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1.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288034

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Tracheoinnominate fistula (TIF) is a rare and frequently lethal complication of tracheostomies. Immediate bleeding control and surgical treatment are essential to avoid death. This report describes the successful endovascular treatment of TIF in a preschooler and reviews the literature concerning epidemiology, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment of TIF in pediatric patients. Case description: A tracheostomized neurologically impaired bed-ridden three-year-old girl was admitted to treat an episode of tracheitis. Tracheostomy had been performed two years before. The child used a plastic cuffed tube continually inflated at low pressure. The patient presented two self-limited bleeding episodes through the tracheostomy in a 48h interval. A new episode was suggestive of arterial bleeding, immediately leading to a provisional diagnosis of TIF, which was confirmed by angiotomography, affecting the bifurcation of the innominate artery and the right tracheal wall. The patient was immediately treated by the endovascular placement of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)/nitinol stents in Y configuration. No recurrent TIF, neurological problems, or right arm ischemia have been detected in the follow-up. Comments: TIF must be suspected after any significant bleeding from the tracheostoma. Endovascular techniques may provide rapid bleeding control with low morbidity, but they are limited to a few case reports in pediatric patients, all of them addressing adolescents. Long-term follow-up is needed to detect whether stent-related vascular complications will occur with growth.


RESUMO Objetivo: As fístulas traqueoinominadas (TIF) são complicações raras e frequentemente letais das traqueostomias (TQT). Controle imediato do sangramento e tratamento cirúrgico são essenciais para evitar a morte. Este trabalho relata o tratamento endovascular bem-sucedido de uma TIF em um pré-escolar e revisa a literatura a respeito da epidemiologia, profilaxia, diagnóstico e tratamento de TIF em pacientes pediátricos. Descrição do caso: Uma criança de 3 anos de idade, com encefalopatia, restrita ao leito e traqueostomizada havia dois anos foi internada para tratar um episódio de traqueíte. A criança usava uma cânula plástica balonada continuamente inflada com baixa pressão. A paciente apresentou dois episódios autolimitados de sangramento pela traqueostomia em um intervalo de 48 horas. Um novo episódio foi sugestivo de sangramento arterial e assumiu-se o diagnóstico provisório de TIF, confirmado através de angiotomografia, atingindo a bifurcação da artéria inominada e a parede direita da traqueia. A paciente foi imediatamente tratada pela inserção endovascular de um enxerto de politetrafluoroetileno (PTFE)/nitinol em "Y". No seguimento, não foram encontradas recorrência de TIF, sequelas neurológicas ou isquemia do braço direito. Comentários: Deve-se suspeitar de TIF sempre que houver um sangramento significativo pelo traqueoestoma. Técnicas endovasculares possibilitam o rápido controle do sangramento com baixa morbidade, mas estão limitadas a poucos relatos de caso e pacientes pediátricos, sendo todos em adolescentes. O seguimento a longo prazo é necessário para avaliar se ocorrem complicações vasculares dos stents com o crescimento.

2.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(4): 374-379, 26/11/2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362107

ABSTRACT

Objective To report three cases of vein of Galen aneurysmalmalformation (VGAM) in pediatric patients treated at the hemodynamics lab of Hospital Santa Isabel (HSI) in Blumenau, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, from 2006 to 2020. Clinical presentation, endovascular treatment, and postprocedure evolution to date are included. Case description Three children aged 5 to 12 months with cardiac, respiratory, or neurological damage in the neonatal stage, were referred to the neurosurgery service and diagnosed with VGAM. The three patients underwent endovascular embolization of themalformation, with different clinical evolution throughout outpatient follow-up. Conclusion Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations are uncommon vascular abnormalities that, until the advent of endovascular embolization, were associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Its prognosis is linked with initial clinic, early diagnosis, and timely surgical correction.

3.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(3): 301-307, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288232

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The treatment of infrarenal aortic aneurysms has changed in the last three decades. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has become the primary treatment option in anatomically suitable patients with infrarenal aortic aneurysms. However, there is no serum biomarker to be used in EVAR follow-up. Methods: This is a prospective single-centre study of 30 consecutive patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) who underwent EVAR. Serum dosages of micro ribonucleic acid 1281 (miRNA-1281), creatinine, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were evaluated and angiotomographic evaluations were performed preoperatively and six months after the intervention. Results: There was a hyperexpression of miRNA-1281 in patients with AAA and a significant reduction of it after EVAR, from 1.66-fold before EVAR to 0.27 after the procedure (P<0.0001). MiRNA-1281 expression was not influenced by renal function (creatinine: 1.14±0.29, P=0.68), total cholesterol (179.9±59.9, P=0.22), or CRP (1.17±3.5; P=0.48). There is correlation between AAA size and CRP serum levels, however there was no statically significant reduction of CRP after EVAR. Discussion: MiRNA-1281 expression may be influenced by cholesterol, triglycerides levels, and renal function. We found no difference in these markers before and six months after EVAR. However, miRNA-1281 presents a significant reduction in patients with no follow-up complications. We hypothesize that miRNA-1281 expression may be related to aortic wall stress or flow changes. Conclusion: MiRNA-1281 may contribute as a possible marker of EVAR follow-up.

