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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920528

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) is used to mimic ischemia in vitro to observe whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) after OGD and to better understand the regulatory mechanism of hDPCs in ischemia.@*Methods@# hDPCs were cultured in glucose-free DMEM and hypoxia (volume fraction 2% O2) to establish an hDPCs OGD model in vitro, which mimics hDPCs ischemia in vitro. hDPCs were divided into a control group (normal culture) and an experimental group (OGD 0 h, 2 h, 4 h and 8 h groups). After pretreatment with OGD for 0, 2, 4 and 8 h, hDPC viability was measured by methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. qRT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of ER stress markers [splicing x-box binding protein1 (sXBP1), activating transcription Factor 4 (ATF4) and C/EBP homologous protein (chop)]. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of ER stress markers [phosphorylated RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER-resident kinase (p-perk) and phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (p-eIF2α)]. @*Results@#Compared with OGD 0 h group, cell viability of hDPCs decreased when exposed to OGD treatment for 2 h, 4 h and 8 h. Compared with the control group, mRNA expressions of ER stress makers (sXBP1, ATF4 and chop) and the protein expressions of ER stress protein markers (p-perk andp-eIF2α) increased in OGD treatment cells after 4 h were higher in OGD cells. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).@*Conclusion@#The results indicate that ER stress response is involved in hDPCs in OGD treatment.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 76-84, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913170

ABSTRACT

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a multifunctional organelle in eukaryotic cells, is responsible for protein synthesis and intracellular signal transduction, which dominates cell function, survival, and apoptosis. Disequilibrium of ER homeostasis may induce ER stress, which closely intertwines with tumor occurrence and progress. A few clinical-used drugs (such as anthraquinones and oxaliplatin) can mediate the immunogenic cell death of tumor cells through excessive ER stress, and sequentially stimulate anti-tumor immune responses as well as long-term immune memory. However, these drugs often exhibit poor targeting ability and extremely low ER accumulation in tumor cells, limiting their clinical efficacy. Therefore, the researches of ER-targeted delivery of these drugs will significantly benefit the efficient and precise anti-tumor immunotherapy. In this review, we introduce the relationship between ER and tumor immunity, and summarize the ER targeting strategies for anti-tumor immunotherapy in recent years. Furthermore, we discuss the problems of existing ER targeting strategies and look into its broad prospects of application.

3.
International Eye Science ; (12): 244-248, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913031

ABSTRACT

@#Age-related macular degeneration(ARMD)is a main cause of irreversible visual impairment in the elderly. The major pathological features are drusen formation, macular pigment disorder, geographic atrophy and abnormal neovascularization. Retinal pigment epithelium(RPE)function is impaired in ARMD. Endoplasmic reticulum(ER)is an organelle in eukaryotes responsible for protein synthesis, modification, integration and quality control. ER also participates in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis and lipid biosynthesis. Stimuli from the external and internal environment may trigger ER stress and therefore activate the intracellular signal transduction pathway-the unfolded protein response(UPR), to restore cell homeostasis. However, prolonged ER stress may lead to apoptosis. The pathogenesis of ARMD has not been fully elucidated, nevertheless, compelling evidence demonstrates that ER stress is involved. In this article, we summarize recent advances in UPR pathways, as well as the role of ER stress in the physiological function of RPE and in the pathogenesis of ARMD.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942775

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of piperine on human breast cancer cells. Methods: The effect of piperine on proliferation and migration of human breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, was investigated using colony formation assays, wound healing assays, Matrigel migration assays, flow cytometry, RT-qPCR, and Western blotting assays. Results: Piperine inhibited the growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and suppressed colony formation. Cell reduction at the G 0 / G 1 phase and cell arrest at the G 2 /M phase were observed in breast cancer cells. However, the significant effect was only demonstrated in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, cancer cell migration was suppressed by piperine at low concentration. RT-qPCR and Western blotting assays showed that piperine downregulated Rac1 gene and protein expression. Conclusions: Piperine could inhibit growth and migration of breast cancer cells by reducing Rac1 gene and protein expression.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942774

