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1.
Infectio ; 26(2): 107-112, Jan.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356255

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Determinar la circulación de poliovirus en tres municipios considerados como punto transitorio de migrantes en Colombia. Material y método: Se colectaron muestras de aguas residuales (n=36) de municipios fronterizos, seleccionados por mayor tránsito de migrantes regulares como irregulares, en el periodo comprendido entre el 2017-2019. Las muestras fueron concentradas y cultivadas siguiendo el algoritmo de vigilancia ambiental para la circulación de poliovirus de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). La identificación molecular se realizo mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa empleando cebadores específicos de grupo, de serotipo y de cepa vacunal sabin. Resultados y Discusión: Se detectó la presencia de Enterovirus no polio (EVNP) en las muestras ambientales obtenidas y no se hallo circulación de poliovirus deriva dos de la vacuna ni de poliovirus salvaje en los tres municipos evaluados; sin embargo en dos estudios previos publicados por Gonzalez y col con una metodologia similar en el año 2005 y 2015 evaluando las aguas residuales de la ciudad de Armenia-Quindio; se logró identificar la presencia de virus derivado de vacuna, con resultados negativos para la identificación de poliovirus salvaje. Conclusiones: Los hallazgos indican que el sistema de monitoreo de aguas residuales con el fin de determinar la presencia de virus es una herramienta util para realizar vigilancia ambiental.


Abstract Objective: To determine the circulation of poliovirus in three municipalities considered as transitory points for migrants in Colombia. Material and Method: Wastewater samples (n = 36) were collected from border municipalities, selected for greater transit of regular and irregular migrants, in the period between 2017-2019. The samples were concentrated and cultured following the World Health Organization (WHO) environmental surveillance algorithm for poliovirus circulation. Molecular identification was performed by polymerase chain reaction using group-specific, serotype and sabin vaccine strain primers. Results: The presence of non-polio Enterovirus (NPV) was detected in the environmental samples obtained and no circulation of poliovirus derived from the vaccine or wild poliovirus was found in the three evaluated municipalities; However, in two previous studies published by Gonzales et al with a similar methodology in 2005 and 2015 evaluating the wastewater of the city of Armenia-Quindío; It was possible to identify the presence of virus derived from vaccine, with negative results for the identification of wild poliovirus. Conclusions: The findings indicate that the wastewater monitoring system in order to determine the presence of viruses is a useful tool to carry out environmental surveillance.

2.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 304-307, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920639

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the current situation of teaching environmental sanitation in primary and secondary schools in Sichuan Province from 2017 to 2021, and to provide basis for the development of teaching environmental sanitation intervention measures in Sichuan Province.@*Methods@#A total of 7 510 primary and secondary schools were supervised and sampled from 2017 to 2021 according to the unified questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analysis method was used to analyze the monitoring results.@*Results@#The overall pass rate from 2017 to 2021 is only 51.70% (3 883), a total of 2 282 were sampled in 2017 and 1 414 were qualified, with the pass rate was the highest (61.96%),a total of 1 768 were sampled in 2019 and 750 were qualified, with the lowest pass rate (42.42%). The pass rate of different testing items in each year from 2017 to 2021 and the pass rate of the same test item in different years from 2017 to 2021 were statistically significant ( P <0.05). A total of 2 095 samples were inspected in rural areas in five years, and 1 177 were qualified, with the highest pass rate (56.18%). In urban areas, a total of 2 124 samples were inspected in five years, and 1 040 were qualified, with the lowest pass rate (48.96%). In the five year period of primary school, a total of 4 867 schools were sampled, and 2 626 were qualified, with the highest pass rate (53.93%). There were statistically significant differences in the qualification rate of desks and chairs, classroom lighting, blackboard illumination, per capita area of classrooms, and per capita area of student dormitories in different regions ( χ 2=9.87, 17.51, 37.69, 75.43, 11.22, P <0.05), and there were statistically significant differences in the pass rates of classroom lighting, per capita area of classrooms, per capita area of student dormitories, and ventilation of classrooms and student dormitories between different school sections ( χ 2=9.16, 39.37, 79.56 , 31.37, P <0.05).@*Conclusion@#The teaching environment of primary and secondary schools in Sichuan Province needs to be improved continuously, the qualified rate of classroom lighting and desks and chairs is low, and the investment in weak links should be increased.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e234692, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249263

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Gravataí River basin, one of the main water sources of the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, is among the ten most polluted rivers in Brazil. Water quality is monitored only through physico-chemical and microbiological parameters in Brazil, and in this context, considering the importance of the use of biomarkers in complementing the analysis of water, the present study aimed to evaluate the environmental quality of the main affluent of the Gravataí River, Demetrio stream, through physico-chemical, microbiological, and cytogenotoxic criteria, at the stream source (P1), whereas samples P2 and P3 were obtained from the upstream near the area with the highest urban density and the downstream near the meeting point with the Gravataí River, respectively. The results for copper concentration and color classified the Demetrio stream as Class 4 in general, that is, the water is suitable only for navigation and to landscape harmony. The main genotoxic alterations (micronuclei and nuclear buds) were observed in P2, in which were obtained the highest levels of copper, in addition to iron and manganese. Anthropic interventions were observed in P1 and P2; however, due to its low metal concentration, P3, near the Gravataí River, manifested an improvement in environmental quality.


