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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1447-1459, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929362

ABSTRACT

Cancer remains one of the leading causes of death globally and metastasis always leads to treatment failure. Here, we develop a versatile hydrogel loading photothermal agents, chemotherapeutics, and immune-adjuvants to eradicate orthotopic tumors and inhibit metastasis by combinational therapy. Hydrogel networks were synthesized via the thiol-Michael addition of polydopamine (PDA) with thiolated hyaluronic acid. PDA acted as a cross-linking agent and endowed the hydrogel with excellent photothermal property. Meanwhile, a chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin (DOX), was loaded in the hydrogel via π‒π stacking with PDA and an immune-adjuvant, CpG-ODN, was loaded via electrostatic interaction. The release of DOX from the hydrogel was initially slow but accelerated due to near infrared light irradiation. The hydrogels showed remarkably synergistic effect against 4T1 cancer cells and stimulated plenty of cytokines secreting from RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, the hydrogels eradicated orthotopic murine breast cancer xenografts and strongly inhibited metastasis after intratumoral injection and light irradiation. The high anticancer efficiency of this chemo-photothermal immunotherapy resulted from the strong synergistic effect of the versatile hydrogels, including the evoked host immune response. The combinational strategy of chemo-photothermal immunotherapy is promising for highly effective treatment of breast cancer.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 692-707, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929320

ABSTRACT

Owing to incurable castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) ultimately developing after treating with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), it is vital to devise new therapeutic strategies to treat CRPC. Treatments that target programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) have been approved for human cancers with clinical benefit. However, many patients, especially prostate cancer, fail to respond to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatment, so it is an urgent need to seek a support strategy for improving the traditional PD-1/PD-L1 targeting immunotherapy. In the present study, analyzing the data from our prostate cancer tissue microarray, we found that PD-L1 expression was positively correlated with the expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (HnRNP L). Hence, we further investigated the potential role of HnRNP L on the PD-L1 expression, the sensitivity of cancer cells to T-cell killing and the synergistic effect with anti-PD-1 therapy in CRPC. Indeed, HnRNP L knockdown effectively decreased PD-L1 expression and recovered the sensitivity of cancer cells to T-cell killing in vitro and in vivo, on the contrary, HnRNP L overexpression led to the opposite effect in CRPC cells. In addition, consistent with the previous study, we revealed that ferroptosis played a critical role in T-cell-induced cancer cell death, and HnRNP L promoted the cancer immune escape partly through targeting YY1/PD-L1 axis and inhibiting ferroptosis in CRPC cells. Furthermore, HnRNP L knockdown enhanced antitumor immunity by recruiting infiltrating CD8+ T cells and synergized with anti-PD-1 therapy in CRPC tumors. This study provided biological evidence that HnRNP L knockdown might be a novel therapeutic agent in PD-L1/PD-1 blockade strategy that enhanced anti-tumor immune response in CRPC.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2880-2899, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888892

ABSTRACT

Aberrant activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in colonic macrophages strongly associates with the occurrence and progression of ulcerative colitis. Although targeting NLRP3 inflammasome has been considered to be a potential therapy, the underlying mechanism through which pathway the intestinal inflammation is modulated remains controversial. By focusing on the flavonoid lonicerin, one of the most abundant constituents existed in a long historical anti-inflammatory and anti-infectious herb

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2859-2879, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888891

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, but none of the current treatments for PD can halt the progress of the disease due to the limited understanding of the pathogenesis. In PD development, the communication between the brain and the gastrointestinal system influenced by gut microbiota is known as microbiota-gut-brain axis. However, the explicit mechanisms of microbiota dysbiosis in PD development have not been well elucidated yet. FLZ, a novel squamosamide derivative, has been proved to be effective in many PD models and is undergoing the phase I clinical trial to treat PD in China. Moreover, our previous pharmacokinetic study revealed that gut microbiota could regulate the absorption of FLZ

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2344-2361, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888806