ABSTRACT

Objective: To enhance the pharmaceutical potential and oral bioavailability of quercetin contents of Allium cepa peel extract by novel nanosuspension technology. Methods: Nanoprecipitation approach was successfully used for the formulation of nanosuspension. To obtain pharmaceutical-grade nanosuspension with minimum particle size and polydispersity index, sodium lauryl sulphate was selected as a stabilizer. Important formulation parameters were statistically optimized by the response surface methodology approach. The optimized nanosuspension was subjected to stability and in vitro dissolution testing and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and zeta sizer. To evaluate the preeminence of nanosuspension over coarse suspension, comparative bioavailability studies were carried out in male albino rats. The pharmaceutical potential of developed nanosuspension was evaluated by antioxidant, antimicrobial, and toxicity studies. Results: The optimized nanosuspension showed an average particle size of 275.5 nm with a polydispersity index and zeta potential value of 0.415 and -48.8 mV, respectively. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the average particle size of nanosuspension was below 100 nm. The formulated nanosuspension showed better stability under refrigerated conditions. Nanosuspension showed an improved dissolution rate and a 2.14-fold greater plasma concentration of quercetin than coarse suspension. Moreover, the formulated nanosuspension exhibited enhanced antioxidant and antimicrobial potential and was non-toxic. Conclusions: Optimization of nanosuspension effectively improves the pharmaceutical potential and oral bioavailability of Allium cepa extract.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941600

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect of ethyl acetate gum resin extract of Boswellia serrata on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation and oxidative damage in hepatic and renal tissues of rats. Methods: The rats were divided into four groups: control, LPS, LPS+Boswellia serrata extracts (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg). LPS (1 mg/kg) and the extract (100 and 200 mg/kg, 30 min before LPS) were administered intraperitoneally for 3 weeks. The levels of liver enzymes, albumin, total protein, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), interleukin (IL)-6, malondialdehyde (MDA), and total thiol groups and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were measured. Results: The levels of liver enzymes, creatinine, and BUN, IL-6, MDA in the LPS group were markedly increased (P<0.001) while albumin, total protein, and total thiol concentration, as well as SOD and CAT activities, were decreased compared with the control group (P<0.05 or 0.01). Boswellia serrata extracts diminished the levels of liver enzymes, creatinine, BUN, IL-6, and MDA (P<0.01 and P<0.001), and elevated the concentration of total protein and total thiol and SOD and CAT activities (P<0.05 or 0.01). Conclusions: The ethyl acetate gum resin extract of Boswellia serrata reduces LPS-induced inflammatory reactions and oxidative damage, thus ameliorating hepatic and renal function.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941599

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the antioxidative and antidiabetic effects of Harpephyllum caffrum bark infusion as well as its effects on glucogenic and nucleotide hydrolyzing enzyme activities in FeSO 4 - induced oxidative stress in rat hepatic tissue. Methods: Harpephyllum caffrum infusion was prepared from dried plant materials (40 g) infused in boiling water (400 mL) for 20 min at room temperature. The antioxidative and inhibitory activities against carbohydrate digestive enzymes of the infusion were determined using established protocols. The liver tissues of rats were used for glucose uptake assay and to evaluate the infusion's effect on endogenous antioxidant, glucogenic, and nucleotide hydrolyzing enzyme activities in FeSO 4 -induced hepatic injury. Results: The Harpephyllum caffrum infusion significantly reduced ferric iron (FRAP) and free radicals (OH • and DPPH) in a dose- dependent manner. It inhibited -amylase and -glucosidase activities and increased glucose uptake in hepatic tissues. FeSO 4 significantly decreased glutathione concentration, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities while increasing malondialdehyde level, glycogen phosphorylase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and adenosine triphosphatase activities. However, treatment with Harpephyllum caffrum infusion reversed FeSO 4 -induced changes. Characterization of the infusion revealed the presence of catechol, O-pyrocatechuic acid, mequinol, maltol, and glycoside derivatives. Conclusions: The Harpephyllum caffrum infusion demonstrates antidiabetic and antioxidative potentials in in vitro models of type 2 diabetes as depicted by its ability to inhibit carbohydrate digestive enzymes, mitigate oxidative imbalance, and regulate glucogenic and nucleotide hydrolyzing enzyme activities in oxidative hepatic injury.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941598

