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Subj. procesos cogn ; 26(1): 152-184, ago. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1392733


INTRODUCCIÓN: El cambio climático (CC) representa uno de los mayores problemas para la sociedad actual, cuyas consecuencias nocivas para la salud mental requieren del impulso de propuestas para un desarrollo sostenible. OBJETIVO: Explorar el estado del arte concerniente a las consecuencias del CC sobre la salud y salud mental, específicamente: a) describir los efectos nocivos del CC sobre la salud mental b) describir propuestas de instituciones dirigidas a su mitigación, c) identificar nuevos conceptos acuñados para describir el impacto del CC en la salud mental, d) describir el abordaje desde la psicología de las respuestas psicológicas frente al CC. METODOLOGÍA: Revisión literaria exploratoria, no sistemática. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron nuevos conceptos, tales como eco-ansiedad, acuñados para identificar la interrelación entre CC y salud mental. Se hallaron diversos aportes desde la psicología para comprender y mejorar las respuestas psicológicas frente al CC AU

INTRODUCTION: Climate change (CC) represents one of the major problems for today's society, whose harmful consequences for mental health require the development of proposals for sustainable development. OBJECTIVE: to explore the state of the art concerningthe consequences of CC on mental health specifically: a) to describe the harmful effects of CC on mental health, b) to describe proposals of institutions aimed at its mitigation, c) to identify new concepts coined to describe the impact of CC on mental health, d) to describe the approach from psychology of psychological responses to CC. METHODOLOGY: Exploratory, non-systematic literature review. RESULTS: New concepts were found, such as eco-anxiety, coined to identify the interrelation between CC and mental health. Several contributions from psychology to understand and improve psychological responses to CC were identified AU

Climate Change , Mental Health , Environmental Psychology/methods , Sustainable Development , Surveys and Questionnaires , Environmental Management
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 13-13, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396581


Artemia salina, an ecotoxicity bioindicator, isa microcrustacean belonging to the order Anostraca. Glyphosate is an herbicide widely used to control weeds. However, its intoxication can cause serious damage to human health and the balance of the environment, given its effects as an endocrine disruptor.Objective:verify the possible protection of the artemia exposed to glyphosate by the addition of its isotherapic into water, by means of the evaluation of the behavioral and morphological features of nauplii and of the physical properties of remedies andtreated water, to elucidate the involved mechanisms. Methods:Artemia salinacysts were kept in culture bottles containing artificial seawatercontaining glyphosate at LC 10 (lethal concentration 10%), to promote hatching within 48 hours. The isotherapic preparations were inserted in each bottle in a 10% of the total water volume. Part of the nauplii was distributed in transparent tubes, being 10 nauplii per tube and 6 tubes per group, for behavioral analysis, and part were collected for a detailed morphological analysis, under an optical microscope. About 80 to 270 nauplii were analyzed per group. The reserved water was divided into aliquots for physicochemical analysis, that is, evaluation of the water dipole behavior by Cartwright ́s method.Results:Gly 6cH presented selective effects on nauplii hatching (p=0.02) and on defected/healthy ratio (p=0.001), representing some protective action. This result was dependent of the salinity of water and presented correspondence with the effects on solvatochromic dyes, indicating that charges and ions can be critical factors involved in the mechanism of action. We concluded that the use of isotherapics could be a plausible tool to reduce the environmental impact of the indiscriminate use of glyphosate, since these results can be reproduced in further studies.

Artemia , Isotherapy , Ecotoxicology , Homeopathy
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1408191


RESUMEN Introducción: La enfermedad arterial periférica en pacientes ateroscleróticos diabéticos suele subdiagnosticarse, ya que la mayoría de la población afectada está asintomática. Objetivo: Correlacionar los signos clínicos y ultrasonográficos de la enfermedad arterial periférica de los miembros inferiores en los pacientes ateroscleróticos diabéticos. Métodos: Se hizo un estudio descriptivo y prospectivo en una muestra aleatoria de 209 pacientes diabéticos con enfermedad arterial periférica, según clasificación de Leriche-Fontaine. A estos se les realizó ecografía Doppler. El estudio estadístico se practicó mediante la aplicación del coeficiente de Kappa. Resultados: La enfermedad arterial periférica predominó en el sexo masculino con 60 años y más. En el 26,32 % del miembro inferior izquierdo en tibial posterior se corroboró ausencia de pulso. Según cuadro clínico, por clasificación de Leriche-Fontaine, la más alta incidencia se encontró en el estadio IIb con 33,97 %, seguido por el estadio II con 20,54 %; y por clasificación ecográfica hubo una reducción del diámetro significativo en la pierna izquierda en arterias distales, con un coeficiente de Kappa de 0,927. Conclusiones: Existió una fuerte correlación clínico ecográfica en cuanto al grado de estenosis en la enfermedad arterial periférica de los pacientes diabéticos estudiados.