ABSTRACT

Recent infectious disease outbreaks, such as COVID-19 and Ebola, have highlighted the need for rapid and accurate diagnosis to initiate treatment and curb transmission. Successful diagnostic strategies critically depend on the efficiency of biological sampling and timely analysis. However, current diagnostic techniques are invasive/intrusive and present a severe bottleneck by requiring specialist equipment and trained personnel. Moreover, centralised test facilities are poorly accessible and the requirement to travel may increase disease transmission. Self-administrable, point-of-care (PoC) microneedle diagnostic devices could provide a viable solution to these problems. These miniature needle arrays can detect biomarkers in/from the skin in a minimally invasive manner to provide (near-) real-time diagnosis. Few microneedle devices have been developed specifically for infectious disease diagnosis, though similar technologies are well established in other fields and generally adaptable for infectious disease diagnosis. These include microneedles for biofluid extraction, microneedle sensors and analyte-capturing microneedles, or combinations thereof. Analyte sampling/detection from both blood and dermal interstitial fluid is possible. These technologies are in their early stages of development for infectious disease diagnostics, and there is a vast scope for further development. In this review, we discuss the utility and future outlook of these microneedle technologies in infectious disease diagnosis.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 763-780, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881168

ABSTRACT

Intestinal toxicity induced by chemotherapeutics has become an important reason for the interruption of therapy and withdrawal of approved agents. In this study, we demonstrated that chemotherapeutics-induced intestinal damage were commonly characterized by the sharp upregulation of tryptophan (Trp)-kynurenine (KYN)-kynurenic acid (KA) axis metabolism. Mechanistically, chemotherapy-induced intestinal damage triggered the formation of an interleukin-6 (IL-6)-indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1)-aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) positive feedback loop, which accelerated kynurenine pathway metabolism in gut. Besides, AHR and G protein-coupled receptor 35 (GPR35) negative feedback regulates intestinal damage and inflammation to maintain intestinal integrity and homeostasis through gradually sensing kynurenic acid level in gut and macrophage, respectively. Moreover, based on virtual screening and biological verification, vardenafil and linagliptin as GPR35 and AHR agonists respectively were discovered from 2388 approved drugs. Importantly, the results that vardenafil and linagliptin significantly alleviated chemotherapy-induced intestinal toxicity

7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 156-180, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881131

ABSTRACT

@#This study was aimed to design the first dual-target small-molecule inhibitor co-targeting poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) and bromodomain containing protein 4 (BRD4), which had important cross relation in the global network of breast cancer, reflecting the synthetic lethal effect. A series of new BRD4 and PARP1 dual-target inhibitors were discovered and synthesized by fragment-based combinatorial screening and activity assays that together led to the chemical optimization. Among these compounds, 19d was selected and exhibited micromole enzymatic potencies against BRD4 and PARP1, respectively. Compound 19d was further shown to efficiently modulate the expression of BRD4 and PARP1. Subsequently, compound 19d was found to induce breast cancer cell apoptosis and stimulate cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Following pharmacokinetic studies, compound 19d showed its antitumor activity in breast cancer susceptibility gene 1/2 (BRCA1/2) wild-type MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 xenograft models without apparent toxicity and loss of body weight. These results together demonstrated that a highly potent dual-targeted inhibitor was successfully synthesized and indicated that co-targeting of BRD4 and PARP1 based on the concept of synthetic lethality would be a promising therapeutic strategy for breast cancer.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 143-155, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881130

ABSTRACT

@#Among current novel druggable targets, protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are of considerable and growing interest. Diacylglycerol kinase α (DGKα) interacts with focal adhesion kinase (FAK) band 4.1-ezrin-radixin-moesin (FERM) domain to induce the phosphorylation of FAK Tyr397 site and promotes the malignant progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells. Chrysin is a multi-functional bioactive flavonoid, and possesses potential anticancer activity, whereas little is known about the anticancer activity and exact molecular mechanisms of chrysin in ESCC treatment. In this study, we found that chrysin significantly disrupted the DGKα/FAK signalosome to inhibit FAK-controlled signaling pathways and the malignant progression of ESCC cells both in vitro and in vivo, whereas produced no toxicity to the normal cells. Molecular validation specifically demonstrated that Asp435 site in the catalytic domain of DGKα contributed to chrysin-mediated inhibition of the assembly of DGKα/FAK complex. This study has illustrated DGKα/FAK complex as a target of chrysin for the first time, and provided a direction for the development of natural products-derived PPIs inhibitors in tumor treatment.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 475-487, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-792995