Resumo A bacia do rio Gravataí, uma das principais fontes de água da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre, está entre os dez rios mais poluídos do Brasil. No Brasil a qualidade da água é monitorada apenas através de parâmetros físico-químicos e microbiológicos e, nesse contexto, considerando a importância do uso de biomarcadores para complementar a análise da água, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade ambiental do principal afluente do Rio Gravataí, o arroio Demétrio, através de critérios físico-químicos, microbiológicos e citogenotóxicos, na nascente do arroio (P1), a montante e próximo à área com maior densidade urbana (P2) e a jusante e próximo ao ponto de encontro com o rio Gravataí (P3). Os resultados para a cor da água e para a concentração de cobre classificaram o arroio Demétrio como Classe 4 em geral, ou seja, esta água é adequada apenas para navegação e harmonia da paisagem. As principais alterações genotóxicas (micronúcleos e brotos nucleares) foram observadas no P2, no qual foram obtidos os maiores teores de cobre, além de ferro e manganês. Intervenções antrópicas foram observadas em P1 e P2; no entanto, devido à sua baixa concentração de metais, o P3, próximo ao rio Gravataí, manifestou uma melhoria na qualidade ambiental.


Subject(s)
Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Water Quality , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring , Rivers
4.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 75(4): e20210508, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1376588

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: to report the implementation of a monitoring system of the operative field, surgical gown, and utilized fields as sterile barrier system of products for health, manufactured from cotton fabrics. Methods: technological innovation report of a monitoring system of the use and processing of surgical textiles in a medium-size hospital. Results: steps: planning, confection, exchange of the surgical textiles, monitoring, and 12 months of supervision. The new pieces were silkscreened with a black indelible marker. Final Considerations: the implemented system is practical, low cost, and easily manageable for the team, it favored the work process management, contributing to the quality and security of the textile used in health care, and being able to be implemented in other health services.


RESUMEN Objetivos: informar sobre la aplicación de un sistema de monitoreo de campos operatorios, delantales y campos quirúrgicos utilizados como sistema de barrera estéril para productos sanitarios fabricados con tejidos de algodón Métodos: se trata de un informe de innovación tecnológica de un sistema de monitoreo de uso y procesamiento de tejidos quirúrgicos de un hospital de porte medio. Resultados: etapas realizadas: planificación, confección, cambio de los tejidos quirúrgicos, control y seguimiento durante 12 meses. Las nuevas prendas fueron serigrafiadas con un marco de control, en el que después de cada ciclo de lavado se pintaba, con un rotulador negro indeleble, un espacio del marco. Consideraciones Finales: el sistema implantado demostró ser práctico, de bajo costo y de fácil ejecución, además de facilitar la gestión del proceso de trabajo y contribuir con la calidad y la seguridad del uso de textiles en el cuidado de la salud, con la posibilidad de reproducirse en otros servicios sanitarios.


RESUMO Objetivos: relatar a implementação de um sistema de monitoramento de campos operatórios, aventais cirúrgicos e campos utilizados como sistema de barreira estéril de produtos para a saúde confeccionados de tecidos de algodão. Métodos: relato de inovação tecnológica de um sistema de monitoramento do uso e processamento de têxteis cirúrgicos em um hospital de médio porte. Resultados: etapas percorridas: planejamento, confecção, troca dos têxteis cirúrgicos, monitoramento e acompanhamento por 12 meses. As novas peças foram serigrafadas com um quadro para o controle, no qual após cada ciclo de lavagem um espaço do quadro era pintado com um marcador indelével preto. Considerações Finais: o sistema implantado mostrou-se prático, de baixo custo e de fácil execução pela equipe, além de favorecer a gestão do processo de trabalho, contribuindo para a qualidade e segurança do uso dos têxteis na assistência à saúde, podendo ser reproduzido em outros serviços de saúde.