ABSTRACT Introduction: Peripheral arterial disease in diabetic atherosclerotic patients is usually underdiagnosed, since the majority of the affected population is asymptomatic. Objective: Correlate the clinical and ultrasonographic signs of peripheral arterial disease of the lower limbs in diabetic atherosclerotic patients. Methods: A descriptive and prospective study was conducted in a random sample of 209 diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease, according to the Leriche-Fontaine classification. These underwent Doppler ultrasound. The statistical study was performed by applying the Kappa coefficient. Results: Peripheral arterial disease predominated in males aged 60 years and over. In 26.32% of the left lower limb in the posterior tibial, the absence of pulse was confirmed. According to the clinical picture, by Leriche-Fontaine classification, the highest incidence was found in stage IIb with 33.97%, followed by stage II with 20.54%; and by ultrasound classification there was a significant reduction in diameter in the left leg in distal arteries, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.927. Conclusions: There was a strong clinical ultrasound correlation regarding the degree of stenosis in peripheral arterial disease of the diabetic patients studied.

Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 117: e210193, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375913


Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease (ChD), exhibits remarkable biological and genetic diversity, along with eco-epidemiological complexity. In order to facilitate communication among researchers aiming at the characterisation of biological and epidemiological aspects of T. cruzi, parasite isolates and strains were partitioned into seven discrete typing units (DTUs), TcI-TcVI and TcBat, identifiable by reproducible genotyping protocols. Here we present the potential origin of the genetic diversity of T. cruzi and summarise knowledge about eco-epidemiological associations of DTUs with mammalian reservoirs and vectors. Circumstantial evidence of a connection between T. cruzi genotype and ChD manifestations is also discussed emphasising the role of the host's immune response in clinical ChD progression. We describe genomic aspects of DTUs focusing on polymorphisms in multigene families encoding surface antigens that play essential functions for parasite survival both in the insect vector and the mammalian host. Such antigens most probably contributed to the parasite success in establishing infections in different hosts and exploring several niches. Gaps in the current knowledge and challenges for future research are pointed out.

Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406874


ABSTRACT This study was conducted to characterize the transmission cycle of the tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) in an old colonization area at Pernambuco State, Brazil. The aims were to identify autochthonous cases, sandflies fauna, domestic animals as possible reservoir hosts and the Leishmania species involved in this endemic area. A total of 168 suspected human cases of TL and 272 domestic animals (canine, feline, equine, goat, and sheep) were included. The sandflies were captured and identified by species. Patients were predominantly male and the average age was 37+18.1 years old. Of 85 patients who had skin lesions, 25.6% of them had direct positive smears for TL and 34 isolates were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. The confirmation for TL diagnosed by molecular detection (PCR) was almost three times more sensitive than the direct test [p < 0.001; PR = 2.72] associated with clinical examination. The Kappa test on PCR between two different specimens, biopsy, and skin lesion swab was 60.8% (p < 0.001). More than 200 specimens of sandflies (80 males and 159 females) were captured and identified as Lutzomyia whitmani (99.6%) and Lu. evandroi (0.4%). The detection of L. (V.) braziliensis by Real-Time PCR in the blood of a captured fed female was positive in 59.3% of Lu. whitmani. Of the 272 domestic animals included, 61.76% were male (n = 168). Thirty-six animals (13.2%) had lesions compatible with TL (34 dogs, 1 cat and 1 sheep) and 3 of them, all dogs, had lesions on the snout, showing destruction of cartilage and mucosa. The study suggests the participation of domestic animals as possible reservoirs. However, further studies are necessary to better understand the transmission cycle and take recommended measures in order to control the disease.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940675


ObjectiveTo explore the forest type and soil environment suitable for Panax ginseng. MethodThe yield, quality, soil chemical properties, soil enzyme activity, and soil microbial metabolism of 9-year-old P. ginseng under different forests were investigated. ResultThe quality of P. ginseng was significantly different among forest types. To be specific, P. ginseng under the Quercus mongolica forest had the highest quality, with the total saponin content of 2.27% which was 51.89% higher than that in P. ginseng under Larix gmelinii forest. The yield of P. ginseng under Q. mongolica forest and L. gmelinii forest (30 g·m-2) was the highest, 62.5% higher than that under Betula platyphylla forest. The soil content of organic matter, Cu, and Zn, and activity of sucrase and urease under Q. mongolica forest were lower than those under other forest types. The utilization rate of D-galacturonic acid by soil microorganisms under Q. mongolica forest was higher than that under other forest types, but the utilization rate of L-phenylalanine was lower than that under other forest types. The utilization rate of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid by soil microorganisms of B. platyphylla forest was significantly lower than that under other forest types. There was a negative correlation between soil Zn and ginsenoside Rb1 and Rc, and between soil K and ginsenoside Rb2 and Rb3. Mn and Cu were positively correlated with most saponins. The results of redundancy analysis showed that the soil microorganisms using carbon sources of amino acids, esters, acids, and sugars were the main factors causing the differences in P. ginseng among different forest types. ConclusionThe yield and quality of P. ginseng under Q. mongolica forest were the best, followed by the forest with different tree species, and coming in last was the B. platyphylla forest. This study is expected to provide theoretical support for the improvement of P. ginseng yield and quality and the improvement of ecological planting technology.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940460


ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of exogenous Fusarium oxysporum and Trichoderma viride on the diversity of soil fungal community and carbon metabolic function of cultivated Panax ginseng. MethodIllumina HiSeq 2500 high-throughput sequencing combined with Biolog-ECO was used to analyze the species diversity and functional diversity of soil fungal communities in P. ginseng soil under different exogenous treatments. ResultThe results of high-throughput sequencing showed that the number and species of microorganisms in the soil were significantly changed after exogenous microorganisms were added. The soil fungi with relative abundance greater than 1% included Mortierella sp.,Fusarium sp.,Humicola sp.,and Simplicillium sp. Mortierella sp. in each treatment group significantly increased. Humicola sp. and Simplicillium sp. could be induced to increase by exogenous addition of F. oxysporum,while T. viride at a high concentration could significantly inhibit the growth of F. oxysporum. As revealed by Biolog and principal component analysis (PCA),the average well color development (AWCD) in the high-dose T. viride group (MG) was significantly higher than that in the control group (QS)and the low-dose F. oxysporum group(LD). The utilization abilities for amino acids,carboxylic acids,polymers, and amines were enhanced in the MG group,but the microbial metabolic activity was reduced in the high-dose F. oxysporum group (LG). There was no significant increase in the utilization of phenolic acids by soil microorganisms in both groups. ConclusionExogenous addition of F. oxysporum can lead to the growth and reproduction of other pathogenic fungi. Exogenous addition of T. viride can enhance the soil fungal community structure and metabolic diversity,inhibit the proliferation of F. oxysporum,and improve the soil microbial environment of cultivated P. ginseng.

Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 39: 1-23, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387852


Resumen El objetivo de este este trabajo fue hacer una revisión documental sobre el despoblamiento rural para ubicar sus principales antecedentes, corrientes y visiones de estudio en Latinoamérica y otros espacios geográficos, con énfasis en Chile para exponer la forma en que la relación entre extractivismo y despoblamiento rural ha sido tratada con la intención de contrastar los resultados con los insumos teóricos de la ecología política latinoamericana y de plantear un análisis integral de este fenómeno. Los resultados muestran que en Chile los factores que han impulsado históricamente el despoblamiento de zonas rurales fueron la dictadura militar, los planes de ordenamiento territorial, industrialización y urbanización, la transformación de la estructura agraria, el cambio climático y el extractivismo. Se constató que los estudios sobre este último factor han omitido la forma en que se produce el despoblamiento, en general en contextos de estructuras de poder desigual y de tensiones territoriales entre distintos modelos de desarrollo y de formas de habitar el espacio. Se propone el campo de la ecología política latinoamericana para abordar los procesos de despoblamiento rural vinculados al extractivismo, cuyos insumos teóricos pueden contribuir a la comprensión más amplia del problema y a la construcción de respuestas con y desde los propios territorios.

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é realizar uma revisão documental sobre o despovoamento rural para localizar os principais antecedentes, correntes e visões de estudo na América Latina e outros espaços geográficos. A ênfase foi colocada no Chile para expor a forma como tem sido tratada a relação entre extrativismo e despovoamento rural, com a intenção de contrastar os resultados com os aportes teóricos da ecologia política latino-americana e propor uma análise abrangente desse fenômeno. Os resultados mostram que no Chile os fatores que historicamente impulsionam o despovoamento das áreas rurais têm sido a ditadura militar, os planos de ordenamento territorial, a industrialização e a urbanização, a transformação da estrutura agrária, as mudanças climáticas e o extrativismo. Constatou-se que os estudos sobre este último fator têm omitido a forma como ocorre o despovoamento, regularmente em contextos de estruturas de poder desiguais e tensões territoriais entre diferentes modelos de desenvolvimento e formas de habitar o espaço. O campo da ecologia política latino-americana se propõe a abordar os processos de despovoamento rural vinculados ao extrativismo, cujos aportes teóricos podem contribuir para uma compreensão mais ampla do problema e a construção de respostas com e a partir dos próprios territórios.

Abstract The goal was to conduct a documentary review on rural depopulation in order to identify the main antecedents, trends and visions in studies in Latin America and other geographical spaces. Emphasis was placed on Chile to expose the way in which the relationship between extractivism and rural depopulation has been treated, with the intention of contrasting the results with the theoretical inputs of Latin American political ecology and proposing a comprehensive analysis of this phenomenon. Results show that, in Chile, factors historically driving the depopulation of rural areas include the military dictatorship, the territorial ordering plans, industrialization and urbanization, the transformation of the agrarian structure, climate change and extractivism. It was found that studies on this last factor have omitted the way in which depopulation occurs, regularly in contexts of unequal power structures and territorial tensions between different development models and ways of inhabiting space. The field of Latin American political ecology is proposed in order to address the processes of rural depopulation linked to extractivism, since its theoretical inputs can contribute to a broader understanding of the problem and to the construction of responses with and from the territories themselves.

Humans , Chile , Population Concentration , Urbanization , Climate Change , Rural Areas , Extraction and Processing Industry , Industrial Development , Latin America
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927905


Carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality have become hot issues of political and economic activities in China and abroad. The structure and development of various industries in China will be profoundly affected in the process of accomplishing "Dual Carbon" goals. Eco-agriculture of Chinese medicine(EACM) highlights the balance and sustainable development of the ecosystem while producing high-quality medicinal materials. With chemically synthesized fertilizers, pesticides, and growth regulators prohibited, EACM emphasizes the recycling of agricultural and sideline products and the reduction of waste output, which results in the minimal negative impact on the ecological environment. Therefore, it is typical agriculture with low-carbon sources and high-carbon sinks. This study reviewed the mechanism and potential of EACM in carbon dioxide peaking and carbon neutrality, analyzed the specific ways of EACM in reducing carbon sources and increasing carbon sinks based on the typical ecological planting pattern, and proposed the point of view to strengthen EACM as well as the "Dual Carbon" theory and research methods, so as to direct low-carbon and efficient deve-lopment. Furthermore, this study advocated to comprehensively promote the transformation of Chinese medicine production from chemical agriculture to eco-agriculture to improve the comprehensive benefits of contribution rate of carbon neutrality, explore and establish carbon sink compensation mechanism to ensure the sustainable and healthy development of EACM, and strengthen the training of EACM and "Dual Carbon" theory and technologies to continuously improve the capacity of EACM in sustainable development. This study is expected to provide a reference for the development of ecological functions in EACM and the development of economic functions through ecological functions.