4.
Colomb. med ; 52(2): e4074735, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249646

ABSTRACT

Abstract Peripheral vascular injuries are uncommon in civilian trauma but can threaten the patient's life or the viability of the limb. The definitive control of the vascular injury represents a surgical challenge, especially if the patient is hemodynamically unstable. This article proposes the management of peripheral vascular trauma following damage control surgery principles. It is essential to rapidly identify vascular injury signs and perform temporary bleeding control maneuvers. The surgical approaches according to the anatomical injured region should be selected. We propose two novel approaches to access the axillary and popliteal zones. The priority should be to reestablish limb perfusion via primary repair or damage control techniques (vascular shunt or endovascular approach). Major vascular surgeries should be managed post-operatively in the intensive care unit, which will allow correction of physiological derangement and identification of those developing compartmental syndrome. All permanent or temporary vascular procedures should be followed by a definitive repair within the first 8 hours. An early diagnosis and opportune intervention are fundamental to preserve the function and perfusion of the extremity.


Resumen El trauma vascular periférico no es común en el contexto civil, pero representa una amenaza para la vida del paciente o de la extremidad. El control definitivo de la lesión vascular representa un desafío quirúrgico, especialmente en pacientes con inestabilidad hemodinámica. Este artículo describe la propuesta de manejo del trauma vascular periférico de acuerdo con los principios de la cirugía de control de daños. Se debe identificar los signos sugestivos de lesión vascular y realizar oportunamente maniobras temporales para el control del sangrado. Se debe elegir el abordaje quirúrgico dependiendo del área anatómica lesionada. Se proponen dos nuevas incisiones para acceder a la región axilar y poplítea. La prioridad es restablecer la perfusión de la extremidad mediante el reparo primario o técnicas de control de daños (shunt vascular o abordaje endovascular). Los pacientes sometidos a cirugías vasculares mayores deben ser manejados postoperatoriamente en la unidad de cuidados intensivos para corregir las alteraciones fisiológicas e identificar aquellos que desarrollen un síndrome compartimental. Todos los procedimientos vasculares permanentes o temporales deben contar con un reparo definitivo en las primeras 8 horas. El diagnóstico temprano e intervención oportuna son fundamentales para salvaguardar la perfusión y funcionalidad de la extremidad.

5.
Colomb. med ; 52(2): e4014686, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278941

ABSTRACT

Abstract Trauma damage control seeks to limit life-threatening bleeding. Sequential diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are the current standard. Hybrid Room have reduced hemostasis time by integrating different specialties and technologies. Hybrid Rooms seek to control bleeding in an operating room equipped with specialized personnel and advanced technology including angiography, tomography, eFAST, radiography, endoscopy, infusers, cell retrievers, REBOA, etc. Trauma Hybrid Service is a concept that describes a vertical work scheme that begins with the activation of Trauma Code when admitting a severely injured patient, initiating a continuous resuscitation process led by the trauma surgeon who guides transfer to imaging, angiography and surgery rooms according to the patient's condition and the need for specific interventions. Hybrid rooms integrate different diagnostic and therapeutic tools in one same room, reducing the attention time and increasing all interventions effectiveness.


Resumen El control de daños en trauma busca limitar el sangrado que amenaza la vida. El enfoque diagnóstico y terapéutico secuenciales son el estándar actual. Las salas híbridas que integran especialidades y tecnologías han reducido el tiempo de hemostasia. Las salas híbridas buscan controlar el sangrado en un quirófano equipado con personal especializado y tecnología de punta como sistemas de angiografía, tomografía, eFAST, radiografía, endoscopia, infusores, recuperadores de células, REBOA, etc. El concepto del servicio hibrido de atención de trauma integra un trabajo vertical que inicia con la activación del código de trauma al admitir un paciente traumatizado grave, iniciando los esfuerzos de reanimación dirigida por el cirujano de trauma que orienta el traslado a salas de imágenes, angiografía y cirugía según la condición del paciente y la necesidad de intervenciones específicas. Las salas hibridas le permite al cirujano de trauma tener todas estas herramientas tanto diagnosticas como terapéuticas al alcance de una sola sala, reduciendo el tiempo de atención y aumentando la efectividad de las intervenciones realizadas.

6.
Colomb. med ; 52(2): e4054807, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339730

ABSTRACT

Abstract Carotid artery trauma carries a high risk of neurological sequelae and death. Surgical management of these injuries has been controversial because it entails deciding between repair or ligation of the vessel, for which there is still no true consensus either way. This article proposes a new management strategy for carotid artery injuries based on the principles of damage control surgery which include endovascular and/or traditional open repair techniques. The decision to operate immediately or to perform further imaging studies will depend on the patient's hemodynamic status. If the patient presents with massive bleeding, an expanding neck hematoma or refractory hypovolemic shock, urgent surgical intervention is indicated. An altered mental status upon arrival is a potentially poor prognosis marker and should be taken into account in the therapeutic decision-making. We describe a step-by-step algorithmic approach to these injuries, including open and endovascular techniques. In addition, conservative non-operative management has also been included as a potentially viable strategy in selected patients, which avoids unnecessary surgery in many cases.