5.
Rev. Univ. Ind. Santander, Salud ; 53: e302, dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365444

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La exposición de largo y corto plazo a determinadas concentraciones de contaminantes ambientales parece incidir en la propagación y agravamiento de la COVID-19. Por otra parte, se ha hipotetizado que las cuarentenas tienen un efecto positivo en la calidad del aire. Objetivo: Examinar la concentración de material particulado 10 (CPM10) en los últimos cinco años; en meses precuarentena y postcuarentena de 2020 y el impacto de la cuarentena en la CPM10 en Santa Marta (Colombia). Materiales y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de corte longitudinal, sobre la CPM10 en una muestra de cinco estaciones de monitoreo ambiental, periodo 2016 - 2020. Se calcularon distribuciones de CPM10 por año y estación, así como entre meses pre y postcuarentena. Resultados: Se evidenció una reducción estadísticamente significativa del CPM10 en 2020 respecto a los cuatro años anteriores, cercana al 34 %; lo propio sucedió para meses postcuarentena versus precuarentena, con disminución del 40 % en los primeros. No hubo diferencias significativas de CPM10 entre las estaciones, aunque se observaron medianas superiores del contaminante en las del sur. La CPM10 de 2016 - 2020 (largo plazo) y en meses precuarentena (corto plazo) sobrepasaron los límites de riesgo aumentado de morbimortalidad por COVID-19 establecidos en estudios internacionales previos. Conclusión: La cuarentena tuvo un impacto positivo en la calidad del aire en Santa Marta. No obstante, los niveles de CPM10 encontrados a largo y corto plazo pudieron haber predispuesto a la población al contagio y fallecimiento por el virus.


Abstract Introduction: Long and short-term exposure to certain concentrations of environmental pollutants seems to influence the spread and worsening of COVID-19. On the other hand, it has been hypothesized that quarantines have a positive effect on air quality. Objective: To examine the concentration of particulate material 10 (CPM10) in the last five years, in pre-quarantine and post-quarantine months of 2020 and the impact of the quarantine on CPM10 in Santa Marta (Colombia). Materials and Methods: Retrospective longitudinal study of CPM10 on a sample of five environmental monitoring stations, period 2016-2020. CPM10 distributions were calculated for each year and season, as well as between months before and after quarantine. Results: A statistically significant reduction of 34% in CPM10 was evidenced in 2020 compared to the previous four years. CPM10 of post-quarantine months decreased 40% in comparison with the pre-quarantine months. There were no significant differences in CPM10 between the stations, although median values of CPM10 were higher in the southern stations. CPM10 from 20162020 (long term) and in pre-quarantine months (short term) exceeded the limits of increased risk of morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 established in previous international studies. Conclusion: The quarantine had a positive impact on the air quality in Santa Marta. However, CPM10 levels found in the long and short term could have predisposed the population to infection and death from the virus.

6.
Eng. sanit. ambient ; 26(1): 123-131, jan.-fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154115

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A incineração é uma tecnologia de tratamento térmico de resíduos sólidos cujo principal objetivo é a redução do volume e da massa dos resíduos a serem depositados em aterros. Os incineradores construídos nas últimas décadas trazem a possibilidade de recuperação energética dos resíduos, na forma de vapor e/ou energia elétrica, entretanto essa tecnologia ainda gera questionamentos sobre possíveis impactos ambientais relacionados às suas emissões. A incineração é regulada na Europa por legislação específica que, entre outras questões, obriga a divulgação de dados de monitoramento ambiental de incineradores. No presente trabalho, são analisados dados de emissões atmosféricas de incineradores associados à Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants (CEWEP), por meio de buscas nos websites dos respectivos incineradores, em artigos científicos e relatórios técnicos. Foram examinados dados de monitoramento de todos os poluentes de medição contínua e periódica definidos na legislação da UE, em séries temporais de 2010 a 2017. Todos os valores médios anuais de emissões nos incineradores analisados estiveram abaixo dos limites definidos pela diretiva europeia, com pequena variação ao longo dos anos observados. A comparação dos padrões de emissão europeus com os brasileiros mostra a necessidade de mudança na legislação local referente à incineração para que, caso essa tecnologia seja implementada no Brasil, ela possa operar respeitando limites seguros, com garantia de minimização de impactos ao ambiente e às populações do entorno.


Abstract Incineration is a solid waste treatment technology whose main purpose is to reduce the volume and mass of the waste to be disposed of in landfills. The incinerators built in the last decades bring the possibility of energy recovery from waste, in the form of steam and/or electric energy. However, this technology still raises questions about possible environmental impacts related to its emissions. Incineration is regulated in Europe through specific legislation which, among other issues, requires the disclosure of environmental monitoring data for incinerators. In the present work, atmospheric emissions data from incinerators associated with the Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants (CEWEP) are analyzed by searching the websites of the respective incinerators, scientific articles and technical reports. Monitoring data on all continuous and periodic measured pollutants defined in the legislation in time series from 2010 to 2017 were analyzed. All annual average emission values of the incinerators analyzed were below the limits defined by the European Union's Directive, with little variation over the observed years. The comparison of European with Brazilian emission standards shows the need for a change in local legislation on incineration so that, if this technology is implemented in Brazil, it will operate within safe limits, with a guarantee of minimizing impacts on the environment and surrounding populations.