ABSTRACT

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs, play important roles in regulating host defense against pathogenic infections. This review provides information on the role of miRNAs in the antimycobacterial immune response and summarizes their possible diagnostic utility. It was compiled using scientific literature retrieved from such databases as PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and PubMed Central. Relevant articles published in the English language until December 2020 were taken into consideration. It has been revealed that specific host miRNAs induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis can target diverse factors and pathways in immune signaling to ensure longer pathogen survival inside the phagocytes. The potential use of miRNAs in tuberculosis diagnosis or therapeutic strategies has been attracting increasing attention in recent years. However, despite considerable efforts devoted to miRNA profiling, further studies are needed to elucidate the full potential of miRNAs as novel tuberculosis biomarkers or therapeutic targets.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941597

ABSTRACT

Objective: To elucidate the cytotoxic effect of the secondary metabolites of Barrientosiimonas humi (B. humi) on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells and its underlying mechanisms of action. Methods: The extract was obtained from the fermentation of B. humi and fractionation of the crude extract was conducted via column chromatography. Cytotoxicity of the B. humi extract was determined by using MTT assay and real-time cellular analysis. Morphological changes, cell cycle profiles, mode of cell death, and caspase expressions of control and treated breast cancer cells were determined. Results: The ethyl acetate extract isolated from B. humi was cytotoxic against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. One of the dichloromethane (DCM) fractions, designated as DCM-F2, exhibited the strongest activity among all the fractions and thereby was selected for further studies. DCM-F2 had selective cytotoxicity on target cells by inducing apoptosis, particularly in the early stage, and cell cycle arrest. Treated cells caused inhibition of cell cycle progression at 72 h leading to a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the G0/G1 population. DCM-F2 treated MDA-MB-231 cells showed caspase-dependent apoptosis, whereas DCM-F2 treated MCF-7 cells showed a caspase-independent apoptosis pathway. Five compounds were successfully isolated from B. humi. Cyclo (Pro-Tyr) was the most cytotoxic and selective compound against MCF-7 cells. Conclusions: B. humi ethyl acetate extract exhibits significant cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells via induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941596

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the protective role of Glinus lotoides ethanolic extract in a depression model through modulating oxidant/antioxidant enzyme system and inflammatory status. Methods: Phytochemical constituents of Glinus lotoides ethanolic extract were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively along with HPLC. Rats were divided into six groups. The normal control and the intoxicated groups received normal saline, and the standard group received imipramine, while the remaining groups received 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg Glinus lotoides ethanolic extract. All groups received treatments for 14 d. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were then administered i.p. (0.83 mg/kg) to all groups except the normal control group. After 24 h, anxiety and depression-like behaviors were evaluated by performing behavioral analysis (open field, tail suspension, forced swim, sucrose preference test), and determining total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity, catalase, and biochemical parameters [malondialdehyde, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6]. Results: Phytochemical studies confirmed the presence of phenols and flavonoids and HPLC analysis showed the presence of gallic acid, quercetin, chlorogenic, and caffeic acid. Total oxidant status was significantly decreased, while total antioxidant capacity was significantly increased in the Glinus lotoides ethanolic extract treated groups. Moreover, Glinus lotoides ethanolic extract diminished malondialdehyde, IL-6, and TNF-alpha levels, while increasing superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione activities. Conclusions: Glinus lotoides ethanolic crude extract shows significant antidepressant activity by modulating oxidative and biochemical parameters that supports its folkloric use in traditional systems of medicine.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941595