Resumen El trauma de la arteria carótida tiene una alta probabilidad de muerte y de secuelas neurológicas. El manejo quirúrgico es objeto de controversia porque se tiene que decidir entre reparar la arteria carótida o ligarla, para lo cual aún no existe un consenso. El objetivo de este artículo es proponer una nueva estrategia de manejo para el trauma de la arteria carótida con los principios de la cirugía de control de daños y el uso de técnicas como el reparo endovascular o el manejo conservador. La decisión de operar el paciente inmediatamente o realizar estudios imagenológicos dependerá del estado hemodinámico del paciente. Si el paciente presenta sangrado masivo, hematoma expansivo o choque hipovolémico refractario, una intervención quirúrgica urgente esta indicada. Un déficit del estado neurológico al ingreso es un marcador de mal pronóstico en estos casos e influye en la toma de decisiones. Se describe el paso a paso del reparo vascular abierto y se incluye las estrategias de manejo tanto endovasculares como abiertas. Adicionalmente, el manejo conservador también ha sido incluido como una estrategia viable en pacientes seleccionados, evitando cirugías innecesarias.

7.
Colomb. med ; 52(2): e4074735, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339731

ABSTRACT

Abstract Peripheral vascular injuries are uncommon in civilian trauma but can threaten the patient's life or the viability of the limb. The definitive control of the vascular injury represents a surgical challenge, especially if the patient is hemodynamically unstable. This article proposes the management of peripheral vascular trauma following damage control surgery principles. It is essential to rapidly identify vascular injury signs and perform temporary bleeding control maneuvers. The surgical approaches according to the anatomical injured region should be selected. We propose two novel approaches to access the axillary and popliteal zones. The priority should be to reestablish limb perfusion via primary repair or damage control techniques (vascular shunt or endovascular approach). Major vascular surgeries should be managed post-operatively in the intensive care unit, which will allow correction of physiological derangement and identification of those developing compartmental syndrome. All permanent or temporary vascular procedures should be followed by a definitive repair within the first 8 hours. An early diagnosis and opportune intervention are fundamental to preserve the function and perfusion of the extremity.


Resumen El trauma vascular periférico no es común en el contexto civil, pero representa una amenaza para la vida del paciente o de la extremidad. El control definitivo de la lesión vascular representa un desafío quirúrgico, especialmente en pacientes con inestabilidad hemodinámica. Este artículo describe la propuesta de manejo del trauma vascular periférico de acuerdo con los principios de la cirugía de control de daños. Se debe identificar los signos sugestivos de lesión vascular y realizar oportunamente maniobras temporales para el control del sangrado. Se debe elegir el abordaje quirúrgico dependiendo del área anatómica lesionada. Se proponen dos nuevas incisiones para acceder a la región axilar y poplítea. La prioridad es restablecer la perfusión de la extremidad mediante el reparo primario o técnicas de control de daños (shunt vascular o abordaje endovascular). Los pacientes sometidos a cirugías vasculares mayores deben ser manejados postoperatoriamente en la unidad de cuidados intensivos para corregir las alteraciones fisiológicas e identificar aquellos que desarrollen un síndrome compartimental. Todos los procedimientos vasculares permanentes o temporales deben contar con un reparo definitivo en las primeras 8 horas. El diagnóstico temprano e intervención oportuna son fundamentales para salvaguardar la perfusión y funcionalidad de la extremidad.

8.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 13(1): 88-98, Junio 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247529

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La dilación aneurismática de la aorta es una patología con una prevalencia importante entre las afecciones que aquejan a la misma (dependiendo de la zona que compromete) sea aorta torácica o abdominal presenta una mortalidad variable que exige distintas y específicas formas de reparación acorde a la factibilidad técnica y la fragilidad del paciente. La angiografía por tomografía computada o por resonancia magnética son los exámenes de elección para el diagnóstico diferencial de las distintas patologías de la aorta, aportando detalles estructurales para trazar estrategias en relación a técnicas a emplear para su abordaje o reparación. Entre las múltiples opciones terapéuticas para las dilataciones aneurismáticas que comprometen a la aorta torácica, la reparación endovascular de los aneurismas se han convertido en una opción terapéutica muy viable para proporcionar una menor comorbilidad frente a la reparación quirúrgica a cielo abierto, aun en situaciones muy complejas en donde pudieran coexistir un compromiso de ramas aórticas importantes, en estos casos la reparación endovascular de los aneurismas continua siendo de elección al poder ser complementada con una revascularización quirúrgica mínima en forma previa o concomitante, constituyéndose así en una técnica híbrida eficaz y eficiente. El actual trabajo presenta a un paciente con el diagnóstico de sífilis terciaria en quien se evidencia un compromiso importante de la aorta torácica, consistente en una dilatación aneurismática en su porción descendente que comprime extrínsecamente el nacimiento de las arterias: carótida primitiva y subclavia izquierda. Se realizó en un primer tiempo un puente carótido-carotídeo y en un segundo tiempo el tratamiento endovascular consistente en el implante de una endoprótesis por vía femoral hasta la lesión en la aorta torácica, los mismos sin compromiso de la circulación de los vasos del cuello preservando la indemnidad de la circulación cerebral y lográndose una exclusión exitosa del aneurisma torácico con la endoprótesis.