Agriculture , Carbon Dioxide , China , Ecosystem , Fertilizers , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
Rev. Urug. med. Interna ; 6(2): 67-71, jul. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288124


Resumen: La ecografía obstétrica, nos permite determinar con adecuada precisión la biometría fetal y realizar el seguimiento de su curva de crecimiento en función de la edad gestacional. El Eco-Doppler Feto-Placentario, permite el estudio del flujo sanguíneo materno-fetal y de la circulación placentaria de forma no invasiva, inocua y reproducible. Su eficacia ha sido demostrada en el control del embarazo de alto riesgo obstétrico, logrando una reducción de la mortalidad perinatal del 49%. El mismo evalúa la circulación útero - placentaria (arterias uterinas y arteria umbilical), la circulación fetal arterial (arteria cerebral media) y la venosa (Ductus Venoso, Vena Cava Inferior, Vena Umbilical). Identificar el grupo de pacientes con trombofilia, que requieren un control ecográfico más estricto es fundamental para lograr el beneficio con el tratamiento médico.

Abstract: Obstetric ultrasound allows us to determine with adequate precision the fetal biometry and to monitor its growth curve based on gestational age. The Feto-Placental Eco-Doppler allows the study of maternal-fetal blood flow and placental circulation in a non-invasive, safe and reproducible way. Its efficacy has been demonstrated in the control of high-risk obstetric pregnancy, achieving a 49% reduction in perinatal mortality. It evaluates the uterine-placental circulation (uterine arteries and umbilical artery), the fetal arterial circulation (middle cerebral artery) and the venous circulation (Ductus Venoso, Inferior Vena Cava, Umbilical Vein). Identifying the group of patients with thrombophilia, who require stricter ultrasound control is essential to achieve benefit with medical treatment.

Resumo: A ultrassonografia obstétrica permite determinar com precisão adequada a biometria fetal e monitorar sua curva de crescimento com base na idade gestacional. O Eco-Doppler Feto-Placental permite o estudo do fluxo sanguíneo materno-fetal e da circulação placentária de forma não invasiva, segura e reprodutível. Sua eficácia foi demonstrada no controle da gravidez obstétrica de alto risco, alcançando uma redução de 49% na mortalidade perinatal. Avalia a circulação útero-placentária (artérias uterinas e artéria umbilical), a circulação arterial fetal (artéria cerebral média) e a circulação venosa (Canal Venoso, Veia Cava Inferior, Veia Umbilical). Identificar o grupo de pacientes com trombofilia, que necessita de controle ultrassonográfico mais rígido, é essencial para obter benefício com o tratamento médico.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921643


Chronic unpredicted mild stress(CUMS) combined with isolated feeding was used to induce depressed rat model. The anti-depressant effects of Zhizichi Decoction(ZZCD) and its solid fermented product(ZZC) were analyzed by behavioral test and comparison of pathological tissues of hippocampus and liver, metabolic characteristics of intestinal flora, and relative abundance of species. The results showed that ZZC could increase sucrose preference, shorten the immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test(P<0.05), and repair damaged hippocampus and liver tissues, and the effect was superior to that of ZZCD. The results of Biolog ECO plates showed that the average well color development(AWCD) of intestinal flora in the model group significantly decreased and the metabolic levels of sugar and amino acids were reduced, while the AWCD of the treatment groups increased. The metabolic levels of the two carbon sources were improved in the ZZC group, while only sugar metabolic level was elevated in the ZZCD group. Metagenomic analysis of intestinal flora showed that the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes was 3.87 in the control group, 21.77 in the model group, 5.91 in the ZZC group, and 18.48 in the ZZCD group. Lactobacillus increased by 3.28 times, and Prevotella and Bacteroidetes decreased by 75.59% and 76.39%, respectively in the model group as compared with that in the control group. Lactobacillus decreased by 31.13%, and Prevotella and Bacteroidetes increased by more than three times in the ZZC group as compared with that in the model group, while the corresponding changes in the ZZCD group were not significant. ZZC could improve depression-like beha-viors by regulating the structure of intestinal flora and metabolic functions and repairing damaged hippocampus and liver tissues in depressed rats, showing an anti-depressant effect superior to that of ZZCD. This study is expected to provide a basis for the development of new anti-depressant food products.