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the anti-tumor effects of Pistacia atlantica methanolic extract (PAME) compared with cyclophosphamide against Ehrlich solid tumors in mice. Methods: Swiss albino mice (n=40) were divided into five groups: normal control mice, mice with Ehrlich solid tumors treated with normal saline, mice with Ehrlich solid tumors treated with cyclophosphamide intraperitoneally once a day for 14 d, or 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg PAME orally once a day for 14 d. Tumor growth inhibition, body weight, tumor markers, liver and kidney enzymes, oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, tumor necrosis factor-alpha level (TNF-α), and apoptosis-regulatory gene expression were evaluated. Results: Treatment of mice bearing Ehrlich solid tumors with PAME at 50 and 100 mg/kg orally significantly decreased tumor volume, body weight, tumor markers, liver and kidney enzymes, oxidative stress markers and TNF-α level in comparison with mice with Ehrlich solid tumors receiving normal saline. whereas PAME at 50 and 100 mg/kg/day significantly elevated the level of antioxidant enzymes (P<0.05). Conclusions: Pistacia atlantica methanolic extract has potent antitumor activity in mice. Therefore, the extract might be considered as an alternative anticancer agent against tumors, however, additional studies especially in the clinical setting are required to confirm this finding.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941594

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate hypertriglyceridemia and hepatomegaly caused by Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus (FSS) and Schisandra chinensis Fructus (FSC) oils in mice. Methods: Mice were orally administered a single dose of Schisandrae Fructus oils. Serum and hepatic triglyceride (TG), triglyceride transfer protein (TTP), apolipoprotein B48 (Apo B48), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), alanine aminotransfease (ALT) and liver index were measured at 6-120 h post-dosing. Results: FSS and FSC oil caused time and dose-dependent increases in serum and hepatic TG levels, with maximum increases in the liver (by 297% and 340%) at 12 h post-dosing and serum (244% and 439%) at 24-h post-dosing, respectively. Schisandrae Fructus oil treatments also elevated the levels of serum TTP by 51% and 63%, Apo B48 by 152% and 425%, and VLDL by 67% and 38% in mice, respectively. FSS and FSC oil treatments also increased liver mass by 53% and 55% and HGF by 106% and 174%, but lowered serum ALT activity by 38% and 22%, respectively. Fenofibrate pre/ co-treatment attenuated the FSS and FSC oil-induced elevation in serum TG levels by 41% and 49% at 48 h post-dosing, respectively, but increased hepatic TG contents (by 38% and 33%, respectively) at 12 h post-dosing. Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence to support the establishment of a novel mouse model of hypertriglyceridemia by oral administration of FSS oil (mainly increasing endogenous TG) and FSC oil (mainly elevating exogenous TG).

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941593

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the anticoagulant, antiplatelet and antioxidant activities of protein extract of kenaf seed (PEKS). Methods: Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography techniques were employed for protein characterization. Antioxidant activity of PEKS was assessed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The protective effect of PEKS on sodium nitrite (NaNO 2) induced oxidative stress was evaluated using the in vitro red blood cell model, while the effect of PEKS on diclofenac-induced oxidative stress was examined in vivo in rats. Platelet-rich plasma and platelet-poor plasma were used for anticoagulant and antiplatelet activities of PEKS. Results: PEKS revealed similar protein bands on SDS-PAGE under reduced and non-reduced conditions. Several acidic proteins were present in native PAGE. PEKS showed antioxidant properties by scavenging DPPH with an IC 50 of 24.58 μg. PEKS exhibited a protective effect on NaNO 2 induced oxidative stress in red blood cells by restoring the activity of stress markers. In addition, PEKS alleviated diclofenac-induced tissue damage of the liver, kidney, and small intestine. PEKS showed an anticoagulant effect in both in vivo and in vitro experiments by enhancing normal clotting time. PEKS did not affect prothrombin time but increase activated partial thromboplastin time. Furthermore, PEKS inhibited adenosine diphosphate and epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation. Conclusions: PEKS protects tissues from oxidative stress and exhibits antithrombotic activity.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941592