ABSTRACT

ProBiotic-4 is a probiotic preparation composed of , , , and . This study aims to investigate the effects of ProBiotic-4 on the microbiota-gut-brain axis and cognitive deficits, and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism using senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. ProBiotic-4 was orally administered to 9-month-old SAMP8 mice for 12 weeks. We observed that ProBiotic-4 significantly improved the memory deficits, cerebral neuronal and synaptic injuries, glial activation, and microbiota composition in the feces and brains of aged SAMP8 mice. ProBiotic-4 substantially attenuated aging-related disruption of the intestinal barrier and blood-brain barrier, decreased interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor- at both mRNA and protein levels, reduced plasma and cerebral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentration, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression, and nuclear factor-B (NF-B) nuclear translocation in the brain. In addition, not only did ProBiotic-4 significantly decreased the levels of -H2AX, 8-hydroxydesoxyguanosine, and retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I), it also abrogated RIG-I multimerization in the brain. These findings suggest that targeting gut microbiota with probiotics may have a therapeutic potential for the deficits of the microbiota-gut-brain axis and cognitive function in aging, and that its mechanism is associated with inhibition of both TLR4-and RIG-I-mediated NF-B signaling pathway and inflammatory responses.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 537-544, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774970

ABSTRACT

We report in this study the identification of a natural product-like antagonist () of Vps34 as a potent autophagy modulator structure-based virtual screening. Aurone derivative strongly inhibited Vps34 activity in cell-free and cell-based assays. Significantly, prevents autophagy in human cells induced either by starvation or by an mTOR inhibitor. modeling and kinetic data revealed that could function as an ATP-competitive inhibitor of Vps34. Moreover, it suppressed autophagy and without inducing heart or liver damage in mice. could be utilized as a new motif for more selective and efficacious antagonists of Vps34 for the potential treatment of autophagy-related human diseases.

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 484-495, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774961

ABSTRACT

Metastasis-associated drug resistance accounts for high mortality in ovarian cancer and remains to be a major barrier for effective treatment. In this study, SKOV3/T4, a metastatic subpopulation of ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells, was enriched to explore potential interventions against metastatic-associated drug resistance. Quantitative genomic and functional analyses were performed and found that slug was significantly increased in the SKOV3/T4 subpopulation and contributed to the high resistance of SKOV3/T4. Further studies showed that slug activated c-Met in a ligand-independent manner due to elevated levels of fibronectin and provoked integrin V function, which was confirmed by the significant correlation of slug and p-Met levels in 121 ovarian cancer patient samples. Intriguingly, c-Met inhibitor(s) exhibited greatly enhanced anti-cancer effects in slug-positive ovarian cancer models both and . Additionally, IHC analyses revealed that slug levels were highly correlated with reduced survival of ovarian cancer patients. Taken together, this study not only uncovers the critical roles of slug in drug resistance in ovarian cancer but also highlights a promising therapeutic strategy by targeting the noncanonical activation of c-Met in slug-positive ovarian cancer patients with poor prognosis.

12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 212-221, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-309965

ABSTRACT

Gram-negative pathogen-induced nosocomial infections and resistance are a most serious menace to global public health. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan (QF), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been used clinically in China for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, acute or chronic bronchitis and pulmonary infection. In this study, the effects of QF on Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced acute pneumonia in mice were evaluated. The mechanisms by which four typical anti-inflammatory ingredients from QF, arctigenin (ATG), cholic acid (CLA), chlorogenic acid (CGA) and sinapic acid (SPA), regulate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways and related targets were investigated using molecular biology and molecular docking techniques. The results showed that pretreatment with QF significantly inhibits the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and chemokines (IL-8 and RANTES), reduces leukocytes recruitment into inflamed tissues and ameliorates pulmonary edema and necrosis. In addition, ATG was identified as the primary anti-inflammatory agent with action on the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways. CLA and CGA enhanced the actions of ATG and exhibited synergistic NF-κB inactivation effects possibly via the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, CLA is speculated to target FGFR and MEK firstly. Overall, QF regulated the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways to inhibit pathogenic bacterial infections effectively.

