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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(9): 561-569, Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794724

ABSTRACT

In French Guiana, malaria vector control and prevention relies on indoor residual spraying and distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets. These measures are based on solid epidemiological evidence but reveal a poor understanding of the vector. The current study investigated the behaviour of both vectors and humans in relation to the ongoing prevention strategies. In 2012 and 2013, Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled outdoors at different seasons and in various time slots. The collected mosquitoes were identified and screened for Plasmodium infection. Data on human behaviour and malaria episodes were obtained from an interview. A total of 3,135 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected, of which Anopheles darlingi was the predominant species (96.2%). For the December 2012-February 2013 period, the Plasmodium vivax infection rate for An. darlingi was 7.8%, and the entomological inoculation rate was 35.7 infective bites per person per three-month span. In spite of high bednet usage (95.7%) in 2012 and 2013, 52.2% and 37.0% of the participants, respectively, had at least one malaria episode. An. darlingi displayed heterogeneous biting behaviour that peaked between 20:30 and 22:30; however, 27.6% of the inhabitants were not yet protected by bednets by 21:30. The use of additional individual and collective protective measures is required to limit exposure to infective mosquito bites and reduce vector densities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Anopheles/physiology , Insect Bites and Stings , Insect Vectors/physiology , Anopheles/classification , Anopheles/parasitology , Forests , French Guiana , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Malaria, Falciparum/transmission , Malaria, Vivax/transmission , Population Density , Seasons , Species Specificity
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(2): 220-228, abr. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-670400

ABSTRACT

To explore the effects of deforestation and resulting differences in vegetation and land cover on entomological parameters, such as anopheline species composition, abundance, biting rate, parity and entomological inoculation rate (EIR), three villages were selected in the Lower Caura River Basin, state of Bolívar, Venezuela. All-night mosquito collections were conducted between March 2008-January 2009 using CDC light traps and Mosquito Magnet(r) Liberty Plus. Human landing catches were performed between 06:00 pm-10:00 pm, when anophelines were most active. Four types of vegetation were identified. The Annual Parasite Index was not correlated with the type of vegetation. The least abundantly forested village had the highest anopheline abundance, biting rate and species diversity. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles nuneztovari were the most abundant species and were collected in all three villages. Both species showed unique biting cycles. The more abundantly forested village of El Palmar reported the highest EIR. The results confirmed previous observations that the impacts of deforestation and resulting changes in vegetation cover on malaria transmission are complex and vary locally.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Anopheles/classification , Biodiversity , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Insect Vectors/classification , Malaria/transmission , Anopheles/physiology , Insect Bites and Stings , Insect Vectors/physiology , Longitudinal Studies , Malaria/epidemiology , Population Density , Risk Factors , Rivers , Seasons , Venezuela/epidemiology
3.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-137381

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Knowledge of the bionomics of mosquitoes, especially of disease vectors, is essential to plan appropriate vector avoidance and control strategies. Information on biting activity of vectors during the night hours in different seasons is important for choosing personal protection measures. This study was carried out to find out the composition of mosquito fauna biting on humans and seasonal biting trends in Goa, India. Methods: Biting activities of all mosquitoes including vectors were studied from 1800 to 0600 h during 85 nights using human volunteers in 14 different localities of three distinct ecotypes in Goa. Seasonal biting trends of vector species were analysed and compared. Seasonal biting periodicity during different phases of night was also studied using William’s mean. Results: A total of 4,191 mosquitoes of five genera and 23 species were collected. Ten species belonged to Anopheles, eight to Culex, three to Aedes and one each to Mansonia and Armigeres. Eleven vector species had human hosts, including malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi (1.3%), An. fluviatilis (1.8%), and An. culicifacies (0.76%); filariasis vectors Culex quinquefasciatus (40.8%) and Mansonia uniformis (1.8%); Japanese encephalitis vectors Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (17.4%), Cx. vishnui (7.7%), Cx. pseudovishnui (0.1%), and Cx. gelidus (2.4%); and dengue and chikungunya vectors Aedes albopictus (0.9%) and Ae. aegypti (0.6%). Two An. stephensi of the total 831 female anophelines, were found positive for P. falciparum sporozoites. The entomological inoculation rate (EIR) of P. falciparum was 18.1 and 2.35 for Panaji city and Goa, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: Most of the mosquito vector species were collected in all seasons and throughout the scotophase. Biting rates of different vector species differed during different phases of night and seasons. Personal protection methods could be used to stop vector-host contact.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Animals , Anopheles/parasitology , Culex , Culicidae , Ecotype , Humans , India/epidemiology , Insect Bites and Stings , Insect Vectors , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/transmission , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(5): 764-768, Aug. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-528087