7.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1306-1310, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886897

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the status of PM 2.5 pollution in school classrooms and the student exposure level, and to provide basic data to safeguard the health of students.@*Methods@#This study continuously monitored the PM 2.5 levels of 16 naturally ventilated classrooms in eight primary and secondary schools in Jiamusi for one academic year using an online environmental monitoring instrument. At the same time, outdoor PM 2.5 data was captured for comparative research, and student exposure to PM 2.5 during school hours was evaluated.@*Results@#The average concentration of PM 2.5 in the classroom in the spring and autumn semesters was (26.93±24.7) and (31.85±30.37)μg/m 3, respectively, and the indoor/outdoor ratio ( I/O ) was 0.92 and 0.95, respectively, which indicated a strong correlation between them. The daily average concentration of all classrooms during both semesters was ( 28.93 ±26.85)μg/m 3, which was slightly higher than the average concentration of (27.53±26.53)μg/m 3 during the daytime when students were in school. In addition, the concentration on workdays was higher than that observed on weekends, and this was termed the "weekend effect". The indoor PM 2.5 concentration was lower on higher floors. The comprehensive exposure concentration of students during school was 28.48 μg/m 3 in spring semester and 31.87 μg/m 3 in autumn semester.@*Conclusion@#PM 2.5 levels in the classrooms varied according to time, the horizontal space, and the vertical space, and the level of indoor PM 2.5 pollution largely depended on outdoor pollution sources. Differences in PM 2.5 exposure were observed between.

8.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1083-1087, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886348

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand environmen and sanitation of rural schools in western China, and to provide data support and reference for improving school environmental conditions and facilities and promoting the healthy development of students.@*Methods@#Based on the "School Comprehensive Environmental Improvement Project", a total of 38 087 students from 60 primary school from were randomly selected from 5 provinces in western China from September to December 2018. Environment and sanitation of schools was investigated through interviews, on site observation and inquiry, so as to obtain the survey data.@*Results@#All schools had water supply, 80.0% (48) could meet the needs of teachers and students, 91.7% (55) provided drinking water facilities, 93.3 % (56) provided hand washing facilities, and 66.7% (40) provided soap and other cleaning supplies for students. 71.7% (43) of the schools had sanitary toilets, 40.0% (24) toilets were qualified for femail, 86.7% (52) were clean and 58.3% (35) were odorless. The garbage disposal methods of schools are mainly collected by professional institutions, supplemented by fixed point stacking, accounting for 45.0% (27) and 35.0% (21) respectively. About 30% (22, 17, 20) of school sewage is discharged by open ditch, underground ditch and pipeline. 93.3% (56) of schools offered health education courses, 91.7% (55) had sanitation system, 70.0% (42) had drinking water sanitation management system, and 41.7% (25) had toilet management system.@*Conclusion@#The basic environmental sanitation facilities in the school are well equipped, and there are some problems to be improved in the establishment of environmental sanitation management system and the provision of hand washing and cleaning supplies.

9.
Santa Tecla, La Libertad; ITCA Editores; 2021. 68 p. graf.^c28 cm., ilus., tab..
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1342861

ABSTRACT

Los objetivos de este proyecto fueron desarrollar un sistema telemático de monitoreo y control de variables microambientales para un invernadero y estación acuícola, aplicando tecnología LoraWan y e-Agricultura, en beneficio de la Escuela Nacional de Agricultura ENA. Para ello se establecieron los requerimientos funcionales para un correcto análisis y desarrollo del sistema telemático aplicando e-Agricultura y se procedió a desarrollar un software de análisis de datos por medio de Inteligencia de Negocios para una correcta interpretación de datos y toma de decisiones. Se realizó un estudio de requerimientos para la selección de las herramientas óptimas del proyecto, estableciendo Laravel como framework de desarrollo, Javascript y PHP.


The objectives of this project were to develop a telematic system for the monitoring and control of microenvironmental variables for a greenhouse and aquaculture station, applying LoraWan technology and e-Agriculture, for the benefit of the Escuela Nacional de Agricultura ENA. For this, the functional requirements for a correct analysis and development of the telematics system were established and it proceeded to develop data analysis software through Intelligence Businesses for a correct interpretation of data and decision making. A study of requirements for the selection of the optimal project tools were performed, proposing Laravel as Development framework, Javascript and PHP.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring , Environment, Controlled , Greenhouses , Aquaculture , Agriculture , Crop Production
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18989, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345450

ABSTRACT

Hospital infections (HI) are a serious public health problem in many countries. Several studies have identified strains correlating to surgical site infections, many with multi-resistance. The goals of this study was to quantify, to identify and to verify the resistance profile of microorganisms collected at two hospitals settings, and to alert health professionals how environmental contamination can influence hospital infection rates. For air sampling in operating rooms, intensive care unit and materials sterilization center, the impaction method (Spin Air, IUL®) and passive sedimentation were used. For the isolation of bacteria on surfaces and uniforms contact plates (RODAC®) were used. Identification of the microorganisms was performed using Vitek® 2 Systems. The antibiograms were conducted according to the disk diffusion method recommended by CLSI. The surgical center of hospital B presented more than 500 CFU/m3 in aerial microbial load. In the aerial microbiota of the sampled areas of both hospitals, M. luteus, S. haemolyticus and S. hominis spp hominis were the prevalent microorganisms, with a percentage greater than 30%. On the surfaces and uniforms there was a prevalence of M. luteus (40%) and S. hominis spp hominis (20%) among others, and some of the resistant strains were isolated from environments with microbial load within the recommended limits.