13.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2016. 92 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-846562

ABSTRACT

No advento dos antirretrovirais potentes, os indivíduos infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) começaram a apresentar risco maior para o desenvolvimento de doença cardiovascular (DCV). Este aumento do risco cardiovascular pode ser associado tanto à infecção viral quanto ao tratamento antirretroviral (TARV), que provocam mudanças pró-aterogênicas como o aumento do colesterol total e da lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL), além da diminuição da lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL). A ativação imune e as alterações lipídicas são mecanismos associados com a infecção pelo HIV e com o risco de DCV. Este trabalho utilizou ensaios imunoenzimáticos para a determinação plasmática de biomarcadores emergentes de risco cardiovascular relacionados com modificações da lipoproteína de baixa densidade, a saber: LDL eletronegativa [LDL(-)] e formas oxidadas da LDL, ou seja, LDL-oxi (resíduos lisina da apolipoproteína B100 modificados com malondialdeído), LDL-HNE (resíduos lisina da ApoB100 modificados com 4-hidroxinonenal) e LDL-CML (resíduos lisina da ApoB100 modificados por carboximetila), além de biomarcadores relacionados com a resposta imune-inflamatória, ou seja, autoanticorpos IgG e IgM anti-LDL(-), imunocomplexo de LDL(-) [IC-LDL(-)], proteína amiloide sérica A (SAA) e mieloperoxidase (MPO). Também foram determinadas as concentrações séricas dos biomarcadores de risco relacionados às apolipoproteínas: apolipoproteína A-I (ApoA-I), apolipoproteína B (ApoB) e apolipoproteína E (ApoE). A população estudada incluiu indivíduos com infecção pelo HIV, tratados (HIV-TARV) e não tratados (HIV-NT) com terapia antirretroviral e indivíduos sem infecção pelo HIV (controle). Não foram identificadas diferenças para as concentrações de LDL(-), IC-LDL(-), anti- LDL(-)-IgM, SAA, ApoA-I, ApoB e ApoE entre os grupos estudados (HIV-TARV, HIV-NT e controle). A ApoA-I correlacionou-se positivamente com ApoB e ApoE (rs= 0,418 e rs= 0,347, Spearman, p<0,01) e a ApoB com a ApoE (rs= 0,286, Spearman, p<0,01). Verificou-se correlação inversa entre as concentrações de LDL(-) e IC-LDL(-) (rs= -0,214, Spearman, p<0,05). Os níveis de anti-LDL(-)-IgG correlacionaram-se positivamente com IC-LDL(-) e anti-LDL(-)-IgM (rs= 0,240, Spearman, p<0,05 e rs= 0,348, Spearman, p<0,01). As concentrações de LDL-CML correlacionaram-se positivamente com LDL(-), LDL-oxi, LDL-HNE e IC-LDL(-) (rs= 0,212, Spearman, p<0,05; rs= 0,214, Spearman, p<0,05; rs= 0,573, Spearman, p<0,01 e rs= 0,219, Spearman, p<0,05). O grupo HIV-NT apresentou níveis mais elevados de anticorpos anti-LDL(-)-IgG comparado ao grupo controle (Kruskal-Wallis, p<0,01). Em contraste, observou-se no grupo HIV-NT diminuição das concentrações de MPO, LDL-HNE e LDL-CML em relação ao grupo controle (Kruskal-Wallis, p<0,01). A comparação dos grupos HIV-NT e HIV-TARV demonstrou que o TARV promoveu diminuição das concentrações dos anticorpos anti-LDL(-)-IgG e aumentou os níveis de LDL-oxi (Kruskal-Wallis, p<0,01). O grupo HIV-TARV apresentou aumento das concentrações de LDL-oxi e diminuição dos níveis de MPO, LDL-HNE e LDL-CML em relação ao controle (Kruskal-Wallis, p<0,01). Em conclusão, a infecção pelo HIV modificou o biomarcador de inflamação MPO e o perfil de biomarcadores relacionados às modificações da LDL (menor formação de LDL-HNE e LDL-CML), além aumentar a resposta imune-humoral à LDL eletronegativa [anti-LDL(-)-IgG], enquanto o tratamento com antirretrovirais inibiu esta resposta. Os outros biomarcadores estudados não foram modificados pela infecção viral ou pelo tratamento antirretroviral