ABSTRACT The aneurysmal dilation of the aorta is a pathology with a significant prevalence among the conditions that afflict it, depending on the area involved, whether thoracic or abdominal aorta has a variable mortality that requires different and specific forms of repair according to the technical feasibility and fragility of the patient. Computed tomography angiography or magnetic resonance angiography are the tests of choice for the differential diagnosis of the different pathologies of the aorta, providing structural details to design strategies in relation to techniques to be used for its approach or repair. Among the multiple therapeutic options for aneurysmal dilatations involving the thoracic aorta, endovascular repair of aneurysms have become a very viable therapeutic option by providing less comorbidity compared to open surgical repair, even in very complex situations where important aortic branches may coexist, in these cases endovascular repair of aneurysms continues to be of choice as it can be complemented with minimal surgical revascularization either previously or concomitantly, thus constituting an effective and efficient hybrid technique. This work presents a patient with the diagnosis of tertiary syphilis in whom a significant compromise of the thoracic aorta is evidenced, consisting of an aneurysmal dilatation in its descending portion that extrinsically compresses the origin of the arteries: primitive carotid and left subclavian. A carotid:carotid bridge was performed firstly and in the femoral route until the lesion in the thoracic aorta, the same without compromising the circulation of the vessels of the neck preserving the indemnity of the cerebral circulation and achieving a successful exclusion of the thoracic aneurysm with the endoprosthesis.

9.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(3): 421-426, 20210000. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253955

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La mayoría de las lesiones de carótida cervical en nuestra institución se manejan por vía endovascular. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir los desenlaces del manejo de las lesiones de carótida cervical en un hospital de cuarto nivel en la ciudad de Cali, Colombia. Métodos. Estudio de series de casos, retrospectivo, descriptivo, en pacientes con trauma de carótida (penetrante y cerrado), admitidos en un centro de alta complejidad de la ciudad de Cali, en el periodo comprendido desde enero de 2018 hasta enero de 2020. Resultados. Se evaluaron 20 pacientes con lesión de carótida, de los cuales 90 % tenía trauma penetrante, en su mayoría por proyectil de arma de fuego. La zona más frecuentemente afectada fue la carótida interna (65 %) y el 40 % de los pacientes presentaban síntomas neurológicos al ingreso. Se realizó manejo endovascular en 13 pacientes, con un 75 % de éxito en el manejo endovascular al ingreso. La mortalidad general fue del 20 %, que en su mayoría estuvo relacionada con traumatismo en otros órganos. El 69 % de los pacientes quedaron sin secuelas neurológicas al alta y el 25 % con secuelas mínimas. Discusión. Se muestra una serie de casos con lesión de carótida donde, teniendo en cuenta las variables de mal pronóstico para hacer una selección adecuada de los pacientes candidatos a este tipo de terapia, el resultado del manejo endovascular fue exitoso


Introduction. Most cervical carotid injuries in our institution are managed by endovascular approach. The objective of this study was to describe the outcomes of the endovascular management of cervical carotid lesions in at a I Level Trauma Center in Cali, Colombia. Methods. Retrospective, descriptive case series study in patients with both penetrating and blunt carotid trauma who were admitted to a I Level Trauma Center between January 2018 and January 2020. Results. Twenty patients with carotid injury were evaluated, of which 90% had penetrating trauma, mostly from a firearm projectile. The most frequently affected area was the internal carotid (65%) and 40% of the patients had neurological symptoms on admission. Endovascular management was performed in 13 patients, with a 75% success rate in endovascular management on admission. Overall mortality was 20%, most of which was related to trauma to other organs; 69% of the patients were left without neurological sequelae at discharge and 25% with minimal sequelae.Discussion. We describe a case series of patients with cervical carotid injury, taking into account the variables of poor prognosis to make an adequate selection of patients for endovascular management, the result of endovascular management was successful


Subject(s)
Humans , Carotid Artery Injuries , Endovascular Procedures , Wounds and Injuries , Multiple Trauma , Angiography , Embolization, Therapeutic
10.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(2): 237-247, 20210000. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223829