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) denotes a spectrum of fatty liver disease in individuals without significant alcohol consumption. NAFLD is set to be the most common etiology of serious liver diseases in numerous nations when accompanied by obesity and type 2 diabetes. It is further histologically categorized into the non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL; steatosis without hepatocellular injury) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which is characterized by the coexistence of hepatic steatosis and inflammation and is accompanied by hepatocyte injury (ballooning), either with or without fibrosis. NAFL is considered the benign and reversible stage arising from the excessive accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes. However, NASH is a more progressive stage of NAFLD, due to the increased risks of evolving more serious diseases such as cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma. This concept, however, has been lately challenged by a hypothesis of multiple parallel hits of NAFLD, in which steatosis and NASH are separate entities rather than two points of the NAFLD spectrum, not only from a set of histological patterns but also from a pathophysiological perspective. The current review highlights the epidemiology and pathophysiology of NAFLD, and its progression towards steatohepatitis, with special focus on the novel imminent therapeutic approaches targeting the molecular aspects and the pathogenic pathways involved in the development, and progression of NAFLD.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941591

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of the hexane solvent fraction of Halymenia durvillei (HDHE) on triple-negative breast cancer. Methods: The phytochemical profile of HDHE was investigated by GC-MS. The cytotoxicity of HDHE against MDA-MB-231 cells was determined. The apoptotic and autophagic effects of HDHE were analyzed. The expression of molecular markers controlling apoptosis, autophagy, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was determined. Results: HDHE contains a mixture of fatty acids, mainly hexadecanoic acid. HDHE at a cytotoxic concentration induced apoptotic death of MDA-MB-231 cells through mitochondrial membrane dysfunction, and induction of apoptosis markers, and increased the expression of proteins related to DNA damage response. HDHE also induced the expression of LC-3, a marker of autophagic cell death at a cytotoxic concentration. Moreover, HDHE modulated the expression of ER stress genes. Conclusions: The hexadecanoic acid-enriched extract of Halymenia durvillei promotes apoptosis and autophagy of human triple-negative breast cancer cells. This extract may be further explored as an anticancer agent for triple-negative breast cancer.

16.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 133-139, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940877

ABSTRACT

@#Objective To investigate the effect of acute exposure to cadmium combined with bacitracin on the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in testes and ovaries of rats and its regulation by nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Methods According to the 4×2 factorial design model, 48 specific pathogen free adult SD rats were divided into four groups: the control group and the low-, medium- and high- dose cadmium chloride exposure groups. Each group was further divided into with- or without bacitracin combined subgroup. There were six rats in each subgroup with 3 males and 3 females. The low-, medium- and high- dose groups were intraperitoneally injected with 5, 10, 20 mg/kg body weight of cadmium chloride solution, respectively. The control group was intraperitoneally injected with the same amount of 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Among them, rats in the bacitracin combined subgroup were given a one-time intraperitoneal injection of bacitracin at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight two hours before cadmium chloride exposure. After 48 hours, the rats were sacrificed. The mRNA expression of glucose regulated protein78 kD (Grp78), protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (Perk), Nrf2 in testes and ovaries of rats was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression of GRP78, PERK, NRF2 was determined using Western blotting. Results The mRNA expression of Grp78, Perk, Nrf2 and the protein expression of GRP78, PERK, NRF2 in testes and ovaries of rats in the no bacitracin combined subgroups of the three dose groups showed different degrees of up-regulated changes compared with the no bacitracin combined subgroup of the control group (all P<0.05). Among them, the expression of the three kinds of mRNAs and proteins in the testes and ovaries of rats in the no bacitracin combined subgroups of the high-dose group was up-regulated (all P<0.05), and most of them were higher than those in the no bacitracin combined subgroups of the low- and medium-dose groups (all P<0.05). The expression of most of the three kinds of mRNAs and proteins in testes of rats showed different degrees of down-regulated changes (all P<0.05), but the expression of the three kinds of mRNAs and proteins showed different degrees of up-regulated changes in ovaries (all P<0.05) in the bacitracin combined subgroups of the three doses groups than that in the bacitracin combined subgroups of the control group, and especially in the bacitracin combined subgroups of the high-dose subgroup. The expression of the three kinds of mRNAs and proteins in testes and ovaries of rats in the bacitracin combined subgroups of the three doses groups showed different degrees of changes (all P<0.05) compared with the no bacitracin combined subgroup in the same group, and the expression in the bacitracin combined subgroups of the medium- and high-dose groups showed mainly down-regulated changes (all P<0.05). Conclusion Acute exposure to cadmium can induce different degrees of ERS, activate PERK/NRF2 signaling pathway, and improve the toxicity to testis and ovary. Bacitracin can inhibit cadmium-induced ERS, thereby inhibiting the activation of PERK/NRF2 signaling pathway, and enhancing the synergistic effect of cadmium on testis and ovary toxicity. The higher the exposure dose of cadmium, the more obvious the inhibitory effect.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940762