In the advent of potent antiretroviral therapy, individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have showed an increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease (DCV). Studies have discussed that the increased risk may be related to both the disease and antiretroviral treatment (TARV), that produced pro-atherogenic changes such as increased of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) and decreased high density lipoprotein. The immune activation and the lipid modifications are well known mechanisms related to HIV infection and the risk of DCV. This study used immunoassays for plasma quantification for emerging biomarkers of cardiovascular risk related to modification of low density lipoprotein: electronegative LDL [LDL(-)] and oxidized forms of LDL, LDL-oxi (lysine residues of apolipoprotein B100 modified by malondialdehyde), LDL-HNE (lysine residues of ApoB100 modified by 4-hydroxynonenal) and LDL-CML (lysine residues of ApoB100 modified by carboxymethyl) and biomarkers associated to immune and inflammatory responses, IgG and IgM autoantibodies anti-LDL(-) and immunecomplexe of LDL(-) [IC-LDL(-)], serum amyloid A protein (SAA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Also, were determined serum concentrations of risk biomarkers related to apolipoproteins: apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE). The studied population included patients with HIV infection, treated (HIV-TARV) and untreated (HIV-NT) with antiretroviral therapy and individuals without HIV infection (controle). No differences were identified for concentrations of LDL(-), ICLDL(-), anti-LDL(-)-IgM, SAA, ApoA-I, ApoB and ApoE between studied groups (HIV-TARV, HIV-NT and controle). The ApoA-I was positively correlated to ApoB and ApoE (rs= 0,418 e rs= 0,347, Spearman, p<0,01) and ApoB to ApoE (rs= 0,286, Spearman, p<0,01). There was an inverted correlation between LDL(-) and IC-LDL(-) (rs= -0.214, Spearman, p<0,05). The levels of anti-LDL(-)-IgG were positively correlated to IC-LDL(-) and antibodies anti-LDL(-)-IgM (rs= 0.240; Spearman; p <0.05 and rs= 0.348; Spearman; p <0.01). The concentrations of LDL-CML were positively correlated to LDL(-), LDL-oxi, LDL-HNE e IC-LDL(-) (rs= 0,212, Spearman, p<0,05; rs= 0,214, Spearman, p<0,05; rs= 0,573, Spearman, p<0,01 e rs= 0,219, Spearman, p<0,05). The HIV-NT group showed higher levels of anti-LDL(-)-IgG compared to Control group (Kruskal-Wallis, p<0,01). In contrast, was observed lower levels for HIV-NT group to MPO, LDL-HNE and LDL-CML when compared to Control group (Kruskal-Wallis, p<0,01). The comparison of HIV-NT and HIV-TARV groups demonstrated that TARV caused a decrease of concentrations of anti-LDL(-)-IgG antibodies and an increased of LDL-oxi levels (Kruskal-Wallis, p <0.01). The HIV-TARV group showed increased LDL-oxi concentrations and decreased at levels of MPO, LDL-HNE e LDL-CML when compared to Control (Kruskal-Wallis, p<0,01). In conclusion, the HIV infection changed the biomarker of inflammation MPO and the profile of biomarkers related to modifications of LDL (lower concentrations of LDL-HNE and LDL-CML), as well as increased the humoral-immune response to electronegative LDL [anti-LDL(-)-IgG], while treatment with antiretroviral therapy inhibited this response. The other studied biomarkers were not modified either by viral infection or antiretroviral treatment


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/analysis , Cardiovascular System , HIV/metabolism , Immunoenzyme Techniques/methods , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/classification , Atherosclerosis/complications , Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1
14.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2015 Jan-Mar ; 33 (1): 68-72
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156991

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Scrub typhus is a rickettsial infection which is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi and transmitted by the bite of the chigger of a mite. Delay in diagnosis can be fatal otherwise the treatment is simple, doxycycline being the drug of choice. Indirect immunofl urescence is considered gold standard but it is not used in India as it is costly and also not available. There is need for rapid, economic and simple test for the diagnosis of scrub typhus. This study was taken up to study the seroprevalence of scrub typhus in Andhra Pradesh and to compare two commonly used serological methods; rapid test and IgM ELISA. Materials and methods: This is a prospective study in which 100 serum samples from clinically suspected cases collected over a period of 3 months were processed for the detection of IgM antibodies for scrub typhus by ELISA and Rapid test. Samples were also tested for leptospirosis and dengue fever which the other common causes of fever prevalent in this region. Results: Total number of samples processed was 100 of which 52 were males and 48 females. Among the hundred samples 39 were seropositive. Positivity was higher in the age group of patients between 16 and 30 yrs of age. There was 97% correlation between ELISA and rapid method. Of the 100 samples only three samples positive by ELISA were negative by rapid method. Fever was the most common manifestation and there was no eschar and no mortality reported. Conclusion: Scrub typhus should be included in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin along with dengue, malaria and leptospirosis which are the other common endemic infections in this part of the country.

