multivaso. Conclusiones: el índice tobillo-brazo<0,9 mostró una capacidad predictiva para la enfermedad multivaso que se incrementa si se asocia a la diabetes mellitus y el hábito de fumar.


ABSTRACT Background: the coexistence of peripheral arterial disease and acute coronary syndrome is associated with a worse prognosis. The ankle-brachial index has been shown to be a marker of multisite atherosclerosis. Objective: to determine the relationship between the ankle-brachial index and coronary artery disease. Method: an analytical observational study was carried out that included all the patients discharged from the coronary care unit of the Camilo Cienfuegos Gorriarán Provincial University Hospital, of the Sancti Spíritus province, in the period from March 1, 2011 to February 30 of 2018, with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, with and without ST segment elevation. Clinical data, ankle-brachial index, echocardiography and coronary angiography were collected and the prognostic implication of the index in disease was determined through a classification tree with the variables included in the binary logistic regression model. Results: multivessel disease occurred in 85.2 % patients, 81.9 % of them were men, 85.9 % of them with multivessel disease, the mean age was 59.1 years, 52.3 % presented STEACS with multivessel disease 78.8 %. The most frequent risk factors were: smoking (86.8 %), dyslipidemia (85.8 %) and arterial hypertension (84.8 %) in the group with multivessel disease and ABI = 0.9 (SD = 0.3). They received treatment with clopidogrel (86.1 %), acetylsalicylic acid (86.3 %), ACEI or ARB (85.8 %), statins (73.2 %), beta-blockers (87.5 %) and nitrates (86, 3 %). On angiography, 85.2 % had severe coronary disease. The two-predictor variables were: NSTEACS and ABI≤0.9, which showed a high positive predictive value in the prognosis of multivessel coronary artery disease. Conclusions: ankle-brachial index <0.9 showed a predictive capacity for multivessel disease that increases if it is associated with diabetes mellitus and smoking.

12.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 37(2): 320-326, abr.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127153

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación (IETSI) del Seguro Social de Salud (EsSalud) ha desarrollado siete informes breves mediante revisiones rápidas de evidencia sobre los agentes potencialmente terapéuticos contra el SARS-CoV-2 con la finalidad de brindar información actual y relevante para los decisores, clínicos, investigadores y la comunidad académica en el Perú. Los agentes terapéuticos evaluados incluyeron cloroquina/hidroxicloroquina, lopinavir/ritonavir, tocilizumab, oseltamivir, interferón, atazanavir y plasma anti-SARS-CoV-2. La identificación de evidencia incluyó la revisión de las bases electrónicas PubMed y Cochrane Library. Adicionalmente, se realizó una búsqueda manual en las páginas web de grupos dedicados a la investigación y educación en salud, así como, en las principales sociedades o instituciones especializadas, como la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC, por sus siglas en inglés). Asimismo, para disminuir el sesgo de publicación, se buscó en las páginas web www.clinicaltrials.gov y http://apps.who.int/trialsearch, para identificar ensayos clínicos en desarrollo o que no hayan sido publicados aún. Finalmente, se consideró extraer información con una estrategia de «bola de nieve¼ mediante la revisión de las listas de referencias de las revisiones sistemáticas, estudios primarios y revisiones narrativas que sean de relevancia. A la fecha de la última revisión (27 de marzo de 2020), no se dispone de evidencia para recomendar un medicamento específico para el tratamiento de pacientes con COVID-19. Se necesita de mayor evidencia, preferentemente ensayos clínicos de buena calidad, para la toma de decisiones terapéuticas contra el SARS-CoV-2.


ABSTRACT The Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación (IETSI) of the Seguro Social de Salud (EsSalud) has completed seven brief reports by means of rapid reviews of evidence regarding the potentially effective therapies against SARS-CoV-2 in order to provide current and relevant information for decision makers, clinicians, researchers and the academic community in Peru. The therapeutic agents evaluated were chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, tocilizumab, oseltamivir, interferon, atazanavir and anti SARS-CoV-2 serum. Evidence identification included the review of PubMed and Cochrane Library electronic databases. Additionally, manual search was carried out on websites from groups dedicated to research and education on health, as well as in the main specialized societies or institutions, such as, the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Furthermore, in order to reduce publication bias, the websites: www.clinicaltrials.gov and http://apps.who.int/trialsearch were searched to identify in-progress or unpublished clinical trials. Finally, a "snowball" strategy was performed by reviewing the reference lists of the systematic reviews, primary studies and selected narrative reviews to identify relevant information. The latest review (March 27, 2020) showed that there is no evidence to recommend any medication for patients´ treatment with COVID-19. More evidence, preferably high-quality randomized clinical trials, is needed for decision-making against SARS-CoV-2.