Subject(s)
Hospitals/standards , Malpractice/classification , Drug Resistance , Environmental Monitoring/instrumentation , Cross Infection/complications , Health Personnel/education , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects
11.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 139-141, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862615

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the indoor air quality of Harbin and its suburbs, and analyze the influence of indoor air quality on the pulmonary function indexes of schoolchildren, and to provide a reference for preventing the related respiratory diseases.@*Methods@#The concentration of CO 2, formaldehyde, benzene, PM 10 and total bacterial count in indoor of 80 residents in Harbin and its suburb were monitored. The IAAH model was used to evaluate the indoor air quality, and the correlation between the indoor air quality and the pulmonary function indexes of schoolchildren was analyzed.@*Results@#The levels of indoor air pollutant in suburb was higher than that in the urban of Harbin, and the concentration of CO 2, PM 10 and total bacteria count in the suburb of Harbin increase significantly during the heating season(t=5.86,4.92,21.16, P<0.05). Among the 40 households monitored by IAAH model in suburb during heating season, 37.5% had moderate air pollution, and 20.0% had severe air pollution. The IAAH was correlated with FVC, FEF75% and FEF25% after excluding the confounding factors by multiple linear regression(β=-0.17, -0.34, -0.43, P<0.05).@*Conclusion@#Indoor air pollution is very serious in the suburb of Harbin during heating season, which should be paid attention to by parents to prevent related respiratory diseases of schoolchildren.

12.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 135-138, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862614

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To study the effects of atmospheric fine particulate pollution on the lung function of primary school students before and after heating during the winter in Zhengzhou.@*Methods@#In Zhengzhou, two areas with low and high level of PM 2.5 pollution(A and B), were selected as monitoring points from 2016 to 2018. Each monitoring station selected one elementary school within around 1 km and used a cluster random sampling method to extract students from grades 3 to 5 as the research subjects. Lung function tests were conducted before and after heating in winter, and mass concentration of PM 2.5 were recorded daily and compared to those recorded one month prior.@*Results@#The average daily mass concentration of PM 2.5 were 74 μg/m 3 and 92 μg/m 3 in the light pollution monitoring points A and the heavy pollution monitoring points B, which exceeded the standard for 97 and 126 days, respectively. The FVC and FEV1.0 indexes for the first test of male students before heating were higher than those for the second test from 2016-2018 (P<0.05). Except in 2016,the FVC and FEV1.0 indexes for the first test of female students were also higher than those for the second test (P<0.05). After stratified by sex,multivariate linear regression showed that PM 2.5 was associated with lung function as measured by the FEV1.0, PEF, FEF25 and FEF75 values of the students were negatively correlated (B=-0.13--0.07,-0.13--0.08,P<0.05).@*Conclusion@#Fine particulate air pollution before and after heating during the winter in Zhengzhou had different effects on the lung function of primary school students. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the respiratory health protection of primary school students in winter to protect their health.

13.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(6): 505-514, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1145128

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Faced with a pandemic, all healthcare actions need to reflect best practices, in order to avoid high transmissibility, complications and even hospitalizations. For hospital environments, the products recommended and authorized by regulatory institutions for environmental cleaning and disinfection need to be highly effective. OBJECTIVE: To identify, systematically evaluate and summarize the best available scientific evidence on environmental cleaning to prevent COVID-19 infection. DESIGN AND SETTING: A systematic review of studies analyzing cleaning products that inactivate coronavirus, conducted within the evidence-based health program of a federal university in São Paulo (SP), Brazil. METHODS: A systematic search of the relevant literature was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and LILACS databases, for articles published up to May 27, 2020, relating to studies evaluating cleaning products that inactivate coronavirus in the environment. RESULTS: Seven studies were selected. These analyzed use of 70% alcohol, detergent, detergent containing iodine, household bleach, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide, glutaraldehyde, ultraviolet irradiation and plasma air purifier. The effectiveness of treating sewage with sodium hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide was also evaluated. CONCLUSION: Disinfection of environments, especially those in ordinary use, such as bathrooms, needs to be done constantly. Viral inactivation was achieved using chlorine-based disinfectants, alcohol, detergents, glutaraldehyde, iodine-containing detergents, hydrogen peroxide compounds and household bleaches. Alcohol showed efficient immediate activity. In sewage, sodium hypochlorite had better action than chlorine dioxide. REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/YC5P4 in the Open Science Framework.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disinfection/methods , Infection Control/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Brazil , Disinfectants
14.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(5): 582-593, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139342