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La presión arterial sistólica puede ser un factor determinante para la toma de decisiones en el manejo de pacientes con trauma severo y hemorragia no compresible del torso. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el punto óptimo de presión arterial sistólica previo a la oclusión endovascular de aorta asociado con la mortalidad a las 24 horas. Métodos. Se realizó un análisis combinado de dos bases de datos de registro de REBOA, ABO-Trauma Registry y AAST-AORTA, que incluye pacientes de Norte América, Suramérica, Europa, Asia y África. Pacientes sin efecto hemodinámico con el uso del REBOA fueron excluidos. Se describieron las características demográficas, clínicas y de la colocación del REBOA en los pacientes que fallecieron en las primeras 24 horas. Se analizó la asociación entre la presión arterial sistólica previa a la oclusión aortica y la mortalidad a través de modelos de regresión logística y se evaluó el poder predictivo de la presión arterial sistólica en un intervalo entre 60 y 90 mmHg. Resultados. Fueron identificados 871 registros, pero solo 693 pacientes cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. El trauma cerrado se presentó en el 67,2 % de los pacientes y la severidad del trauma tuvo una mediana de ISS de 34 (RIQ: 25-45). La mediana de la presión arterial sistólica previa al REBOA fue de 61 mmHg (RIQ: 46-80). La mortalidad a las 24 horas fue del 34,6 %. La asociación entre la presión arterial sistólica pre-oclusión de la aorta y la mortalidad a las 24 horas tiene una capacidad predictiva de acuerdo con el área bajo la curva ROC para trauma cerrado de 0,64 (IC95% 0,59-0,70) y para trauma penetrante de 0,61 (IC95% 0,53-0,69). Se identificó que la presión arterial sistólica de 70 mmHg se asocia con un aumento por encima del 25 % de la mortalidad a las 24 horas. Discusión. La presión arterial sistólica de 70 mmHg en pacientes con trauma severo y hemorragia no compresible puede ser el punto crítico para la oclusión endovascular de aorta para mejorar la supervivencia de los pacientes, sin importar el mecanismo de trauma. Sin embargo, la presión arterial sistólica debe complementarse con otros factores clínicos para tomar la decisión oportuna


Introduction. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) can be a determining factor for decision-making in the management of patients with severe trauma and non-compressible torso bleeding (NTCH). The objective of this study was to determine the optimal SBP threshold value prior to endovascular occlusion of the aorta associated with 24-hour mortality.Methods. A combined analysis of two REBOA registry databases, ABO-Trauma Registry and AAST-AORTA, was performed, which includes patients from North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. Patients without hemodynamic effect with the use of REBOA were excluded. Demographic, clinical, and REBOA placement characteristics were described in patients who died in the first 24 hours. The association between SBP prior to aortic occlusion and mortality was analyzed using logistic regression models and the predictive power of SBP was evaluated in an interval between 60 and 90 mmHg.Results. 871 records were identified, but only 693 patients met the inclusion criteria. Blunt trauma occurred in 67.2% of the patients and the severity of the trauma had a median ISS of 34 (IQR: 25-45). The median systolic blood pressure prior to REBOA was 61 mmHg (IQR: 46-80). The 24-hour mortality was 34.6%. The association between systolic blood pressure pre-occlusion of the aorta and mortality at 24 hours has a predictive capacity according to the area under the ROC curve for blunt trauma of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.59-0.70) and for penetrating trauma of 0.61 (95% CI: 0.53-0.69). A systolic blood pressure of 70 mmHg was found to be associated with an increase of over 25% in mortality at 24 hours. Discussion. SBP of 70 mmHg in patients with severe trauma and non-compressible hemorrhage may be the critical point for endovascular aortic occlusion to improve patient survival, regardless of the mechanism of trauma. However, systolic blood pressure must be supplemented with other clinical factors to make the timely decision


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Pressure , Endovascular Procedures , Aorta , Wounds and Injuries , Mortality , Balloon Occlusion , Hemorrhage
11.
Radiol. bras ; 54(1): 21-26, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155228

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To validate the use of a three-dimensional printing system for metric and volumetric analysis of the segments of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Materials and Methods: In patients scheduled to undergo endovascular AAA repair, the computed tomography angiography (CTA) measurements obtained during the preoperative assessment of the patients were compared with those obtained by computed tomography of individualized three-dimensional biomodels. Results: The volumetric assessment showed a discrepancy of 3-12%, and the difference between the areas was 10-16%. Conclusion: Computed tomography measurements of 3D-printed biomodels of AAAs appear to be comparable to those of threedimensional CTA measurements of the same AAAs, in terms of the metric and volumetric dimensions.


Resumo Objetivo: Validar a aplicação do método de impressão tridimensional de biomodelos para aferição métrica e volumétrica de segmentos de aneurisma de aorta abdominal. Materiais e Métodos: Compararam-se as medidas obtidas por tomografia computadorizada dos biomodelos tridimensionais com as realizadas no planejamento pré-operatório de pacientes submetidos a correção endovascular de aneurisma de aorta abdominal. Resultados: A avaliação da volumetria demonstrou discrepância de 3% a 12% e a diferença entre as áreas foi de 10% a 16%. Conclusão: A tomografia computadorizada dos biomodelos impressos é compatível nas aferições métricas e volumétricas com as imagens tridimensionais da angiotomografia do paciente.

12.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200133, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287075

ABSTRACT

Resumo A síndrome de Budd-Chiari é uma doença venosa hepática rara, mais incidente em adultos jovens, podendo se apresentar na forma aguda, subaguda ou crônica, o que resulta em hipertensão portal. O tratamento tradicional consiste em técnicas de trombólise e de shunts portossistêmicos intra-hepáticos, como pontes para o transplante hepático. Recentemente, técnicas de angioplastia com balão ou stents têm sido relatadas para o tratamento dessa afecção. Neste artigo, é relatado e discutido um caso de síndrome de Budd-Chiari por obstrução membranosa da via de saída da veia supra-hepática com trombose da veia hepática média em uma paciente de 24 anos. O tratamento estabelecido foi a angioplastia transjugular com balão, que obteve resultados satisfatórios e boa evolução clínica.