Animals , Depression/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Fermentation , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Hippocampus , Rats , Stress, Psychological
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 25: e190805, 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154576


Este estudo objetiva implementar ações de vigilância comunitária no controle do vetor Aedes aegypti em ambiente escolar à luz da promoção da saúde e da abordagem ecobiossocial. Trata-se de uma análise qualitativa que versa sobre os pressupostos de uma pesquisa-ação. Para a produção de dados, utilizou-se um minicurso agregado à técnica Photovoice, concluído com grupos focais. Os dados empíricos foram processados pelo software Iramuteq® e submetidos à análise de conteúdo de Minayo. A pesquisa foi realizada em duas escolas municipais de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, com a participação de 55 estudantes. Os resultados mostraram o incentivo à reflexão das práticas de participação e corresponsabilidade social nas ações de vigilância comunitária e cuidado com o meio ambiente como aliados do controle vetorial. O Photovoice mostra-se propulsor no alinhavo dessas temáticas, desperta o espírito cooperativo e integrativo, possibilitando sua difusão e continuação em outras escolas. (AU)

El objetivo de este estudio es implementar acciones de vigilancia comunitaria en el control del vector Aedes aegypti en el ambiente escolar bajo la óptica de la promoción de la salud y de un abordaje eco-bio-social. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo que trata sobre las presuposiciones de una investigación-acción. Para la producción de datos, se utilizó un minicurso agregado a la técnica Photovoice, concluido con grupos focales. Los datos empíricos fueron procesados por el software Iramuteq® y sometidos al análisis de contenido de Minayo. El estudio se realizó en dos escuelas municipales de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, con la participación de 55 estudiantes. Los resultados mostraron el incentivo a la reflexión de las prácticas de participación y corresponsabilidad en las acciones de vigilancia comunitaria y cuidado con el medio ambiente como aliados del control vectorial. El Photovoice se muestra propulsor en el esbozo de esas temáticas, despierta el espíritu cooperativo e integrador y sugiere su difusión y continuación en otras escuelas. (AU)

This study aims to implement community surveillance actions for Aedes aegypti vector control in the school environment in the light of health promotion and the eco-bio-social approach. This qualitative study addresses the assumptions of action research. Data was collected through a short course coupled with the Photovoice technique, and the collection was completed with focus groups. The empirical data were processed by Iramuteq® software and submitted to Minayo's content analysis. The research was conducted in two municipal schools of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, with the participation of 55 students. The results showed the incentive to reflect participation and socially-shared accountability practices in the community surveillance and environmental care actions as vector control allies. Photovoice proves to be a driver in the alignment of these themes, awakening the cooperative and integrative spirit, and its dissemination and continuation are suggested in other schools. (AU)

Humans , School Health Services , Aedes , Health Promotion , Students , Voice , Education, Primary and Secondary , Qualitative Research , Photograph
Rev. cuba. med ; 59(4): e1366, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144500


Introducción: La enfermedad arterial de miembros inferiores es un marcador de riesgo coronario, causa de invalidez y muerte en quienes la padecen, su identificación temprana puede atenuar estos efectos. Objetivo: Identificar la enfermedad arterial de miembros inferiores no diagnosticada a través de Eco-Doppler en pacientes con factores de riesgo aterogénicos. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de tipo transversal que incluyó a 100 pacientes de 40 años o más, fumadores, diabéticos y/o hipertensos, sin diagnóstico de enfermedad arterial de miembros inferiores, a quienes se le realizó Eco-Doppler de miembro inferior. Resultados: Se identificaron lesiones compatibles con EAMI en 69 por ciento de los estudiados, cuya edad media fue de 64,81 ± 10,12 años, y discreto predominio del sexo masculino. Las arterias más afectadas fueron la tibial posterior y la pedia con 43 por ciento y 39 por ciento respectivamente, las medidas de asociación mostraron OR (IC 95 por ciento) de 4,15 para la diabetes mellitus, 1,63 para el tabaquismo seguido de la hipertensión arterial con 0,27. Conclusiones: Seis de cada diez pacientes presentaron lesiones ateroscleróticas identificables por Eco-Doppler, predominaron las del sector tibial posterior y pedio en fumadores y diabéticos, estos últimos tuvieron cuatro veces más riesgo de padecer la enfermedad(AU)

Introduction: Arterial disease of the lower limbs is a marker of coronary risk, causing disability and death in those who suffer from it. Early detection can mitigate these effects. Objective: To identify undiagnosed lower limb arterial disease through Echo-Doppler in patients with atherogenic risk factors. Method: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in 100 patients aged 40 years or older, smoking habits history, and diabetic and / or hypertensive patients, with no diagnosis of arterial disease in the lower limbs, who underwent Eco-Doppler of the lower limb. Results: EAMI compatible lesions were identified in 69 percent of those studied, whose mean age was 64.81 ± 10.12 years, and a discrete male predominance. The most affected arteries were the posterior tibial and pediatric arteries in 43 percent and 39 percent respectively, the association measures showed OR (95 percent CI) of 4.15 for diabetes mellitus, 1.63 for smoking followed by arterial hypertension with 0.27. Conclusions: Six out of ten patients showed atherosclerotic lesions identifiable by Echo-Doppler, those of the posterior tibial sector and pedium predominated in smokers and diabetics, the latter had four times the risk of suffering from the disease(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Risk Factors , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnostic imaging , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 829-838, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142523