ABSTRACT

Background: Environmental noise can cause auditory and non-auditory adverse effects. Aim: To identify daily environmental noise patterns in two urban sites of Metropolitan Santiago. Material and Methods: Continuous measurements of environmental noise in two sites of Metropolitan Santiago were analyzed by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. One site was a main street with heavy traffic and the second was a street from a neighborhood with intense nocturnal activity. The first phase of analysis consisted of clustering noise profiles with similar shapes according to the average linkage method, with correlation as the similarity measure. The second phase grouped the profiles with similar shapes into sub-clusters that also had similar absolute noise levels, using the complete linkage method, with absolute distance as the similarity measure. Results: Two noise patterns were identified for the first site, one for weekdays (Monday to Friday) and another for weekends (Saturday and Sunday). For the second site five different patterns were identified (Monday to Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, and Sunday). Also different patterns appeared for summer compared to the rest of the year. The noise levels of both sites were high. Conclusions: The detected noise levels can be annoying, cause sleep disturbances and increase the risk for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, among other effects.


Antecedentes: El ruido ambiental puede tener efectos adversos auditivos y no auditivos. Objetivo: Identificar patrones diarios de ruido ambiental en dos sectores urbanos de Santiago, Chile. Material y Métodos: Se analizaron mediciones continuas de ruido ambiental realizadas en dos emplazamientos urbanos de Santiago, Chile, mediante análisis de cluster jerárquico. Los dos lugares fueron una avenida principal con alto tráfico vehicular y una calle en un barrio con intensa actividad nocturna. La primera fase del análisis agrupó perfiles de ruido con formas similares de acuerdo al método de vinculación promedio, usando la correlación como medida de similitud. La segunda fase agrupó los perfiles con formas similares en subclusters que también tuvieran niveles de ruido similares, usando el método de vinculación completa, con la distancia absoluta como medida de similitud. Resultados: Se identificaron dos patrones para el primer emplazamiento, uno para días de semana (lunes a viernes) y otro para fines de semana (sábado y domingo). Para el segundo emplazamiento se identificaron cinco patrones diferentes (lunes a miércoles, jueves, viernes, sábado, y domingo), así como patrones distintos para el verano en comparación con el resto del año. Los niveles de ruido en ambos lugares fueron altos. Conclusiones: Los niveles de ruido detectados podrían producir molestias, perturbación del sueño, incremento de riesgo de hipertensión y enfermedades cardiovasculares, entre otros efectos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Noise/adverse effects , Time Factors , Chile , Cities
15.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(11): e00192319, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1132845

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Water pollution has been an increasing concern for the authorities responsible for planning and executing public policies. In this qualitative research, we have discussed the most sold pharmaceuticals in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region, Brazil, and compared public policies focused on pharmaceuticals and environmental issues among countries/regions. For that, data provided by Close-Up International related to the sales of medicines in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region between April/2016 and April/2017 were collected and processed to identify and quantify the pharmaceutical products. The 300 most sold medicines in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region fall in 26 therapeutic classes, which include 159 drugs. The most sold pharmaceutical products group is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) representing approximately 44.3% of the total. The ten most sold pharmaceuticals sum up 1200 tons. Dipyrone is the first place in mass representing around 488 tons, followed by metformin with around 310 tons commercialized. Public policies focused on pharmaceuticals in the environment still need adjustments to improve reinforcement, even in developed countries. There is no international standard on how to conduct the issue, each country adopting the public policy that best matches to the local. Brazil, despite having some legislation that approaches the theme, still lacks effective public policies and stakeholder awareness. In this aspect, the need for improvement of the reverse logistics system, consumer orientation to the adequate disposal of unused/expired medicines, and the adoption of the unit-dose system as a therapeutic strategy is evident.


Resumo: A poluição da água tem preocupado cada vez mais as autoridades responsáveis pelo planejamento e execução das políticas públicas no Brasil. Esta pesquisa qualitativa discute os produtos farmacêuticos mais vendidos na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, e compara as políticas públicas focadas em produtos farmacêuticos e questões ambientais, entre países e regiões. Foram coletados e processados os dados fornecidos pela Close-Up International sobre vendas de medicamentos na Grande São Paulo entre abril de 2016 e abril de 2017, para identificar e quantificar esses produtos. Os 300 medicamentos mais vendidos na Grande São Paulo pertencem a 26 classes terapêuticas e incluem 159 fármacos. Os produtos farmacêuticos mais vendidos pertencem ao grupo dos anti-inflamatórios não esteroides (AINES), representando aproximadamente 44,3% do total. Os dez produtos farmacêuticos mais vendidos somam 1.200 toneladas. A dipirona liderou o ranking em termos de massa, com cerca de 488 toneladas, seguida pela metformina, com 310 toneladas comercializadas. As políticas públicas focadas nos produtos farmacêuticos e sua presença no meio ambiente ainda requerem ajustes, mesmo nos países desenvolvidos. Não existe uma norma internacional para lidar com essa questão, e cada país adota a política pública mais adequada para o contexto local. O Brasil já dispõe de alguma legislação sobre o tema, mas ainda faltam políticas públicas efetivas e uma melhor conscientização dos atores envolvidos. Portanto, há uma necessidade evidente de melhorar o sistema de logística reversa, com orientação dos consumidores em relação ao descarte adequado dos medicamentos não utilizados ou vencidos e a adoção do sistema de dose unitária como estratégia terapêutica.