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the mechanism of Broussonetiae Fructus (BF) in preventing and treating drug-induced liver injury (DILI) induced by acetaminophen (APAP) through the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. MethodSixty C57BL/6N mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group, silybin group (3.4 g·kg-1), and high-, medium- and low-dose BF groups (3.0, 1.5, 0.75 g·kg-1), with 10 mice in each group. The DILI model was induced by intragastric administration of APAP at 800 mg·kg-1, and drugs were administered simultaneously for 10 consecutive days. The serum contents or activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), and direct bilirubin (DBIL) were measured. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was performed to observe the pathological changes in liver tissues. The morphological changes in liver mitochondria were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The activities or content of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the serum and liver tissues were detected by the colorimetric method. The expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in liver tissues was detected by immunofluorescence. The gene expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in liver tissues was detected by Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). ResultCompared with the normal group, the model group showed increased serum activities or content of ALT, AST, TBIL, and DBIL (P<0.01), increased MDA and GSSG contents (P<0.01), decreased contents or activities of SOD, T-AOC, GSH, GSH-Px, and ATP (P<0.01), swollen hepatocytes with inflammatory infiltration and lamellar necrosis, swollen and broken mitochondria of hepatocytes, and increased mRNA expression of GRP78, CHOP, and JNK (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the groups with drug intervention showed decreased serum content or activities of ALT, AST, TBIL, and DBIL (P<0.05, P<0.01), reduced MDA and GSSG contents(P<0.05, P<0.01), and increased contents or activities of SOD, T-AOC, GSH, GSH-Px, and ATP (P<0.05, P<0.01), improved swollen hepatocytes, inflammatory infiltration, and lamellar necrosis, recovered bilayer membrane structure in mitochondria of hepatocytes, and decreased mRNA expression of GRP78, CHOP, and JNK (P<0.05, P<0.01). ConclusionBF has preventive and therapeutic effects on APAP-induced DILI mice, and the mechanism may be related to the reduction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress level in vivo.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933396

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate effect and underlying lipid-lowering mechanisms of catalpol in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD).Methods:In vivo model of NAFLD was established with high-fat diet-fed ICR mice for 8 weeks. Low(50 mg/kg), medium(150 mg/kg), and high(300 mg/kg) doses of catalpol were administered, and the body weight, liver weight, hepatic index, and biochemical parameters of the mice were analyzed. Free fatty acid-induced LO2 in human hepatocytes to establish NAFLD cell model. Quantitative realtime PCR reaction to detect fatty acid synthesis-related gene levels. Western blotting assay was adopted to analyze proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum stress(ERS)-mediated protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase(PERK)-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α(eIF2α) signaling pathway. Results:Compared with model mice, body weight [(39.43±1.84)g, (34.01±1.83)g, (32.28±1.11)g vs(42.17±1.37)g, all P<0.001], liver weight [(1.03±0.06)g, (0.79±0.05)g, (0.64±0.04)g vs(1.30±0.13)g, P<0.01 or P<0.001], and liver index [(2.60±0.09)%, (2.32±0.09)%, (1.99±0.11)% vs(3.07±0.30)%, P<0.05 or P<0.001] were reduced in low, medium, and high doses of catapol model. Medium and high doses of catalpol diminished total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase( P<0.01 or P<0.001), increased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol( P<0.01 or P<0.001). In the cell model, elevated levels of both fatty acid synthesis genes and PERK-eIF2α pathway proteins were attenuated by catalase, and this attenuation was reversed by signaling pathway agonists. Conclusion:The Chinese herb catalpol may play a role in improving NALFD by regulating the ERS-mediated PERK-eIF2α signaling pathway.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931910