13.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 36(1): e982, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099069

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La falta de adherencia al tratamiento farmacológico es la principal razón de los pobres resultados observados en el control de la hipertensión arterial. Si bien los tratamientos farmacológicos han demostrado su eficacia, se ha reportado una baja adherencia a estos. Objetivo: Determinar la adherencia farmacológica y control de la presión arterial. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en pacientes hipertensos del consultorio # 24 del Policlínico Universitario Cerro, durante el periodo comprendido de octubre del 2017 a marzo del 2018. Resultados: De un total de 198 pacientes hipertensos estudiados, se identificó mayor prevalencia de la hipertensión arterial en hombres 51 por ciento y del grupo etario, 65 años. Solo el 43,9 por ciento de los pacientes se encontraron adheridos al tratamiento farmacológico demostrado por el test de Morisky Green Levine, y las mujeres mostraron mayor adherencia farmacológica (28,2 por ciento), los esquemas terapéuticos de monoterapia y monodosis presentaron mayor adherencia farmacológica (34,8 por ciento y 27,7 por ciento respectivamente), con asociación significativa (p < 0.05). El 71,7 por ciento de los pacientes se encontraban controlados, de ellos el 41,9 por ciento estaban adheridos farmacológicamente, con asociación significativa (p < 0.05). Conclusiones: Menos de la mitad de los pacientes se encontraban adheridos farmacológicamente, los esquemas terapéuticos de monoterapia y monodosis, resultaron más eficaces para la adherencia farmacológica y el control de la hipertensión arterial está influenciado directamente por la adherencia farmacológica(AU).


Introduction: Lack of adherence to drug treatment is the main reason for the poor outcomes observed in the control of high blood pressure. Although drug treatments have proven effective, low adherence to these has been reported. Objective: To determine drug adherence and blood pressure control. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out with hypertensive patients of the family medicine office # 24 of Cerro University Polyclinic, during the period from October 2017 to March 2018. Results: From among a total of 198 hypertensive patients studied, a higher prevalence of arterial hypertension was identified in men (51 percent) and in the age group 65 years or older. Only 43.9 percentf the patients reported adherence to drug treatment, as demonstrated by the Morisky Green Levine test, while the women showed higher drug adherence (28.2 percent). The treatment schemes of monotherapy and single doses presented higher drug adherence (34.8 percent and 27.7 percent, respectively), with significant association (p<0.05). 71.7 percent of the patients were controlled, of which 41.9 percent reported drug adherence, with significant association (p<0.05). Conclusions: Less than half of the patients reported drug adherence. The treatment schemes of monotherapy and single dose were more effective for drug adherence, while high blood pressure control is directly influenced by drug adherence(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Hypertension/prevention & control , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
14.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(1): 69-76, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131008

ABSTRACT

Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent arrhythmia; its prevalence is near 2% in the general population; in Mexico, more than one-half million people are affected. AF needs to be considered as a public health problem. Because AF is an independent risk factor associated with mortality, due to embolic events, heart failure, or sudden death; early diagnosis is of utmost importance. In unstable patients with a recent onset of AF, electrical cardioversion should be practiced. In stable patients, once thromboembolic measures have been taken, it is necessary to assess whether it is reasonable to administer an antiarrhythmic drug to restore sinus rhythm or performed electrical cardioversion. For recidivating cases of paroxysmal and persistent presentation, the most effective strategy is performed pulmonary vein isolation with either radiofrequency or cryoballoon energy. Permanent AF is that in which recovery of sinus rhythm is not possible, the distinguishing feature of this phase is the uncontrollable variability of the ventricular frequency and could be treated pharmacologically with atrioventricular (AV) nodal blockers or with a VVIR pacemaker plus AV nodal ablation. The presence of AF has long been associated with the development of cerebral and systemic (pulmonary, limb, coronary, renal, and visceral) embolism. The prevention of embolisms in “valvular” AF should perform with Vitamin K antagonists (VKA). For patients with AF not associated with mitral stenosis or a mechanical valve prosthesis, a choice can be made between anticoagulant drugs, VKA, or direct oral anticoagulants. Antiplatelet agents have the weakest effect in preventing embolism.