Resumen: La contaminación del agua ha sido una creciente preocupación para las autoridades responsables de planificar y ejecutar políticas públicas. Esta investigación cualitativa trata sobre los productos farmacéuticos más vendidos en la Región Metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, y además compara las políticas públicas centradas en cuestiones farmacéuticas y ambientales entre países/regiones. En este sentido, los datos proporcionados por Close-Up International, relacionados con las ventas de medicinas en la Región Metropolitana de São Paulo entre abril/2016 y abril/2017, se recogieron y presentaron para identificar y cuantificar los productos farmacéuticos. Las 300 medicinas más vendidas en la Región Metropolitana de São Paulo se incluyeron en 26 clases terapéuticas, que incluyeron 159 medicamentos. El grupo de productos farmacéuticos más vendido es el de los medicamentos antiinflamatorios no esteroides (AINE), representando aproximadamente un 44,3% del total. Los 10 productos farmacéuticos más vendidos llegaron a alcanzar las 1.200 toneladas. La dipirona está en primer lugar, alrededor de 488 toneladas, a la que le sigue la metformina con cerca de 310 toneladas comercializadas. Las políticas públicas centradas en productos farmacéuticos y medioambiente todavía necesitan ajustes para mejorar su fortalecimiento, incluso en los países desarrollados. No existe un estándar internacional sobre cómo gestionar este asunto, cada país adopta las políticas públicas que mejor se ajustan a su entorno. Brasil, a pesar de contar con algo de legislación que se centra en esta cuestión, todavía adolece de políticas públicas efectivas, así como una falta de sensibilización de los agentes responsables. En este aspecto, es evidente la necesidad de mejorar el sistema de logística inversa, así como la orientación al consumidor para desechar adecuadamente las medicinas no usadas/caducadas, y la adopción de un sistema de dosis unitarias como estrategia terapéutica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Water Quality , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Public Policy , Brazil , Environmental Policy
16.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 765-768, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821963

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand indoor air quality in middle and primary schools of Hangzhou in autumn and winter seasons, and to provide references of promoting indoor air quality of schools.@*Methods@#Totally 33 classrooms of 11 schools in urban area were selected into study during Sept.2018 to Jan.2019. Daily measurements of PM2.5 and CO2 were performed in selected classes during school working time by air quality monitors. Totally, monitoring data of 35 964 hours were analyzed using univariate and multiplicity analysis for PM2.5 and CO2 level, variability and possible influence factors.@*Results@#In autumn and winter, hourly average values of classroom PM2.5 and CO2 concentration level in Hangzhou were between 35.30 to 74.65 μg/m3 and between 949.17 to 2 029.98 mg/m3, respectively. The concentration levels of PM2.5 and CO2 were higher with the temperature(F=1 412.84, 775.66, P<0.01). No statistical significance was be found for the difference of PM2.5 concentration among monitoring times. Wave changes in CO2 were observed with time variation PM2.5 and CO2 concentration level of 68.42% monitoring times was complied with standards. School type and temperature correlated with PM2.5 concentration level. The PM2.5 concentration level in senior high school was higher than that in junior high school, while the value in primary school was the minimum(β=0.44, P<0.01). And the PM2.5 concentration increased with the temperature decreased(β=8.31, P<0.01). School type, temperature and monitoring time correlated with CO2 concentration level. CO2 concentration increased with the increase of grade, decrease in temperature and later time during the day(β=213.64, 162.38, P<0.01). The CO2 concentration level in later monitoring time was lower than that in earlier monitoring time(β=-16.28, P<0.01).@*Conclusion@#Classroom CO2 concentration level in Hangzhou was closed to that in European schools, while PM2.5 concentration level was much higher. Comparing with other cities in China, classroom PM2.5 and CO2 concentration level in Hangzhou is better. The results highlighted that school location, design and routine management should be advanced consideration for good air quality in classroom.