15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 316-322, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310021

ABSTRACT

Traditionally, determination of inhibitory potency of complement inhibitors is performed by the hemolytic assay. However, this assay is not applicable to the lectin pathway, thus impeding the understanding of complement inhibitors against the overall function of the complement system. The main objective of our study was to develop a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as an alternative method to assess the anti-complement activity, particularly against the lectin pathway. By using respective coating substrates against different activation pathways, followed by capturing the stable C3c fragments, our ELISA method can be used to screen complement inhibitors against the classical pathway and the lectin pathway. The inhibitory effect of suramin on the classical pathway, as measured by our hemolytic assay is consistent with previous reports. Further assessment of suramin and Bupleurum polysaccharides against the lectin pathway showed a good reproducibility of the method. Comparison of the lectin pathway IC50 between Bupleurum smithii var. parvifolium polysaccharides (1.055 mg/mL) and Bupleurum chinense polysaccharides (0.98 mg/mL) showed that, similar to the classical and alterative pathway, these two Bupleurum polysaccharides had comparable anti-complementary properties against the lectin pathway. The results demonstrate that the described ELISA assay can compensate for the shortcomings of the hemolytic assay in lectin pathway.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 378-389, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310013

ABSTRACT

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) has been recognized as an important cancer drug target. Many recent studies have provided convincing evidences of strong correlation between elevated levels of HIF-1 and tumor metastasis, angiogenesis, poor patient prognosis as well as tumor resistance therapy. It was found that hypoxia (low O2 levels) is a common character in many types of solid tumors. As an adaptive response to hypoxic stress, hypoxic tumor cells activate several survival pathways to carry out their essential biological processes in different ways compared with normal cells. Recent advances in cancer biology at the cellular and molecular levels highlighted the HIF-1α pathway as a crucial survival pathway for which novel strategies of cancer therapy could be developed. However, targeting the HIF-1α pathway has been a challenging but promising progresses have been made in the past twenty years. This review summarizes the role and regulation of the HIF-1α in cancer, and recent therapeutic approaches targeting this important pathway.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 544-553, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-309997

ABSTRACT

Fucoidan is a traditional Chinese medicine suggested to possess anti-tumor effects. In this study the anti-metastatic effects of fucoidan were investigated in vitro in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells (Huh-7 and SNU-761) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and in vivo using a distant liver metastasis model involving injection of MH134 cells into spleen via the portal vein. Its ability to protect hepatocytes against bile acid (BA)-induced apoptosis was investigated in primary hepatocytes. Fucoidan was found to suppress the invasion of HCC cells through up-regulation of p42/44 MAPK-dependent NDRG-1/CAP43 and partly, under normoxic conditions, through up-regulation of p42/44 MAPK-dependent VMP-1 expression. It also significantly decreased liver metastasis in vivo. As regards its hepatoprotective effect, fucoidan decreased BA-induced hepatocyte apoptosis as shown by the attenuation of caspase-8, and -7 cleavages and suppression of the mobilization of caspase-8 and Fas associated death domain (FADD) into the death-inducing signaling complex. In summary, fucoidan displays inhibitory effects on proliferation of HCC cells and protective effects on hepatocytes. The results suggest fucoidan is a potent suppressor of tumor invasion with hepatoprotective effects.