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and oxidative stress(OS) induced by tunicamycin (Tm) and its mechanism.Methods:Mouse derived brain microvascular endothelial cells cultured in vitro were divided into control group (normal cell culture), TM group (cells were intervened with 5 μg/mL Tm for 24 h), NAC + TM group (cells were pretreated with 1 mmol/L NAC for 1 h, then were intervened with 5 μg/mL Tm for 24 h) and NAC group (cells were intervened with 1 mmol/L NAC for 24 h) according to different intervention methods.CCK-8 and FITC-Annexin V/PI were used to detect the survival rate and apoptosis rate of cells.Western blot was used to detect the expression of GRP78、CHOP、p-eNOS and caspase-12 protein. Laser confocal microcopy was used to detect the expression of ROS, and colorimetry was used to detect the activity of MDA and SOD.Results:There were significant differences in apoptosis rate and survival rate among the four groups ( F=62.57, 35.00, both P<0.05). The apoptosis rate of TM group ((25.49±1.55)%) was higher than that of Control group ((13.76±1.48)%)( P<0.01), while the apoptosis rate of NAC+ TM group ((17.65±1.00)%) was lower than that of TM group ( P<0.01). The survival rate of TM group ((66.33±5.69)%) was lower than that of Control group ((100.00±2.12)%)( P<0.01), while the survival rate of NAC+ TM group ((85.67±4.04)%) was higher than that of TM group ( P<0.01). Western blot showed that there were significant differences in the expression levels of GRP78、CHOP and p-eNOS among the four groups ( F=32.39, 68.66, 13.12, all P<0.01). The expression levels of GRP78 and CHOP protein in TM group were higher than those of Control group (both P<0.05), while the expression level of p-eNOS was lower than that of Control group ( P<0.01). The expression levels of GRP78 and CHOP protein in NAC+ TM group were lower than those of TM group (both P<0.05), while the expression level of p-eNOS was higher than that of TM group ( P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the expression level of caspase-12 protein among the four groups ( F=0.33, P>0.05). Laser confocal showed that there was significant difference in the average fluorescence intensity of ROS among the four groups ( F=77.66, P<0.01). The average fluorescence intensity of ROS in TM group (32.67±1.53) was higher than that in Control group (12.67±2.08) and NAC+ TM group (18.33±1.53) (both P<0.01). Colorimetry showed that there were significant differences in the activity of SOD and the concentration of MDA among the four groups ( F=40.53, 34.99, both P<0.01). The results of colorimetry showed that the activity of SOD in TM group((41.60±1.53)U/mg) was lower than that in Control group((65.39±4.60)U/mg) and NAC+ TM group((58.72±1.64)U/mg)(both P<0.01). The concentration of MDA in TM((2.27±0.11)μmol/mg) group was higher than that in Control group((1.39±0.13)μmol/mg) and NAC+ TM group((1.44±0.11)μmol/mg) (both P<0.01). Conclusion:NAC can reduce Tm-induced apoptosis of cerebral micro-vascular endothelial cells, which may be related to its inhibition of ERS/ OS-related pathways.

20.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 221-224, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931855

ABSTRACT

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is one of the serious complications of diabetes mellitus, and it has become the leading cause of chronic renal failure in China. Podocytes are highly differentiated epithelial cells and are the important part of the glomerular filtration barrier. Apoptosis and shedding of podocytes, foot process fusion and decreased expression of slit membrane proteins can lead to proteinuria, which in turn affects the progression of DKD. Autophagy is an important process for eukaryotic cells to degrade cytoplasmic proteins and organelles,the increase of autophagy level helps to reduce podocytes damage. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is the accumulation of misfolded proteins in cells. It allows the cells into stress state, and may be able to regulate cell damage in both directions. Autophagy and ERS are regulated by multiple signaling pathways and are considered to be closely related to the occurrence and development of DKD. This article explained some pathways and the role of podocyte autophagy and ERS in DKD, and the interaction between podocyte autophagy and ERS, which providing some potential targets for the treatment of DKD by interfering with podocyte autophagy and ERS.

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