ABSTRACT

A longitudinal study of malaria vectors aiming to describe the intensity of transmission was carried out in five villages of Southern Venezuela between January 1999-April 2000. The man-biting, sporozoite and entomological inoculation rates (EIR) were calculated based on 121 all-night collections of anophelines landing on humans, CDC light traps and ultra violet up-draft traps. A total of 6,027 female mosquitoes representing seven species were collected. The most abundant species were Anopheles marajoara Galvão & Damasceno (56.7 percent) and Anopheles darlingi Root (33 percent), which together accounted for 89.7 percent of the total anophelines collected. The mean biting rate for An. marajoara was 1.27 (SD + 0.81); it was 0.74 (SD + 0.91) for An. darlingand 0.11 (SD + 0.10) for Anopheles neomaculipalpus Curry and the overall biting rate was 2.29 (SD + 1.06). A total of 5,886 mosquitoes collected by all three methods were assayed by ELISA and 28 pools, equivalent to 28 mosquitoes, yielded positive results for Plasmodium spp. CS protein. An. neomaculipalpus had the highest sporozoite rate 0.84 percent (3/356), followed by An. darlingi 0.82 percent (16/1,948) and An. marajoara 0.27 percent (9/3,332). The overall sporozoite rate was 0.48 percent (28/5,886). The rates of infection by Plasmodium species in mosquitoes were 0.37 percent (22/5,886) for Plasmodium vivax(Grassi & Feletti) and 0.10 percent (6/5,886) for Plasmodium falciparum (Welch). The estimated overall EIR for An. darling was 2.21 infective bites/person/year, 1.25 for An. marajoara and 0.34 for An. neomaculipalpus. The overall EIR was four infective bites/person/year. The biting rate, the sporozoite rate and the EIR are too low to be indicators of the efficacy of control campaigns in this area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Anopheles/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Anopheles/classification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Insect Vectors/classification , Longitudinal Studies , Venezuela
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 102(3): 303-312, June 2007. mapas, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-452506

ABSTRACT

A longitudinal epidemiological and entomological study was carried out in Ocamo, Upper Orinoco River, between January 1994 and February 1995 to understand the dynamics of malaria transmission in this area. Malaria transmission occurs throughout the year with a peak in June at the beginning of the rainy season. The Annual Parasite Index was 1,279 per 1,000 populations at risk. Plasmodium falciparum infections accounted for 64 percent of all infections, P. vivax for 28 percent, and P. malariae for 4 percent. Mixed P. falciparum/P. vivax infections were diagnosed in 15 people representing 4 percent of total cases. Children under 10 years accounted for 58 percent of the cases; the risk for malaria in this age group was 77 percent higher than for those in the greater than 50 years age group. Anopheles darlingi was the predominant anopheline species landing on humans indoors with a biting peak between midnight and dawn. A significant positive correlation was found between malaria monthly incidence and mean number of An. darlingi caught. There was not a significant relationship between mean number of An. darlingi and rainfall or between incidence and rainfall. A total of 7295 anophelines were assayed by ELISA for detection of Plasmodium circumsporozoite (CS) protein. Only An. darlingi (55) was positive for CS proteins of P. falciparum (0.42 percent), P. malariae (0.25 percent), and P. vivax-247 (0.1 percent). The overall estimated entomological inoculation rate was 129 positive bites/person/year. The present study was the first longitudinal entomological and epidemiological study conducted in this area and set up the basic ground for subsequent intervention with insecticide-treated nets.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Anopheles/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Malaria/epidemiology , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Anopheles/classification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Incidence , Insect Vectors/classification , Longitudinal Studies , Malaria/transmission , Population Density , Seasons , Venezuela/epidemiology
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