Abstract In vitro and screen house experiments were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of thirteen phytochemicals from Artemisia elegantissimia and A. incisa on root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cv. Rio Grande. A positive control (Carbofuran) and negative control (H2O) were also used for comparison. Effectiveness of phytochemicals against juveniles (J2s) mortality and egg hatch inhibition were evaluated after 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation at three concentrations viz; 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mL in vitro conditions. Amongst thirteen phytochemicals, Isoscopletin (Coumarin), Carbofuran and Apigenin (Flavonoid) showed the highest mortality and egg hatch inhibition of M. incognita at all intervals. Inhibition of eggs and J2s mortality were the greatest (90.0%) and (96.0%) at 0.3 mg/mL concentration. Application of phytochemicals caused reduction in number of galls, galling index, and egg masses on tomato plant and enhanced plant growth parameters under screen house conditions. Gall numbers (1.50), galling index (1.00), number of juveniles (4.83) and egg masses (4.00) were greatly reduced and plant growth parameters such as; plant height (28.48 cm), fresh (72.13 g) and dry shoot weights (35.99 g), and root fresh (6.58 g) and dry weights (1.43 g) were increased significantly by using Isoscopletin. In structure activity relationship, juveniles of M. incognita, exhibited variations in their shape and postures upon death when exposed to different concentrations of phytochemicals of Artemisia spp. The present study suggests that Artemisia based phytochemicals possess strong nematicidal effects and can be used effectively in an integrated disease management program against root knot nematodes.

Resumo Experimentos in vitro e de triagem foram conduzidos para investigar a eficácia de treze constituintes fitoquímicos de Artemisia elegantissimia e A. incisa no nematóide de galhas, Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cv. Rio Grande. Um controle positivo (carbofuran) e controle negativo (H2O) também foram utilizados para comparação. A eficácia dos fitoquímicos contra a mortalidade juvenil (J2s) e a inibição da eclosão de ovos foram avaliadas após 24, 48 e 72 horas de incubação em três concentrações, tais como: 0,1; 0,2 e 0,3 mg/mL em condições in vitro. Dentre os treze fitoquímicos, isoscopletina (cumarina), carbofurano e apigenina (flavonoide) apresentaram a maior mortalidade e a inibição da eclosão de ovos de M. incognita em todos os intervalos. A inibição da mortalidade dos ovos e J2s foi a maior (90,0%) e (96,0%) na concentração de 0,3 mg/mL. A aplicação de fitoquímicos causou redução no número de galhas, índice de fricção e massa de ovos no tomateiro e melhorou os parâmetros de crescimento das plantas em condições de triagem. Números de galhas (1,50), índice de insetos galhadores (1,00), número de juvenis (4,83) e massas de ovos (4,00) foram bastante reduzidos e os parâmetros de crescimento das plantas, como altura da planta (28,48 cm), peso fresco (72,13 g) e seco (35,99 g), raiz fresca (6,58 g) e peso seco (1,43 g) foram significativamente aumentados usando isoscopletina. Na relação atividade estrutura, juvenis de M. incognita, exibiram variações em sua forma e posturas após a morte quando expostos a diferentes concentrações de fitoquímicos de Artemisia spp. O presente estudo sugere que os fitoquímicos à base de artemísia possuem fortes efeitos nematicidas e podem ser usados ​​eficazmente em um programa integrado de controle de doenças contra nematóides de galhas.

Animals , Tylenchoidea , Solanum lycopersicum , Artemisia , Plant Roots , Phytochemicals/pharmacology
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 621-630, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132413


Abstract Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) (Meloidogyne spp.) are well known disease problem causing major losses in vegetable crops. Although, chemical nematicides have been used as one of the primary means for controlling RKNs, reliance on these nematicides is associated with heavy costs and negative effects on human health and environment. In this research, the suppressing potential of 6 Iranian commercial fertilizers on RKNs was investigated in laboratory and greenhouse conditions as an alternative to reduce the use of chemical nematicides. For this purpose, M. javanica inoculum was thoroughly mixed with autoclaved sandy loam soil. Then, 6 fertilizers (biofertilizer, phosphate chemical fertilizer (phosphate), potassium chemical fertilizer (potassium), peat moss, vermicompost, and leaf mold) were added individually to the inoculated soil, according to the defined treatments. The nematicide Cadusafos was used as a positive control. A negative control was also included in the experiment (including no fertilizer and no nematicide). Four-leaf seedlings of the tomato (Super Chief cv.) were transferred to the pots filled using 2 kg of the treated soil. After 60 days, reproduction factor (RF), egg mass, and root galling of the nematode were recorded. The results showed that, fertilizer-treated soils had significantly (P≤0.05) lower root galling, egg mass, and RF compared to the negative control. After the nematicide treatment, the highest suppression capability on the RKN was obtained in treatments of phosphate, biofertilizer, potassium, vermicompost, peat moss, and leaf mold, respectively. It can be concluded that, replacing chemical nematicides with fertilizers may be considered as a successful nematode management in tomato fields.