17.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 282-285, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810558

ABSTRACT

Nitrous oxide (N2O), also known as laughing gas, is widely used in the dental offices as a common inhaled sedative analgesic gas to reduce anxiety and pain during treatment. Studies have shown that long-term exposure to higher concentrations of laughing gas may have a certain impact on the health of medical staff, while currently research on iatrogenic pollution in applications of laughing gas in oral therapy is not sufficient. In the United States and Europe, the condition of applications of laughing gas is relativrly mature, and there are related regulations and recommended measures to prevent and control iatrogenic pollution. However, studies in these countries still show that there is iatrogenic pollution in the clinical use of laughing gas and lack of uniform detection measures. While, in China, there is little research on the health effects of laughing gas on medical staff and on how to detect and control nitrous oxide pollution. This review is about the hazards, monitoring and control of clinical application of nitrous oxide.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810413

ABSTRACT

The size of the non-sampling error is directly related to the accuracy and reliability of the sampling survey result. This paper studied the non-sampling errors generated during the sampling process of the China National Human Biomonitoring Program(CNBP), mainly including the sampling frame error, non-response error and measurement error. The program reduced the influence of the non-sampling error on the quality of the survey effectively by scientifically designing the sampling scheme and questionnaire, strengthening investigator trainings and standardizing the data review, which could be used to provide reference for the control of non-sampling errors in public health monitoring projects in China.

19.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781887

ABSTRACT

Objective: In late 1970s, occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents was reported. Various countries, including Japan, have published guidelines for handling antineoplastic agents. Surveys are still being conducted to determine the levels of environmental exposure to antineoplastic agents at individual hospitals, and incidents of contamination are often reported. This study provides details regarding a literature survey conducted to evaluate the actual state of environmental contamination by antineoplastic agents and identify the related issues in order to promote environmental monitoring.Methods: The literature search was carried out from January 1, 1990 to July 31, 2017. PubMed and Ichushi-Web were searched with the following keywords: “antineoplastic agents,” “occupational exposure,” “surface contamination,” and “environmental monitoring.”Results: Following the literature search, 117 papers were included in the analysis. The findings showed that contamination by antineoplastic agents was widely reported in hospitals and places where antineoplastic drugs were not handled. The findings of this study regarding the actual state of environmental exposure are partial, as there is a lack of information on retail pharmacies and homes of outpatients who have received chemotherapy.Discussion: Therefore, further investigation is warranted. In addition, according to the current Japanese guidelines, published in 2015, environmental surveillance is not required to reduce contamination by antineoplastic agents. To promote environmental monitoring, we feel that it is necessary to determine a new survey method and the clarify optimum interval of environmental monitoring.

20.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 132 p. graf, tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-995087

ABSTRACT

O controle microbiológico durante a produção de preparações farmacêuticas é de grande importância para garantir a qualidade do produto final, quanto às propriedades terapêuticas e de segurança ao paciente. O monitoramento ambiental é uma valiosa ferramenta como forma de mensurar a efetividade das medidas que integram a estratégia de controle de contaminação microbiana. Neste contexto, pouco destaque tem sido dado à manufatura de produtos farmacêuticos não-estéreis, por representarem as classes cujos riscos de contaminação microbiana são menores, quando comparados aos produtos parenterais. Dessa maneira, este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar os isolados microbianos de amostras de ar ativo e passivo e de superfícies de áreas produtivas não-estéreis. Ainda, visou-se avaliar estatisticamente os dados de monitoramento ambiental, como base para o desenvolvimento de uma abordagem para determinação de limites de alerta e ação. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que a maioria dos microrganismos encontrados são de origem humana, seguidos por bactérias e fungos provenientes do solo. As diferenças sazonais foram observadas, principalmente, para a ocorrência de fungos, mais prevalentes no período seco. Foi desenvolvida uma abordagem estatística baseada em (1) determinação de subgrupos racionais, (2) avaliação da distribuição estatística e (3) determinação de limites, utilizando, como critério, o índice de capacidade do processo (Cpk). Um melhor entendimento do perfil microbiano das áreas produtivas e a determinação de limites de acordo com a distribuição real dos dados levará à destinação dos recursos necessários a ações que visem a qualidade do produto e a segurança do paciente


The microbiological control during the production of pharmaceutical preparations is of great importance for quality assurance of the final product regarding to therapeutic properties and patient safety. Environmental monitoring is a valuable tool to measure the effectiveness of the actions that integrate the microbial contamination control strategy. In this context, little attention has been given to the manufacture of non-sterile pharmaceutical products, because they represent classes whose microbial contamination risks are lower when compared to parenteral products. Considering this scenario, this study aimed to characterize microbial isolates from surfaces, active and passive air sampling of non-sterile manufacturing areas. Furthermore, it was expected to statistically evaluate the environmental monitoring data, as a basis for the development of an approach for determining alert and action limits. The results showed that most of the microorganisms found are from human source, followed by bacteria and fungi typically found in the soil. The seasonal differences were mainly observed for fungi recovery, which were more prevalent in the dry period. A statistical approach was developed based on (1) the determination of rational subgroups, (2) evaluation of the statistical distribution and (3) limit determination, using the process capacity index (Cpk) as criteria. A better understanding of the typical manufacturing areas microbial profile and the determination of limits according to the actual data distribution will lead to the allocation of the necessary resources to actions focusing on product quality and patient safety


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/classification , Environmental Monitoring/statistics & numerical data , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Environmental Statistics , Microbiota/physiology
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