Resumen La fibrilación auricular (FA) es una arritmia frecuente; su prevalencia es cercana al 2% en la población general, en México se ven afectados más de medio millón de personas por eso debe considerarse como un problema de salud pública. Debido a que la FA es un factor de riesgo independiente asociado a mortalidad, por eventos embólicos, insuficiencia cardíaca o muerte súbita, la identificación y diagnóstico temprano es de suma importancia. En el inicio reciente de FA en pacientes inestables, se debe practicar la cardioversión eléctrica. En pacientes estables, una vez que se han tomado medidas tromboembólicas, es necesario evaluar si es razonable administrar un medicamento antiarrítmico para restaurar el ritmo sinusal o realizar una cardioversión eléctrica. Para los casos que recidivan, ya sea paroxística o persistente, la estrategia más efectiva es realizar el aislamiento de la venas pulmonares con radiofrecuencia o crioablación con balón. La FA permanente es aquella en la que no es posible la recuperación del ritmo sinusal, la característica distintiva de esta fase de la FA es la variabilidad incontrolable de la frecuencia ventricular. Puede tratarse farmacológicamente con bloqueadores nodales AV o con un marcapasos VVIR mas ablación del nodo AV. La presencia de FA se ha asociado durante mucho tiempo con el desarrollo de embolia cerebral y sistémica (pulmonar, de extremidades, coronaria, renal y visceral). La prevención de embolias en la FA “valvular” debe realizarse con antagonistas de la vitamina K (AVK). Para los pacientes con FA no asociados con estenosis mitral o una prótesis valvular mecánica, se puede elegir entre medicamentos anticoagulantes, AVK o anticoagulantes orales directos (DOAC). Los agentes antiplaquetarios tienen el efecto más débil para prevenir la embolia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Electric Countershock/methods , Risk Factors , Cryosurgery/methods , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Radiofrequency Ablation/methods , Mexico/epidemiology , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage
15.
Rev. argent. cardiol ; 88(2): 153-163, mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250955

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los inhibidores de la proproteína convertasa subtilisina kexina tipo 9 (iPCSK9) representan un nuevo grupo de fármacos hipolipemiantes, que han generado un cambio sustancial en el manejo clínico de los lípidos. En pocos años, una gran cantidad de estudios han evaluado la eficacia antilipídica y la seguridad de estos fármacos. Más recientemente, grandes ensayos clínicos aleatorizados demostraron que el descenso del C-LDL alcanzado con estos fármacos se asoció con una menor incidencia de eventos cardiovasculares. Dicha evidencia dio lugar a la aprobación y comercialización de los iPCSK9 en muchos países. En consecuencia, diversas sociedades científicas y organismos de referencia en salud incorporaron estos fármacos en el arsenal terapéutico de la dislipidemia, con el objetivo de reducir el riesgo cardiovascular residual. En esta revisión describiremos la eficacia y la seguridad de estos fármacos, analizaremos la evidencia disponible acerca del beneficio cardiovascular y discutiremos en qué población podría ser más efectiva su utilización.


SUMMARY Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (iPCSK9) inhibitors represent a new group of lipid-lowering drugs that have generated a substantial change in lipid management. In a few years, a large number of studies have evaluated the lipid efficacy and safety of these drugs. More recently, large randomized clinical trials showed that the decrease in LDL-C achieved with these drugs was associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular events. Such evidence resulted in the approval and commercialization of iPCSK9 in many countries. Consequently, various scientific societies and health reference agencies incorporated these drugs into the therapeutic arsenal of dyslipidemia, with the aim of reducing residual cardiovascular risk. In this review, we will describe the efficacy and safety of these drugs, analyze the available evidence about cardiovascular benefit, and discuss in which population their use might be most effective.

16.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 171-174, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-857012

ABSTRACT

Heart failure from various cardiovascular diseases is a serious threat to human health. Systolic and diastolic dysfunction are the basic characteristics of heart failure. SERCA2a, a key enzyme for calcium transport, regulates intracellular free calcium ion concentration, affecting the myocardial diastolic process. This article mainly summarized the structure and function of SERCA2a gene, the expression and regulation of SERCA2a in heart failure, and the current situation of drug therapy, gene therapy and clinical research targeting SERCA2a gene.

17.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 286-293, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826980

ABSTRACT

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a risk factor for lung cancer. Patients with lung cancer associated with ILD (LC-ILD) often appear clinically. During the treatment of LC-ILD, there is a risk of causing acute exacerbation or even death in the treatment of lung cancer. At the same time, combining ILD has become the exclusion criteria for prospective clinical trials of most lung cancers. Therefore, when lung cancer is combined with ILD, it often becomes a difficult point for the treatment of lung cancer. Because LC-ILD patients have a certain proportion in the clinic, it is necessary to explore the best treatment options. Here we review the results of existing clinical studies for reference.