Resumo Nematoides-das-galhas das raízes (RKNs) Meloidogyne spp. causam perdas consideráveis na produção de hortaliças em todo o mundo. Embora o uso de nematicidas químicos seja um dos principais meios de controle de RKNs, a dependência nesses nematicidas está associada aos altos custos e impactos negativos à saúde humana e ao meio ambiente. No presente estudo, foi investigado o potencial de supressão de seis fertilizantes comerciais iranianos em RKNs em condições de laboratório e estufa, a fim de reduzir o uso de nematicidas químicos. Para este propósito, o inóculo de M. javanica foi totalmente misturado com o solo franco-arenoso autoclavado. Em seguida, os fertilizantes (biofertilizante, fertilizante químico de fosfato (fosfato), fertilizante químico de potássico (potássio), musgo de turfa, vermicompostagem e bolor) foram adicionados e misturados individualmente ao solo inoculado, de acordo com os tratamentos definidos. O nematicida Cadusafós foi utilizado como controle positivo. Um controle negativo também foi considerado (sem fertilizante e sem nematicida). Mudas de quatro folhas do tomate (Super Chief cv.) foram transferidas para vasos cheios de 2 kg de solo tratado. Após 60 dias, o fator de reprodução (FR), a massa de ovos e o número de galhas foram registrados. Os resultados mostraram que os tratamentos com fertilizantes apresentaram significativamente (P≤0,05) menor número de galhas nas raízes, massa de ovos e FR, em comparação com o controle negativo. Depois do controle positivo, a maior capacidade de supressão de M. javanica foi obtida nos tratamentos com fosfato, biofertilizante, potássio, vermicompostagem, turfa e bolor, respectivamente. Conclui-se que a substituição de nematicidas químicos por fertilizantes pode ser uma estratégia aceitável para se alcançar uma gestão bem-sucedida de nematoides em campos de tomate.

Animals , Tylenchoidea , Solanum lycopersicum , Soil , Iran , Antinematodal Agents
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204888


Aims: To study the relationship of total income was incurred from the rooftop gardening with various socio economic and behavioural aspects and elicit the future opportunity for this innovative method in this global warming situation where the world is facing the increasing crisis of availability of the land resources, support sustainability, contamination of ground water, food accessibility, and economic sustainability. Study Design: The locale was selected by purposive sampling technique and the respondents following rooftop gardening had been interacted and was selected by the snowball sampling method. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out during 2017 and 2018. The place, Janai Road of Srirampur, Khanakul-I and Khanakul-II block of Hooghly district, Budge Budge-II, Bishnupur-I and Bishnupur-II of South 24 Parganas and various areas in Kolkata were selected for the study. Methodology: In this present study 50 respondents following rooftop gardens have been interacted and are selected by the snowball sampling method. A semi-structured schedule has been administered to generate women information regarding family composition, the rationale for opting rooftop gardening, the ecological views on roof gardening, and the cost opportunity analysis. The gathered data had been put into multivariate analysis (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences V20.0 (SPSS) of IBM was used for analyzing the Coefficient of Correlation, Stepwise Regression and Path Analysis). Results: Education (X2), rooftop area (X4), diversity of plants (X6), labour charges (X8), organic manure (X11), fertilizer (X13) variables have been found to exert strong and determining contribution to total income. Respondents revealed that it had provided a certain amount of income in addition to the conventional farming income. Conclusion: The study had revealed that Rooftop gardening is not only eco-friendly horticulture but also a successful enterprise, having all the three critical echelons viz. economy, ecology, and equity as well.

Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(2): e814, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139070


RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar los valores de referencia de la dinámica circulatoria arterial ocular de los pacientes con hipertensión arterial esencial. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal en 105 pacientes hipertensos y en un grupo de 33 sujetos no hipertensos, con edades comprendidas entre 18 y 60 años, sin antecedentes de padecer diabetes mellitus ni enfermedades oculares como glaucoma, o haber recibido tratamiento quirúrgico por catarata, hipertensión ocular u otras. A todos se les realizó la toma de la presión arterial sistémica, el examen clínico oftalmológico y el ultrasonido Doppler a color de carótida y de los vasos orbitarios. Resultados: Se encontró un predominio de mujeres de piel blanca, entre la cuarta y quinta década de la vida. Existió un incremento del pico de velocidad sistólica, la velocidad final diastólica y el índice de resistencia en la arteria oftálmica, que fue desde un rango normal en el grupo de los no hipertensos a valores promedios elevados en el grupo de hipertensos, los cuales fueron más altos en los casos descontrolados. No se encontraron modificaciones en el análisis de estos parámetros en las arterias centrales de la retina ni en las ciliares posteriores cortas. Conclusiones: En la casuística estudiada, el incremento del pico de la velocidad sistólica en la arteria oftálmica pudiera estar relacionado con áreas de obstrucción vascular localizadas o con vasoespasmo. Se encontró una asociación entre el descontrol de la presión arterial y los valores elevados del índice de resistencia en la arteria oftálmica(AU)

ABSTRACT Objective: Evaluate the reference values for ocular arterial circulation dynamics in patients with essential arterial hypertension. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted of 105 hypertensive patients and a group of 33 non-hypertensive subjects aged 18-60 years with no antecedents of diabetes mellitus or ocular conditions such as glaucoma or having undergone cataract surgery, ocular hypertension or others. All the patients underwent systemic arterial pressure measurement, clinical ophthalmological examination and color Doppler carotid and orbital ultrasonography. Results: A predominance was observed of the female sex, white skin color and age between the fourth and fifth decades of life. There was an increase in peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity and the resistive index in the ophthalmic artery, which ranged from normal in the non-hypertensive group to high average levels in the hypertensive group, higher in uncontrolled cases. Analysis of these parameters did not find any change in central retinal or short posterior ciliary arteries. Conclusions: In the cases studied, the peak systolic velocity increase in the ophthalmic artery could be related to localized vascular obstruction areas or vasospasm. An association was found between uncontrolled arterial pressure and high resistive index values in the ophthalmic artery(AU)