18.
J Vector Borne Dis ; 2012 Sept; 49(3): 151-156
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142840

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: The challenge of malaria and efforts targeted at developing malaria vaccines triggered this study on the reactivity of IgG and its subclasses in the test serum specific to CSP. This work was directed at assessing the influence of age and gender on host humoral antibody against Plasmodium falciparum recombinant circumsporozoite antigen in Nigerian children. Methods: In all, 67 serum samples (>10,000 parasites/μl of blood) collected from malaria-infected children at the University College Hospital, Ibadan during the transmission season were analyzed by ELISA. Results: The mean absorbance values of IgG subclasses reactive against P. falciparum CSP appeared to be agedependent and ranged from 0.01 for IgG4 in younger children to 0.95 for IgG3 in older children. The sixty-seven subjects investigated in this study had significantly higher mean IgG1 and IgG3 than the uninfected controls (p <0.01). This follows the order IgG3 >IgG1>IgG2>IgG4 which confirmed the prevalence of the cytophilic antibodies (IgG1 and IgG3) in 65% of the malaria infected children over the non-cytophilic subclasses (IgG2 and IgG4). Similarly, there was low production of IgG4 and IgG2 levels in 35% of the subjects compared with control. IgG was detected in the serum of North American Subjects (NAS) which served as negative control for CSP-specific IgG subclasses. Although the NAS titre was lower than that of the malaria subjects in Nigeria, its IgG2 was, however, higher (0.16) than that of other subclasses. The mean absorbance values of total serum IgG subclass were higher than those of IgG subclasses specific to P. falciparum circumsporozoite antigen. The mean absorbance values of the total serum IgG subclass follows the order IgG2>IgG1>IgG4>IgG3. Interpretation & conclusion: Age and gender-dependent correlations of results suggest that acquired immunity could play a significant role in protection from malaria. Antibody levels are higher in male than female children of the same age group. Antibody levels also increase with age in both the male and female children.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-587722

ABSTRACT

Objective To optimize the conditions of the expression of fusion protein GST-SjMP10 and to evaluate the value of fusion protein GST-SjMP10 for diagnosis of schistosomiasis.Methods The optimal concentration of IPTG for the expression of fusion protein GST-SjMP10 was chosen in inducing the expression of GST-SjMP10 with different concentration of IPTG,and the soluble fusion protein GST-SjMP10 was identified by SDS-PAGE.The fusion protein GST-SjMP10 was purified by chromatographic affinity with glutathione Sepharose 4B gel.The sensitivity and specificity of purified fusion protein GST-SjMP10 for diagnosis of schistosomiasis were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)to detect the IgG antibody in sera from the patients with acute schistosomiasis,advanced schistosomiasis and clonorchiasis as well as healthy subjects.Results Most of the expressed fusion protein GST-SjMP10 was in soluble status when the concentration of IPTG was reduced to 0.1 mmol/L and the fusion protein GST-SjMP10 could be purified by chromatographic affinity.The positive rate of anti-GST-SjMP10 antibody in the sera from the patients with acute and chronic schistosomiasis japonica was 97.5% and 96.7% respectively.No cross reactivity of the fusion protein GST-SjMP10 was found in the detection for the sera from clonorchiasis patients,and no false positive was found in the detection for the sera of healthy subjects.Conclusion The fusion protein GST-SjMP10 was expressed successfully and showed high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonicum.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-584925

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore changes of myelin basic pr otein(MBP)and S-100B protein in serum and cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)after acute spinal cord injury(ASCI )and after tetramethylpyrazine trea tment.Methods Dog models with ASCI at T13were made in th e methods of Allens and an epidural t ube was set in the subarachnoid space,with one opening out of the skin and blocked in order to gather CSF.The dogs were divided randomly into 3groups.Grou p A(n =6)was the control group which received only laminectomy of T13without a str iking to the spinal cord.Group B(n =6),acute spinal cord injury group and Group C(n =6),tetramethylpyrazine treatment group,all received a striking to the spinal cord with the device of Allens after the dura was exposed.Blood an d CSF were taken out of the dogs respec tively at the time intervals of 2h,4h,6h,8h,10h,24h,48h,72h and 96h after the operation.The concentration of MBP and S-100B in the serum and CSF was measur ed by the methods of ELISA and feature s of the change were studied.Results After acute spinal cord injury,concentrations of MBP and S-100B in the se rum and CSF increased significantly in Group B and Group C,and the levels changed dynamically.But the levels in tetrame thylpyrazine treatment group were l ower than those in spinal cord injury group.Conclusions MBP and S-100B protein change dynami cally after acute spinal cord injury.Tetramethylpyrazine has a t herapeutic effect on acute spinal cord injury.Whether MBP and S-100B pro tein can be served as the marker for ASCI needs fu rther research to evaluate their correlation to the severity and prognosis of ASCI.[

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