18.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 73(supl.5): e20190880, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1144078

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate evidence that indicates the contribution of realistic high, medium or low fidelity simulation to acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes in safe medication administration by nursing students. Methods: an integrative review of experimental studies from MEDLINE, LILACS, Web of Science, Scopus and Science Direct. The descriptors "nursing students", "simulation", "high fidelity simulation training", "medication errors" and "pharmacology" were used to identify 14 studies that answered the research question, and were assessed for accuracy methodological level and level of evidence. Results: there was a sample of quasi-experimental studies, (level 3 of evidence; 78.6%) and randomized clinical trials (level 2 of evidence; 21.4%), whose expressive majority showed superiority of the simulation strategy over the traditional methodology (71.4%). Conclusion: using low and high fidelity simulators, standardized patients and virtual simulation can promote acquisition of essential skills for patient safety.


RESUMEN Objetivo: investigar evidencia que indique la contribución de la simulación de alta, media o baja fidelidad a la adquisición de conocimientos, habilidades y actitudes en la administración de medicamentos por parte de estudiantes de enfermería. Métodos: revisión integradora de estudios experimentales de las bases MEDLINE, LILACS, Web of Science, Scopus y Science Direct. Los descriptores "estudiantes de enfermería", "simulación", "capacitación en simulación de alta fidelidad", "errores de medicación" y "farmacología" foran utilizados para identificar 14 estudios que respondieron a la pregunta de investigación. Resultados: una muestra de estudios cuasiexperimentales (nivel 3 de evidencia; 78.6%) y ensayos clínicos aleatorizados (nivel 2 de evidencia; 21.4%), cuya mayoría expresiva mostró superioridad de la estrategia de simulación en relación con la metodología tradicional (71,4%). Conclusión: el uso de simuladores de baja y alta fidelidad, pacientes estandarizados y simulación virtual puede promover la adquisición de habilidades esenciales para la seguridad del paciente.


RESUMO Objetivo: investigar as evidências que indiquem a contribuição da simulação realística de alta, média ou baixa fidelidade para aquisição de conhecimentos, habilidades e atitudes na administração segura de medicamentos por estudantes de enfermagem. Métodos: revisão integrativa de estudos experimentais das bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS, Web of Science, Scopus e Science Direct. Utilizaram-se os descritores "estudantes de enfermagem", "simulação", "treinamento por simulação de alta fidelidade", "erros de medicação" e "farmacologia" para identificar 14 estudos que respondiam à questão de pesquisa, e foram avaliados quanto ao rigor metodológico e nível de evidência. Resultados: amostra de estudos quase-experimentais, (nível 3 de evidência; 78,6%) e ensaios clínicos randomizados (nível 2 de evidência; 21,4%), cuja expressiva maioria evidenciou superioridade da estratégia de simulação em relação à metodologia tradicional (71,4%). Conclusão: o uso de simuladores de baixa e alta fidelidade, pacientes padronizados e simulação virtual pode promover ganho de competências essenciais para a segurança do paciente.

19.
Motriz (Online) ; 26(3): e10200018, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1135330

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aim: To investigate the hypothesis that the resistance exercise (RE) may be safer if the blood pressure (BP) is properly controlled through antihypertensive pharmacological treatment in hypertensive middle-aged women. Methods: The final sample was comprised of 19 hypertensive women, with an average age of 58±5 years and a body mass index of 29±5 Kg/m2. They were divided into three groups: controlled (n=6), uncompensated (n=8), and untreated (n=5). The subjects from all groups were submitted to a test of maximal strength on extensor chair and held a session of RE (knee extension, 3x12 to 60% 1RM) and the cardiovascular response (BP and heart rate) was monitored continuously by photoplethysmography during exercise and until five minutes after exercise (recovery). Results: Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) responses were lower in the controlled group compared to the other groups (p<0.05). The heart rate was not different between groups, while the double product was lower in the controlled group compared to the untreated group (p<0.05). The SBP and DBP peaks were lower in the controlled group compared to the other groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: The BP increases significantly during RE when the hypertension is not controlled. Pharmacological control was shown to be effective in preventing the increase of BP during the performance of the RE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Endurance Training , Heart Rate , Hypertension/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage
20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-200312

ABSTRACT

Pain and fear of pain continue to be the commonest and strongest motivation for the people to seek facial pain treatment. Pain is a personal experience of the sufferer that cannot be shared and wholly belongs to the sufferer. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a notable facial pain disorder resulting in periodic severe pain that produces one of the most severe kinds of pain known to mankind. Treatment of this debilitating condition may be varied, ranging from medical to surgical interventions. However antiepileptic drugs are commonly used for its treatment. This article brings out the recent approaches in diagnosis and treatment of trigeminal neuralgia.

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