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Ocular Hypertension/etiology , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods , Arterial Pressure , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-200558


Background: The use of pharmaceutical products in our day to day life is escalating and one cannot deny their presence in every household. Unfortunately not all the medicines that reach our homes get consumed. Unused, unwanted and expired drugs get accumulated over time and are generally disposed along with other household trash thus contributing to environmental pollution. This turns our attention towards the significance of eco-pharmacovigilance. Assessing the level of knowledge and awareness of students under training as health care professionals regarding safe disposal of pharmaceutical wastes can help us to partly assess the magnitude of the problem of inappropriate disposal methods and help us to plan and initiate steps to prevent the hazards caused by improper disposal of these items.Methods: A questionnaire based cross-sectional study was conducted among medical and paramedical students of a tertiary care teaching hospital using a pre-validated questionnaire from previous studies.Results: Majority of the participants were not aware of the possible hazards of improper disposal of pharmaceutical wastes. They expressed the need for awareness programs regarding the subject.Conclusions: The study revealed the practice of drug accumulation at home. The disposal methods opted by the participants were not the recommended methods. There is a need to address this issue through awareness programs at various levels.

Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-202061


Background: Convenience of plastic use pays a high price by negatively affecting health and environment. As nationwide ban on use of plastic carry bags failed, statewide ban was imposed in Tamil Nadu from 1st January 2019. This study was planned with the objective of determining the awareness, acceptance and practice of plastic ban legislation among residents in urban population in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu.Methods: This community based cross sectional study was carried out with a sample size of 250 using systematic random sampling method. Data was collected using structured questionnaire and further analysis was done with SPSS Version 25 Software.Results: About 94% respondents were aware of legislation and 76% had a positive attitude towards the ban. About 52% participants continued using plastic bags despite the ban. Common source of knowledge about the ban was mass media (42%). About 80% were aware of the negative effects of plastic use and 70% were aware that plastics are non-bio-degradable. Statistically significant association was found between various socio demographic factors with the use of plastic bags. Alternate eco-friendly bags usage was found among 48% of respondents.Conclusions: Good awareness level about the ill effects of plastic use and its ban was observed but the level of implementation in their daily life was poor. Even after the preparatory period of six months given to get accustomed to eco-friendly alternatives, the use of plastic bags still remains rampant. IEC activities need to be intensified to bring about changes in the attitude and practice of plastic use.

Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 50(7): e20190818, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133273


ABSTRACT: Based on the panel data of 134 counties (cities and districts) from 1998 to 2017, the temporal-spatial variation characteristics and influencing factors of agricultural eco-efficiency in Shandong Province were analyzed by using various methods, such as the super-efficiency SBM (slacks-based measure) model considering undesired output and the STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence, and technology) model, which helps clarify the improvements needed for agricultural eco-efficiency and provides a basis for the development of ecological agriculture in Shandong Province. Results showed the following: (1) During 1998-2017, the agricultural eco-efficiency of Shandong Province showed a fluctuating increasing tendency, but the overall efficiency value wasrelatively low. (2) The agricultural eco-efficiency of Shandong Province had a significant regional disparity, and its spatial agglomeration gradually weakened. The spatial distribution had a sporadic distribution of high value areas at first and then gradually formed the "low-high-low-high" zonal distribution from west to east. (3) The net income per capita of farmers and the added value of the primary industry had a significantly positive correlation with the agricultural eco-efficiency of Shandong Province, while the mechanization level, the planting area per capita, the level of financial support to agriculture and the planting structure exhibited a mainly negative correlation with the agricultural eco-efficiency of Shandong Province. Moreover, the added value of the primary industry and the financial support to agriculture in the 0.75 quantile had no significant influence on the agricultural eco-efficiency of Shandong Province, and the planting structure in the 0.25 and 0.75 quantiles also had no significant influence.

RESUMO: Com base nos dados do painel de 134 municípios (cidades, distritos) na província de Shandong de 1998 a 2017, as características de variação espacial e temporal da ecoeficiência agrícola na província de Shandong foram analisadas usando vários métodos, como o modelo SBM (Medida baseada EM estacas) supereficiente. Considerando indesejados produção e modelo STIRPAT (Impactos estocásticos da regressão da população, da afluência e da tecnologia), ajudará a esclarecer a direção da melhoria da eco eficiência agrícola na província de Shandong e fornecerá uma base para o desenvolvimento da agricultura ecológica. Os resultados mostraram que (1) em 1998-2017, a ecoeficiência agrícola da província de Shandong mostrou uma tendência ascendente na flutuação, mas o valor geral da eficiência foi baixo. (2) A distribuição espacial da distribuição esporádica inicial da área de alto valor se formou gradualmente de oeste para leste, distribuição zonal " "baixo-alto-baixo-alto"" (3) O lucro líquido per capita dos agricultores e o valor acrescentado da indústria primária foram significativamente correlacionados positivamente com a ecoeficiência agrícola da província de Shandong. O nível de mecanização, a área de plantio per capita, o apoio financeiro ao nível agrícola e a estrutura de plantio, entre eles, o valor acrescentado da indústria primária e o apoio financeiro à agricultura em 0,75 quantil, a estrutura de plantio em 0,25 e 0,75 quantil na ecoeficiência agrícola da província de Shandong não é significativa.