Abstract The Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare hepatic venous disease. It is more prevalent in young adults and may present in acute, subacute, or chronic forms, causing portal hypertension. Traditional treatment consists of thrombolysis techniques and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, as a bridge to liver transplantation. Recently, use of balloon or stent angioplasty techniques has been reported for treatment of this condition. In this article, we report and discuss a case of BCS by membranous obstruction in the hepatic vein outflow tract, with middle hepatic vein thrombosis, in a 24-year-old patient. The treatment chosen and employed was transjugular balloon angioplasty, which achieved satisfactory results and good clinical evolution.

13.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200179, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287081

ABSTRACT

Resumo A fístula aortoentérica é uma grave condição clínica, e seu manejo permanece sendo um grande desafio técnico aos cirurgiões. A abordagem por cirurgia convencional nesses casos está relacionada a altos índices de morbimortalidade. A cirurgia endovascular apresenta-se como uma ótima alternativa nesses casos; contudo, por não se tratar de aorta nativa, a anatomia pode não ser compatível com os dispositivos endovasculares comercialmente disponíveis, fazendo-se necessário, em casos de urgência, a utilização de dispositivos modificados pelo cirurgião. O caso relatado reporta uma fístula aortoentérica secundária, tratada em situação de urgência por técnica endovascular com dispositivo modificado.


Abstract Aortoenteric fistula is a severe clinical condition and its management remains a major technical challenge for surgeons. In these cases, the conventional surgical approach is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Endovascular surgery is an excellent option in these cases, but considering that the aorta has been treated previously, anatomy may not be compatible with commercially available endovascular devices and so physician-modified endografts may be needed in urgent cases. The case reported involves a secondary aortoenteric fistula, treated on an emergency basis with endovascular techniques, using a physician-modified endograft.

14.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200120, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154759

ABSTRACT

Resumo A ruptura do aneurisma de aorta abdominal é um evento com alta mortalidade, e o seu tratamento nesses casos é uma emergência médica. O tratamento endovascular desses aneurismas tem se estabelecido como uma alternativa minimamente invasiva à cirurgia aberta clássica, tornando-se a opção de primeira escolha. Contudo, 20 a 50% dos pacientes portadores de aneurisma de aorta abdominal não apresentam anatomia favorável para o tratamento endovascular devido à presença de colo curto ou pelo acometimento de ramos viscerais pelo aneurisma. Relatamos um caso de uma paciente de 70 anos submetida à correção endovascular de aneurisma roto justarrenal com implante de stents paralelos para as renais (técnica de chaminé). São apresentados dados clínicos e detalhes do procedimento. O sucesso técnico foi obtido e não houve relato de complicações pós-operatórias.


Abstract Rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is an event with a high mortality rate and treatment is a medical emergency. Endovascular treatment of these aneurysms has become established as a minimally invasive alternative to classical open surgery and is now the first-choice option. However, 20 to 50% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms do not have anatomy favorable for endovascular treatment because of a short aneurysm neck or because visceral branches are involved by the aneurysm. We report the case of a 70-year-old patient who underwent endovascular repair of a ruptured juxtarenal aneurysm with deployment of parallel stents in the renal arteries (in a chimney technique). Clinical data and details of the procedure are reported. Technical success was achieved and there were no postoperative complications.

15.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200086, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250236

ABSTRACT

Resumo Contexto Modelos com animais de médio e grande porte permitem que pesquisadores avaliem a eficácia e a segurança de procedimentos cardiovasculares em sistemas que se assemelham à anatomia humana e podem ser usados para simular cenários para fins de treinamento. Embora modelos suínos tenham sido extensivamente utilizados, muitos fatores fisiológicos e anatômicos permanecem desconhecidos ou apenas superficialmente descritos. Objetivos Descrever a anatomia vascular do suíno por tomografia computadorizada, compará-la à anatomia humana e discutir a aplicação dos modelos porcinos em procedimentos abertos e endovasculares. Métodos Três porcos machos da raça Landrace foram submetidos a tomografia computadorizada. A anatomia vascular de pescoço, tórax, abdome e membros foi analisada e descrita; foram destacadas similaridades e divergências relevantes entre a anatomia vascular de suínos e de humanos e as implicações em procedimentos vasculares nos suínos. Resultados O território carotídeo, o arco aórtico e os ramos terminais da aorta em suínos apresentaram diferenças marcantes quando comparados aos de humanos. Foram detectadas compressões de veias renal e ilíaca comum, ambas à esquerda, semelhantes às encontradas nas síndromes humanas de Nutcracker e May-Thurner. Medidas vasculares (diâmetro, comprimento e ângulos) de diferentes topografias de suínos foram fornecidas. Conclusões Os dados fornecidos podem ser úteis para o planejamento de ensaios pré-clínicos e pesquisa básica, bem como para o refinamento do treinamento cirúrgico usando modelos suínos no campo da cirurgia vascular.


Abstract Background Medium and large animal models allow researchers to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cardiovascular procedures in systems that resemble human anatomy and can be used to simulate scenarios for training purposes. Although porcine models have been used extensively, many physiological and anatomical features remain unknown or only superficially described. Objectives To describe the normal porcine vascular anatomy on computed tomography scans, compare it to human vascular anatomy, and discuss the application of porcine models for open and endovascular procedures. Methods Three male Landrace pigs underwent computed tomography. The vascular anatomy of the neck, thorax, abdomen, and limbs was analyzed and described; relevant similarities and differences between porcine and human vascular anatomies and the implications for vascular procedures in pigs are highlighted. Results The carotid territory, aortic arch, and terminal aorta branches all show marked differences in pigs compared to their human counterparts. Compressions of both left renal and common iliac veins were detected, analogous to those seen in human Nutcracker and May-Thurner syndromes. Vascular measurements (diameters, lengths, and angles) of several different porcine territories are presented. Conclusions The data presented should be useful for planning preclinical trials and basic research and for refining surgical training using porcine models in vascular fields.

16.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200101, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250248

ABSTRACT

Resumo Os aneurismas das artérias pancreatoduodenais constituem uma afecção rara. Seu diagnóstico é realizado, na maioria das vezes, em situações de emergência por complicações como a rotura, a qual está associada a altas taxas de mortalidade (21-26%). A embolização do saco aneurismático é o tratamento de escolha, devido à sua alta efetividade e menor mortalidade. Neste artigo, é apresentado e discutido um caso de aneurisma de artéria pancreatoduodenal inferior com diagnóstico obtido durante investigação de sintomas gastrointestinais. O tratamento instituído foi a embolização com micromolas, com completa exclusão do aneurisma e boa evolução clínica.


Abstract Aneurysms of the pancreaticoduodenal arteries are a rare condition. In the majority of cases, diagnosis is made in emergency situations due to complications such as rupture, which is associated with high mortality rates (21-26%). Embolization of the aneurysm sac is the treatment of choice, because of its high efficacy and lower mortality. This article presents and discusses a case of inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm that was diagnosed during investigation of gastrointestinal symptoms. The treatment provided was microcoil embolization, with complete exclusion of the aneurysm and a good clinical course.

17.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200201, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279369

ABSTRACT

Resumo A doença de Adamantiades-Behçet é uma desordem multissistêmica que se apresenta classicamente com úlceras orais e genitais e envolvimento ocular, podendo o acometimento vascular ocorrer em até 38% dos casos. O envolvimento aórtico é uma das manifestações mais severas e está associado a altas taxas de mortalidade, ocorrendo em 1,5 a 2,7% dos casos. Relatamos um caso de aneurisma sacular de aorta abdominal em um paciente de 49 anos com doença de Adamantiades-Behçet complicada, tratada por correção endovascular.


Abstract Adamantiades-Behçet disease is a multisystemic disorder that classically presents with oral and genital ulcers and ocular involvement, with vascular involvement in up to 38% of cases. Aortic involvement is one of the most serious manifestations and is associated with high mortality rates, occurring in 1.5 to 2.7% of cases. We report a case of a saccular abdominal aorta aneurysm in a 49-year-old male patient with complicated Adamantiades-Behçet disease that was treated with endovascular repair.

18.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200191, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279371

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The contrast power injector (CPI) is the gold standard method for injecting contrast with the pressure and flow needed to generate a satisfactory images during endovascular procedures, but it is an expensive tool, narrowing its wide-scale applications. One alternative is the manual injection (MI) method, but this does not generate the pressure required for adequate visualization of anatomy. It is therefore imperative to create an alternative low-cost method that is capable of producing high quality images. Objectives To compare the injection parameters of a new mechanical device (Hand-Crank) created in a university hospital with the MI method and with the contrast power injector's ideal values. Methods A circulation phantom was constructed to simulate the pressure in the aorto-iliac territory and the injection parameters of the two methods were compared in a laboratory setting. Student's t test and the Mann-Whitney test were used for statistical analysis. Three vascular surgery residents (the authors) performed the injections (each performed 9 tests using conventional manual injection and 9 tests using the Hand-Crank, totaling 54 injections). Results There were statistical differences between the two methods (p<0.05) in total volume injected until maximum pressure was attained, pressure variation, maximum pressure, total injection time, and time to reach the maximum pressure. Conclusions The Hand-Crank can achieve higher maximum pressure, higher average flow, and lower injection time than the manual method. It is a simple, low-cost, and effective tool for enhancing injection parameters in an experimental setup. It could help to produce higher quality images in a clinical scenario.


Resumo Contexto A bomba injetora é o método padrão-ouro para a injeção de contraste em aortografias. Entretanto, é uma ferramenta de alto custo, o que limita o seu uso. A injeção manual surge como alternativa, mas a pressão gerada com esse método é baixa, e, por isso, a qualidade das imagens não é usualmente satisfatória. Assim, a criação de um método de baixo custo capaz de gerar imagens de qualidade é imperativo. Objetivos Comparar os parâmetros de injeção de um novo dispositivo mecânico (manivela articulada) criado em um hospital universitário com os parâmetros da injeção manual e com os valores ideais da bomba injetora. Métodos Um simulador do território aórtico foi construído, e parâmetros de injeção entre os diferentes métodos em um cenário laboratorial controlado foram analisados. O teste t de Student e o teste de Mann-Whitney foram usados para análise estatística. Três residentes de Cirurgia Vascular realizaram os testes (nove usando o novo dispositivo, e nove usando a injeção manual, totalizando 54 injeções). Resultados Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa (p < 0,05) entre os dois métodos, considerando os parâmetros: variação de pressão, pressão máxima, tempo de injeção, tempo até a pressão máxima e volume até a pressão máxima. Conclusões A manivela articulada atingiu níveis superiores de pressão e de velocidade de injeção, com menor tempo de injeção do que a injeção manual. É um dispositivo simples, de baixo custo e com resultados comparáveis à bomba injetora, o que sugere seu uso potencial na geração de imagens satisfatórias em aortografias.

19.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200141, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279375

ABSTRACT

Resumo O aneurisma da artéria renal é uma condição rara, que vem sendo cada vez mais diagnosticada devido ao uso mais amplo da angiotomografia. Descrevemos um caso de aneurisma da artéria renal tipo II complexo em uma paciente com hipertensão arterial sistêmica e doença renal crônica não dialítica. O tratamento estabelecido foi o reparo endovascular através da combinação da técnica de remodelamento com stents em T e molas, para a preservação dos ramos arteriais renais. Foram obtidos resultados arteriográficos satisfatórios e boa evolução clínica.


Abstract Renal artery aneurysm is a rare condition that is being diagnosed with increasing frequency because of wider use of angiotomography. We describe a case of complex type II renal artery aneurysm in a patient with systemic arterial hypertension and non-dialysis chronic kidney disease. The treatment performed was endovascular repair using the remodeling technique with T-stenting and coils to preserve the renal arterial branches, obtaining satisfactory arteriographic results and good clinical outcomes.

20.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200230, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340170

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Surgical management of patients with abdominal aortic diseases associated with distal narrowing is a challenging situation. Objectives To evaluate outcomes of unibody bifurcated endovascular stent graft repair. Methods This is a retrospective, observational, multi-institutional database study of a cohort of consecutive cases, approved by the local Ethics Committee. Records were reviewed of patients diagnosed from 2010 to 2020 with "shaggy" aorta, saccular aneurysm, penetrating aortic ulcer, and isolated aortic dissection located in the infrarenal abdominal aorta. All patients were treated with a unibody bifurcated stent graft. Main outcomes were technical success, procedure complications, long-term patency, and mortality in the follow-up period up to 5 years. Data on demographics, comorbidities, surgical management, and outcomes were analyzed. Results Twenty-three patients were treated with unibody bifurcated stent graft repair, including 7 cases of "shaggy" aorta, 3 isolated dissections of the abdominal aorta, 4 penetrating aortic ulcers, and 9 saccular aneurysms. Immediate technical success was achieved in 100% of cases. At follow-up, all stent grafts remained patent and there were no limb occlusions. The patients were symptom-free and reported no complications related to the procedure. There were 5 deaths during the follow-up period (median= 4 years), but none were related to the procedure and there were no aorta-related deaths. Conclusions The present study shows that unibody bifurcated stent grafting is safe and effective in this group of patients with narrow distal abdominal aorta and complex aortic pathology. The results were similar for both infrarenal aortic aneurysms and aorto-iliac atherosclerotic disease.


Resumo Contexto O manejo cirúrgico de pacientes com doenças da aorta abdominal associadas ao estreitamento distal é desafiador. Objetivos Avaliar os desfechos do reparo endovascular com endoprótese bifurcada do tipo monobloco. Métodos Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo, de coorte observacional, de banco de dados multi-institucional, com casos consecutivos, após aprovação pelo Comitê de Ética local. Foram analisados prontuários de pacientes com diagnóstico de shaggy aorta, aneurisma sacular, úlcera penetrante da aorta e dissecção isolada da aorta localizados na aorta abdominal infrarrenal entre 2010 e 2020; todos os pacientes foram tratados com endoprótese bifurcada do tipo monobloco. Os principais desfechos foram sucesso técnico, complicações relacionadas ao procedimento, perviedade de longo prazo e mortalidade no seguimento de até 5 anos. Foram incluídos dados demográficos, comorbidades, manejo cirúrgico e desfechos. Resultados Vinte e três pacientes foram tratados com endoprótese bifurcada do tipo monobloco, incluindo 7 casos de shaggy aorta, 3 dissecções isoladas da aorta abdominal, 4 úlceras penetrantes da aorta e 9 aneurismas saculares. Sucesso técnico imediato foi obtido em 100% dos casos. No seguimento, todas as endopróteses permaneceram pérvias e não houve oclusões de membros. Os pacientes estavam sem sintomas e não relataram complicações relacionadas ao procedimento. Ocorreram 5 óbitos durante o seguimento (mediana = 4 anos), mas nenhum relacionado ao procedimento ou à aorta. Conclusões O presente estudo mostra que a endoprótese bifurcada do tipo monobloco é segura e eficaz neste grupo de pacientes com estreitamento distal da aorta abdominal e patologia aórtica complexa. Os resultados foram semelhantes para aneurismas da aorta infrarrenal e doença aterosclerótica aortoilíaca.

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